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hippocampus and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331847/longitudinal-hippocampal-and-extra-hippocampal-microstructural-and-macrostructural-changes-following-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#1
Cameron A Elliott, Donald W Gross, B Matt Wheatley, Christian Beaulieu, Tejas Sankar
OBJECTIVES: 1) Characterize the evolution of microstructural changes in the contralateral, non-operated hippocampus-using longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). 2) Characterize the downstream extra-hippocampal volumetric changes of the fornix and mammillary bodies after TLE surgery. 3) Examine the relationship between these measures and seizure/cognitive outcome. METHODS: Serial structural and DTI brain MRI scans were collected in 25 TLE patients pre- and post-surgery (anterior temporal lobectomy, ATL - 13; selective amygdalohippocampectomy, SelAH - 12) and in 12 healthy controls...
January 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331845/effect-of-levetiracetam-on-extracellular-amino-acid-levels-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-of-rats-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Pichardo Macías Luz Adriana, Ramírez Mendiola Blanca Alcira, Contreras García Itzel Jatziri, Zamudio Hernández Sergio Roberto, Chávez Pacheco Juan Luis, Sánchez Huerta Karla Berenice, Mendoza Torreblanca Julieta Griselda
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an anticonvulsant drug with a unique mechanism of action that is not completely understood. However, its activity profile may involve effects on excitatory and/or inhibitory neurotransmission since the primary target of LEV, synaptic vesicle protein 2A, is ubiquitously expressed in all types of synaptic vesicles. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the effect of LEV (300 mg/kg/day for one week, administered via osmotic mini-pumps) on neurotransmitter release and its probable selective effect on extracellular gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), glutamine (Gln), taurine (Tau) and glycine (Gly) concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high-K+ conditions) in the dorsal hippocampus (DH), a region that undergoes major synaptic changes during epilepsy...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317669/selective-targeting-of-scn8a-prevents-seizure-development-in-a-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Jennifer C Wong, Christopher D Makinson, Tyra Lamar, Qi Cheng, Jeffrey C Wingard, Ernest F Terwilliger, Andrew Escayg
We previously found that genetic mutants with reduced expression or activity of Scn8a are resistant to induced seizures and that co-segregation of a mutant Scn8a allele can increase survival and seizure resistance of Scn1a mutant mice. In contrast, Scn8a expression is increased in the hippocampus following status epilepticus and amygdala kindling. These findings point to Scn8a as a promising therapeutic target for epilepsy and raise the possibility that aberrant overexpression of Scn8a in limbic structures may contribute to some epilepsies, including temporal lobe epilepsy...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317649/synchrotron-generated-microbeams-induce-hippocampal-transections-in-rats
#4
Erminia Fardone, Benoît Pouyatos, Elke Bräuer-Krisch, Stefan Bartzsch, Hervè Mathieu, Herwig Requardt, Domenico Bucci, Giacomo Barbone, Paola Coan, Giuseppe Battaglia, Geraldine Le Duc, Alberto Bravin, Pantaleo Romanelli
Synchrotron-generated microplanar beams (microbeams) provide the most stereo-selective irradiation modality known today. This novel irradiation modality has been shown to control seizures originating from eloquent cortex causing no neurological deficit in experimental animals. To test the hypothesis that application of microbeams in the hippocampus, the most common source of refractory seizures, is safe and does not induce severe side effects, we used microbeams to induce transections to the hippocampus of healthy rats...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317612/gamma-oscillatory-activity-in-vitro-a-model-system-to-assess-pathophysiological-mechanisms-of-comorbidity-between-autism-and-epilepsy
#5
