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Farnesylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423648/polyisoprenylated-cysteinyl-amide-inhibitors-disrupt-actin-cytoskeleton-organization-induce-cell-rounding-and-block-migration-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Elizabeth Ntantie, Jerrine Fletcher, Felix Amissah, Olufisayo O Salako, Augustine T Nkembo, Rosemary A Poku, Francis O Ikpatt, Nazarius S Lamango
The malignant potential of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is dependent on cellular processes that promote metastasis. F-actin organization is central to cell migration, invasion, adhesion and angiogenesis, processes involved in metastasis. F-actin remodeling is enhanced by the overexpression and/or hyper-activation of some members of the Rho family of small GTPases. Therefore, agents that mitigate hyperactive Rho proteins may be relevant for controlling metastasis. We previously reported the role of polyisoprenylated cysteinyl amide inhibitors (PCAIs) as potential inhibitors of cancers with hyperactive small GTPases...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419419/the-isoprenoid-derivative-n6-benzyladenosine-cm223-exerts-antitumor-effect-in-glioma-patient-derived-primary-cells-through-the-mevalonate-pathway
#2
Elena Ciaglia, Manuela Grimaldi, Mario Abate, Mario Scrima, Manuela Rodriquez, Chiara Laezza, Roberta Ranieri, Simona Pisanti, Pierangela Ciuffreda, Clementina Manera, Patrizia Gazzerro, Anna Maria D'Ursi, Maurizio Bifulco
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: N6-Isopentenyladenosine (i6A) is a modified nucleoside exerting in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative effects. We previously demonstrated that the i6A action is correlated to farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) expression and activity, a key enzyme involved in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, which is found aberrant in brain cancer. To develop new anti-glioma strategies, we looked for other valuable compounds exhibiting improved activity as compared to i6A. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: we designed and synthesized i6A derivatives characterized by the introduction of diverse chemical moieties in the N6 position of adenosine and tested for their efficacy in U87 and primary derived patient's glioma cell model...
April 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419130/virus-induced-down-regulation-of-gmera1a-and-gmera1b-genes-enhances-the-stomatal-response-to-abscisic-acid-and-drought-resistance-in-soybean
#3
Takuya Ogata, Yukari Nagatoshi, Noriko Yamagishi, Nobuyuki Yoshikawa, Yasunari Fujita
Drought is a major threat to global soybean production. The limited transformation potential and polyploid nature of soybean have hindered functional analysis of soybean genes. Previous research has implicated farnesylation in the plant's response to abscisic acid (ABA) and drought tolerance. We therefore used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to evaluate farnesyltransferase genes, GmERA1A and GmERA1B (Glycine max Enhanced Response to ABA1-A and -B), as potential targets for increasing drought resistance in soybean...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418649/nature-s-selection-of-geranyl-group-as-a-trna-modification-the-effects-of-chain-length-on-base-pairing-specificity
#4
Phensinee Haruehanroengra, Sweta Vangaveti, Srivathsan V Ranganathan, Rui Wang, Alan Chen, Jia Sheng
The recently discovered geranyl modification on the 2-thio position of wobble U34 residues in tRNA(Glu), tRNA(Lys), and tRNA(Gln) in several bacteria has been found to enhance the U:G pairing specificity and reduce the frameshifting error during translation. It is a fundamentally interesting question why nature chose a C10 terpene group in tRNA systems. In this study, we explore the significance of the terpene length on base-paring stability and specificity using a series of 2-thiouridine analogues containing different lengths of carbon chains, namely, methyl- (C1), dimethylallyl- (C5), and farnesyl-modified (C15) 2-thiothymidines in a DNA duplex...
April 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404524/concise-synthesis-of-artemisinin-from-a-farnesyl-diphosphate-analogue
#5
Xiaoping Tang, Melodi Demiray, Thomas Wirth, Rudolf K Allemann
Artemisinin is one of the most potent anti-malaria drugs and many often-lengthy routes have been developed for its synthesis. Amorphadiene synthase, a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin, is able to convert an oxygenated farnesyl diphosphate analogue directly to dihydroartemisinic aldehyde, which can be converted to artemisinin in only four chemical steps, resulting in an efficient synthetic route to the anti-malaria drug.
