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Ginkgo biloba

Nahide Ekici Günay, Sabahattin Muhtaroğlu, Abdulkadir Bedirli
BACKGROUND: Free radical damage is known to occur during liver regeneration. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 has antioxidant properties due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. FK506 has been widely used as an immunosuppressant that stimulates hepatocyte proliferation following partial hepatectomy. AIMS: To explore whether EGb761 enhances liver regeneration after hepatectomy in rats, we investigated the effects of EGb761 alone and in combination with FK506 on the liver regenerative process...
March 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wen Zhang, Jun-Ke Song, Rong Yan, Li Li, Zhi-Yong Xiao, Wen-Xia Zhou, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao, Guan-Hua Du
Diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection (DGMI) is a therapeutic extract of Ginkgo biloba L, which has been used for the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke in China. Ginkgolides A, B and C are the main components of DGMI. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DGMI components against ischemic stroke in vivo and in vitro. Acute cerebral ischemic injury was induced in rats by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 1.5 h followed by 24 h reperfusion. The rats were treated with DGMI (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, iv) at the onset of reperfusion and 12 h after reperfusion...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Wei Fu, Xingyuan He, Sheng Xu, Wei Chen, Yan Li, Bo Li, Lili Su, Qin Ping
Ground-level ozone (O3 ) pollution has been widely concerned in the world, particularly in the cities of Asia, including China. Elevated O3 concentrations have potentially influenced growth and nutrient cycling of trees in urban forest. The decomposition characteristics of urban tree litters under O3 exposure are still poorly known. Ginkgo biloba is commonly planted in the cities of northern China and is one of the main tree species in the urban forest of Shenyang, where concentrations of ground-level O3 are very high in summer...
2018: PeerJ
Shanshan Li, Xinjiang Zhang, Qi Fang, Junshan Zhou, Meijuan Zhang, Hui Wang, Yan Chen, Biyun Xu, Yanfeng Wu, Lai Qian, Yun Xu
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) in acute ischaemic stroke and its impact on the recurrence of vascular events. Methods: We conducted a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open label, blinded, controlled clinical trial enrollingpatients with an onset of acute stroke within 7 days from five hospitals in China Jiangsu Province. Participants were assigned to the GBE group (450 mg GBE with 100 mg aspirin daily) or the control group (100 mg aspirin daily) for 6 months...
December 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
Biao Jin
Ginkgo biloba is grown worldwide as an ornamental plant for its golden leaf color. However, the regulatory mechanism of leaf coloration in G. biloba remains unclear. Here, we compared G. biloba gold-colored mutant leaves and normal green leaves in cytological, physiological and transcriptomic terms. We found that chloroplasts of the mutant were fewer and smaller, and exhibited ruptured thylakoid membranes, indistinct stromal lamellae and irregularly arranged vesicles. Physiological experiments also showed that the mutant had a lower chlorophyll, lower flavonoid and higher carotenoid contents (especially lutein)...
2018: Horticulture Research
Shaosong Kuang, Lin Yang, Ziliang Rao, Zhiyong Zhong, Jinfeng Li, Haichao Zhong, Lulu Dai, Xiaojiang Tang
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system. Presently, there is no effective and safe drug to treat patients with PD. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), obtained from leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree, is a complex mixture of ingredients primarily containing two active components: flavonoids and terpenoids. In this study, we investigated the effects of GBE on A53T α-synuclein transgenic mice, a PD model that has better simulated the progression of PD patients than other models such as the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine-induced PD model...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Szilvia Czigle, Jaroslav Tóth, Nikoletta Jedlinszki, Erzsébet Háznagy-Radnai, Dezső Csupor, Daniela Tekeľová
The aim of this study was to prove whether Ginkgo biloba food supplements on the European market comply with pharmaceutical quality, and whether their composition satisfies the European Pharmacopoeia criteria. Medicinal products containing a standardised Ginkgo leaf extract are used for the improvement of cognitive impairment and quality of life in mild dementia. Further, Ginkgonis folium is used for the treatment of peripheral circulation disorders. Pharmacopoeial Ginkgo dry extract contains 22.0 - 27...