D Subramanian, E Pralong, R T Daniel, A G Chacko, R Stoop, K S Babu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and temporal lobe epilepsy exhibit remarkable comorbidity, but for reasons not clearly understood. To reveal a common pathophysiological mechanism, we here describe and characterize an in vitro epileptiform activity in the rat hippocampus that exhibits common features with in vivo activity in rodent ASD models. We discovered the development of this activity in the CA1 region of horizontal slices after prolonged interictal-like epileptiform activity in the CA3 region that was provoked by incubation in high potassium artificial cerebrospinal fluid...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306758/altered-expression-of-gaba-a-receptor-subunits-in-the-hippocampus-of-ptz-kindled-rats
#6
Janusz Szyndler, Piotr Maciejak, Karolina Kołosowska, Natalia Chmielewska, Anna Skórzewska, Patrycja Daszczuk, Adam Płaźnik
BACKGROUND: Changes in the expression of the GABA-A receptor subunits involved in phasic and tonic inhibition have been studied in a wide spectrum of animal models of epilepsy. However, there is no exhaustive data regarding the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy. METHODS: The aim of our study was to analyse the hippocampal changes in the expression of GABA-A receptor subunits involved in phasic (α1, γ2) or tonic (α4 and δ) inhibition in rats subjected to the PTZ kindling using immunohistochemistry method as well as in animals subjected to a single injection of a subconvulsive (30 mg/kg) or convulsive (55 mg/kg) dose of PTZ...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302917/meta-analysis-of-voxel-based-morphometry-studies-of-gray-matter-abnormalities-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-unilateral-hippocampal-sclerosis
#7
Liyun Zheng, Guo Bin, Hongwu Zeng, Dongfang Zou, Junling Gao, Jian Zhang, Bingsheng Huang
We aimed to perform a meta-analysis to systematically determine the most consistent regions of gray matter volume (GMV) abnormality in patients of unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), and to reveal the difference of GMV abnormality between the patients with left-sided and right-sided MTLE-HS. A comprehensive and systematic search was performed in PubMed for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of MTLE-HS. A total of 12 MTLE-HS studies, including 9 left-sided MTLE-HS (LMTLE-HS) and 8 right-sided MTLE-HS (RMTLE-HS) studies were included...
January 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276473/ferric-chelate-reductase-1-like-protein-frrs1l-associates-with-dynein-vesicles-and-regulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission
#8
Wenyan Han, Huiqing Wang, Jun Li, Shizhong Zhang, Wei Lu
In the brain, AMPA receptors (AMPARs)-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission is critically regulated by the receptor auxiliary subunits. Recent proteomic studies have identified that Ferric Chelate Reductase 1 Like protein (FRRS1L), whose mutations in human lead to epilepsy, choreoathetosis, and cognitive deficits, is present in native AMPAR complexes in the brain. Here we have characterized FRRS1L in both heterologous cells and in mouse neurons. We found that FRRS1L interacts with both GluA1 and GluA2 subunits of AMPARs, but does not form dimers/oligomers, in HEK cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275328/systematic-review-of-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-psychosis-of-epilepsy
#9
REVIEW
James Allebone, Richard Kanaan, Sarah J Wilson
This systematic review critically assesses structural and functional neuroimaging studies of psychosis of epilepsy (POE). We integrate findings from 18 studies of adults with POE to examine the prevailing view that there is a specific relationship between temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and POE, and that mesial temporal lobe pathology is a biomarker for POE. Our results show: (1) conflicting evidence of volumetric change in the hippocampus and amygdala; (2) distributed structural pathology beyond the mesial temporal lobe; and (3) changes in frontotemporal functional network activation...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274741/a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-treatment-of-catamenial-epilepsy
#10
Suchitra Joshi, Huayu Sun, Karthik Rajasekaran, John Williamson, Edward Perez-Reyes, Jaideep Kapur
Many women with epilepsy experience perimenstrual seizure exacerbation, referred to as catamenial epilepsy. There is no effective treatment for this condition, proposed to result from withdrawal of neurosteroid-mediated effects of progesterone. A double-blind, multicenter, phase III, clinical trial of catamenial epilepsy has failed to find a beneficial effect of progesterone. The neurosteroid-mediated effects of progesterone have been extensively studied in relation to catamenial epilepsy; however, the effects mediated by progesterone receptor activation have been overlooked...
