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Farnesylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809830/overexpression-and-purification-of-human-cis-prenyltransferase-in-escherichia-coli
#1
Ilan Edri, Michal Goldenberg, Michal Lisnyansky, Roi Strulovich, Hadas Newman, Anat Loewenstein, Daniel Khananshvili, Moshe Giladi, Yoni Haitin
Prenyltransferases (PT) are a group of enzymes that catalyze chain elongation of allylic diphosphate using isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) via multiple condensation reactions. DHDDS (dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase) is a eukaryotic long-chain cis-PT (forming cis double bonds from the condensation reaction) that catalyzes chain elongation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP, an allylic diphosphate) via multiple condensations with isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). DHDDS is of biomedical importance, as a non-conservative mutation (K42E) in the enzyme results in retinitis pigmentosa, ultimately leading to blindness...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808351/inhibition-of-the-mevalonate-pathway-augments-the-activity-of-pitavastatin-against-ovarian-cancer-cells
#2
Marwan Ibrahim Abdullah, Mohammed Najim Abed, Alan Richardson
Only 40% of patients with advanced ovarian cancer survive more than 5 years. We have previously shown that pitavastatin induces regression of ovarian cancer xenografts in mice. To evaluate whether the response of ovarian cancer cells to pitavastatin is potentiated by farnesyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors or geranylgeraniol transferase I inhibitors, we evaluated combinations of pitavastatin with zoledronic acid, risedronate and GGTI-2133 in a panel of ovarian cancer cells. Pitavastatin (IC50 = 0.6-14 μM), zoledronic acid (IC50 = 21-57 μM), risedronate (IC50 > 100 μM) or GGTI-2133 (IC50 > 25 μM) inhibited the growth of ovarian cancer cell cultures...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799296/traversing-biosynthetic-carbocation-landscapes-in-the-total-synthesis-of-andrastin-and-terretonin-meroterpenes
#3
Gong Xu, Masha Elkin, Dean Tantillo, Timothy Newhouse, Thomas Maimone
Meroterpenes derived from dimethylorsellinic acid (DMOA) and farnesyl pyrophosphate have attracted much biosynthetic attention, yet only recently have synthetic solutions to any family members appeared. A key point of divergence in DMOA-derived meroterpene biosynthesis is the protoaustinoid A carbocation which can be diverted to either the berkeleyone, andrastin, or terretonin structural classes via cyclase-controlled rearrangement pathways. Herein we show that the protoaustinoid bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane nucleus can be reverted to either andrastin or terretonin ring systems under abiotic reaction conditions...
August 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765912/disorder-of-the-mevalonate-pathway-inhibits-calcium-induced-differentiation-of-keratinocytes
#4
Rui Jin, Xin Luo, Kang Luan, Li Liu, Liang-Dan Sun, Sen Yang, Sheng-Quan Zhang, Xue-Jun Zhang
Mutation of genes encoding the enzymes of the mevalonate pathway cause a variety of diseases, including skin disorders. Mutation of four genes in this pathway, including mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase, have demonstrated to be responsible for porokeratosis (PK). However, the pathogenesis of PK remains unclear. In the present study, specific enzyme inhibitors of the mevalonate pathway, including pravastatin (PRA), alendronate (ALD), farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI‑277) and geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor (GGTI‑298), were used to investigate the effect on differentiation of keratinocytes (KCs)...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762089/secondary-metabolites-from-higher-fungi
#5
He-Ping Chen, Ji-Kai Liu
Secondary metabolites of higher fungi (mushrooms) are an underexplored resource compared to plant-derived secondary metabolites. An increasing interest in mushroom natural products has been noted in recent years. This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of the secondary metabolites from higher fungi, with 765 references highlighting the isolation, structure elucidation, biological activities, chemical syntheses, and biosynthesis of pigments, nitrogen-containing compounds, and terpenoids from mushrooms. Mushroom toxins are also included in each section...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747716/burn-induced-muscle-metabolic-derangements-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-are-associated-with-activation-of-hif-1%C3%AE-and-mtorc1-role-of-protein-farnesylation
#6
Harumasa Nakazawa, Kazuhiro Ikeda, Shohei Shinozaki, Masayuki Kobayashi, Yuichi Ikegami, Ming Fu, Tomoyuki Nakamura, Shingo Yasuhara, Yong-Ming Yu, J A Jeevendra Martyn, Ronald G Tompkins, Kentaro Shimokado, Tomoko Yorozu, Hideki Ito, Satoshi Inoue, Masao Kaneki
