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hippocampus and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908611/entorhinal-principal-neurons-mediate-brain-stimulation-treatments-for-epilepsy
#1
Zhenghao Xu, Yi Wang, Bin Chen, Cenglin Xu, Xiaohua Wu, Ying Wang, Shihong Zhang, Weiwei Hu, Shuang Wang, Yi Guo, Xiangnan Zhang, Jianhong Luo, Shumin Duan, Zhong Chen
Brain stimulation is an alternative treatment for epilepsy. However, the neuronal circuits underlying its mechanisms remain obscure. We found that optogenetic activation (1Hz) of entorhinal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα)-positive neurons, but not GABAergic neurons, retarded hippocampal epileptogenesis and reduced hippocampal seizure severity, similar to that of entorhinal low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES). Optogenetic inhibition of entorhinal CaMKIIα-positive neurons blocked the antiepileptic effect of LFES...
November 23, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905510/remarkable-alterations-of-nav1-6-in-reactive-astrogliosis-during-epileptogenesis
#2
Hongyan Zhu, Yuxiao Zhao, Hao Wu, Nan Jiang, Ziyi Wang, Weide Lin, Jiahui Jin, Yonghua Ji
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a vital role in controlling neuronal excitability. Nav1.6 is the most abundantly expressed VGSCs subtype in the adult central nervous system and has been found to contribute to facilitate the hyperexcitability of neurons after electrical induction of status epilepticus (SE). To clarify the exact expression patterns of Nav1.6 during epileptogenesis, we examined the expression of Nav1.6 at protein and mRNA levels in two distinct animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) including a post-SE model induced by kainic acid (KA) intrahippocampal injection and a kindling model evoked by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903016/predicting-tissue-breaking-strengths-in-the-epileptic-brain-with-t2-relaxometry-application-of-pulsed-water-jet-dissection-system-for-epilepsy-surgery
#3
Yoko Takahashi, Masaki Iwasaki, Atsuhiro Nakagawa, Shiho Sato, Nobukazu Nakasato, Teiji Tominaga
Background The piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system is a novel surgical instrument that enables dissection of tissue without thermal damage. Using the ADPJ system in epilepsy surgery requires prediction of the tissue breaking strength of the epileptic brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry could predict the breaking strength. Methods A total of 12 patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy who received surgical treatment were included in the study...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896067/relationship-between-high-frequency-oscillations-and-spikes-in-a-case-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
Vishwanath Sagi, M Steven Evans
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case report was to study the relationship between high-frequency oscillations (HFOs), spikes, and seizures in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy. INTRODUCTION: During intracranial electroencephalography (EEG), HFOs are thought to be a marker for the seizure onset zone (SOZ). High-frequency oscillations are classified into ripples with frequencies of 70-200 Hz and fast ripples with frequencies of 200-500 Hz. Although HFOs are thought to be a marker for the SOZ, their relationship to spikes has not been studied in detail, especially within the SOZ...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895554/systemic-radical-scavenger-treatment-of-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome-merits-and-limitations-of-the-vitamin-e-derivative-trolox
#5
Oliwia A Janc, Marc A Hüser, Katharina Dietrich, Belinda Kempkes, Christiane Menzfeld, Swen Hülsmann, Michael Müller
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically arising from spontaneous mutations in the X-chromosomal methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. The almost exclusively female Rett patients show an apparently normal development during their first 6-18 months of life. Subsequently, cognitive- and motor-impairment, hand stereotypies, loss of learned skills, epilepsy and irregular breathing manifest. Early mitochondrial impairment and oxidative challenge are considered to facilitate disease progression...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888083/clinical-and-imaging-evaluation-of-the-transuncus-selective-amygdalo-hippocampectomy
#6
Enrico Ghizoni, Roger Matias, Stefan Lieber, Brunno Machado de Campos, Clarissa Lin Yasuda, João Paulo Sant Ana Santos de Souza, Pamela Castro Pereira, Augusto Amato, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim, Tátila Martins Lopes, Helder Tedeschi, Fernando Cendes
BACKGROUND: Various reports described the transuncus approach (TU) as a selective route to the amygdala and hippocampus, but this approach has not yet being submitted to a solid post operative imaging analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomy, surgical technique, postoperative imaging analysis and outcome in a series of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who underwent to selective amigdalo-hippocampectomy (SHA) via TU. METHODS: This is a prospective study of 25 consecutive patients who underwent to selective amigdalo-hippocampectomy through TU...
November 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875747/new-model-of-pharmacoresistant-seizures-induced-by-3-mercaptopropionic-acid-in-mice
#7
Andrea Enrique, Sofía Goicoechea, Rocío Castaño, Facundo Taborda, Luisa Rocha, Sandra Orozco, Elena Girardi, Luis Bruno Blanch
About 30% of the patients with epilepsy do not respond to clinically established anticonvulsants, despite having effective concentrations of the antiepileptic drug in plasma. Therefore, new preclinical models of epilepsy are needed to identify more efficacious treatments. We describe here a new drug-resistant seizure model in mice to be used at the early stages of pre-clinical trials. This model consists in inducing daily generalized seizures for 23 consecutive days by administration of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP)...
