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hippocampus and epilepsy

H-Y Li, F Liu, H-R Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between nuclear receptor related 1 (Nurr1) expression and drug resistance in the brain of rats with epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected, and the animal model of epilepsy was established by electrical stimulation. These rats were randomly divided into the control group and the drug-resistant group. The model of drug-resistant epilepsy was screened with phenytoin (PHT) and phenobarbital (PB); the hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex tissues were isolated from rats; the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels of Nurr1 in the hippocampus and cortex tissues of the two groups of rats were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Chen Jia, Shanshan Han, Liming Wei, Xiangji Dang, Qianqian Niu, Mengyu Chen, Boqun Cao, Yuting Liu, Haisheng Jiao
CONTEXT: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is resistant to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and is associated with cognitive impairment. The modern Chinese medicine, compound Danshen dripping pills (CDDP), is clinically effective in treating epilepsy and improving cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the protective effects of CDDP alone and in combination with carbamazepine (CBZ) on kainic acid-induced TLE and cognitive impairment in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control (sham operated), model, CDDP, CBZ and combined...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Laurent Sheybani, Gwenaël Birot, Alessandro Contestabile, Margitta Seeck, Jozsef Zoltan Kiss, Karl Schaller, Christoph M Michel, Charles Quairiaux
Most research on focal epilepsy focuses on mechanisms of seizure generation in the primary epileptic focus (EF). However, neurological deficits that are not directly linked to seizure activity and that may persist after focus removal are frequent. The recruitment of remote brain regions of an epileptic network (EN) is recognized as a possible cause, but a profound lack of experimental evidence exists concerning their recruitment and the type of pathological activities they exhibit.We studied the development of epileptic activities at the large-scale in male mice of the kainate model of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using high-density surface EEG and multiple-site intracortical recordings...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jana Tchekalarova, Keylla da Conceição Machado, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Albena Momchilova, Rumyana Tzoneva
PURPOSE: Activation of CB1 receptors, produces anticonvulsant effect accompanied by memory disturbance both in animal seizure tests and in patients with epilepsy. Few reports considered the role of CB2 receptor on seizure susceptibility and cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of a selective CB2 receptor agonist β-caryophyllene (BCP) in models of seizures and cognition in mice. METHODS: Dose-dependent effects of BCP was studied in maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and Morris water maze test...
March 12, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Ariana Sherdil, Stéphan Chabardès, Isabelle Guillemain, Sandrine Michallat, Shivadatta Prabhu, Karine Pernet-Gallay, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat
PURPOSE: Our objective was to propose a new on demand non-human primate model of mesial temporal lobe seizures suitable for pre-clinical innovative therapeutic research. METHODS: Five macaques were stereotaxically implanted unilaterally with a deep recording electrode in the hippocampus. For each experiment, penicillin was injected into the hippocampus and animals were monitored during five consecutive hours. A total of 12-27 experiments with a mean cumulative dose of 162644 ± 70190 UI of penicillin have been performed per animal Injections were repeated at least once a week over a period of 98-276 days...
