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hippocampus and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429259/early-morphological-and-functional-changes-in-the-gabaergic-system-of-hippocampus-in-the-rat-lithium-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#1
V B Karyakin, D S Vasil'ev, I A Zhuravin, A V Zaitsev, L G Magazanik
We studied early alterations in the GABAergic system of the rat hippocampus in the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Twenty-four hours after the pilocarpine treatment, a decrease in the number of calretinin-positive interneurons was observed in the CA1 field of the hippocampus, whereas the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons remained unchanged. The decreased levels of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and the membrane GABA transporter GAT1 were revealed using Western blot analysis...
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427858/mice-with-conditional-neurod1-knockout-display-reduced-aberrant-hippocampal-neurogenesis-but-no-change-in-epileptic-seizures
#2
Rebecca Brulet, Jingfei Zhu, Mahafuza Aktar, Jenny Hsieh, Kyung-Ok Cho
Adult neurogenesis is significantly increased in the hippocampus of rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). These adult-generated neurons have recently been shown to play a contributing role in the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). In order to eventually target pro-epileptic adult neurogenesis in the clinical setting, it will be important to identify molecular players involved in the control of aberrant neurogenesis after seizures. Here, we focused on NeuroD1 (ND1), a member of the bHLH family of transcription factors previously shown to play an essential role in the differentiation and maturation of adult-generated neurons in the hippocampus...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425097/seizure-frequency-correlates-with-loss-of-dentate-gyrus-gabaergic-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Paul S Buckmaster, Emily Abrams, Xiling Wen
Epilepsy occurs in one of 26 people. Temporal lobe epilepsy is common and can be difficult to treat effectively. It can develop after brain injuries that damage the hippocampus. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms involving the hippocampal dentate gyrus have been proposed. The present study evaluated a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy to test which pathological changes in the dentate gyrus correlate with seizure frequency and help prioritize potential mechanisms for further study. FVB mice (n = 127) that had experienced status epilepticus after systemic treatment with pilocarpine 31 - 61 d earlier were video-monitored for spontaneous, convulsive seizures 9 h/d every day for 24 - 36 d...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415676/nitrobenzylthioinosine-mimics-adenosine-to-attenuate-the-epileptiform-discharge-of-hippocampal-neurons-from-epileptic-rats
#4
Hao Huang, Jing Wang, Jun Zhang, Zhong Luo, Dongxu Li, Xiaowei Qiu, Yan Peng, Zhongxiang Xu, Ping Xu, Zucai Xu
Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), a specific inhibitor of type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter, could regulate the extracellular adenosine concentration and have protective roles in seizures. However, the protection mechanism of NBTI in seizures remains poorly understood. Here, the expression pattern and subcellular distribution of adenosine A1 receptor were detected by Western blot analysis and double-labeling immunofluorescence staining in Lithium Chloride-Pilocarpine induced epileptic rat model. At 24 h after pilocarpine induced rat seizures, hippocampal slices were prepared and the evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) amplitude of pyramidal neurons in hippocampus CA1 region was recorded using whole-cell patch clamp...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414967/pharmacodynamics-of-remifentanil-induced-intracranial-spike-activity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Troels Wesenberg Kjaer, Hans Hogenhaven, Andrea P Lee, Flemming Find Madsen, Bo Jespersen, Jannick Brennum, Lennart Derm, Finn Borgbjerg Moltke
Patients with medically refractory epilepsy may benefit from resective epilepsy surgery. However even the best centers experience surgical failures. It is therefore important to find techniques that may aid in neurosurgical planning of epileptic focus resection. Recordings of electrical brain activity with EEG during seizures reveal abnormal cortical hypersynchronization. Between seizures the EEG often shows interictal depolarizing phenomena such as spikes reflecting an irritable focus of the brain. In the present study we investigated the effect of intravenous remifentanil on the spike activity in the temporal neocortex and hippocampus...
March 31, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413826/medial-ganglionic-eminence-progenitors-transplanted-into-hippocampus-integrate-in-a-functional-and-subtype-appropriate-manner
#6
Jui-Yi Hsieh, Scott C Baraban
Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) transplantation rescues disease phenotypes in various preclinical models with interneuron deficiency or dysfunction, including epilepsy. While underlying mechanism(s) remains unclear to date, a simple explanation is that appropriate synaptic integration of MGE-derived interneurons elevates GABA-mediated inhibition and modifies the firing activity of excitatory neurons in the host brain. However, given the complexity of interneurons and potential for transplant-derived interneurons to integrate or alter the host network in unexpected ways, it remains unexplored whether synaptic connections formed by transplant-derived interneurons safely mirror those associated with endogenous interneurons...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405902/mitophagy-in-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#7
Mengqian Wu, Xinyu Liu, Xiaosa Chi, Le Zhang, Weixi Xiong, Siew Mun Vance Chiang, Dong Zhou, Jinmei Li
This study aimed to determine if there is an association between mitophagy and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis. During epilepsy surgery, we collected tissue samples from the hippocampi and temporal lobe cortexes of rTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (as diagnosed by a pathologist). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the ultrastructural features of the tissue. To probe for mitophagy, we used fluorescent immunolabeling to determine if mitochondrial and autophagosomal markers colocalized...
