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lymphatic system

Burcin Yavuz, Uday B Kompella
Although the eye is an accessible organ for direct drug application, ocular drug delivery remains a major challenge due to multiple barriers within the eye. Key barriers include static barriers imposed by the cornea, conjunctiva, and retinal pigment epithelium and dynamic barriers including tear turnover and blood and lymphatic clearance mechanisms. Systemic administration by oral and parenteral routes is limited by static blood-tissue barriers that include epithelial and endothelial layers, in addition to rapid vascular clearance mechanisms...
October 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Natalie E Taylor, Sarah E Baker, Thomas P Olson, Sophie Lalande, Bruce D Johnson, Eric M Snyder
BACKGROUND: Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) are located throughout the body including airway and alveolar cells. The β2ARs regulate lung fluid clearance through a variety of mechanisms including ion transport on alveolar cells and relaxation of the pulmonary lymphatics. We examined the effect of an inhaled β2-agonist (albuterol) on alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) in healthy humans. METHODS: We assessed the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) at baseline, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes following nebulized albuterol (2...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
Christina Huang Wright, Dorian Kusyk, William S Rosenberg, Jennifer A Sweet
Lymphangiomatosis is a rare congenital disorder that results in multiorgan system lymphatic invasion. Symptoms due to axial skeletal involvement can range from chronic bone pain to severe deformity resulting in radiculopathy, myelopathy, and even paralysis. The authors present a case of lymphangiomatosis of the clivus, C-1, and C-2, resulting in chronic pain. The patient was successfully treated with percutaneous transoral clivoplasty and vertebroplasty, without disease progression or return of symptoms at 2 years...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Priya D Farooq, Darryn R Potosky
We present the case of a patient who presented with signs and symptoms associated with a Klatskin tumor. After endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and biopsy, she was found instead to have granulomatous infiltration of the extrahepatic biliary tree consistent with biliary sarcoidosis. The patient was treated successfully with systemic corticosteroids and azathioprine. She later developed cutaneous, lymphatic, and pulmonary granulomatous disease. Isolated biliary disease is a rare initial presentation of systemic sarcoidosis...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
Tumor progression and response to treatment is determined in large part by the generation of mechanical stresses that stem from both the solid and the fluid phase of the tumor. Furthermore, elevated solid stress levels can regulate fluid stresses by compressing intratumoral blood and lymphatic vessels. Blood vessel compression reduces tumor perfusion, while compression of lymphatic vessels hinders the ability of the tumor to drain excessive fluid from its interstitial space contributing to the uniform elevation of the interstitial fluid pressure...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Mar Llamas-Velasco, Victoria Alegría, Ángel Santos-Briz, Lorenzo Cerroni, Heinz Kutzner, Luis Requena
We review the most characteristic clinical and histopathologic findings of the cutaneous manifestations of the occlusive nonvasculitic vasculopathic disorders. Clinically, most of these conditions are characterized by retiform purpura. Histopathologic findings consist of occlusion of the vessel lumina with no vasculitis. Different disorders may produce nonvasculitic occlusive vasculopathy in cutaneous blood and lymphatic vessels, including embolization due to cholesterol and oxalate emboli, cutaneous intravascular metastasis from visceral malignancies, atrial myxomas, intravascular angiosarcoma, intralymphatic histiocytosis, intravascular lymphomas, endocarditis, crystal globulin vasculopathy, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and foreign material...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Funda Coskun, Mutlu Karkucak, Dilber Yilmaz, Tahsin Yakut, Esra Uzaslan
INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown cause, which affects all systems, especially the lungs and the lymphatic system. Genetic and environmental factors are held accountable for the etiology. Based on the general opinion, sarcoidosis develops after exposure to a specific environmental agent by genetically susceptible individuals.  The present study aimed to evaluate the disease susceptibility of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms in the patients with sarcoidosis...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Hisako Hara, Makoto Mihara, Kyoko Hasegawa, Kazuko Yamanaka
OBJECTIVE: Although the lymphatic complications such as lymphocele sometimes occur after surgery for varicose veins, the lymphatic function of such patients has not been evaluated. In this case report, we present a case of lymphocele after ligation surgery for varicose vein. We also detected subclinical dysfunction in lower limb using indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography. CASE REPORT: A 76 year- old female underwent ligation surgery for right lower leg varicose vein, and she noticed the squashy lesion in the medial side of the right knee...
2016: SAGE Open Med Case Rep
R J Kastner, C M Stone, P Steinmann, M Tanner, F Tediosi
In the last few years, the concepts of disease elimination and eradication have again gained consideration from the global health community, with Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) on track to become the first parasitic disease to be eradicated. Given the many complex and interlinking issues involved in committing to a disease eradication initiative, such commitments must be based on a solid assessment of a broad range of factors. In this chapter, we discuss the value and implications of undertaking a systematic and fact-based analysis of the overall situation prior to embarking on an elimination or eradication programme...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
J J Jiang, H K Qing, X M Zhang, X M Zhang, W Li, C Y Shen, Q L Li, Y Jiao
OBJECTIVE: To compare total percutaneous access using preclose technique with femoral artery cut-down in endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and assess the safety and feasibility of preclose technique. METHODS: In the study, 81 cases undergoing EVAR from Dec. 2011 to Nov. 2014 in Peking University People's Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative CT angiography (CTA) showed presence of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm or descending aortic aneurysm in all the cases...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Caiyun Tang, Lingqi Gong, Wenli Zou, Jie Zhang, Yuqian Zhou, Xiaoping Wu, Fanggen Lu, Chunhui Ouyang, Xiaowei Liu
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP‑NETs) are relatively uncommon. Unfortunately, epidemiological studies on the incidence of GEP‑NETs worldwide have reported a marked increase in the detection of these tumors. Although they often exhibit relatively indolent clinical courses, GEP‑NETs have the potential for lethal progression, especially in patients who present with advanced disease. Early detection and surgical removal is currently the only reliable curative treatment for GEP‑NET patients...
