keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

hippocampus and epilepsy

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099137/epilepsy-associated-alterations-in-hippocampal-excitability
#1
Mojdeh Navidhamidi, Maeheh Ghasemi, Nasrin Mehranfard
The hippocampus exhibits a wide range of epilepsy-related abnormalities and is situated in the mesial temporal lobe, where limbic seizures begin. These abnormalities could affect membrane excitability and lead to overstimulation of neurons. Multiple overlapping processes refer to neural homeostatic responses develop in neurons that work together to restore neuronal firing rates to control levels. Nevertheless, homeostatic mechanisms are unable to restore normal neuronal excitability, and the epileptic hippocampus becomes hyperexcitable or hypoexcitable...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093211/pharmacological-properties-of-sak3-a-novel-t-type-voltage-gated-ca-2-channel-enhancer
#2
Yasushi Yabuki, Kazuya Matsuo, Hisanao Izumi, Hidaka Haga, Takashi Yoshida, Minoru Wakamori, Akira Kakehi, Kenji Sakimura, Takaichi Fukuda, Kohji Fukunaga
T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (T-VGCCs) function in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, pain and sleep. However, their role in cognitive function remains unclear. We previously reported that the cognitive enhancer ST101, which stimulates T-VGCCs in rat cortical slices, was a potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutic. Here, we introduce a more potent T-VGCC enhancer, SAK3 (ethyl 8'-methyl-2',4-dioxo-2-(piperidin-1-yl)-2'H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,3'-imidazo [1,2-a]pyridin]-2-ene-3-carboxylate), and characterize its pharmacological properties in brain...
January 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088683/effects-of-protease-activated-receptor-1-inhibition-on-anxiety-and-fear-following-status-epilepticus
#3
Mihail Fedoriuk, Dmytro Isaev, Oleg Krishtal, Gregory L Holmes, Elena Isaeva
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of a variety of brain disorders associated with a risk of epilepsy development. Using the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we recently showed that inhibition of this receptor during the first ten days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) results in substantial anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects. As PAR1 is expressed in the central nervous system regions of importance for processing emotional reactions, including amygdala and hippocampus, and TLE is frequently associated with a chronic alteration of the functions of these regions, we tested the hypothesis that PAR1 inhibition could modulate emotionally driven behavioral responses of rats experiencing SE...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088383/evaluating-the-role-of-astrocytes-on-%C3%AE-estradiol-effect-on-seizures-of-pilocarpine-epileptic-model
#4
Masoumeh Sarfi, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani, Iran Goudarzi, Taghi Lashkar Boluki, Kataneh Abrari
Epilepsy with periodic and unpredictable seizures is associated with hippocampal glutamate toxicity and tissue reorganization. Astrocytes play an important role in mediating the neuroprotective effects of estradiol and reducing seizure severity. Accordingly, the protective effects of low and high doses of estradiol on behavioral, astrocytic involvement and neuronal survival aspects of Pilocarpine-induced epilepsy were investigated. Lithium- Pilocarpine (30mg/kg) model was used to provoke epilepsy. Βeta-estradiol (2,40μg/ µl) was injected subcutaneously from 48 before to 48h after seizure induction...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087824/neuropathology-of-sudep-role-of-inflammation-blood-brain-barrier-impairment-and-hypoxia
#5
Zuzanna Michalak, Dima Obari, Matthew Ellis, Maria Thom, Sanjay M Sisodiya
OBJECTIVE: To seek a neuropathologic signature of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in a postmortem cohort by use of immunohistochemistry for specific markers of inflammation, gliosis, acute neuronal injury due to hypoxia, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, enabling the generation of hypotheses about potential mechanisms of death in SUDEP. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated the expression of 6 markers (CD163, human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related, glial fibrillary acid protein, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α [HIF-1α], immunoglobulin G, and albumin) in the hippocampus, amygdala, and medulla in 58 postmortem cases: 28 SUDEP (definite and probable), 12 epilepsy controls, and 18 nonepileptic sudden death controls...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087765/synapsin-ii-regulation-of-gabaergic-synaptic-transmission-is-dependent-on-interneuron-subtype