Metabolic derangements are a clinically significant complication of major trauma (e.g., burn injury) and include various aspects of metabolism, such as insulin resistance, muscle wasting, mitochondrial dysfunction and hyperlactatemia. Nonetheless, the molecular pathogenesis and the relation between these diverse metabolic alterations are poorly understood. We have previously shown that burn increases farnesyltransferase (FTase) expression and protein farnesylation and that FTase inhibitor (FTI) prevents burn-induced hyperlactatemia, insulin resistance, and increased proteolysis in mouse skeletal muscle...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741056/chlorophyll-a-with-a-farnesyl-tail-in-thermophilic-cyanobacteria
#7
Jessica M Wiwczar, Amy M LaFountain, Jimin Wang, Harry A Frank, Gary W Brudvig
Photosystem II (PSII) of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms normally contains exclusively chlorophyll a (Chl a) as its major light-harvesting pigment. Chl a canonically consists of the chlorin headgroup with a 20-carbon, 4-isoprene unit, phytyl tail. We have examined the 1.9 Å crystal structure of PSII from thermophilic cyanobacteria reported by Shen and coworkers in 2012 (PDB accession of 3ARC/3WU2). A newly refined electron density map from this structure, presented here, reveals that some assignments of the cofactors may be different from those modeled in the 3ARC/3WU2 structure, including a specific Chl a that appears to have a truncated tail by one isoprene unit...
July 24, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730878/investigational-drugs-in-development-for-hepatitis-d
#8
Mario Rizzetto
Treatment of chronic hepatitis D still relies on Interferon. To improve efficacy, new therapeutic strategies are in development which aim to deprive the Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) of functions of the Hepatitis B Virus and of the host required for its life-cycle. Areas covered: The therapeutic options are; 1) The inhibition of the farnesylation of the large HD-protein permissive of virion assembly with Lonafarnib, 2) The blocking of HBsAg entry into cells with Myrcludex B via the inhibition of the Sodium Taurocholate Cotransporting Receptor, to prevent the spreading of HDV to uninfected hepatocytes, 3) The reduction of subviral HBsAg particles by REP 2139, leading to diminished virion morphogenesis ...
July 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729673/distinct-functional-relevance-of-dynamic-gtpase-cysteine-methylation-in-fission-yeast
#9
Alejandro Franco, Teresa Soto, Rebeca Martín-García, Marisa Madrid, Beatriz Vázquez-Marín, Jero Vicente-Soler, Pedro M Coll, Mariano Gacto, Pilar Pérez, José Cansado
The final step in post-translational processing of Ras and Rho GTPases involves methylation of the prenylated cysteine residue by an isoprenylcysteine-O-carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT). ICMT activity is essential for cell growth and development in higher eukaryotes, and inhibition of GTPase methylation has become an attractive target in cancer therapy to inactivate prenylated oncoproteins. However, the specificity and dynamics of the GTPase methylation process remain to be fully clarified. Notably, cells lacking Mam4, the ICMT ortholog in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, are viable...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723699/intraoperative-bleeding-in-patients-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta-type-iii-treated-by-fassier-duval-femoral-rodding-analysis-of-risk-factors
#10
Pietro Persiani, Maria V Pesce, Lorena Martini, Filippo M Ranaldi, Patrizia D'Eufemia, Anna Zambrano, Mauro Celli, Ciro Villani
The surgical treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is negatively influenced by clinical features such as osteoporosis, limb deformities and bone changes caused by bisphosphonate therapy. Blood loss during femoral nailing surgeries in patients with OI is a serious problem. Platelet anomalies have been associated with an elevation of the serum pyrophosphate originating from the platelets during clotting, even if the causality with the platelet dysfunction has not yet been established. To identify predictive risk factors regarding intraoperative bleeding, a retrospective analysis was conducted on 23 patients aged between 6 and 13 years, affected by OI type III, who were treated to correct femoral deformities or to perform an osteosynthesis for femoral shaft fractures, using the Fassier-Duval telescopic nail...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710558/pathway-engineering-for-the-production-of-%C3%AE-amyrin-and-cycloartenol-in-escherichia-coli-a-method-to-biosynthesize-plant-derived-triterpene-skeletons-in-e-coli
#11
Miho Takemura, Rie Tanaka, Norihiko Misawa
Cycloartenol is biosynthetically the first sterol skeleton, which is metabolized to phytosterols such as β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. β-Amyrin is the most commonly occurring aglycone skeleton for oleanane-type saponins such as glycyrrhizin and saikosaponins. It has been regarded that these cyclic triterpenes are unable to be produced in Escherichia coli, while no reports are available on their production with E. coli. Here, we describe a method to synthesize triterpene skeletons from higher plants, including cycloartenol and β-amyrin...