March 5, 2018: Planta Medica
Carola Stockburger, Schamim Eckert, Gunter P Eckert, Kristina Friedland-Leuner, Walter E Müller
Because of the failure of all amyloid-β directed treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the concept of mitochondrial dysfunction as a major pathomechanism of the cognitive decline in aging and AD has received substantial support. Accordingly, improving mitochondrial function as an alternative strategy for new drug development became of increasing interest and many different compounds have been identified which improve mitochondrial function in preclinical in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, very few if any have been investigated in clinical trials, representing a major drawback of the mitochondria directed drug development...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Bo-Lin Wang, Ling Xuan, Shi-Jie Dai, Li-Ting Ji, Chang-Yu Li, Yuan-Xiao Yang
This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of β-asarone on the animal model of Alzheimer's disease(AD) which was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ₁₋₄₂ combined cerebral ischemia. One hundred and five rats were randomly divided into seven groups including sham-operated group, AD model group, β-asarone 10 mg•kg⁻¹ group, β-asarone 20 mg•kg⁻¹ group, β-asarone 30 mg•kg⁻¹ group, donepezil group(0.75 mg•kg⁻¹) and Ginkgo biloba extract group(24 mg•kg⁻¹)...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yan-Ping Luo, Hong Zhang, Han-Fei Hu, Ze-Yu Cao, Xin-Zhuang Zhang, Liang Cao, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao
To investigate the protective effects of ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection (GDLMI) on cerebral focal ischemia reperfusion injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats, and explore its possible mechanism. One hundred and forty male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, ginkgo biloba extract injection (Ginaton, 1.0 mL•kg⁻¹) group, nimodipine (0.4 mg•kg⁻¹) group, and GDLMI (5.2, 2.6, 1.3 mg•kg⁻¹) groups; All of rats received corresponding drugs by tail vein injection 4 days before operation (normal saline in model group and sham operation group)...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
X J Ren, Z B Yang, X Ding, C W Yang
An experiment using 112 21-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers that were randomly allocated to 7 treatments with 8 replicates in a completely randomized design was conducted to assess the effects of Ginkgo biloba leaves (Ginkgo biloba, GL) and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB) on utilization of nutrients of broiler chickens. The dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal based diets: 1) T1, control diet; 2) T2, T1 + 20 g/kg GL; 3) T3, T1 + 40 g/kg GL; 4) T4, T1 + 60 g/kg GL; 5) T5, T1 + 0.4 g/kg EGB; 6) T6, T1 + 0.8 g/kg EGB; and 7) T7, T1 + 1...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
R G Esin, I Kh Khairullin, O R Esin
The review presents current concepts about the problem of cerebral insulin resistance (IR). It has now been established that cerebral IR plays a key role in the pathogenesis of degenerative and metabolic diseases of the brain. Based on literature data and own clinical experience, the authors recommend to use the standardized extract of ginkgo biloba EGb761 as a cellular protector, which increases insulin sensitivity of cells and reduces atherogenesis, in order to improve cognitive functions and quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Joseph H Friedman, Stanley Fahn
BACKGROUND: Management of tardive syndromes (TS) is challenging, with only a few evidence-based therapeutic algorithms reported in the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline in 2013. OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence-based recommendations and provide a practical treatment algorithm for management of TS by addressing 5 questions: 1) Is withdrawal of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) an effective TS treatment? 2) Does switching from typical to atypical DRBAs reduce TS symptoms? 3) What is the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in treating TS? 4) Do patients with TS benefit from chemodenervation with botulinum toxin? 5) Do patients with TS benefit from surgical therapy? METHODS: Systematic reviews were conducted by searching PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane for articles published between 2012 and 2017 to identify new evidence published after the 2013 AAN guidelines...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Ying Zhang, Lan Miao, Li Lin, Chang-Ying Ren, Jian-Xun Liu, Yi-Min Cui
BACKGROUND: Sailuotong (SLT) is a standard Chinese preparation made from extracts of Panax ginseng (ginseng), Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo), and Crocus sativus (saffron). Preliminary clinical trials and animal experiments have demonstrated that SLT could improve cognition of vascular dementia (VD). PURPOSE: To avoid incident drug-drug interaction which is easily encountered in patients of VD, the potential influence of SLT on main drug-metabolic cytochromes P450 enzymes (CYP450) was investigated...
January 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Seiki Takatsuki, Risako Miyaoka, Keita Sugaya
We studied the food habits of the Japanese marten (Martes melampus) and the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procionoides) at the Tama Forest Science Garden, western Tokyo, Japan by fecal analysis in 2014/15. Martens were dependent on fruits throughout the year and showed less marked seasonal changes. Raccoon dogs were less dependent on fruits than martens were, and more dependent on mammals in spring, insects in summer and winter, and seeds throughout the year. Martens fed on more fruits containing tiny seeds, such as Actinidia arguta and Stachyurus praecox, whereas raccoon dogs fed on more large-seeded fruits, such as Ginkgo biloba and Diospyros kaki...
February 2018: Zoological Science
F Gevrek, Ç Biçer, M Kara, F Erdemir
Torsion/detorsion (T/D) induces testicular damages in both germinal epithelial and interstitial tissues. Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) exerts antioxidant and free radical scavenger. We investigated the effect of GbE on testicular tissues, Leydig and sperm cells in rats injured with T/D. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned into four groups (Control, GbE, Treatment: T/D+GbE, T/D). T/D performed to the rats in torsion, treatment received GbE (50 mg/kg) 1 hr before T/D, GbE group received only GbE (50 mg/kg) and control was defined as sham group...
February 7, 2018: Andrologia
Rahele Kargozar, Hoda Azizi, Roshanak Salari
Background: Acute menopausal syndrome especially hot flashes, is one of the most common gynecological problems during menopause. Due to the side effects of hormone therapy, herbal and complementary medicines are always of immense interest to people in the treatment and management of the symptoms and complications of menopause. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms and effects of medicinal plants employed in the treatment of menopausal symptoms...
November 2017: Electronic Physician
H J Rogier Hoenders, Agna A Bartels-Velthuis, Nina K Vollbehr, Richard Bruggeman, Henderikus Knegtering, Joop T V M de Jong
Patients with psychotic disorders regularly use natural medicines, although it is unclear whether these are effective and safe. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of evidence for improved outcomes by natural medicines. A systematic literature search was performed through Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane until May 2015. In 110 randomized controlled trials, evidence was found for glycine, sarcosine, N-acetylcysteine, some Chinese and ayurvedic herbs, ginkgo biloba, estradiol, and vitamin B6 to improve psychotic symptoms when added to antipsychotics...
February 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Geir Bjørklund, Maryam Dadar, Natália Martins, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Bey Hing Goh, Kateryna Smetanina, Roman Lysiuk
Several studies have reported that nature-derived antioxidants may prevent free radicals over-production and therefore control the onset and prevent the exacerbation of different kinds of diseases caused by oxidative stress and redox-derived stressors, including ageing, fundamentally by suppressing the oxidative byproducts-mediated degradation. Naturally derived antioxidants exert their anti-ageing action via a panoply of signalling systems, many of which engaging reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species scavenging, with the Nrf2/Keap1-ARE system and improving the many survival genes and functions (such as the pathway mTOR/Foxo/SIRT1) able to slow cellular senescence...
January 25, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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