#6
Pedro Feliciano, Heidi Matos, Rodrigo Andrade, Maria Bykhovskaia
: Synapsins are epilepsy susceptibility genes that encode phosphoproteins reversibly associated with synaptic vesicles. Synapsin II (SynII) gene deletion produces a deficit in inhibitory synaptic transmission, and this defect is thought to cause epileptic activity. We systematically investigated how SynII affects synchronous and asynchronous release components of inhibitory transmission in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. We found that the asynchronous GABAergic release component is diminished in SynII deleted (SynII(-)) slices...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079889/deletion-of-the-bh3-only-protein-noxa-alters-electrographic-seizures-but-does-not-protect-against-hippocampal-damage-after-status-epilepticus-in-mice
#7
Naoki Ichikawa, Mariana Alves, Shona Pfeiffer, Elena Langa, Yasmina E Hernández-Santana, Hidenori Suzuki, Jochen Hm Prehn, Tobias Engel, David C Henshall
Several members of the Bcl-2 gene family are dysregulated in human temporal lobe epilepsy and animal studies show that genetic deletion of some of these proteins influence electrographic seizure responses to chemoconvulsants and associated brain damage. The BH3-only proteins form a subgroup comprising direct activators of Bax-Bak that are potently proapoptotic and a number of weaker proapoptotic BH3-only proteins that act as sensitizers by neutralization of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members. Noxa was originally characterized as a weaker proapoptotic, 'sensitizer' BH3-only protein, although recent evidence suggests it too may be potently proapoptotic...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078614/resistance-exercise-reduces-seizure-occurrence-attenuates-memory-deficits-and-restores-bdnf-signaling-in-rats-with-chronic-epilepsy
#8
Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Diego Vannucci Campos, Jansen Fernandes, Francisco Romero Cabral, Ricardo Mario Arida
Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Cognitive impairment is an important comorbidity of chronic epilepsy. Human and animal model studies of epilepsy have shown that aerobic exercise induces beneficial structural and functional changes and reduces the number of seizures. However, little is yet understood about the effects of resistance exercise on epilepsy. We evaluated the effects of a resistance exercise program on the number of seizures, long-term memory and expression/activation of signaling proteins in rats with epilepsy...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067149/navigation-assisted-trans-inferotemporal-cortex-selective-amygdalohippocampectomy-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-preserving-the-temporal-stem
#9
Haruhiko Kishima, Amami Kato, Satoru Oshino, Naoki Tani, Tomoyuki Maruo, Hui Ming Khoo, Takufumi Yanagisawa, Kotaro Edakawa, Maki Kobayashi, Masataka Tanaka, Koichi Hosomi, Masayuki Hirata, Toshiki Yoshimine
OBJECTIVE: Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) can be used to obtain satisfactory seizure control in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Several SAH procedures have been reported to achieve satisfactory outcomes for seizure control, but none yield fully satisfactory outcomes for memory function. We hypothesized that preserving the temporal stem might play an important role. To preserve the temporal stem, we developed a minimally invasive surgical procedure, 'neuronavigation-assisted trans-inferotemporal cortex SAH' (TITC-SAH)...
January 9, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064458/label-free-multiphoton-microscopy-reveals-altered-tissue-architecture-in-hippocampal-sclerosis
#10
Ortrud Uckermann, Roberta Galli, Susann Leupold, Roland Coras, Matthias Meinhardt, Susanne Hallmeyer-Elgner, Thomas Mayer, Alexander Storch, Gabriele Schackert, Edmund Koch, Ingmar Blümcke, Gerald Steiner, Matthias Kirsch
The properties and structure of tissue can be visualized without labeling or preparation by multiphoton microscopy combining coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), addressing lipid content, second harmonic generation (SHG) showing collagen, and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) of endogenous fluorophores. We compared samples of sclerotic and nonsclerotic human hippocampus to detect pathologic changes in the brain of patients with pharmacoresistant temporomesial epilepsy (n = 15). Multiphoton microscopy of cryosections and bulk tissue revealed hippocampal layering and micromorphologic details in accordance with reference histology: CARS displayed white and gray matter layering and allowed the assessment of axonal myelin...