July 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698913/antibacterial-and-antioxidant-constituents-of-extracts-of-endophytic-fungi-isolated-from-ocimum-basilicum-var-thyrsiflora-leaves
#12
Piyamas Atiphasaworn, Sakon Monggoot, Eleni Gentekaki, Siraprapa Brooks, Patcharee Pripdeevech
Fourteen fungal endophytes were isolated from the Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora leaves collected from Northern Thailand. Eight genera were identified including Aspergillus, Ascochyta, Nigrospora, Blastomyces, Colletotrichum, Exidia, Clitopilus, and Nomuraea. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts from all endophytic fungi was tested against nine human bacterial pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus...
July 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698607/divergent-evolution-of-di-lysine-er-retention-vs-farnesylation-motif-mediated-anchoring-of-the-ankb-virulence-effector-to-the-legionella-containing-vacuolar-membrane
#13
John D Perpich, Awdhesh Kalia, Christopher T D Price, Snake C Jones, Kathy Wong, Kalle Gehring, Yousef Abu Kwaik
Within macrophages and amoeba, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) membrane is derived from the ER. The bona fide F-box AnkB effector protein of L. pneumophila strain AA100/130b is anchored to the cytosolic side of the LCV membrane through host-mediated farnesylation of its C-terminal eukaryotic "CaaX" motif. Here we show that the AnkB homologue of the Paris strain has a frame shift mutation that led to a loss of the CaaX motif and a concurrent generation of a unique C-terminal KNKYAP motif, which resembles the eukaryotic di-lysine ER-retention motif (KxKxx)...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698273/viral-micrornas-repress-the-cholesterol-pathway-and-25-hydroxycholesterol-inhibits-infection
#14
Anna K P Serquiña, Diane M Kambach, Ontara Sarker, Joseph M Ziegelbauer
From various screens, we found that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) viral microRNAs (miRNAs) target several enzymes in the mevalonate/cholesterol pathway. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR [a rate-limiting step in the mevalonate pathway]), and farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase 1 (FDFT1 [a committed step in the cholesterol branch]) are repressed by multiple KSHV miRNAs. Transfection of viral miRNA mimics in primary endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVECs]) is sufficient to reduce intracellular cholesterol levels; however, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting only HMGCS1 did not reduce cholesterol levels...