December 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274430/divergent-brain-changes-in-two-audiogenic-rat-strains-a-voxel-based-morphometry-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-comparison-of-the-genetically-epilepsy-prone-rat-gepr-3-and-the-wistar-audiogenic-rat-war
#11
Yichien Lee, Olga C Rodriguez, Chris Albanese, Victor Rodrigues Santos, José Antônio Cortes de Oliveira, Ana Luiza Ferreira Donatti, Artur Fernandes, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Prosper N'Gouemo, Patrick A Forcelli
Acoustically evoked seizures (e.g., audiogenic seizures or AGS) are common in models of inherited epilepsy and occur in a variety of species including rat, mouse, and hamster. Two models that have been particularly well studied are the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strains. Acute and repeated AGS, as well as comorbid conditions, displays a close phenotypic overlap in these models. Whether these similarities arise from convergent or divergent structural changes in the brain remains unknown...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248452/protective-effect-of-terminalia-chebula-against-seizures-seizure-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-oxidative-stress-in-experimental-models-of-seizures-in-rats
#12
Ritesh Kumar, Renu Arora, Amit Agarwal, Y K Gupta
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Teminalia chebula (TC) has been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine primarily for gastrointestinal disorders. Its fruit extract has also been used to treat epilepsy and other CNS disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Terminalia chebula (HETC) on experimental models of seizures, seizure-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro antioxidant activity of HETC was evaluated by using ABTS, NO and DPPH radical scavenging assay...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238892/recombinant-human-erythropoietin-protects-against-hippocampal-damage-in-developing-rats-with-seizures-by-modulating-autophagy-via-the-s6-protein-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#13
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin, Jing Zhang, Manman Niu, Jiong Qin
Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders. Recurrent seizures result in neuronal death, cognitive deficits and intellectual disabilities in children. Currently, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is considered to play a neuroprotective role in nervous system disorders. However, the precise mechanisms through which rhEPO modulates epilepsy remain unknown. Based on results from numerous studies, we hypothesized that rhEPO protects against hippocampal damage in developing rats with seizures probably by modulating autophagy via the ribosomal protein S6 (S6) in a time-dependent manner...
December 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237529/-changes-in-the-expression-of-epha5-ephrina5-in-the-ca3-region-of-the-hippocampus-in-rats-with-epilepsy-and-their-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Tian-Tian Liu, Bo Xiao, Shu-Yu Li, Guo-Liang Li, Xiao-Qin Lu, Wei-Ping Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in the expression of EphA5 and its ligand ephrinA5 in the hippocampus of rats with epilepsy and their role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: A total of 240 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group and TLE group, with 120 rats in each group. A rat model of lithium-pilocarpine TLE was established, and then the rats were divided into subgroups at 12 and 24 hours and 7, 15, 30, and 60 days after epilepsy was induced...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223539/losartan-suppresses-the-kainate-induced-changes-of-angiotensin-at1-receptor-expression-in-a-model-of-comorbid-hypertension-and-epilepsy
#15
Dimitrinka Atanasova, Jana Tchekalarova, Natasha Ivanova, Zlatina Nenchovska, Ekaterina Pavlova, Nina Atanassova, Nikolai Lazarov
AIMS: Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that components of renin-angiotensin system are elevated in the hippocampus in epileptogenic conditions. In the present work, we explored the changes in the expression of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT1 receptor) in limbic structures, as well as the effect of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan in a model of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy. MAIN METHODS: The expression of AT1 receptors was compared between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats by using immunohistochemistry in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
December 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222951/neuronal-pas-domain-protein-4-npas4-controls-neuronal-homeostasis-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-epilepsy-through-the-induction-of-homer1a
