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hippocampus and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643873/increased-expression-of-immuno-proteasome-subunits-during-epileptogenesis-is-attenuated-by-inhibition-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway
#1
Diede W M Broekaart, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Karlijne W Geijtenbeek, Mark R J Zuidberg, Jasper J Anink, Johannes C Baayen, Angelika Mühlebner, Eleonora Aronica, Jan A Gorter, Erwin A van Vliet
OBJECTIVE: Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway reduces epileptogenesis in various epilepsy models, possibly by inhibition of inflammatory processes, which may include the proteasome system. To study the role of mTOR inhibition in the regulation of the proteasome system, we investigated (immuno)proteasome expression during epileptogenesis, as well as the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. METHODS: The expression of constitutive (β1, β5) and immunoproteasome (β1i, β5i) subunits was investigated during epileptogenesis using immunohistochemistry in the electrical post-status epilepticus (SE) rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632521/verbal-and-figural-fluency-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-does-hippocampal-sclerosis-affect-performance
#2
Ioannis Zalonis, Foteini Christidi, Artemios Artemiadis, Constantinos Psarros, George Papadopoulos, George Tsivgoulis, Stergios Gatzonis, Anna Siatouni, Georgios Velonakis, Efstratios Karavasilis, Evangelia Kararizou, Nikolaos Triantafyllou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clinicians commonly use verbal and nonverbal measures to test fluency in patients with epilepsy, either during routine cognitive assessment or as part of pre- and postsurgical evaluation. We hypothesized that patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis would perform worse than patients with lateral TLE in both verbal and design fluency. METHODS: We assessed semantic, phonemic, and nonverbal fluency in 49 patients with TLE: 31 with lateral TLE and 18 with mesial TLE plus hippocampal sclerosis...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632041/automated-volumetry-of-hippocampus-is-useful-to-confirm-unilateral-mesial-temporal-sclerosis-in-patients-with-radiologically-positive-findings
#3
Guilherme Silva, Cristina Martins, Nádia Moreira da Silva, Duarte Vieira, Dias Costa, Ricardo Rego, José Fonseca, João Paulo Silva Cunha
Background and purpose We evaluated two methods to identify mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS): visual inspection by experienced epilepsy neuroradiologists based on structural magnetic resonance imaging sequences and automated hippocampal volumetry provided by a processing pipeline based on the FMRIB Software Library. Methods This retrospective study included patients from the epilepsy monitoring unit database of our institution. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging in 1.5T and 3T scanners with protocols that included thin coronal T2, T1 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and isometric T1 acquisitions...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626979/electro-clinical-criteria-and-surgical-outcome-is-there-a-difference-between-mesial-and-lesional-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
M Wassenaar, F S S Leijten, G-J de Haan, S G Uijl, J W Sander
OBJECTIVES: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy syndrome (MTLE) with specific electrophysiological and clinical characteristics and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) on MRI is considered the prototype of a syndrome with good surgical prognosis. Ictal onset zones in MTLE have been found to extend outside the hippocampus and neocortical seizures often involve mesial structures. It can, thus, be questioned whether MTLE with HS is different from lesional temporal epilepsies with respect to electro-clinical characteristics and surgical prognosis...
June 18, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622539/features-of-amygdala-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-hippocampal-sclerosis-an-mri-volumetric-and-histopathological-study
#5
Yoko Nakayama, Hiroshi Masuda, Hiroshi Shirozu, Yosuke Ito, Takefumi Higashijima, Hiroki Kitaura, Yukihiko Fujii, Akiyoshi Kakita, Masafumi Fukuda
OBJECTIVE: It is well-known that there is a correlation between the neuropathological grade of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and neuroradiological atrophy of the hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients. However, there is no strict definition or criterion regarding neuron loss and atrophy of the amygdala neighboring the hippocampus. We examined the relationship between HS and neuronal loss in the amygdala. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen mTLE patients with neuropathological proof of HS were assigned to Group A, while seven mTLE patients without HS were assigned to Group B...