March 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Aruna Vashishta, Lukasz P Slomnicki, Maciej Pietrzak, Scott C Smith, Murali Kolikonda, Shivani P Naik, Rosanna Parlato, Michal Hetman
Ribosome biogenesis, including the RNA polymerase 1 (Pol1)-mediated transcription of rRNA, is regulated by the pro-epileptogenic mTOR pathway. Therefore, hippocampal Pol1 activity was examined in mouse models of epilepsy including kainic acid- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) as well as a single seizure in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Elevated 47S pre-rRNA levels were present acutely after induction of SE suggesting activation of Pol1. Conversely, after a single seizure, 47S pre-rRNA was transiently downregulated with increased levels of unprocessed 18S rRNA precursors in the cornu Ammonis (CA) region...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Neurosteroids like allopregnanolone (AP) are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors. AP and related neurosteroids exhibit a greater potency for δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors. The δGABA-A receptors, which are expressed extrasynaptically in the dentate gyrus and other regions, contribute to tonic inhibition, promoting network shunting as well as reducing seizure susceptibility. Levels of endogenous neurosteroids fluctuate with ovarian cycle. Natural and synthetic neurosteroids maximally potentiate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus and provide robust protection against a variety of limbic seizures and status epilepticus...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Firas Bannout, Sheri Harder, Michael Lee, Alexander Zouros, Ravi Raghavan, Travis Fogel, Kenneth De Los Reyes, Travis Losey
The neurosurgical treatment of skull base temporal encephalocele for patients with epilepsy is variable. We describe two adult cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with spheno-temporal encephalocele, currently seizure-free for more than two years after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and lesionectomy sparing the hippocampus without long-term intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. Encephaloceles were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirmed by maxillofacial head computed tomography (CT) scans...
March 12, 2018: Brain Sciences
F Wang, D N Feng, Y Liu, Z Liu, T Sun
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of microsurgical in the treatment of temporal lobe cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) with epilepsy. Methods: Temporal lobe CCM patients with epilepsy admitted to our department were collected from January 2010 to September 2016. Locations of the CCM were divided into (1) lateral-lateral to the collateral sulcus; (2) mesial-mesial to the collateral sulcus. In the lateral group, patients were underwent intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG)-guided resection of lesion and hemosiderin rim...
March 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Cheng-Jun Li, Jie-Hua Xu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Pilocarpine-induced acute seizures strongly induce aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, characterized by increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fibre sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs), which may disturb hippocampal neuronal circuits and thus contribute to cognitive impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and animal models. Previous studies via ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures produced inconsistent results regarding the development of long-term cognitive impairment...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Tongfang Xiao, Yanan Jiang, Wenliang Ji, Lanqun Mao
The unique electronic and chemical structures of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have well enabled their applications in electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry, however, the difficulty in reproducibly confining CNTs onto substrate electrode, particularly onto microelectrodes, still remains to be addressed. In this study, we develop a method to reproducibly confine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) onto carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) with electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for in vivo measurement of ascorbate...
March 8, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Shawn F Sorrells, Mercedes F Paredes, Arantxa Cebrian-Silla, Kadellyn Sandoval, Dashi Qi, Kevin W Kelley, David James, Simone Mayer, Julia Chang, Kurtis I Auguste, Edward F Chang, Antonio J Gutierrez, Arnold R Kriegstein, Gary W Mathern, Michael C Oldham, Eric J Huang, Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo, Zhengang Yang, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla
New neurons continue to be generated in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus. This process has been linked to learning and memory, stress and exercise, and is thought to be altered in neurological disease. In humans, some studies have suggested that hundreds of new neurons are added to the adult dentate gyrus every day, whereas other studies find many fewer putative new neurons. Despite these discrepancies, it is generally believed that the adult human hippocampus continues to generate new neurons...
