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Cheng Hu, Kun Liang, Rui An, Xin-Hong Wang, Li-Sha You
Artesunate, which is a widely used anti-malaria medicine, can be made into liposome to overcome its poor bioactivity. Its tissue distribution in rats may change with different dosage forms, which therefore shall be studied after ARS-TPGS-Lipo was injected. Based on this experiment, ARS-TPGS-Lipo and ARS-Lipo were prepared by thin-film hydration method. LC-MS/MS method was used to simultaneously determine ARS and DHA in rat tissues at different time points. The results showed that this method was suitable for the content analysis of ARS and DHA in biological samples...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Mingzhao Guo, Lufan Yang, Jiahui Li, Song Jiao, Yujun Wang, Guangsheng Luo, Huimin Yu
In this work, the drastic change in the reaction rate throughout the acrylonitrile bio-hydration reaction, which was catalyzed by Rhodococcus ruber TH3 free cells in a two-liquid-phase system, was studied by changing the initial mass fraction of acrylonitrile and acrylamide. We found that the reaction rate was sensitively affected by the contact area between the acrylonitrile droplets and cells. With the acrylonitrile mass fraction of 3 wt%, the cell solution of 800 U/mL could make the superficial area of acrylonitrile droplets saturated...
March 19, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Martin Cheung, Hidehito Adaniya, Cathal Cassidy, Masao Yamashita, Kun-Lung Li, Seita Taba, Tsumoru Shintake
For many macromolecular complexes, the inability to uniformly disperse solubilized specimen particles within vitreous ice films precludes their analysis by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we introduce a sample preparation process using "perpetually-hydrated" graphene oxide flakes as particle support films, and report vastly improved specimen dispersion. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the presence of graphene oxide flakes in vitreous ice results in a significant reduction in electron beam-induced specimen decomposition...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
María M Adeva-Andany, Natalia Carneiro-Freire, Mónica Seco-Filgueira, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, David Mouriño-Bayolo
Mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids generates acetyl-coA, NADH and FADH2 . Acyl-coA synthetases catalyze the binding of fatty acids to coenzyme A to form fatty acyl-coA thioesters, the first step in the intracellular metabolism of fatty acids. l-carnitine system facilitates the transport of fatty acyl-coA esters across the mitochondrial membrane. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 transfers acyl groups from coenzyme A to l-carnitine, forming acyl-carnitine esters at the outer mitochondrial membrane. Carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase exchanges acyl-carnitine esters that enter the mitochondria, by free l-carnitine...
March 15, 2018: Mitochondrion
Xiujuan Kong, Zihao Wu, Ziran Ren, Kaiheng Guo, Shaodong Hou, Zhechao Hua, Xuchun Li, Jingyun Fang
Degradation of three lipid regulators, i.e., gemfibrozil, bezafibrate and clofibric acid, by a UV/chlorine treatment was systematically investigated. The chlorine oxide radical (ClO• ) played an important role in the degradation of gemfibrozil and bezafibrate with second-order rate constants of 4.2 (±0.3) × 108  M-1  s-1 and 3.6 (±0.1) × 107  M-1  s-1 , respectively, whereas UV photolysis and the hydroxyl radical (HO• ) mainly contributed to the degradation of clofibric acid. The first-order rate constants (k') for the degradation of gemfibrozil and bezafibrate increased linearly with increasing chlorine dosage, primarily due to the linear increase in the ClO• concentration...
March 6, 2018: Water Research
Silas C Principe, Alessandra Augusto, Tânia Marcia Costa
Temperature is one of the main environmental constraints to organism distribution, affecting physiology and survival. Organisms that inhabit the intertidal zone are exposed to temperature variation and, with climate change, they should face different conditions which include higher temperatures, leading to higher rates of water loss through evaporation and then fitness reduction or mortality. Here we tested the effects of desiccation and increased temperature in two fiddler crabs species that occupy distinct habitats in regard to vegetation cover and position on the intertidal zone and thus may respond differently to these stressors...
