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hippocampus and epilepsy

Bo Liu, Fei Li, Jingshan Shi, Danli Yang, Yuanyuan Deng, Qihai Gong
Gastrodin (GAS), which is extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has long been used to improve stroke, epilepsy, dizziness and dementia. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of GAS on subacute phase cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion (I/R) injury remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of GAS on cerebral I/R injury in rats. The rats were pretreated with GAS by gavage for 7 days followed by I/R surgery, and were then treated with GAS for 7 days after I/R surgery...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Awanish Mishra, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Our previous studies have suggested a strong involvement of serotonergic innervations in epileptogenesis and associated memory impairment. Several studies have suggested that the modulation of 5-HT3 receptors could serve as a promising tool for the management of epilepsy and memory deficit. The present study was envisaged to confirm this hypothesis. In this study, kindling was induced in male Swiss Albino mice by using a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (35 mg/kg at 48±2 h). Once the animals were kindled, they were treated with a vehicle, ondansetron (0...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Xiaodong Cai, Ling Long, Libai Yang, Ziyi Chen, Guanzhong Ni, Jiaming Qin, Jueqian Zhou, Liemin Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Mossy fiber sprouting is involved in the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. But the exact mechanism of formation of mossy fiber sprouting is still unclear. Semaphorin-3f protein could inhibit the growth of neuron axons. The aim of this research is to evaluate the association between semaphorin-3f expression and mossy fiber sprouting. METHODS: We established pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE) models firstly. Then, mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus of PISE models was examined by Timm staining...
October 17, 2016: Neurological Research
Kenneth I Strauss, Kost V Elisevich
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy patients have distinct immune/inflammatory cell profiles and inflammatory mediator levels in the blood. Although the neural origin of inflammatory cells and mediators has been implied, few studies have measured these inflammatory components in the human brain itself. This study examines the brain levels of chemokines (8), cytokines (14), and vascular injury mediators (3) suspected of being altered in epilepsy. METHODS: Soluble protein extracts of fresh frozen resected hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and temporal cortex from 58 medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy subjects and 4 nonepileptic neurosurgical subjects were assayed for 25 inflammation-related mediators using ultrasensitive low-density arrays...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Isabel Vieira de Assis Lima, Alline Cristina de Campos, Paula Maria Quaglio Bellozi, Juliana Guimaraes Doria, Fabiola Mara Ribeiro, Marcio Flavio Dutra Moraes, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of epilepsy in adults. The pilocarpine (PILO) experimental model of TLE portrays behavioral and pathophysiological changes in rodents that are very similar to those found in humans with TLE. However, this model is associated with an unfortunate high mortality rate. Studies have shown that intrahippocampal injection of PILO, while having a much smaller mortality rate, induces status epilepticus (SE) that secondarily leads to TLE. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to evaluate the cognitive and histological alterations 72h after intrahippocampal microinjection of PILO in C57BL/6 mice...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Gerardo Salvato, Pina Scarpa, Stefano Francione, Roberto Mai, Laura Tassi, Elisa Scarano, Giorgio Lo Russo, Gabriella Bottini
It is largely recognized that the mesial temporal lobe and its substructure support declarative long-term memory (LTM). So far, different theories have been suggested, and the organization of declarative verbal LTM in the brain is still a matter of debate. In the current study, we retrospectively selected 151 right-handed patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis, with a homogeneous (seizure-free) clinical outcome. We analyzed verbal memory performance within a normalized scores context, by means of prose recall and word paired-associate learning tasks...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Marina V Sysoeva, Lyudmila V Vinogradova, Galina D Kuznetsova, Ilya V Sysoev, Clementina M van Rijn
PURPOSE: Spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) recorded in the cortical EEGs of WAG/Rij rats are the hallmark for absence epilepsy in this model. Although this type of epilepsy was long regarded as a form of primary generalized epilepsy, it is now recognized that there is an initiation zone - the perioral region of the somatosensory cortex. However, networks involved in spreading the seizure are not yet fully known. Previously, the dynamics of coupling between different layers of the perioral cortical region and between these zones and different thalamic nuclei was studied in time windows around the SWDs, using nonlinear Granger causality...