July 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695490/role-of-cys73-in-the-thermostability-of-farnesyl-diphosphate-synthase-from-geobacillus-stearothermophilus
#15
Petrus Yesaya Samori, Koki Makabe, Norimasa Ohya, Bunpei Hatano, Satoshi Murakami, Tatsuro Kijima
Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the condensation between one molecule of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to produce farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). FPP is an important precursor in the isoprenoid synthesis pathway. In this study, the crystal structure of FPPase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (GsFPPase) was determined at 2.31 Å resolution. The structure of GsFPPase shows a three-layered all α-helical fold and conserved functional domains similar to other prenyltransferases...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695387/the-role-of-leaf-volatiles-of-ludwigia-octovalvis-jacq-raven-in-the-attraction-of-altica-cyanea-weber-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#16
Saubhik Mitra, Amarnath Karmakar, Abhishek Mukherjee, Anandamay Barik
Larvae and adults of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed on the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae), commonly known as willow primrose, which is considered a biocontrol agent of the weed. Volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 4, 12, and 36 h of continuous feeding by A. cyanea larvae or adult females and after mechanical damaging were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Twenty nine compounds were identified from undamaged plants. 2Z-Penten-1-ol, geraniol, and 1-tridecanol were present in all plants damaged by larvae...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695386/a-homomeric-geranyl-diphosphate-synthase-encoding-gene-from-camptotheca-acuminata-and-its-combinatorial-optimization-for-production-of-geraniol-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Lixia Yang, Liangzhen Jiang, Wei Li, Yun Yang, Guolin Zhang, Yinggang Luo
Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the unique precursor for all monoterpenoids, is biosynthesized from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate via the head-to-tail condensation reaction catalyzed by GPP synthase (GPPS). Herein a homomeric GPPS from Camptotheca acuminata, a camptothecin-producing plant, was obtained from 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends and subsequent overlap extension and convenient PCR amplifications. The truncate CaGPPS was introduced to replace ispA of pBbA5c-MevT(CO)-MBIS(CO, ispA), a de novo biosynthetic construct for farnesyl diphosphate generation, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, together with the truncate geraniol synthase-encoding gene from C...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694026/nano-technology-based-carriers-for-nitrogen-containing-bisphosphonates-delivery-as-sensitisers-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-for-anticancer-immunotherapy
#18
Naomi O Hodgins, Julie Tzu-Wen Wang, Khuloud T Al-Jamal
Nitrogen containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) including zoledronate (ZOL) and alendronate (ALD) inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase, and have been shown to have a cytotoxic affect against cancer cells as a monotherapy and to also sensitise tumour cells to destruction by γδ T cells. γδ T cells are a subset of human T lymphocytes and have a diverse range of roles in the immune system including the recognition and destruction of cancer cells. This property of γδ T cells can be harnessed for use in cancer immunotherapy through in vivo expansion or the adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated γδ T cells...
July 7, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692300/selected-mutations-revealed-intermediates-and-key-precursors-in-the-biosynthesis-of-polyketide-terpenoid-hybrid-sesquiterpenyl-epoxy-cyclohexenoids
#19
Lin-Lin Teng, Tian-Yang Song, Zi-Fei Xu, Xiao Liu, Rong Dai, Yong-Hong Chen, Sheng-Hong Li, Ke-Qin Zhang, Xue-Mei Niu
Sesquiterpenyl epoxy-cyclohexenoids (SECs) show impressive biological activities. However, the key pathways for SECs still remain unambiguous. Unexpectedly, 11 new SECs and derivatives with diverse oxidation patterns were isolated after the deletion of gene 274. A high accumulation of toluquinol and its new glycosides in mutant Δ276 and further isolation of the most crucial precursors farnesyl hydroquinone, farnesyl quinone, and three new derivatives from mutant Δ278 confirm that farnesylation at toluquinol is the key step for SECs...
July 10, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679557/identification-and-characterization-of-daurichromenic-acid-synthase-active-in-anti-hiv-biosynthesis
#20
Miu Iijima, Ryosuke Munakata, Hironobu Takahashi, Hiromichi Kenmoku, Ryuichi Nakagawa, Takeshi Kodama, Yoshinori Asakawa, Ikuro Abe, Kazufumi Yazaki, Fumiya Kurosaki, Futoshi Taura
Daurichromenic acid (DCA) synthase catalyzes the oxidative cyclization of grifolic acid to produce DCA, an anti-HIV meroterpenoid isolated from Rhododendron dauricum We identified a novel cDNA encoding DCA synthase by transcriptome-based screening from young leaves of R. dauricum The gene coded for a 533-amino acid polypeptide with moderate homologies to flavin adenine dinucleotide oxidases from other plants. The primary structure contained an amino-terminal signal peptide and conserved amino acid residues to form bicovalent linkage to the flavin adenine dinucleotide isoalloxazine ring at histidine-112 and cysteine-175...
August 2017: Plant Physiology
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