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hippocampus and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728081/brain-state-dependent-recruitment-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-the-human-hippocampus
#1
Pablo Billeke, Tomas Ossandon, Marcelo Stockle, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Philippe Kahane, Jean-Philippe Lachaux, Pablo Fuentealba
Ripples are high-frequency bouts of coordinated hippocampal activity believed to be crucial for information transfer and memory formation. We used intracortical macroelectrodes to record neural activity in the human hippocampus of awake subjects undergoing surgical treatment for refractory epilepsy and distinguished two populations of ripple episodes based on their frequency spectrum. The phase-coupling of one population, slow ripples (90-110 Hz), to cortical delta oscillations was differentially modulated by cognitive task; whereas the second population, fast ripples (130-170 Hz), was not seemingly correlated to local neural activity...
June 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724954/loss-of-x-linked-protocadherin-19-differentially-affects-the-behavior-of-heterozygous-female-and-hemizygous-male-mice
#2
Shuichi Hayashi, Yoko Inoue, Satoko Hattori, Mari Kaneko, Go Shioi, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Masatoshi Takeichi
Mutations in the X-linked gene Protocadherin-19 (Pcdh19) cause female-limited epilepsy and mental retardation in humans. Although Pcdh19 is known to be a homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule, how its mutations bring about female-specific disorders remains elusive. Here, we report the effects of Pcdh19 knockout in mice on their development and behavior. Pcdh19 was expressed in various brain regions including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Although Pcdh19-positive cells were evenly distributed in layer V of wild-type cortices, their distribution became a mosaic in Pcdh19 heterozygous female cortices...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722103/decreased-levels-of-active-upa-and-klk8-assessed-by-111-in-mica-401-binding-correlate-with-the-seizure-burden-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Stephan Missault, Lore Peeters, Halima Amhaoul, David Thomae, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Barbara Favier, Anagha Thakur, Jeroen Van Soom, Asla Pitkänen, Koen Augustyns, Jurgen Joossens, Steven Staelens, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
OBJECTIVE: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8) are serine proteases that contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling after brain injury. They can be labelled with the novel radiotracer [(111) In]MICA-401. As the first step in exploring the applicability of [(111) In]MICA-401 in tracing the mechanisms of postinjury ECM reorganization in vivo, we performed in vitro and ex vivo studies, assessing [(111) In]MICA-401 distribution in the brain in two animal models: kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) and controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 19, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713279/antiepileptogenic-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-pergularia-daemia-on-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#4
Antoine K Kandeda, Germain S Taiwe, Fleur C O Moto, Gwladys T Ngoupaye, Gisele C N Nkantchoua, Jacqueline S K Njapdounke, Jean P O Omam, Simon Pale, Nadege Kouemou, Elisabeth Ngo Bum
In this study, we investigated antiepileptogenic and neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extract of Pergularia daemia roots (PDR) using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. In in vivo studies, status epilepticus caused by pilocarpine injection triggers epileptogenesis which evolves during about 1-2 weeks. After 2 h of status epilepticus, mice were treated during the epileptogenesis period for 7 days with sodium valproate and vitamin C (standards which demonstrated to alter epileptogenesis), or Pergularia daemia...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711815/geschwind-syndrome-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-features-over-9-years
#5
Laura Veronelli, Sara J Makaretz, Megan Quimby, Bradford C Dickerson, Jessica A Collins
Geschwind Syndrome, a characteristic behavioral syndrome frequently described in patients affected by temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), consists of the following features: hyper-religiosity, hypergraphia, hyposexuality, and irritability. Here we report the 9-year-clinical course of a case of Geschwind Syndrome that developed as a first and salient clinical expression of right temporal lobe variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Only one patient affected by frontotemporal dementia has previously been shown to present with Geschwind Syndrome...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709992/time-dependent-evolution-of-seizures-in-a-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Charles Behr, Maxime Lévesque, Thomas Stroh, Massimo Avoli
Low-voltage fast (LVF) and hypersynchronous (HYP) - onset seizures occur in the EEG obtained with depth electrodes from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients and animal models. In epileptic rats analyzed up to approximately two weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), these patterns are associated with specific high-frequency oscillation (HFO) content: ripples (80-200Hz) or fast-ripples (250-500Hz) predominate in LVF or HYP seizures, respectively. To establish whether these features change over the course of the disease, we recorded the EEG from the hippocampal CA3 subfield, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus in two groups of pilocarpine-treated rats: the "early stage group" (n=8) was analyzed from day 3 to 20 post-SE while the "late stage group" (n=7) was studied from day 27 to 53 post-SE...