April 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395024/farnesylation-of-rhob-the-cancer-hypothesis-of-pulmonary-hypertension-revisited
#6
Daphne Merkus, Ralph T Schermuly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395021/tipifarnib-prevents-development-of-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#7
Lucie Duluc, Blerina Ahmetaj-Shala, Jane Mitchell, Vahitha B Abdul-Salam, Abdul S Mahomed, Lulwah Aldabbous, Eduardo Oliver, Lucio Iannone, Olivier D Dubois, Elisabeth M Storck, Edward W Tate, Lan Zhao, Martin R Wilkins, Beata Wojciak-Stothard
Aims: RhoB plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Farnesylated RhoB promotes growth responses in cancer cells and we investigated whether inhibition of protein farnesylation will have a protective effect. Methods and results: The analysis of lung tissues from rodent models and pulmonary hypertensive patients showed increased levels of protein farnesylation. Oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib prevented development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice...
March 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391327/peroxisome-biogenesis-a-novel-inducible-pex19-splicing-variant-is-involved-in-early-stages-of-peroxisome-proliferation
#8
Naohiko Kinoshita, Akira Matsuura, Yukio Fujiki
Pex19p harbouring a prenylation CAAX box functions as a chaperone and transporter for peroxisomal membrane proteins in membrane assembly. By functional phenotype-complementation assay using a pex19 Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant ZP119, we herein cloned a rat cDNA encoding a protein similar to Pex19p, but with a C-terminal hydrophobic segment in place of the CAAX box region. The transcript of this gene was highly induced by treatment of rats with a peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate, hence termed PEX19i, while the other three less prominently inducible PEX19 variants encoded authentic Pex19p but differed in the length of 3' non-coding region...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382786/sublethal-effects-of-chlorantraniliprole-on-juvenile-hormone-levels-and-mrna-expression-of-jhamt-and-fpps-genes-in-the-rice-stem-borer-chilo-suppressalis
#9
Beibei Xu, Kun Qian, Nan Zhang, Lijun Miao, Jingxuan Cai, Mingxing Lu, Yuzhou Du, Jianjun Wang
BACKGROUND: Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates development and reproduction of insects. The sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on JH levels and mRNA expression of JH acid methyltransferase gene (CsJHAMT) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase genes (CsFPPS1 and CsFPPS2 ) in Chilo suppressalis (Walker) were investigated. RESULTS: Exposure of sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole (LC10 and LC30 ) to the third instar larvae of C. suppressalis significantly increased the JH levels in all developmental stages investigated including larvae 72 h after treatment, the first, third and fifth day of female pupae, as well as newly emerged, 12-h-old and 24-h-old female adults...
April 5, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379198/strengthening-triterpene-saponins-biosynthesis-by-over-expression-of-farnesyl-pyrophosphate-synthase-gene-and-rna-interference-of-cycloartenol-synthase-gene-in-panax-notoginseng-cells
#10
Yan Yang, Feng Ge, Ying Sun, Diqiu Liu, Chaoyin Chen
To conform to the multiple regulations of triterpene biosynthesis, the gene encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) was transformed into Panax notoginseng (P. notoginseng) cells in which RNA interference (RNAi) of the cycloartenol synthase (CAS) gene had been accomplished. Transgenic cell lines showed both higher expression levels of FPS and lower expression levels of CAS compared to the wild-type (WT) cells. In the triterpene and phytosterol analysis, transgenic cell lines provided a higher accumulation of total triterpene saponins, and a lower amount of phytosterols in comparison with the WT cells...