March 7, 2018: Nature
Tian-Tian Liu, Yi Li, Yi Shu, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Ephrin‑B3 is important in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and migration via cell‑cell contact, and can activate the reelin pathway during brain development. However, the effect of ephrin‑B3 on hippocampal neurogenesis and the reelin pathway in epilepsy remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression of ephrin‑B3 in pilocarpine‑induced status epilepticus (SE) rats was investigated. SYBR Green‑based reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemical labeling and western blot analysis were used to detect the gene and protein expression levels of ephrin‑B3 and reelin pathway proteins...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Lin Li, Mayur Patel, Joyel Almajano, Jerome Engel, Anatol Bragin
The current study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the intra-/extrahippocampal areas during epileptogenesis. Local field potentials were bilaterally recorded from hippocampus (CA1), thalamus, motor cortex, and prefrontal cortex in 13 rats before and after intrahippocampal kainic acid (KA) lesions. HFOs in the ripple (100-200 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) ranges were detected and their rates were computed during different time periods (1-5 weeks) after KA-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
March 6, 2018: Epilepsia
Adriana Fernanda K Vizuete, Fernanda Hansen, Elisa Negri, Marina Concli Leite, Diogo Losch de Oliveira, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of partial epilepsy and is accompanied, in one third of cases, by resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AED). Most AED target neuronal activity modulated by ionic channels, and the steroid sensitivity of these channels has supported the use of corticosteroids as adjunctives to AED. Assuming the importance of astrocytes in neuronal activity, we investigated inflammatory and astroglial markers in the hippocampus, a key structure affected in TLE and in the Li-pilocarpine model of epilepsy...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Birgit Frauscher, Nicolas von Ellenrieder, Rina Zelmann, Irena Doležalová, Lorella Minotti, André Olivier, Jeffery Hall, Dominique Hoffmann, Dang Khoa Nguyen, Philippe Kahane, François Dubeau, Jean Gotman
In contrast to scalp EEG, our knowledge of the normal physiological intracranial EEG activity is scarce. This multicentre study provides an atlas of normal intracranial EEG of the human brain during wakefulness. Here we present the results of power spectra analysis during wakefulness. Intracranial electrodes are placed in or on the brain of epilepsy patients when candidates for surgical treatment and non-invasive approaches failed to sufficiently localize the epileptic focus. Electrode contacts are usually in cortical regions showing epileptic activity, but some are placed in normal regions, at distance from the epileptogenic zone or lesion...
March 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Najat Saddiki, Sophie Hennion, Romain Viard, Nassima Ramdane, Renaud Lopes, Marc Baroncini, William Szurhaj, Nicolas Reyns, Jean Pierre Pruvo, Christine Delmaire
PURPOSE: Medial lobe temporal structures and more specifically the hippocampus play a decisive role in episodic memory. Most of the memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies evaluate the encoding phase; the retrieval phase being performed outside the MRI. We aimed to determine the ability to reveal greater hippocampal fMRI activations during retrieval phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five epileptic patients underwent a two-step memory fMRI...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Ya-Bo Feng, You-Ting Lin, Yu-Xiang Han, Yue-Jiu Pang, Jing-Jing Xu, Yuan Xue, Hong Yao
This study aimed to study the protective effect of (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (2R,4R-APDC), a selective metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, against hippocampal neuronal apoptosis induced by seizures in a rat model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. The Morris water maze test was used to assess the spatial memory abilities of epileptic rats with or without 2R,4R-APDC treatment. TUNEL assay was performed to examine neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. Western blot was conducted to evaluate changes in the levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in hippocampus...
March 1, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Ioannis Kramvis, Huibert D Mansvelder, Rhiannon M Meredith
Recordings from fresh human brain slices derived from surgically resected brain tissue are being used to unravel mechanisms underlying human neurophysiology and for the evaluation of potential therapeutic targets and compounds. Data resulting from these studies provide unique insights into physiologic properties of human neuronal microcircuits. However, substantial limitations still remain with this approach. First, the tissue is always resected from patients, never from healthy controls. Second, the patient population undergoing brain surgery with tissue resection is limited to epilepsy and tumor patients - never from patients with other neurologic disorders...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Lin Zhou, Liang Zhou, Li-da Su, Sheng-Long Cao, Ya-Jun Xie, Na Wang, Chong-Yu Shao, Ya-Nan Wang, Jia-Huan Zhou, John K Cowell, Ying Shen
Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) is an inherited syndrome caused by mutations in the leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) gene. It is known that glutamatergic transmission is altered in LGI1 mutant mice and seizures can be reduced by restoring LGI1 function. Yet, the mechanism underlying ADLTE is unclear. Here, we propose that seizures in male LGI1-/- mice are due to non-synaptic epileptiform activity in cortical neurons. We examined the intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons in the temporal cortex of male LGI1-/- mice and found that the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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