May 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611548/hippocampal-characteristics-and-invariant-sequence-elements-distribution-of-glra2-and-glra3-c-to-u-editing
#6
Philipp Schaefermeier, Sarah Heinze
Glycine receptor α2 and α3 subunit (GLRA2/GLRA3) high-affinity variants, of which the subjacent amino acid substitutions issue from C-to-U RNA editing, are thought to influence tonic inhibition and pathophysiology. In light of the detection of GLRA3 NM_006529:r.1157C>U and GLRA2 NM_002063:r.1416C>U exchanges in hippocampus explants of temporal lobe epilepsy patients, we now examine the healthy situation and relate it to the epileptic situation by ascertaining controls in a legitimate reanalysis. The GLRA2 and GLRA3 editing events that would ultimately result in a glycine receptor with increased affinity occur in the postmortem nonepileptic hippocampus...
March 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611277/association-of-rasgrf1-methylation-with-epileptic-seizures
#7
Xiaoni Chen, Xi Peng, Liang Wang, Xinwei Fu, Ji Xiu Zhou, Binglin Zhu, Jing Luo, Xuefeng Wang, Zheng Xiao
DNA methylation, one of the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, has been suggested to be related with epilepsy. RASgrf1 is a paternally imprinted gene and has a differentially methylated region (DMR) at the promoter that can silence gene expression. We have previously observed the down-regulation of RASgrf1 in the temporal neocortex of epilepsy patients and in the hippocampus of epileptic animals. Here, we further explored the dynamic change (1-day acute period, 10-day latent period and 45-day chronic phase) of DNA methylation and RASgrf1 expression after acute epileptic seizures in kainic acid (KA)-treated mice, and we observed the impact of N-phthalyl-L-tryptophan (RG108), a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, on an acute epileptic model by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blotting, and bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP)...
May 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608989/seizure-severity-dependent-selective-vulnerability-of-the-granule-cell-layer-and-aberrant-neurogenesis-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#8
Takeshi Uemori, Keiko Toda, Tatsunori Seki
The pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) rodent model has been commonly used to analyze the mechanisms of human temporal lobe epilepsy. Recent studies using this model have demonstrated that epileptic seizures lead to increased adult neurogenesis of the dentate granule cells, and cause abnormal cellular organization in dentate neuronal circuits. In this study, we examined these structural changes in rats with seizures of varying severity. In rats with frequent severe seizures, we found a clear loss of Prox1 and NeuN expression in the dentate granule cell layer (GCL), which was confined mainly to the suprapyramidal blade of the GCL at the septal and middle regions of the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus...
June 13, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605962/novel-approach-to-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-epileptic-dogs-t2-relaxometry-of-the-brain-with-emphasised-hippocampus
#9
Borbála A Lorincz, Agustina Anson, Péter Csébi, Gábor Bajzik, Gergely Biró, Alexander Tichy, Balázs B Lorincz, Rita Garamvölgyi
Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common imaging finding of intractable human epilepsy, and it may play an important role in canine and feline epileptogenesis and seizure semiology, too. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria of hippocampal sclerosis are T2 hyperintensity, shrinkage and loss of internal structure. The detection of these changes is often challenging by subjective visual assessment of qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) images. The recognition is more reliable with quantitative MR methods, such as T2 relaxometry...
June 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589257/traumatic-brain-injury-causes-long-term-behavioral-changes-related-to-region-specific-increases-of-cerebral-blood-flow
#10
Bruno Pöttker, Franziska Stöber, Regina Hummel, Frank Angenstein, Konstantin Radyushkin, Jürgen Goldschmidt, Michael K E Schäfer
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and death and survivors often suffer from long-lasting motor impairment, cognitive deficits, anxiety disorders and epilepsy. Few experimental studies have investigated long-term sequelae after TBI and relations between behavioral changes and neural activity patterns remain elusive. We examined these issues in a murine model of TBI combining histology, behavioral analyses and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a proxy for neural activity...