October 13, 2016: Oncology Reports
Lynne Pearce
Essential facts Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a cancer of the lymphatic system. According to Cancer Research UK, it is the sixth most common cancer in the UK, with 13,413 new cases diagnosed in 2013. There were 4,801 deaths from NHL in 2014. The disease has many subtypes, with two main broad categories: high-grade or aggressive and low-grade or indolent.
September 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
Stefan Mogk, Christian M Boßelmann, Celestin N Mudogo, Jasmin Stein, Hartwig Wolburg, Michael Duszenko
African trypanosomes induce sleeping sickness. The parasites are transmitted during the blood meal of a tsetse fly and appear primarily in blood and lymph vessels, before they enter the central nervous system. During the latter stage, trypanosomes induce a deregulation of sleep-wake cycles and some additional neurological disorders. Historically, it was assumed that trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier and settle somewhere between the brain cells. The brain, however, is a strictly controlled and immune-privileged area that is completely surrounded by a dense barrier that covers the blood vessels: this is the blood-brain barrier...
October 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Georgios Lolas, Lasse Jensen, George C Bourantas, Vasiliki Tsikourkitoudi, Konstantinos Syrigos
With the exception of a limited number of sites in the body, primary tumors infrequently lead to the demise of cancer patients. Instead, mortality and a significant degree of morbidity result from the growth of secondary tumors in distant organs. Tumor survival, growth and dissemination are associated with the formation of both new blood vessels (angiogenesis) and new lymph vessels (lymphagenesis or lymphangiogenesis). Although intensive research in tumor angiogenesis has been going on for the past four decades, experimental results in tumor lymphangiogenesis began to appear only in the last 10 years...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Anand J Asia, Vaibhav N Tapre
Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection of subcutaneous tissues caused by bacterium Actinomyces israelii. It is a normal commensal of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and vagina. Infection is first established locally by breach of mucosal barrier during various procedures, aspiration, trauma, or human bite. Rarely, it may spread through hematogenous and lymphatic system. We present a case of actinomycosis involving the vulva, extending to the inguinal region along with inguinal lymphadenopathy...
September 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Daniel Jons, Maria Kneider, Linda Fogelstrand, Anders Jeppsson, Stefan Jacobsson, Oluf Andersen
Contemporary evidence supports that MS immunopathology starts in the peripheral lymphatic system. However, the site and character of crucial initiating events are unknown. We examined subsets of the first stages of blood cells in the bone marrow of 9 MS patients and 11 neurologically healthy controls using FACS analysis. The proportion of natural killer T cells was lower (P=0.045) in the bone marrow of MS patients, but proportions of hematogenous stem cells, myeloblasts, and B cell precursor subsets in the bone marrow did not differ between MS patients and controls...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Alexandre Poulin, Cansaran Saygili Demir, Samuel Rosset, Tatiana V Petrova, Herbert Shea
We demonstrate the use of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) for mechanical stimulation of cells in vitro. The development of living tissues is regulated by their mechanical environment through the modification of fundamental cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation and gene expression. Mechanical cues have been linked to numerous pathological conditions, and progress in cellular mechanobiology could lead to better diagnosis and treatments of diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancers...
September 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Buddolla Viswanath, Sanghyo Kim
Currently, nanotechnology revolutionizing both scientific and industrial community due to their applications in the fields of medicine, environmental protection, energy, and space exploration. Despite of the evident benefits of nanoparticles, there are still open questions about the influence of these nanoparticles on human health and environment. This is one of the critical issues that have to be addressed in the near future, before massive production of nanomaterials. Manufactured nanoparticles, which are finding ever-increasing applications in industry and consumer products fall into the category of emerging contaminants with ecological and toxicological effects on populations, communities and ecosystems...
October 8, 2016: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Guillermo García-Cardeña, Bendix R Slegtenhorst
Biomechanical forces are emerging as critical regulators of embryogenesis, particularly in the developing cardiovascular system. From the onset of blood flow, the embryonic vasculature is continuously exposed to a variety of hemodynamic forces. These biomechanical stimuli are key determinants of vascular cell specification and remodeling and the establishment of vascular homeostasis. In recent years, major advances have been made in our understanding of mechano-activated signaling networks that control both spatiotemporal and structural aspects of vascular development...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Jinbiao Liu, Qianhao Xiao, Runhong Zhou, Yong Wang, Qiaoyang Xian, Tongcui Ma, Ke Zhuang, Li Zhou, Deyin Guo, Xu Wang, Wen-Zhe Ho, Jieliang Li
Altered T-cell homeostasis, such as expansion of CD8(+) T cells to the secondary lymphatic compartments, has been suggested as a mechanism of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-pathogenesis. However, the role of immune activation of CD8(+) T cells in the CD4/CD8 turnover and viral replication in these tissues is not completely understood. In this study, we compared the expression of immune activation markers (CD69 and HLA-DR) on CD8(+) T cells in the peripheral blood and lymph nodes (LNs) of SIV-infected/uninfected Chinese rhesus macaques...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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