April 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403176/faster-flux-of-neurotransmitter-glutamate-during-seizure-evidence-from-13c-enrichment-of-extracellular-glutamate-in-kainate-rat-model
#8
Keiko Kanamori
The objective is to examine how the flux of neurotransmitter glutamate from neurons to the extracellular fluid, as measured by the rate of 13C enrichment of extracellular glutamate (GLUECF), changes in response to seizures in the kainate-induced rat model of temporal-lobe epilepsy. Following unilateral intrahippocampal injection of kainate, GLUECF was collected by microdialysis from the CA1/CA3 region of awake rats, in combination with EEG recording of chronic-phase recurrent seizures and intravenous infusion of [2,5-13C]glucose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398014/brain-responsive-neurostimulation-in-patients-with-medically-intractable-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Eric B Geller, Tara L Skarpaas, Robert E Gross, Robert R Goodman, Gregory L Barkley, Carl W Bazil, Michael J Berg, Gregory K Bergey, Sydney S Cash, Andrew J Cole, Robert B Duckrow, Jonathan C Edwards, Stephan Eisenschenk, James Fessler, Nathan B Fountain, Alicia M Goldman, Ryder P Gwinn, Christianne Heck, Aamar Herekar, Lawrence J Hirsch, Barbara C Jobst, David King-Stephens, Douglas R Labar, James W Leiphart, W Richard Marsh, Kimford J Meador, Eli M Mizrahi, Anthony M Murro, Dileep R Nair, Katherine H Noe, Yong D Park, Paul A Rutecki, Vicenta Salanova, Raj D Sheth, Donald C Shields, Christopher Skidmore, Michael C Smith, David C Spencer, Shraddha Srinivasan, William Tatum, Paul C Van Ness, David G Vossler, Robert E Wharen, Gregory A Worrell, Daniel Yoshor, Richard S Zimmerman, Kathy Cicora, Felice T Sun, Martha J Morrell
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the seizure-reduction response and safety of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) brain-responsive stimulation in adults with medically intractable partial-onset seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin. METHODS: Subjects with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) were identified from prospective clinical trials of a brain-responsive neurostimulator (RNS System, NeuroPace). The seizure reduction over years 2-6 postimplantation was calculated by assessing the seizure frequency compared to a preimplantation baseline...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396650/new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-with-claustrum-damage-definition-of-the-clinical-and-neuroimaging-features
#10
Stefano Meletti, Giada Giovannini, Giuseppe d'Orsi, Lisa Toran, Giulia Monti, Rahul Guha, Andreas Kiryttopoulos, Maria Grazia Pascarella, Tommaso Martino, Haris Alexopoulos, Martha Spilioti, Jana Slonkova
New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a rare but challenging condition occurring in a previously healthy patient, often with no identifiable cause. We describe the electro-clinical features and outcomes in a group of patients with NORSE who all demonstrated a typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sign characterized by bilateral lesions of the claustrum. The group includes 31 patients (12 personal and 19 previously published cases; 17 females; mean age of 25 years). Fever preceded status epilepticus (SE) in 28 patients, by a mean of 6 days...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396399/context-dependent-spatially-periodic-activity-in-the-human-entorhinal-cortex
#11
Zoltan Nadasdy, T Peter Nguyen, Ágoston Török, Jason Y Shen, Deborah E Briggs, Pradeep N Modur, Robert J Buchanan
The spatially periodic activity of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of the rodent, primate, and human provides a coordinate system that, together with the hippocampus, informs an individual of its location relative to the environment and encodes the memory of that location. Among the most defining features of grid-cell activity are the 60° rotational symmetry of grids and preservation of grid scale across environments. Grid cells, however, do display a limited degree of adaptation to environments. It remains unclear if this level of environment invariance generalizes to human grid-cell analogs, where the relative contribution of visual input to the multimodal sensory input of the EC is significantly larger than in rodents...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393712/therapeutic-role-of-synaptic-vesicle-glycoprotein-2a-sv2a-in-modulating-epileptogenesis
#12
Yukihiro Ohno, Kentaro Tokudome
Dysfunction of synaptic neurotransmitter release is closely involved in the pathogenesis of various central nervous system diseases. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is a membrane protein specifically expressed in synaptic vesicles and it modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release in the brain. Since 1) SV2A-knockout mice exhibit severe convulsive seizures, 2) SV2A expression in the brain is reportedly altered in various epileptic disorders both in animal models (e.g., kindling and genetic models) and humans (e...