#16
Wei Shan, Taku Nagai, Motoki Tanaka, Norimichi Itoh, Yoko Furukawa-Hibi, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Masahiro Sokabe, Kiyofumi Yamada
Neuronal intrinsic homeostatic scaling-down of excitatory synapse has been implicated in epilepsy pathogenesis to prevent the neuronal circuits from hyper-excitability. Recent findings suggest a role for neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4), an activity-dependent neuron-specific transcription factor in epileptogenesis, however, the underlying mechanism by which Npas4 regulates epilepsy remains unclear. We herein propose that limbic seizure activity up-regulates Npas4-homer1a signaling in the hippocampus, thereby contributing to epileptogenesis in mice...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220722/circulating-mirnas-expression-profiling-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy-up-regulation-of-mir-301a-3p-in-a-case-of-sudden-unexpected-death
#17
Maria De Matteis, Giovanni Cecchetto, Giada Munari, Laura Balsamo, Marina Paola Gardiman, Renzo Giordano, Guido Viel, Matteo Fassan
Sudden and unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) represents one of the most challenging fields for clinical, forensic and preventative pathology. Several authors have emphasized the search of innovative biomarkers related to drug-resistance for an appropriate risk stratification in these patients. However, no reliable biomarker has been implemented into clinical practice, so far. Herein, we present a case of SUDEP due to drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) in which we performed miRNA expression profiling (miR-301a-3p, miR-194-5p, miR-30b-5p, mIR-342-5p, and miR-4446-3p) from both the plasma and the temporal lobe in comparison to ten autopsies for traumatic or asphyxia deaths...
December 4, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218702/deep-brain-stimulation-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
Michael C H Li, Mark J Cook
OBJECTIVES: To review clinical evidence on the antiepileptic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for drug-resistant epilepsy, its safety, and the factors influencing individual outcomes. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the medical literature (PubMed, Medline) was conducted to identify relevant articles investigating DBS therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Reference lists of these articles were used to source further articles. RESULTS: Stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) and hippocampus (HC) has been shown to decrease the frequency of refractory seizures...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217690/re-positioning-of-somatic-golgi-apparatus-is-essential-for-the-dendritic-establishment-of-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons
#19
Sneha Rao, Gregory W Kirschen, Joanna Szczurkowska, Adrian Di Antonio, Jia Wang, Shaoyu Ge, Maya Shelly
New dentate granule cells are continuously generated, and integrate into the pre-existing hippocampal network in the adult brain. How an adult-born neuron with initially simple spindle-like morphology develops into a complex dentate granule cell (DGC), consisting of a single apical dendrite with further branches, remains largely unknown. Here, using retroviruses to birth-date and manipulate newborn neurons, we examined initial dendritic formation, and possible underlying mechanisms. We found that GFP-expressing newborn cells began to establish a DGC-like morphology at around 7 days after birth, with a primary dendrite pointing to the molecular layer, but at this stage, with several neurites in the neurogenic zone...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214672/region-specific-deletions-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt1-differentially-affect-seizure-activity-and-neurodegeneration-in-mice
#20
Junya Sugimoto, Moeko Tanaka, Kaori Sugiyama, Yukiko Ito, Hidenori Aizawa, Miho Soma, Tomoko Shimizu, Akira Mitani, Kohichi Tanaka
Glial glutamate transporter GLT1 plays a key role in the maintenance of extracellular glutamate homeostasis. Recent human genetic studies have suggested that de novo mutations in GLT1 (EAAT2) cause early-onset epilepsy with multiple seizure types. Consistent with these findings, global GLT1 null mice show lethal spontaneous seizures. The consequences of GLT1 dysfunction vary between different brain regions, suggesting that the role of GLT1 dysfunction in epilepsy may also vary with brain regions. In this study, we generated region-specific GLT1 knockout mice by crossing floxed-GLT1 mice with mice that express the Cre recombinase in a particular domain of the ventricular zone...
December 6, 2017: Glia
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