April 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Roland Opfer, Ann-Christin Ostwaldt, Christine Walker-Egger, Praveena Manogaran, Maria Pia Sormani, Nicola De Stefano, Sven Schippling
BACKGROUND: Measurements of brain volume loss (BVL) in individual patients are currently discussed controversially. One concern is the impact of short-term biological noise, like hydration status. METHODS: Three publicly available reliability MRI datasets with scan intervals of days to weeks were used. An additional cohort of 60 early relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with MRI follow-ups was analyzed to test whether after 1 year pathological BVL is detectable in a relevant fraction of MS patients...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Augusto Caraceni, Raffaella Speranza, Elio Spoldi, Cristina Sonia Ambroset, Stefano Canestrari, Mauro Marinari, Anna Maria Marzi, Luciano Orsi, Laura Piva, Mirta Rocchi, Danila Valenti, Gianluigi Zeppetella, Furio Zucco, Alessandra Raimondi, Leonor Vasconcelos Matos, Cinzia Brunelli
CONTEXT: Few studies regarding palliative sedation (PS) have been carried out in home care (HC) setting. A comparison of PS rate and practices between hospice (HS) and HC is also lacking. OBJECTIVES: Comparing HC and HS settings for PS rate, patient clinical characteristics before and during PS, decision-making process and clinical aspects of PS. METHODS: 38 HC/HS services in Italy participated in a multicenter observational longitudinal study...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Michael W Schleh, Charles L Dumke
INTRODUCTION: This study compared 2 commercially available beverages, an oral rehydration solution (ORS; 60.9 mM Na+ ; 3.4% carbohydrate) and a sports drink (SDS; 18.4 mM Na+; 5.9% carbohydrate), on hydration and metabolism during submaximal exercise in the heat. METHODS: Ten male subjects completed two 90-min exercise trials (39ºC, 30%) of walking at 50% VO2max followed by a 30-min rest period in the heat while wearing wildland firefighter personal protective clothing...
March 13, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
João Henriques, Lise Arleth, Kresten Lindorff-Larsen, Marie Skepö
Solution techniques such as small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) play a central role in structural studies of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), yet, due to low-resolution, it is generally necessary to combine SAXS with additional experimental sources of data and to use molecular simulations. Computational methods for the calculation of theoretical SAXS intensity profiles can be separated into two groups, depending on whether the solvent is modeled implicitly as continuous electron density or considered explicitly...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Kenji Yorita, Kazuya Tsuji, Yoko Takano, Naoto Kuroda, Kei Sakamoto, Kaoru Arii, Yukio Yoshimoto, Kimiko Nakatani, Satoshi Ito
BACKGROUND: Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma (ASQCC), histologically characterized by intercellular bridge loosening, is recognized as a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC). ASQCC may demonstrate a worse prognosis than conventional SQCC. Pulmonary ASQCC is particularly rare; its biological behavior and prognostic data have not been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the clinical and autopsy findings of a 71-year-old Japanese man with pulmonary ASQCC...
March 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
Hossein Sojoudi, Hadi Arabnejad, Asif Raiyan, Siamack A Shirazi, Gareth H McKinley, Karen K Gleason
Ice formation and accumulation on surfaces can result in severe problems for solar photovoltaic installations, offshore oil platforms, wind turbines and aircrafts. In addition, blockage of pipelines by formation and accumulation of clathrate hydrates of natural gases has safety and economical concerns in oil and gas operations, particularly at high pressures and low temperatures such as those found in subsea or arctic environments. Practical adoption of icephobic/hydrate-phobic surfaces requires mechanical robustness and stability under harsh environments...