April 5, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370092/expression-of-lima-bean-terpene-synthases-in-rice-enhances-recruitment-of-a-beneficial-enemy-of-a-major-rice-pest
#11
Feng-Qi Li, Wei Li, Yong-Jun Lin, John A Pickett, Michael A Birkett, Kongming Wu, Guirong Wang, Jing-Jiang Zhou
Volatile terpenoids play a key role in plant defence against herbivory by attracting parasitic wasps. We identified seven terpene synthase genes from lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L. following treatment with either the elicitor alamethicin or spider mites, Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Four of which (Pltps2, Pltps3, Pltps4 and Pltps5) were upregulated, and their derived proteins are phylogenetically clustered in the TPS-g subfamily, with PlTPS3 positioned at the base of this cluster. Recombinant PlTPS3 was able to convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate to linalool and (E)-nerolidol, the latter being precursor of the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT)...
March 30, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369701/production-of-jet-fuel-precursor-monoterpenoids-from-engineered-escherichia-coli
#12
Daniel Mendez-Perez, Jorge Alonso-Gutierrez, Qijun Hu, Margaux Molinas, Edward E K Baidoo, George Wang, Leanne Jade G Chan, Paul D Adams, Christopher J Petzold, Jay D Keasling, Taek Soon Lee
Monoterpenes (C10 isoprenoids) are the main components of essential oils and are possible precursors for many commodity chemicals and high energy density fuels. Monoterpenes are synthesized from geranyl diphosphate (GPP), which is also the precursor for the biosynthesis of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). FPP biosynthesis diverts the carbon flux from monoterpene production to C15 products and quinone biosynthesis. In this study, we tested a chromosomal mutation of E. coli's native FPP synthase (IspA) to improve GPP availability for the production of monoterpenes using a heterologous mevalonate pathway...
March 28, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365988/improvement-of-squalene-production-from-co2-in-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942-by-metabolic-engineering-and-scalable-production-in-a-photobioreactor
#13
Sun Young Choi, Jin-Young Wang, Ho Seok Kwak, Sun-Mi Lee, Youngsoon Um, Yunje Kim, Sang Jun Sim, Jong-Il Choi, Han Min Woo
The push-and-pull strategy for metabolic engineering was successfully demonstrated in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a model photosynthetic bacterium, to produce squalene from CO2. Squalene synthase (SQS) was fused to either a key enzyme (farnesyl diphosphate synthase) of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway or the β-subunit of phycocyanin (CpcB1). Engineered cyanobacteria with expression of a fusion CpcB1-SQS protein showed a squalene production level (7.16 ± 0.05 mg/L/OD730) that was increased by 1...
April 3, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359705/manipulation-of-ges-and-erg20-for-geraniol-overproduction-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Guo-Zhen Jiang, Ming-Dong Yao, Ying Wang, Liang Zhou, Tian-Qing Song, Hong Liu, Wen-Hai Xiao, Ying-Jin Yuan
Manipulation of monoterpene synthases to maximize flux towards targeted products from GPP (geranyl diphosphate) is the main challenge for heterologous monoterpene overproduction, in addition to cell toxicity from compounds themselves. In our study, by manipulation of the key enzymes geraniol synthase (GES) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (Erg20), geraniol (a valuable acyclic monoterpene alcohol) overproduction was achieved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme reductase (tHMGR) and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI1) overexpressed...
March 27, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359055/lack-of-prenylated-proteins-autophagy-impairment-and-apoptosis-in-sh-sy5y-neuronal-cell-model-of-mevalonate-kinase-deficiency
#15
Paola Maura Tricarico, Alessandra Romeo, Rossella Gratton, Sergio Crovella, Fulvio Celsi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD), is a hereditary disease due to mutations in mevalonate kinase gene (MVK). MKD has heterogeneous clinical phenotypes: the correlation between MVK mutations and MKD clinical phenotype is still to be fully elucidated. Deficiency of prenylated proteins has been hypothesized as possible MKD pathogenic mechanism. Based on this hypothesis and considering that neurologic impairment characterizes Mevalonic Aciduria (MA), the most severe form of MKD, we studied the effects of I268T and N301T MVK mutations on protein prenylation, autophagy and programmed cell death in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines...