January 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050973/behavioral-state-classification-in-epileptic-brain-using-intracranial-electrophysiology
#11
Vaclav Kremen, Juliano J Duque, Benjamin H Brinkmann, Brent M Berry, Michal T Kucewicz, Fatemeh Khadjevand, Jamie Van Gompel, Matt Stead, Erik K St Louis, Gregory A Worrell
OBJECTIVE: Automated behavioral state classification can benefit next generation implantable epilepsy devices. In this study we explored the feasibility of automated awake (AW) and slow wave sleep (SWS) classification using wide bandwidth intracranial EEG (iEEG) in patients undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery. APPROACH: Data from seven patients (age [Formula: see text], 4 women) who underwent intracranial depth electrode implantation for iEEG monitoring were included...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048162/su-f-r-08-can-normalization-of-brain-mri-texture-features-reduce-scanner-dependent-effects-in-unsupervised-machine-learning
#12
K Ogden, T Bradford, L Cussen, R O'Dwyer
PURPOSE: To reduce differences in features calculated from MRI brain scans acquired at different field strengths with or without Gadolinium contrast. METHODS: Brain scans were processed for 111 epilepsy patients to extract hippocampus and thalamus features. Scans were acquired on 1.5 T scanners with Gadolinium contrast (group A), 1.5T scanners without Gd (group B), and 3.0 T scanners without Gd (group C). A total of 72 features were extracted. Features were extracted from original scans and from scans where the image pixel values were rescaled to the mean of the hippocampi and thalami values...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042814/in-situ-real-time-monitoring-of-glutamate-and-electrophysiology-from-cortex-to-hippocampus-in-mice-based-on-a-microelectrode-array
#13
Xinyi Fan, Yilin Song, Yuanlin Ma, Song Zhang, Guihua Xiao, Lili Yang, Huiren Xu, Dai Zhang, Xinxia Cai
Changes in the structure and function of the hippocampus contribute to epilepsy, schizophrenia and other neurological or mental disorders of the brain. Since the function of the hippocampus depends heavily on the glutamate (Glu) signaling pathways, in situ real-time detection of Glu neurotransmitter release and electrophysiological signals in hippocampus is of great significance. To achieve the dual-mode detection in mouse hippocampus in vivo, a 16-channel implantable microelectrode array (MEA) was fabricated by micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology...
December 30, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042145/hippocampal-expression-of-connexin36-and-connexin43-during-epileptogenesis-in-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#14
Sahel Motaghi, Mohammad Sayyah, Vahab Babapour, Reza Mahdian
BACKGROUND: Gap junctions (GJs) provide direct intercellular communications that are formed by hexameric protein subunits, called connexin (Cx). The role of Cxs in epileptogenesis has not received sufficient attention. Hippocampus with critical function in epileptogenesis has a wide network of GJs. We examined the protein expression levels of hippocampal Cx36 (the prominent Cx present between GABAergic interneurons) and Cx43 (the main Cx expressed by astrocytes) during epileptogenesis in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy...
January 2, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035691/smad-anchor-for-receptor-activation-contributes-to-seizures-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Weihua Yu, Yingshi Du, Yan Zou, Xuefeng Wang, Ulrich Stephani, Yang Lü
PURPOSE: Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) is an important regulator of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling by recruiting Smad2/3 to TGF-β receptors. Although TGF-β signaling is critically involved in epileptogenesis, whether SARA activation is sufficient to facilitate TGF-β pathway to regulate epilepsy remains unknown. METHODS: The expression of SARA and downstream Phospho-Smad3 (p-Smad3) was examined in rats with pilocarpine induced epilepsy...