October 27, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875186/visualizing-shape-deformations-with-variation-of-geometric-spectrum
#8
Jiaxi Hu, Hajar Hamidian, Zichun Zhong, Jing Hua
This paper presents a novel approach based on spectral geometry to quantify and visualize non-isometric deformations of 3D surfaces by mapping two manifolds. The proposed method can determine multi-scale, non-isometric deformations through the variation of Laplace-Beltrami spectrum of two shapes. Given two triangle meshes, the spectra can be varied from one to another with a scale function defined on each vertex. The variation is expressed as a linear interpolation of eigenvalues of the two shapes. In each iteration step, a quadratic programming problem is constructed, based on our derived spectrum variation theorem and smoothness energy constraint, to compute the spectrum variation...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873132/mechanisms-of-excessive-extracellular-glutamate-accumulation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Jan Albrecht, Magdalena Zielińska
There is compelling evidence that initiation and maintenance of epileptic seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is facilitated by excessive accumulation in the extracellular (perisynaptic) space of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (Glu). This review discusses the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Glu released from neurons is taken up by astrocytes and activated there by glutamine synthetase (GS) to form glutamine (Gln) which upon entry to neurons is degraded back to Glu by phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG): this chain of reactions has been defined as the glutamine/glutamate/cycle (GGC)...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872690/the-effects-of-kainic-acid-induced-seizure-on-gene-expression-of-brain-neurotransmitter-receptors-in-mice-using-rt-2-pcr-array
#10
Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Marjan Nassiri-Asl, Pouran Johari, Reza Najafipour, Farid Hajiali
INTRODUCTION: Kainic acid (KA) induces neuropathological changes in specific regions of the mouse hippocampus comparable to changes seen in patients with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). According to different studies, the expression of a number of genes are altered in the adult rat hippocampus after status epilepticus (SE) induced by KA. This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate changes in the gene expression of brain neurotransmitter receptors one week after administration of kainic acid in the mouse hippocampus...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871881/targeting-brain-and-peripheral-plasticity-of-the-lipidome-in-acute-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizures-in-mice-via-quantitative-mass-spectrometry
#11
Raissa Lerner, Julia Post, Sebastian Loch, Beat Lutz, Laura Bindila
Epilepsy is a highly common chronic neurological disorder, manifested in many different types, affecting ~1% of the worldwide human population. The molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis has not yet been clarified, and pharmacoresistance exhibited by 30-40% of epilepsy patients remains a major obstacle in medical care. Growing evidence indicates a role of lipid signalling pathways in epileptogenesis, thus lipid signals emerge as potential biomarkers for the onset and evolving course of the epileptic disorder, as well as potential therapeutic agents and targets...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859539/clinicopathologic-heterogeneity-in-ftdp-17-due-to-mapt-p-p301l-mutation-including-a-patient-with-globular-glial-tauopathy
#12
Pawel Tacik, Monica Sanchez-Contreras, Michael DeTure, Melissa E Murray, Rosa Rademakers, Owen A Ross, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Joseph E Parisi, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Dennis W Dickson
AIM: The p.P301L mutation in microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a common cause of frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). We compare clinicopathologic features of five unrelated and three related (brother, sister and cousin) patients with FTDP-17 due to p.P301L mutation. METHODS: Genealogical, clinical, neuropathologic, and genetic data were reviewed from eight individuals RESULTS: The series consisted of five men and three women with an average age of death of 58 years (52-65 years) and average disease duration of 9 years (3-14 years)...
November 8, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851890/levosimendan-exerts-anticonvulsant-properties-against-ptz-induced-seizures-in-mice-through-activation-of-nnos-no-pathway-role-for-katp-channel
#13
Maziar Gooshe, Mohammad Tabaeizadeh, Ali Reza Aleyasin, Payam Mojahedi, Keyvan Ghasemi, Farbod Yousefi, Ali Vafaei, Hossein Amini Khoyi, Shayan Amiri, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
AIMS: Although approving new anticonvulsants was a major breakthrough in the field of epilepsy control, so far we have met limited success in almost one third of patients suffering from epilepsy and a definite and reliable method is yet to be found. Levosimendan demonstrated neuroprotective effects and reduced mortality in conditions in which seizure can be an etiology of death; however, the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms of levosimendan still eludes us. In the light of evidence suggesting levosimendan can be a KATP channel opener and nitrergic pathway activator, levosimendan may exert antiseizure effects through KATP channels and nitrergic pathway...