July 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707031/silencing-of-p2x7r-by-rna-interference-in-the-hippocampus-can-attenuate-morphological-and-behavioral-impact-of-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy
#7
Rebeca Padrão Amorim, Michelle Gasparetti Leão Araújo, Jorge Valero, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Vinicius Davila Bitencourt Pascoal, João Oliveira Malva, Maria José da Silva Fernandes
Cell signaling mediated by P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) has been suggested to be involved in epileptogenesis, via modulation of intracellular calcium levels, excitotoxicity, activation of inflammatory cascades, and cell death, among other mechanisms. These processes have been described to be involved in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and contribute to hyperexcitability, resulting in spontaneous and recurrent seizures. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of P2X7R in epileptogenesis in vivo using RNA interference (RNAi) to inhibit the expression of this receptor...
July 13, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705496/the-effect-of-cxcr2-inhibition-on-seizure-activity-in-the-pilocarpine-epilepsy-mouse-model
#8
Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Teng Wang, Ying Liu, Xi Liu, Shu Ou, Yangmei Chen
C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) is one of the most well characterized chemokine receptors and is a potential target for treating brain pathologies involving inflammatory processes, including epilepsy. However, the role of CXCR2 in epilepsy has not been investigated, and whether CXCR2 modulates seizure activity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential role of CXCR2 in intractable TLE patients and in pilocarpine-induced epileptic mice. Here, through Western blotting and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry, we detected that CXCR2 protein expression was up-regulated (by nearly 50%) in the temporal neocortex of TLE patients and in the hippocampus and adjacent temporal cortex of pilocarpine mice model...
July 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704930/mitochondrial-dysfunction-mediated-by-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-activation-contributes-to-hippocampal-neuronal-damage-following-status-epilepticus
#9
Yi-Chen Lai, J Scott Baker, Taraka Donti, Brett H Graham, William J Craigen, Anne E Anderson
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the neuropathology associated with status epilepticus (SE) and is implicated in the development of epilepsy. While excitotoxic mechanisms are well-known mediators affecting mitochondrial health following SE, whether hyperactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) also contributes to SE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction remains to be examined. Here we first evaluated the temporal evolution of poly-ADP-ribosylated protein levels in hippocampus following kainic acid-induced SE as a marker for PARP-1 activity, and found that PARP-1 was hyperactive at 24 h following SE...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699215/automated-t2-relaxometry-of-the-hippocampus-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#10
Gavin P Winston, Sjoerd B Vos, Jane L Burdett, M Jorge Cardoso, Sebastien Ourselin, John S Duncan
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common cause of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, is associated with hippocampal volume loss and increased T2 signal. These can be identified on quantitative imaging with hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry. Although hippocampal segmentation for volumetry has been automated, T2 relaxometry currently involves subjective and time-consuming manual delineation of regions of interest. In this work, we develop and validate an automated technique for hippocampal T2 relaxometry...
July 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699085/laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-epilepsy
#11
REVIEW
Eric Prince, Shahin Hakimian, Andrew L Ko, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Michelle S Kim, John W Miller
MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MgLiTT) uses a narrow diameter cannula to stereotactically target and heat deeper cerebral structures. This technique produces a precise lesion in the brain with great reliability because the localized tissue temperature change is monitored in real time. Because MgLiTT minimizes injury to surrounding brain, it appears to have a lower risk of affecting normal neurological function, and because it is done through a burr hole, there is less operative risk, less discomfort, and shorter hospitalizations...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698761/vagus-nerve-stimulation
#12
REVIEW
Hakan Ekmekçi, Hülagu Kaptan
BACKGROUND: The vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approach mainly used in cases of intractable epilepsy despite all the efforts. Also, its benefits have been shown in severe cases of depression resistant to typical treatment. AIM: The aim of this study was to present current knowledge of vagus nerve stimulation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A new value has emerged just at this stage: VNS aiming the ideal treatment with new hopes. It is based on the placement of a programmable generator on the chest wall...
June 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697972/neuroprotection-of-edaravone-on-the-hippocampus-of-kainate-induced-epilepsy-rats-through-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#13
Zhiguang Liu, Chengzhi Yang, Xinyan Meng, Zaili Li, Cunling Lv, Peiwei Cao
Epilepsy is a severe and chronic neurological disease. Edaravone is an effective free radical scavenger and has been reported to prevent neuronal loss induced by Kainate (KA). However, the molecular mechanisms by which edaravone inhibits KA-induced neuron injury remain elusive. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups. For KA treatment, Kainate (4 μg/kg) were administrated in the right hippocampus CA3 region with sereotactic technique. And for edaravone treatment, the rats were intraperitoneal injection with edaravone (10 mg kg (- 1) d (- 1))...
July 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691204/mortality-with-brainstem-seizures-from-focal-4-aminopyridine-induced-recurrent-hippocampal-seizures
#14
Muhammad Tariqus Salam, Gaspard Montandon, Roman Genov, Orrin Devinsky, Martin Del Campo, Peter L Carlen
OBJECTIVE: Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy is the leading cause of death in young adult epilepsy patients, typically occurring during the early postictal period, presumably resulting from brainstem and cardiorespiratory dysfunction. We hypothesized that ictal discharges in the brainstem disrupt the cardiorespiratory network, causing mortality. To study this hypothesis, we chose an animal model comprising focal unilateral hippocampal injection of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), which produced focal recurrent hippocampal seizures with secondary generalization in awake, behaving rats...