December 30, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028152/pharmacologic-inhibition-of-hsp90-to-prevent-glt-1-degradation-as-an-effective-therapy-for-epilepsy
#16
Longze Sha, Xueqin Wang, Jing Li, Xinze Shi, Liwen Wu, Yan Shen, Qi Xu
The glutamate transporter GLT-1 is critical for the maintenance of low interstitial glutamate concentrations. Loss of GLT-1 is commonly observed in neurological disorders, including temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Despite the hypothesis that targeting the mechanisms of GLT-1 deficiency may be a novel strategy for treating drug-resistant epilepsy, the underlying molecular cascade remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Hsp90β is up-regulated in reactive astrocytes of the epileptic hippocampus in patients with TLE and mouse models of epilepsy...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017800/viral-mouse-models-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-epilepsy-marked-differences-in-neuropathogenesis-following-infection-with-two-naturally-occurring-variants-of-theiler-s-virus-bean-strain
#17
Sonja Bröer, Elias Hage, Christopher Käufer, Ingo Gerhauser, Muneeb Anjum, Lin Li, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Thomas F Schulz, Wolfgang Löscher
Following intracerebral inoculation, the BeAn 8386 strain of Theiler's virus causes persistent infection and inflammatory demyelinating encephalomyelitis in the spinal cord of T-cell defective SJL/J mice, which is widely used as a model of multiple sclerosis. In contrast, C57BL/6 (B6) mice clear the virus and develop inflammation and lesions in the hippocampus, associated with acute and chronic seizures, representing a novel model of viral encephalitis-induced epilepsy. Here we characterize the geno- and phenotype of two naturally occurring variants of BeAn (BeAn-1 and BeAn-2) that can be used to further understand the viral and host factors involved in the neuropathogenesis in B6 and SJL/J mice...
December 22, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017196/relationship-between-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-memory-function-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Shenggen Chen, Lin Chen, Huapin Huang, Wanhui Lin
OBJECT: To study memory impairment mechanisms of the medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) by analyzing the functional connectivity (FC) through resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). METHODS: Rs-fMRI data were acquired from 13 patients with left MTLE and 11 patients with right MTLE. Another 13 healthy volunteers were selected as controls. The altered FC pattern between the unilateral hippocampus and other regions of the brain in MTLE patients was compared to that of the normal control group...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007902/early-born-neurons-are-abnormally-positioned-in-the-doublecortin-knockout-hippocampus
#19
Reham Khalaf-Nazzal, Melissa A Stouffer, Robert Olaso, Leila Muresan, Audrey Roumegous, Virginie Lavilla, Wassila Carpentier, Imane Moutkine, Sylvie Dumont, Benoit Albaud, Nicolas Cagnard, Hugues Roest Crollius, Fiona Francis
Human doublecortin (DCX) mutations are associated with severe brain malformations leading to aberrant neuron positioning (heterotopia), intellectual disability and epilepsy. The Dcx protein plays a key role in neuronal migration, and hippocampal pyramidal neurons in Dcx knockout (KO) mice are disorganized. The single CA3 pyramidal cell layer observed in wild type (WT) is present as two abnormal layers in the KO, and CA3 KO pyramidal neurons are more excitable than WT. Dcx KO mice also exhibit spontaneous epileptic activity originating in the hippocampus...
December 22, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989232/subacute-fluoxetine-reduces-signs-of-hippocampal-damage-induced-by-a-single-convulsant-dose-of-4-aminopyridine-in-rats
#20
Ahmed Anis Shiha, Rubén Fernández de la Rosa, Mercedes Delgado, Miguel Angel Pozo, Luis García-García
The purpose of this study was to investigate the eventual short-term brain impairment induced by a single convulsant dose of the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). To this aim, in vivo 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and several histological assessments were carried out after i.p. administration of 3 mg/kg 4-AP for evaluating eventual brain metabolism impairment and signs of hippocampal damage. On the other hand, it has been reported that antidepressant drugs show anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects in different animal models of seizures and epilepsy...
July 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
keyword
keyword
71269
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"