June 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587936/intra-hippocampal-microinjection-of-oxytocin-produced-antiepileptic-effect-on-the-pentylenetetrazol-induced-epilepsy-in-rats
#11
Amir Erfanparast, Esmaeal Tamaddonfard, Farzin Henareh-Chareh
BACKGROUND: In addition to its role as a circulating hormone, oxytocin can also act as a neurotransmitter and a neuromodulator within the brain. In this study, we investigated the intra-hippocampal effect of oxytocin on an experimental seizure model induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in rats. We also used atosiban (oxytocin antagonist), diazepam and flumazenil (gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA-benzodiazepine receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively) to clarify the involved mechanism...
March 12, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580377/optimization-of-curvilinear-needle-trajectories-for-transforamenal-hippocampotomy
#12
David B Comber, E Bryn Pitt, Hunter B Gilbert, Matthew W Powelson, Emily Matijevich, Joseph S Neimat, Robert J Webster, Eric J Barth
BACKGROUND: The recent development of MRI-guided laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) offers a minimally invasive alternative to craniotomies performed for tumor resection or for amygdalohippocampectomy to control seizure disorders. Current LITT therapies rely on linear stereotactic trajectories that mandate twist-drill entry into the skull and potentially long approaches traversing healthy brain. The use of robotically-driven, telescoping, curved needles has the potential to reduce procedure invasiveness by tailoring trajectories to the curved shape of the ablated structure and by enabling access through natural orifices...
February 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576708/a-systems-level-analysis-of-epileptogenesis-associated-proteome-alterations
#13
Michael Keck, Ganna Androsova, Fabio Gualtieri, Andreas Walker, Eva-Lotta von Rüden, Vera Russmann, Cornelia A Deeg, Stefanie M Hauck, Roland Krause, Heidrun Potschka
Despite intense research efforts, the knowledge about the mechanisms of epileptogenesis and epilepsy is still considered incomplete and limited. However, an in-depth understanding of molecular pathophysiological processes is crucial for the rational selection of innovative biomarkers and target candidates. Here, we subjected proteomic data from different phases of a chronic rat epileptogenesis model to a comprehensive systems level analysis. Weighted Gene Co-expression Network analysis identified several modules of interconnected protein groups reflecting distinct molecular aspects of epileptogenesis in the hippocampus and the parahippocampal cortex...
May 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575153/targeting-oxidative-stress-improves-disease-outcomes-in-a-rat-model-of-acquired-epilepsy
#14
Alberto Pauletti, Gaetano Terrone, Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad, Alessia Salamone, Teresa Ravizza, Massimo Rizzi, Anna Pastore, Rosaria Pascente, Li-Ping Liang, Bianca R Villa, Silvia Balosso, Andrey Y Abramov, Erwin A van Vliet, Ennio Del Giudice, Eleonora Aronica, Daniel J Antoine, Manisha Patel, Matthew C Walker, Annamaria Vezzani
Epilepsy therapy is based on antiseizure drugs that treat the symptom, seizures, rather than the disease and are ineffective in up to 30% of patients. There are no treatments for modifying the disease-preventing seizure onset, reducing severity or improving prognosis. Among the potential molecular targets for attaining these unmet therapeutic needs, we focused on oxidative stress since it is a pathophysiological process commonly occurring in experimental epileptogenesis and observed in human epilepsy. Using a rat model of acquired epilepsy induced by electrical status epilepticus, we show that oxidative stress occurs in both neurons and astrocytes during epileptogenesis, as assessed by measuring biochemical and histological markers...