April 4, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393090/gender-specific-hippocampal-whole-genome-transcriptome-data-from-mice-lacking-the-cav2-3-r-type-or-cav3-2-t-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channel
#13
Anna Papazoglou, Christina Henseler, Andreas Lundt, Carola Wormuth, Julien Soos, Karl Broich, Dan Ehninger, Marco Weiergräber
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels are of central relevance in mediating numerous intracellular and transcellular processes including excitation-contraction coupling, excitation secretion-coupling, hormone and neurotransmitter release and gene expression. The Cav2.3 R-type Ca(2+) channel is a high-voltage activated channel which plays a crucial role in neurotransmitter release, long-term potentiation and hormone release. Furthermore, Cav2.3 R-type channels were reported to be involved in ictogenesis, epileptogenesis, fear behavior, sleep, pre-and postsynaptic integration and rhythmicity within the hippocampus...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392266/cannabinoids-as-hippocampal-network-administrators
#14
REVIEW
Carl R Lupica, Yuhan Hu, Orrin Devinsky, Alexander F Hoffman
Extensive pioneering studies performed in the hippocampus have greatly contributed to our knowledge of an endogenous cannabinoid system comprised of the molecular machinery necessary to process these endocannabinoid lipid messengers and their associated cannabinoid receptors. Moreover, a foundation of knowledge regarding the function of hippocampal circuits, and its role in supporting synaptic plasticity has facilitated our understanding of the roles cannabinoids play in the diverse behaviors in which the hippocampus participates in both normal and pathological states...
April 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391021/implantation-of-responsive-neurostimulation-for-epilepsy-using-intraoperative-ct-technical-nuances-and-accuracy-assessment
#15
Mena G Kerolus, Ryan B Kochanski, Marvin Rossi, Michael Stein, Richard W Byrne, Sepehr Sani
INTRODUCTION: Implantation of responsive neurostimulation (RNS) system has been previously discussed in the literature but there is a paucity of data on target accuracy and the use of intraoperative imaging. We describe our experience with eight patients using intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) during implantation of the NeuroPace(®) RNS system. METHODS: A frame based system was used. CT images were obtained and merged with preoperative MRI and metabolic imaging studies to calculate target coordinates...
April 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390940/ginkgo-biloba-l-attenuates-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-and-associated-neurological-conditions-in-lithium-pilocarpine-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-through-inhibition-of-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway-hyperactivation
#16
Arindam Ghosh Mazumder, Pallavi Sharma, Vikram Patial, Damanpreet Singh
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) has been widely used in traditional medicine for variety of neurological conditions particularly behavioral and memory impairments. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was envisaged to explore the effect of a standardized fraction of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBbf) in rat model of lithium-pilocarpine induced spontaneous recurrent seizures, and associated behavioral impairments and cognitive deficit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats showing appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures following lithium pilocarpine (LiPc)-induced status epilepticus (SE) were treated with different doses of GBbf or vehicle for subsequent 4 weeks...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387136/the-protective-effect-of-aucubin-from-eucommia-ulmoides-against-status-epilepticus-by-inducing-autophagy-and-inhibiting-necroptosis
#17
Jin Wang, Ying Li, Wei-Hua Huang, Xiang-Chang Zeng, Xiao-Hui Li, Jian Li, Jun Zhou, Jian Xiao, Bo Xiao, Dong-Sheng Ouyang, Kai Hu
Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. is a famous traditional Chinese medicine which exhibits anti-oxidative stress ability and neuro-protective effects. Aucubin is the predominant component of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Our present study is intended to investigate aucubin's potential protective effects on neurons against epilepsy in the hippocampus by establishing the lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (SE) rat model in vivo. Aucubin (at a low dose and a high dose of 5[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg, respectively) was administered through gavage for two weeks before lithium-pilocarpine injection...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386921/deep-brain-stimulation-targeting-in-refractory-epilepsy
#18
Arthur Cukiert, Kai Lehtimäki
Deep brain stimulation has been used in increasing frequency to treat refractory epilepsy. Different targets have been tried, and different epileptic syndromes have been addressed in different ways. We describe the current targeting techniques for the structures presently most often implanted, namely the anterior nucleus of the thalamus, the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus, and the hippocampus.
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386293/long-term-intake-of-uncaria-rhynchophylla-reduces-s100b-and-rage-protein-levels-in-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizures-rats
#19
Nou-Ying Tang, Yi-Wen Lin, Tin-Yun Ho, Chin-Yi Cheng, Chao-Hsiang Chen, Ching-Liang Hsieh
Epileptic seizures are crucial clinical manifestations of recurrent neuronal discharges in the brain. An imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neuronal discharges causes brain damage and cell loss. Herbal medicines offer alternative treatment options for epilepsy because of their low cost and few side effects. We established a rat epilepsy model by injecting kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg, i.p.) and subsequently investigated the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its underlying mechanisms. Electroencephalogram and epileptic behaviors revealed that the KA injection induced epileptic seizures...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384472/theta-oscillations-rapidly-convey-odor-specific-content-in-human-piriform-cortex
#20
Heidi Jiang, Stephan Schuele, Joshua Rosenow, Christina Zelano, Josef Parvizi, James X Tao, Shasha Wu, Jay A Gottfried
Olfactory oscillations are pervasive throughout vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. Such observations have long implied that rhythmic activity patterns play a fundamental role in odor coding. Using intracranial EEG recordings from rare patients with medically resistant epilepsy, we find that theta oscillations are a distinct electrophysiological signature of olfactory processing in the human brain. Across seven patients, odor stimulation enhanced theta power in human piriform cortex, with robust effects at the level of single trials...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
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