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Zhiyong Gong, Yong-Le Pan, Gorden Videen, Chuji Wang
The study of physical and chemical properties of a microscopic object, such as a single particle, is made possible using optical trapping (OT) technology combined with other measuring techniques. Here we show a universal optical trap combined with Raman spectroscopy (RS) and microscopy imaging for single-particle studies. The universal optical trap is constructed using two counter-propagating hollow beams and is able to stably levitate single particles of a wide range of properties, such as transparent or absorbing materials, organic (polymers, bioaerosols, etc...
August 22, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Kaichen Dong, Yang Deng, Xi Wang, Kyle B Tom, Zheng You, Jie Yao
Dissipative loss in optical materials is considered one of the major challenges in nano-optics. Here we show that, counter-intuitively, a large imaginary part of material permittivity contributes positively to subwavelength light enhancement and confinement. The Purcell factor and the fluorescence enhancement of dissipative dielectric bowtie nanoantennas, such as Si in ultraviolet (UV), are demonstrated to be orders of magnitude higher than their lossless dielectric counterparts, which is particularly favorable in deep UV applications where metals are plasmonically inactive...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Branwyn Poleykett
What were the dead to colonial epidemiologists? Doctors and colonial scientists involved in the response to epidemics of plague in Madagascar in the first half of the twentieth century speculated about the role of Malagasy mortuary ritual in the spread of plague, and sought to bring Malagasy ritual into line with Pasteurian hygienic norms. I examine confrontations over death and the management of the dead in Madagascar, tracing the textured form of epidemiological knowledge that arose from the confrontation between Malagasy cosmology and Pasteurian counter epidemic technique...
April 12, 2018: Medical Anthropology
Ichiro Arakawa, Mikio Momoeda, Yutaka Osuga, Ikuko Ota, Kaori Koga
Background and objective: This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of early physician consultation and guideline-based intervention to prevent endometriosis and/or disease progression using oral contraceptive (OC) and progestin compared to follow-up of self-care for dysmenorrhea in Japan. Methods: A yearly-transmitted Markov model of five major health states with four sub-medical states was constructed. Transition probabilities among health and medical states were derived from Japanese epidemiological patient surveys and converted to appropriate parameters for inputting into the model...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Sebastian Eustermann, Kevin Schall, Dirk Kostrewa, Kristina Lakomek, Mike Strauss, Manuela Moldt, Karl-Peter Hopfner
In the eukaryotic nucleus, DNA is packaged in the form of nucleosomes, each of which comprises about 147 base pairs of DNA wrapped around a histone protein octamer. The position and histone composition of nucleosomes is governed by ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers1-3 such as the 15-subunit INO80 complex 4 . INO80 regulates gene expression, DNA repair and replication by sliding nucleosomes, the exchange of histone H2A.Z with H2A, and the positioning of + 1 and -1 nucleosomes at promoter DNA5-8 . The structures and mechanisms of these remodelling reactions are currently unknown...
April 11, 2018: Nature
Vidhu Bhatnagar, Kavitha Jinjil, Deepak Dwivedi, Rohit Verma, Urvashi Tandon
Background: The cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in prone position has been dealt with in 2010 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines but have not been reviewed in 2015 guidelines. The guidelines for patients presenting with cardiac arrest under general anesthesia in lateral decubitus position and regarding resuscitation in confined spaces like airplanes are also not available in AHA guidelines. This article is an attempt to highlight the techniques adopted for resuscitation in these unusual situations...
January 2018: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Lei Wang, Tianjiao Meng, Yanwei Fan, Chunxia Chen, Ziwei Guo, Huan Wang, Yufan Zhang
Decoration of leaf-like zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-L) with Au nanoparticles (NPs) by a simple self-assembly method was described in this work. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, N2 adsorption, and thermogravimetric analysis. Acetaminophen (AP) is most commonly referred to as an over-the-counter antipyretic and analgesic, which is a key factor in relieving fever and pain. It is particular significant to take efforts and conduct research for the development of reliable methods to detect the AP...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Alexander Z Chen, Michelle Shiu, Jennifer H Ma, Matthew R Alpert, Depei Zhang, Benjamin J Foley, Detlef-M Smilgies, Seung-Hun Lee, Joshua J Choi
Thin films based on two-dimensional metal halide perovskites have achieved exceptional performance and stability in numerous optoelectronic device applications. Simple solution processing of the 2D perovskite provides opportunities for manufacturing devices at drastically lower cost compared to current commercial technologies. A key to high device performance is to align the 2D perovskite layers, during the solution processing, vertical to the electrodes to achieve efficient charge transport. However, it is yet to be understood how the counter-intuitive vertical orientations of 2D perovskite layers on substrates can be obtained...
April 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Louise Carton, Nicolas Cabé, Olivier Ménard, Sylvie Deheul, Anne-Sylvie Caous, David Devos, Olivier Cottencin, Régis Bordet
For students, the pressing demands for memorization, top-level performance, and peer competition create an environment favorable for pharmaceutical cognitive doping behavior. We aimed to describe recent practices and the benefit/risk ratio of such behavior and to discuss the issues at stake. The prevalence of pharmaceutical cognitive doping among students has been reported from 1.3% to 33% across studies, with variations depending on country and definition of pharmaceutical cognitive doping. The therapeutic classes most frequently cited as being diverted for doping purposes are psychostimulants and nootropics (methylphenidate, modafinil, piracetam), corticosteroids, sedative drugs and beta-blockers...