October 8, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
H Yu, G L Qi, J Wang, L Chen, Z Deng, Y S Zhao, S S Lei, X Q Zhu
Epilepsy refers to a clinical syndrome generated by spontaneous seizures in the central nervous system. Epilepsy triggers a complex pathological process including inflammatory response and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) increase. It has been reported that AQP4 helps to enhance the immunological function of the central nervous system in pathological conditions, but the relationship between AQP4 and inflammatory cytokines is poorly understood in chronic epilepsy processes. As an inhibitor of sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase (CA), acetazolamide (AZA) may inhibit water infiltration through AQP4...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Mykaella Andrade de Araújo, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales Marques, Shirley Octacílio-Silva, Carmem Lúcia de Arroxelas-Silva, Marília Gabriella Alves Goulart Pereira, José Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, João Pereira Leite, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Olagide Wagner Castro, Marcelo Duzzioni, Geraldo Aleixo Passos, Maria Luisa Paçó-Larson, Daniel Leite Góes Gitaí
The involvement of miRNA in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) pathogenesis has increasingly become a focus of epigenetic studies. Despite advances, the number of known miRNAs with a consistent expression response during epileptogenesis is still small. Addressing this situation requires additional miRNA profiling studies coupled to detailed individual expression analyses. Here, we perform a miRNA microarray analysis of the hippocampus of Wistar rats 24 hours after intra-hippocampal pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus (H-PILO SE)...
2016: PloS One
David N Vaughan, Genevieve Rayner, Chris Tailby, Graeme D Jackson
OBJECTIVE: To define the functional network changes that characterize MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS-TLE). METHODS: We studied 36 patients with medically refractory unilateral TLE, having either a normal clinical MRI (n = 18) or unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (n = 18). Patients were compared to healthy controls of equivalent age and sex (n = 27). Functional connectivity in 10 minutes of task-free functional MRI was assessed using a voxel-resolution graph theoretic analysis, using the metrics of degree, clustering coefficient, eigenvector, and betweenness centrality...
September 30, 2016: Neurology
Xiaoxue Xu, Feng Guo, Xinze Cai, Jun Yang, Jiuhan Zhao, Dongyu Min, Qianhui Wang, Liying Hao, Jiqun Cai
Excessive excitation or loss of inhibitory neurotransmission has been closely related to epileptic activity. Somatostatin (SST) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are members of endogenous neuropeptides which are recognized as important modulator of classical neurotransmitter, distributed abundantly in mammalian central nervous system. Abnormal expression of these two neuropeptides evidenced in some epileptic models highlights the relevance of SST or NPY in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. The tremor rat (TRM) is a genetic epileptic animal model which can manifest tonic convulsions without any external stimuli...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Zhiqiang Zhang, Wei Liao, Qiang Xu, Wei Wei, Helen Juan Zhou, Kangjian Sun, Fang Yang, Dante Mantini, Xueman Ji, Guangming Lu
In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), the causal relationship of morphometric alterations between hippocampus and the other regions, that is, how the hippocampal atrophy leads to progressive morphometric alterations in the epileptic network regions remains largely unclear. In this study, a causal network of structural covariance (CaSCN) was proposed to map the causal effects of hippocampal atrophy on the network-based morphometric alterations in mTLE. It was hypothesized that if cross-sectional morphometric MRI data could be attributed temporal information, for example, by sequencing the data according to disease progression information, GCA would be a feasible approach for constructing a CaSCN...
September 28, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
P Przyborowska, Z Adamiak, P Holak, Y Zhalniarovich
The intention of the comparison of both low and high field was to examine which anatomical brain structures of cats were visible on low field images, as in clinical veterinary practice, 3 Tesla (T) magnets were of limited availability. The research was performed on 20 European short-haired male and female cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weight of 2-4 kg. 0.25 T magnetic resonance images of neurocranium were acquired in all using T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with repetition time (TR) of 4010 ms and echo time (TE) of 90 ms in dorsal and transverse plane, and T2-weighted fast spine echo sequences with TR of 4290 ms and TE of 120 ms in sagittal plane...