July 10, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688852/cdkl5-controls-postsynaptic-localization-of-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptors-in-the-hippocampus-and-regulates-seizure-susceptibility
#15
Kosuke Okuda, Shizuka Kobayashi, Masahiro Fukaya, Aya Watanabe, Takuto Murakami, Mai Hagiwara, Tempei Sato, Hiroe Ueno, Narumi Ogonuki, Sayaka Komano-Inoue, Hiroyuki Manabe, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Atsuo Ogura, Hiroshi Asahara, Hiroyuki Sakagami, Masashi Mizuguchi, Toshiya Manabe, Teruyuki Tanaka
Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders accompanied by intractable epilepsies, i.e. West syndrome or atypical Rett syndrome. Here we report generation of the Cdkl5 knockout mouse and show that CDKL5 controls postsynaptic localization of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus and regulates seizure susceptibility. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed normal sensitivity to kainic acid; however, they displayed significant hyperexcitability to NMDA...
July 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685385/exclusive-activation-of-caspase-3-in-mossy-fibers-and-altered-dynamics-of-autophagy-markers-in-the-mice-hippocampus-upon-status-epilepticus-induced-by-kainic-acid
#16
A Rami, A Benz
Epileptic seizures are generally associated with pathological changes in the hippocampus such as astrogliosis, mossy fiber sprouting, and neuronal damage. However, more than 30% of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans shows neither neuronal damage nor mossy fiber sprouting despite chronic epileptic seizures. A similar situation exists in certain commonly used strains of mice, specifically C57BL/6 and BALB/c, which exhibit epileptic seizures, but no neuronal damage upon kainic acid administration. This suggests that intrinsic factors may influence the pathological manifestations of epilepsy...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681096/anticonvulsant-effect-of-swertiamarin-against-pilocarpine-induced-seizures-in-adult-male-mice
#17
Xian-Hua Deng, Xiao Zhang, Jing Wang, Peng-Sheng Ma, Lin Ma, Yang Niu, Tao Sun, Ru Zhou, Jian-Qiang Yu
Epilepsy is one of the common and major neurological disorders, approximately a third of the individuals with epilepsy suffer from seizures and not able to successfully respond to available medications. Current study was designed to investigate whether Swertiamarin (Swe) had anticonvulsant activity in the pilocarpine (PILO)-treated mice. Thirty minutes prior to the PILO (280 mg/kg) injection, the mice were administrated with Swe (50, 150, and 450 mg/kg) and valproate sodium (VPA, 200 mg/kg) once. Seizures and electroencephalography (EEG) were observed, and then the mice were killed for Nissl, Fluoro-jade B (FJB) staining...
July 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676574/aberrant-sodium-channel-currents-and-hyperexcitability-of-medial-entorhinal-cortex-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-scn8a-encephalopathy
#18
Matteo Ottolini, Bryan S Barker, Ronald P Gaykema, Miriam H Meisler, Manoj K Patel
SCN8A encephalopathy, or early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 13 (EIEE13), is caused predominantly by de novo gain-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium (Na) channel Nav1.6. Affected individuals suffer from refractory seizures, developmental delay, cognitive disability and elevated risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). A knock-in mouse model carrying the patient mutation p.Asn1768Asp (N1768D) reproduces many features of the disorder including spontaneous seizures and SUDEP. We used the mouse model to examine the effects of the mutation on layer II stellate neurons of the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC), which transmit excitatory input to the hippocampus...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673833/the-glutamate-receptor-antagonists-cnqx-and-mpep-decrease-fast-ripple-events-in-rats-treated-with-kainic-acid
#19
Laura Medina-Ceja, Carla García-Barba
Fast ripples (FR) are high frequency oscillations (250-600Hz) that have been associated with epilepsy. FR are assumed to be generated in small areas of the hippocampus (1mm(3)) that contain pathologically interconnected glutamate pyramidal cell clusters. Additionally, a relation between glutamate neurotransmission and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainite (AMPA/KA) and metabotropic mGluR5 receptors is well established. Therefore, we hypothesized that antagonism of these glutamate receptors would decrease FR activity...
June 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672958/mir-16-1-expression-heat-shock-protein-70-and-inflammatory-reactions-in-astrocytes-of-mice-with-epilepsy-induced-by-encephalitis-b-virus-infection
#20
Yue Yao, Yujia Yang, Xuehua He, Xia Wang
The upregulation of miR-16-1 expression and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and inflammatory reaction mechanism in astrocytes of mice with epilepsy induced by encephalitis B virus infection were studied. Six-to-eight-week-old healthy male C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (320-340 mg/kg, 40 mg/ml) to induce status epilepsy. After 7 days, mice were inoculated with 100 µl Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) in the neck, including 6.25×23 PFU Japanese encephalitis virus P3 wild strain...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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