March 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Elizabeth A Duffy, Wendy Fitzgerald, Kelley Boyle, Radha Rohatgi
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin has been used as a chemotherapeutic agent to treat many different cancers. A well-known side effect of cisplatin is nephrotoxicity, which is the primary dose-limiting toxicity. Hydration in conjunction with appropriate diuresis can decrease the incidence of nephrotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to identify best practices in supportive therapy for patients receiving cisplatin therapy. METHODS: A team was assembled to review research-based evidence and summarize recommendations to address appropriate hydration regimens and forced diuresis for patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Chun-Yu Wang, Shuai Jiang, Yi-Rong Liu, Hui Wen, Zhongquan Wang, Ya-Juan Han, Teng Huang, Wei Huang
Ammonia and amines are important common trace atmospheric species that can enhance new particle formation (NPF) in the Earth's atmosphere. However, the synergistic effect of these two bases involving nucleation is still lacking. We studied the most stable geometric structures and thermodynamics of quaternary (NH3)(CH3NH2)(H2SO4)m(H2O)n (m = 1-3, n = 0-4) clusters at the PW91PW91/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory for the first time. We find that the proton transfer from H2SO4 molecule to CH3NH2 molecule is easier than to NH3 molecule in the free or hydrated H2SO4-base clusters, and thus leads to the stability...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Sunandan Mukherjee, Chandran Nithin, Yasaswi Divakaruni, Ranjit Prasad Bahadur
We dissect the protein-protein interfaces into water preservation (WP), water hydration (WH) and water dehydration (WD) sites by comparing the water mediated hydrogen bonds (H-bond) in the bound and unbound states of the interacting subunits. Upon subunit complexation, if a H-bond between an interface water and a protein polar group is retained, we assign it as WP site; if it is lost, we assign it as WD site and if a new H-bond is created, we assign it as WH site. We find that the density of WD sites is highest followed by WH and WP sites except in antigen and (or) antibody complexes, where the density of WH sites is highest followed by WD and WP sites...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Rafael Leite Rubim, Margarida Abrantes Barros, Thomas Missègue, Kévin Bougis, Laurence Navailles, Frédéric Nallet
Since the discovery of graphene oxide (GO), the most accessible of the precursors of graphene, this material has been widely studied for applications in science and technology. In this work, we describe a procedure to obtain GO dispersions in water at high concentrations, these highly dehydrated dispersions being in addition fully redispersible by dilution. With the availability of such concentrated samples, it was possible to investigate the structure of hydrated GO sheets in a previously unexplored range of concentrations, and to evidence a structural phase transition...
March 15, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Filippo Giacomo Carrozzo, Maria Cristina De Sanctis, Andrea Raponi, Eleonora Ammannito, Julie Castillo-Rogez, Bethany L Ehlmann, Simone Marchi, Nathaniel Stein, Mauro Ciarniello, Federico Tosi, Fabrizio Capaccioni, Maria Teresa Capria, Sergio Fonte, Michelangelo Formisano, Alessandro Frigeri, Marco Giardino, Andrea Longobardo, Gianfranco Magni, Ernesto Palomba, Francesca Zambon, Carol A Raymond, Christopher T Russell
Different carbonates have been detected on Ceres, and their abundance and spatial distribution have been mapped using a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR), the Dawn imaging spectrometer. Carbonates are abundant and ubiquitous across the surface, but variations in the strength and position of infrared spectral absorptions indicate variations in the composition and amount of these minerals. Mg-Ca carbonates are detected all over the surface, but localized areas show Na carbonates, such as natrite (Na2 CO3 ) and hydrated Na carbonates (for example, Na2 CO3 ·H2 O)...
March 2018: Science Advances
Xiaobing Wang, Jin Geng, Hong Zhu, Changying Xing
Many studies have evaluated the renoprotective effect of nicorandil in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but the results are inconsistent. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the protective effect of nicorandil against contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and clinical trials database. Studies compared the nicorandil (plus hydration) with hydration alone in patients receiving PCI were eligible. The primary outcome was the incidence of CIN...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Helena S Gouveia, Sílvia O Lopes, Ana Luísa Faria
Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a rare oncological emergency in solid tumours. Because it is associated with bad short-term prognosis, early recognition and treatment are mandatory. This case refers to a middle-aged woman who presented with stage IV colon cancer, with massive hepatic involvement. After three cycles of first-line FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin), she developed acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia that did not respond to standard measures. High suspicion of TLS prompted further corroborating investigations and early intensive care unit admission...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Felista L Tansi, Ronny Rüger, Ansgar M Kollmeier, Markus Rabenhold, Frank Steiniger, Roland E Kontermann, Ulf K Teichgraeber, Alfred Fahr, Ingrid Hilger
BACKGROUND: Endoglin (CD105) is overexpressed on tumor cells and tumor vasculatures, making it a potential target for diagnostic imaging and therapy of different neoplasms. Therefore, studies on nanocarrier systems designed for endoglin-directed diagnostic and drug delivery purposes would expose the feasibility of targeting endoglin with therapeutics. METHODS: Liposomes carrying high concentrations of a near-infrared fluorescent dye in the aqueous interior were prepared by the lipid film hydration and extrusion procedure, then conjugated to single chain antibody fragments either selective for murine endoglin (termed mEnd-IL) or directed towards human endoglin (termed hEnd-IL)...
March 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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