March 6, 2018: Thérapie
K Hołda, M Natonek-Wiśniewska, P Krzyścin, R Głogowski
Chicken is a common protein source in pet foods and is concurrently listed among food allergens. Commercial over-the-counter (OTC) diets with an alternative animal protein source are considered suitable for dietary elimination trials by pet owners. The potential presence of undeclared chicken-derived ingredients in these diets can compromise the outcome of the trial during the diagnosis of adverse food reactions. The aim of this study was to selectively verify the absence or presence of chicken DNA in 10 OTC dry canine foods, using qualitative and quantitative approaches...
April 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Mark A Perazella
Patients are exposed to numerous prescribed and over-the-counter medications. Unfortunately, drugs remain a relatively common cause of acute and chronic kidney injury. A combination of factors including the innate nephrotoxicity of drugs, underlying patient characteristics that increase their risk for kidney injury, and the metabolism and pathway of excretion by the kidneys of the various agents administered enhance risk for drug-induced nephrotoxicity. This paper will review these clinically relevant aspects of drug-induced nephrotoxicity for the clinical nephrologist...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Afnan M Saber, Doua H Altoukhi, Mariam F Horaib, Azza A El-Housseiny, Najlaa M Alamoudi, Heba J Sabbagh
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the sequelae of early extraction of compromised first permanent molars (FPMs) with regard to the skeletal and dental development of 5- to 15-year-old children. Meta-analysis was conducted when applicable. METHODS: Our research protocol included a search strategy, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and a data extraction plan. The search engines used were PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct...
April 5, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Xiaomin Wang, Leesa Lin, Ziming Xuan, Lu Li, Xudong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate use of antibiotics has caused antimicrobial resistance, presenting a major health challenge to the world population. Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is currently at an alarming level in China. OBJECTIVES: To determine the sources of antibiotics leftover at home, the risk factors of keeping antibiotics at home, and the associations between keeping antibiotics at home and SMA among Chinese university students. METHODS: Six provinces were purposely selected from six regions of China, and one multi-disciplinary university was selected from each chosen province...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ramesh K Wali, Laura Bianchi, Sonia Kupfer, Mart De La Cruz, Borko Jovanovic, Christopher Weber, Michael J Goldberg, L M Rodriguez, Raymond Bergan, David Rubin, Mary Beth Tull, Ellen Richmond, Beth Parker, Seema Khan, Hemant K Roy
Chemoprevention represents an attractive modality against colorectal cancer (CRC) although widespread clinical implementation of promising agents (e.g. aspirin/NSAIDS) have been stymied by both suboptimal efficacy and concerns over toxicity. This highlights the need for better agents. Several groups, including our own, have reported that the over-the-counter laxative polyethylene glycol (PEG) has remarkable efficacy in rodent models of colon carcinogenesis. In this study, we undertook the first randomized human trial to address the role of PEG in prevention of human colonic neoplasia...
2018: PloS One
Siddhant Sethi, Shigetaka Nakamura, Kenzo Fujimoto
Gene therapies, including genome editing, RNAi, anti-sense technology and chemical DNA editing are becoming major methods for the treatment of genetic disorders. Techniques like CRISPR-Cas9, zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector-based nuclease (TALEN) are a few such enzymatic techniques. Most enzymatic genome editing techniques have their disadvantages. Thus, non-enzymatic and non-invasive technologies for nucleic acid editing has been reported in this study which might possess some advantages over the older methods of DNA manipulation...
April 4, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Maria Qatato, Joanna Szumska, Vladislav Skripnik, Eddy Rijntjes, Josef Köhrle, Klaudia Brix
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (Taar1) has been suggested as putative receptor of thyronamines. These are aminergic messengers with potential metabolic and neurological effects countering their contingent precursors, the thyroid hormones (THs). Recently, we found Taar1 to be localized at the primary cilia of rodent thyroid epithelial cells in vitro and in situ . Thus, Taar1 is present in a location of thyroid follicles where it might be involved in regulation of cathepsin-mediated proteolytic processing of thyroglobulin, and consequently TH synthesis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Adrian O'Dowd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Svend Berger, Jürgen Nolde, Timucin Yüksel, Wolfgang Tremel, Mihail Mondeshki
Soluble inorganic aluminium compounds like aluminium sulfate or aluminium chloride have been challenged by the European Chemical Agency to induce germ cell mutagenicity. Before conducting mutagenicity tests, the hydrolysis products in water and in physiological solutions should be determined as a function of the concentration and pH. We used different27 Al NMR spectroscopic techniques (heteronuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (HOESY), exchange spectroscopy (EXSY), diffusion ordered (DOSY)) in this work to gain the information to study the aluminium species in solutions with Al₂(SO₄)₃ concentrations of 50...
April 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kelsey DeSalvo, Carol A Stamm, Laura M Borgelt
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reported amount of 14 vitamins and 10 minerals in over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription (Rx) prenatal multivitamins and minerals (PMVMs) and compare them to the Health and Medicine Division (HMD) of the National Academies recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) and tolerable upper intake levels for intake. DESIGN: Observational convenience sample of supplemental facts labels on OTC and Rx PMVMs identified and evaluated from online retailers, grocery stores, and pharmacies...
March 28, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
James Keaveney
We present a simple and convenient, high-resolution solution for automated laser-beam profiling with axial translation. The device is based on a Raspberry Pi computer, Pi Noir CMOS camera, stepper motor, and commercial translation stage. We also provide software to run the device. The CMOS sensor is sensitive over a large wavelength range between 300 and 1100 nm and can be translated over 25 mm along the beam axis. The sensor head can be reversed without changing its axial position, allowing for a quantitative estimate of beam overlap with counter-propagating laser beams...
March 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
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