March 28, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356569/synergistic-targeting-of-breast-cancer-stem-like-cells-by-human-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-cd8-t-cells
#16
Hung-Chang Chen, Noémie Joalland, John S Bridgeman, Fouad S Alchami, Ulrich Jarry, Mohd Wajid A Khan, Luke Piggott, Yasmin Shanneik, Jianqiang Li, Marco J Herold, Thomas Herrmann, David A Price, Awen M Gallimore, Richard W Clarkson, Emmanuel Scotet, Bernhard Moser, Matthias Eberl
The inherent resistance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) to existing therapies has largely hampered the development of effective treatments for advanced malignancy. To help develop novel immunotherapy approaches that efficiently target CSCs, an experimental model allowing reliable distinction of CSCs and non-CSCs was set up to study their interaction with non-MHC restricted γδ T cells and antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Stable lines with characteristics of breast CSC-like cells were generated from ras-transformed human mammary epithelial (HMLER) cells as confirmed by their CD44(hi) CD24(lo) GD2(+) phenotype, their mesenchymal morphology in culture and their capacity to form mammospheres under non-adherent conditions, as well as their potent tumorigenicity, self-renewal and differentiation in xenografted mice...
March 30, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353656/volatiles-emitted-at-different-flowering-stages-of-jasminum-sambac-and-expression-of-genes-related-to-%C3%AE-farnesene-biosynthesis
#17
Ying Yu, Shiheng Lyu, Dan Chen, Yi Lin, Jianjun Chen, Guixin Chen, Naixing Ye
Fresh jasmine flowers have been used to make jasmine teas in China, but there has been no complete information about volatile organic compound emissions in relation to flower developmental stages and no science-based knowledge about which floral stage should be used for the infusion. This study monitored volatile organic compounds emitted from living flowers of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. 'Bifoliatum' at five developmental stages and also from excised flowers. Among the compounds identified, α-farnesene, linalool, and benzyl acetate were most abundant...
March 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343347/bioanalysis-of-farnesyl-pyrophosphate-in-human-plasma-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-triple-quadrupole-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-hybrid-quadrupole-orbitrap-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#18
Hiroshi Sugimoto, Mie Iguchi, Fumihiro Jinno
The isoprenoids farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) are pivotal intermediates for cholesterol homeostasis and cell signaling in the mevalonate pathway. We developed a sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QQQ-MS) method for FPP in human plasma without the need for a derivatization process. We optimized the sample preparation procedure to extract FPP and (13)C5-FPP (as internal standard) from sample fluids using methanol...
March 25, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339090/inhibition-of-farnesyl-pyrophosphate-synthase-attenuates-high-glucose%C3%A2-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-proliferation
#19
Guo-Ping Chen, Xiao-Qin Zhang, Tao Wu, Jie Han, Dan Ye
The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is one of the main features of atherosclerosis accelerated by hyperglycemia. Our previous studies found that farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS, EC 2.5.1.10), an essential enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, was upregulated in aorta media from diabetic mice along with the process of atherosclerosis. However, the exact role of FPPS in high glucose‑induced proliferation of VSMCs is largely unclear. In our study, we found that alendronate (an FPPS inhibitor) attenuated diabetic accelerated atherosclerosis in vivo and suppressed high glucose‑induced VSMCs proliferation in vitro...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337806/the-pharmacological-profile-of-a-novel-highly-potent-bisphosphonate-ox14-1-fluoro-2-imidazo-1-2-%C3%AE-pyridin-3-yl-ethyl-bisphosphonate
#20
M A Lawson, F H Ebetino, A Mazur, A D Chantry, J Paton-Hough, H R Evans, D Lath, M K Tsoumpra, M W Lundy, R L M Dobson, M Quijano, A A Kwaasi, J E Dunford, X Duan, J T Triffitt, G Jeans, R G G Russell
Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of clinical disorders characterized by increased bone resorption, including osteoporosis, Paget's disease and the skeletal complications of malignancy. The anti-resorptive potency of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates on bone in vivo is now recognised to depend upon two key properties, namely mineral binding affinity and inhibitory activity on farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), and these properties vary independently of each other in individual bisphosphonates...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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