November 13, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847463/metabolic-therapy-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-a-dish-investigating-mechanisms-of-ketogenic-diet-using-electrophysiological-recordings-in-hippocampal-slices
#14
REVIEW
Masahito Jr Kawamura, David N Ruskin, Susan A Masino
The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836728/altered-gene-expression-profile-in-a-mouse-model-of-scn8a-encephalopathy
#15
Ryan S Sprissler, Jacy L Wagnon, Rosie K Bunton-Stasyshyn, Miriam H Meisler, Michael F Hammer
SCN8A encephalopathy is a severe, early-onset epilepsy disorder resulting from de novo gain-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.6. To identify the effects of this disorder on mRNA expression, RNA-seq was performed on brain tissue from a knock-in mouse expressing the patient mutation p.Asn1768Asp (N1768D). RNA was isolated from forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem both before and after seizure onset, and from age-matched wildtype littermates. Altered transcript profiles were observed only in forebrain and only after seizures...
November 9, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830729/causal-evidence-for-the-role-of-specific-gabaergic-interneuron-types-in-entorhinal-recruitment-of-dentate-granule-cells
#16
Cheng-Ta Lee, Min-Hua Kao, Wen-Hsien Hou, Yu-Ting Wei, Chin-Lin Chen, Cheng-Chang Lien
The dentate gyrus (DG) is the primary gate of the hippocampus and controls information flow from the cortex to the hippocampus proper. To maintain normal function, granule cells (GCs), the principal neurons in the DG, receive fine-tuned inhibition from local-circuit GABAergic inhibitory interneurons (INs). Abnormalities of GABAergic circuits in the DG are associated with several brain disorders, including epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer disease. Therefore, understanding the network mechanisms of inhibitory control of GCs is of functional and pathophysiological importance...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830035/seizure-induced-synaptic-plasticity-alteration-in-hippocampus-is-mediated-by-il-1%C3%AE-receptor-through-pi3k-akt-pathway
#17
Tao Han, Yanyu Qin, Chenzhi Mou, Min Wang, Meng Jiang, Bin Liu
Seizures, which result from synchronized aberrant firing of neuronal populations, can cause long-term sequelae, such as epilepsy, cognitive and behavioral issues, in which the synaptic plasticity alteration may play an important role. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent increase in synaptic strength and is essential for learning and memory. In the present study, we first examined the alteration of cognitive impairments and synaptic plasticity in mice with seizures, then explored the underlying mechanism involving pro-inflammatory factors and PI3K/Akt pathway...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829869/interaction-between-thalamus-and-hippocampus-in-termination-of-amygdala-kindled-seizures-in-mice
#18
Zhen Zhang, Jia-Jia Li, Qin-Chi Lu, Hai-Qing Gong, Pei-Ji Liang, Pu-Ming Zhang
The thalamus and hippocampus have been found both involved in the initiation, propagation, and termination of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the interaction of these regions during seizures is not clear. The present study is to explore whether some regular patterns exist in their interaction during the termination of seizures. Multichannel in vivo recording techniques were used to record the neural activities from the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) of hippocampus and mediodorsal thalamus (MDT) in mice. The mice were kindled by electrically stimulating basolateral amygdala neurons, and Racine's rank standard was employed to classify the stage of behavioral responses (stage 1~5)...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818364/might-the-olfactory-bulb-be-an-origin-of-olfactory-auras-in-focal-epilepsy
#19
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
Olfactory auras (phantosmia) are an infrequent phenomenon in complex focal seizures generated in the mesial temporal lobe. It is generally assumed that all such auras arise from epileptic foci in the entorhinal cortex, amygdala or rostral insula, all of which have major afferent projections from the olfactory bulb or mainly from its relay, the anterior olfactory nucleus. The histological morphology, synaptic circuitry, and foetal development of the olfactory bulb are unique. The olfactory system is the only special sensory system that does not project to the thalamus because its bulb and tract incorporate an intrinsic thalamic equivalent: axonless granular and periglomerular neurons and the anterior olfactory nucleus...
November 4, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816769/in-vivocharacterization-of-the-aspartyl-trna-synthetase-dars-homing-in-on-the-leukodystrophy-hbsl
#20
Dominik Fröhlich, Alexandra K Suchowerska, Ziggy H T Spencer, Georg von Jonquieres, Claudia B Klugmann, Andre Bongers, Fabien Delerue, Holly Stefen, Lars M Ittner, Thomas Fath, Gary D Housley, Matthias Klugmann
BACKGROUND: The recently diagnosed leukodystrophy Hypomyelination with Brain stem and Spinal cord involvement and Leg spasticity (HBSL) is caused by mutations of the cytoplasmic aspartyl-tRNA synthetase geneDARS. The physiological role of DARS in translation is to accurately pair aspartate with its cognate tRNA. Clinically, HBSL subjects show a distinct pattern of hypomyelination and develop progressive leg spasticity, variable cognitive impairment and epilepsy. To elucidate the underlying pathomechanism, we comprehensively assessed endogenous DARS expression in mice...
November 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
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