September 25, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Marie St-Laurent, Morris Moscovitch, Mary Pat McAndrews
We assessed whether perceptual richness, a defining feature of episodic memory, depends on the engagement and integrity of the hippocampus during episodic memory retrieval. We tested participants' memory for complex laboratory events (LEs) that differed in perceptual content: short stories were either presented as perceptually rich film clips or as perceptually impoverished narratives. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while retrieving these LEs (narratives and clips), as well as events from their personal life (autobiographical memories)...
August 27, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Aurora R Barros-Barbosa, Fátima Ferreirinha, Ângela Oliveira, Marina Mendes, M Graça Lobo, Agostinho Santos, Rui Rangel, Julie Pelletier, Jean Sévigny, J Miguel Cordeiro, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
Refractoriness to existing medications of up to 80 % of the patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) prompts for finding new antiepileptic drug targets. The adenosine A2A receptor emerges as an interesting pharmacological target since its excitatory nature partially counteracts the dominant antiepileptic role of endogenous adenosine acting via inhibitory A1 receptors. Gain of function of the excitatory A2A receptor has been implicated in a significant number of brain pathologies commonly characterized by neuronal excitotoxicity...
September 20, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Alberto Morales-Villagrán, Kenia Pardo-Peña, Laura Medina-Ceja, Silvia López-Pérez
Glutamate measurement in microdialysis samples has primarily been determined using HPLC methods, and several attempts have been made to establish a relationship between this neurotransmitter and EEG activity during altered brain function, such as epilepsy. However, classic microdialysis methods lack high temporal resolution. In this study, a new alternative is proposed to improve the time resolution and thus obtain a better understanding of the dynamics of Glu and its relationship with epileptiform activity...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Margarita Papadopoulou, Gerald Cooray, Richard Rosch, Rosalyn Moran, Daniele Marinazzo, Karl Friston
This paper presents a physiological account of seizure activity and its evolution over time using a rat model of induced epilepsy. We analyse spectral activity recorded in the hippocampi of three rats who received kainic acid injections in the right hippocampus. We use dynamic causal modelling of seizure activity and Bayesian model reduction to identify the key synaptic and connectivity parameters that underlie seizure onset. Using recent advances in hierarchical modelling (parametric empirical Bayes), we characterise seizure onset in terms of slow fluctuations in synaptic excitability of specific neuronal populations...
September 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Hancan Zhu, Hewei Cheng, Xuesong Yang, Yong Fan
Automatic and reliable segmentation of hippocampus from MR brain images is of great importance in studies of neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we proposed a novel metric learning method to fuse segmentation labels in multi-atlas based image segmentation. Different from current label fusion methods that typically adopt a predefined distance metric model to compute a similarity measure between image patches of atlas images and the image to be segmented, we learn a distance metric model from the atlases to keep image patches of the same structure close to each other while those of different structures are separated...
September 16, 2016: Neuroinformatics
Jiong Yue, Wei Li, Chao Liang, Bing Chen, Xin Chen, Lukang Wang, Zhenle Zang, Sixun Yu, Shiyong Liu, Song Li, Hui Yang
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a frequent form of focal intractable epilepsy in adults, but the specific mechanism underlying the epileptogenesis of TLE is still unknown. Human leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B2 (LILRB2) (the murine homolog gene called paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B, or PirB), participates in the process of synaptic plasticity and neurite growth in the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting a potential role of LILRB2 in epilepsy. However, the expression pattern of LILRB2 and the downstream molecular signal in intractable TLE remains poorly understood...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
Mohammad Gol, Davoud Ghorbanian, Samaneh Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Javan, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman
Recent evidence indicates that demyelination occurs in epilepsy patients and kindling animal models. Regarding the well-known literature on anti-inflammatory and myelin protective effects of fingolimod (FTY720) in multiple sclerosis patients and animal models, we hypostatized whether FTY720 administration could exert myelin protective effects in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling model. To end this, animals received 0.3 or 1mg/kg dosage of FTY720, 1h before PTZ injections. In another approach, after achieving fully kindling stage, FTY720 was administrated i...
September 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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