May 30, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574952/the-hippocampus-and-cortex-together-generate-the-scalp-eeg-ictal-discharge-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
David G Vossler, Diana L Kraemer, Anthony J Bell
PURPOSE: The scalp EEG ictal discharge in temporal lobe epilepsy is reportedly visible only after the intracranial discharge becomes well synchronized and present over 10 to 30 cm of cortex. We investigated the role of the hippocampal formation in the generation of the scalp EEG ictal discharge. METHODS: Intracranial EEG video monitors were recorded using simultaneous scalp, stereotaxic depth, and subdural strip electrodes in 19 subjects with temporal lobe epilepsy...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559979/a-new-comorbidity-model-and-the-common-pathological-mechanisms-of-migraine-and-epilepsy
#16
Shanghua Fan, Zheman Xiao, Fan Zhu, Xiaohua He, Zuneng Lu
A bi-directional relationship between epilepsy and migraine has been widely reported in epidemiological and clinical studies, but the mechanisms of interaction between these disorders have not been fully examined using animal models. The aim of the present study was to develop a new comorbidity model of migraine and epilepsy. Nociception was induced by applying an inflammatory soup to the dura mater; this procedure resulted in nociception similar to that expressed in inflammatory disorders such as migraine...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538339/seven-tesla-mri-of-hippocampal-sclerosis-an-in-vivo-feasibility-study-with-histological-correlations
#17
Harald Stefanits, Elisabeth Springer, Ekaterina Pataraia, Christoph Baumgartner, Johannes A Hainfellner, Daniela Prayer, Christian Weisstanner, Thomas Czech, Siegfried Trattnig
INTRODUCTION: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent form of focal epilepsy in adults. Because approximately half of these patients develop drug resistance, epilepsy surgery designed to remove the epileptogenic zone is an excellent option in selected patients. Histopathological analyses of hippocampal specimens in TLE patients revealed 4 types of Ammon's horn sclerosis, which are correlated with long-term epileptological outcome. The aim of this study was the correlation of noninvasive, high-resolution, morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at an ultra-high-field (7 T) of the hippocampus in TLE patients with histopathological findings...
May 23, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529112/myeloid-differentiation-factor-88-is-up-regulated-in-epileptic-brain-and-contributes-to-experimental-seizures-in-rats
#18
Na Wang, Xiong Han, Haipeng Liu, Ting Zhao, Jie Li, Yan Feng, Xiujuan Mi, Yanke Zhang, Yanan Chen, Xuefeng Wang
Accumulating evidence supports that activation of inflammatory pathways is a crucial factor contributing to the pathogenesis of seizures. In particular, the activation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) system exerts proconvulsant effects in a large variety of seizure models. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a critical adaptor protein in the signaling cascade elicited by IL-1β. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of MyD88 in rat models of seizures and in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to study the role of MyD88 in epileptic seizures...
May 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528202/microrna-129-5p-inhibits-the-development-of-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-related-epilepsy-by-targeting-hmgb1-through-the-tlr4-nf-kb-signaling-pathway
#19
Ai-Hua Liu, Ya-Ting Wu, Yu-Ping Wang
The study aimed to explore the effects of microRNA-129-5p (miR-129-5p) on the development of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (AE)-related epilepsy by targeting HMGB1 through the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway in a rat model. AE-related epilepsy models were established. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control, model, miR-129-5p mimics, miR-129-5p inhibitor, HMGB1 shRNA, TLR4/NF-kB (TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway was inhibited) and miR-129-5p mimics+HMGB1 shRNA groups respectively. Latency to a first epilepsy seizure attack was recorded...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527108/increased-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-transcripts-i-and-vi-camp-response-element-binding-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-cortex-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
G A Martínez-Levy, L Rocha, F Rodríguez-Pineda, M A Alonso-Vanegas, A Nani, R M Buentello-García, M Briones-Velasco, D San-Juan, J Cienfuegos, C S Cruz-Fuentes
A body of evidence supports a relevant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Magnetic resonance data reveal that the cerebral atrophy extends to regions that are functionally and anatomically connected with the hippocampus, especially the temporal cortex. We previously reported an increased expression of BDNF messenger for the exon VI in the hippocampus of temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to an autopsy control group. Altered levels of this particular transcript were also associated with pre-surgical use of certain psychotropic...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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