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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911783/deglacial-temperature-history-of-west-antarctica
#1
Kurt M Cuffey, Gary D Clow, Eric J Steig, Christo Buizert, T J Fudge, Michelle Koutnik, Edwin D Waddington, Richard B Alley, Jeffrey P Severinghaus
The most recent glacial to interglacial transition constitutes a remarkable natural experiment for learning how Earth's climate responds to various forcings, including a rise in atmospheric CO2 This transition has left a direct thermal remnant in the polar ice sheets, where the exceptional purity and continual accumulation of ice permit analyses not possible in other settings. For Antarctica, the deglacial warming has previously been constrained only by the water isotopic composition in ice cores, without an absolute thermometric assessment of the isotopes' sensitivity to temperature...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760787/phylogenomic-reconstruction-of-sportive-lemurs-genus-lepilemur-recovered-from-mitogenomes-with-inferences-for-madagascar-biogeography
#2
Runhua Lei, Cynthia L Frasier, Melissa T R Hawkins, Shannon E Engberg, Carolyn A Bailey, Steig E Johnson, Adam T McLain, Colin P Groves, George H Perry, Stephen D Nash, Russell A Mittermeier, Edward E Louis
The family Lepilemuridae includes 26 species of sportive lemurs, most of which were recently described. The cryptic morphological differences confounded taxonomy until recent molecular studies; however, some species' boundaries remain uncertain. To better understand the genus Lepilemur, we analyzed 35 complete mitochondrial genomes representing all recognized 26 sportive lemur taxa and estimated divergence dates. With our dataset we recovered 25 reciprocally monophyletic lineages, as well as an admixed clade containing Lepilemur mittermeieri and Lepilemur dorsalis Using modern distribution data, an ancestral area reconstruction and an ecological vicariance analysis were performed to trace the history of diversification and to test biogeographic hypotheses...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469283/routine-high-precision-analysis-of-triple-water-isotope-ratios-using-cavity-ring-down-spectroscopy
#3
Andrew J Schauer, Spruce W Schoenemann, Eric J Steig
RATIONALE: Water isotope analysis for δ(2) H and δ(18) O values via laser spectroscopy is routine for many laboratories. While recent work has added the δ(17) O value to the high-precision suite, it does not follow that researchers will routinely obtain high precision (17) O excess (Δ(17) O). We demonstrate the routine acquisition of high-precision δ(2) H, δ(17) O, δ(18) O, d, and Δ(17) O values using a commercially available laser spectroscopy instrument. METHODS: We use a Picarro L2140-i cavity ring-down spectroscopy analyzer with discrete liquid injections into an A0211 vaporization module by a Leap Technologies LC PAL autosampler...
September 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465027/rapid-evolution-of-genomic-imprinting-in-two-species-of-the-brassicaceae
#4
Marcelinus R Hatorangan, Benjamin Laenen, Kim A Steige, Tanja Slotte, Claudia Köhler
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon occurring in mammals and flowering plants that causes genes to adopt a parent-of-origin-specific mode of expression. While the imprinting status of genes is well conserved in mammals, clear estimates for the degree of conservation were lacking in plants. We therefore analyzed the genome-wide imprinting status of Capsella rubella, which shared a common recent ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana ∼10 to 14 million years ago. However, only ∼14% of maternally expressed genes (MEGs) and ∼29% of paternally expressed genes (PEGs) in C...
August 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443735/climate-science-cooling-in-the-antarctic
#5
COMMENT
Eric J Steig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118739/relapsing-peritonitis-with-bacillus-cereus-in-a-patient-on-continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis
#6
Eyð Tausen Magnussen, Amanda Gratton Vang, Torkil á Steig, Shahin Gaini
We present a case where Bacillus cereus was determined to be the causative agent of relapsing peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient, a 70-year-old man from the Faroe Islands, was admitted with relapsing peritonitis four times over a 3-month period. Peritoneal cultures were positive for growth of B. cereus, a rare bacterial cause of peritonitis. The cultures demonstrated susceptibility to vancomycin, and therefore the patient was treated with intraperitoneal vancomycin, intraperitoneal gentamycin and oral ciprofloxacin...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26943938/genomic-legacies-of-the-progenitors-and-the-evolutionary-consequences-of-allopolyploidy
#7
REVIEW
Kim A Steige, Tanja Slotte
The formation of an allopolyploid species involves the merger of genomes with separate evolutionary histories and thereby different genomic legacies. Contrary to expectations from theory, genes from one are often lost preferentially in allopolyploids - there is biased fractionation. Here, we provide an overview of two ways in which the genomic legacies of the progenitors may impact the fate of duplicated genes in allopolyploids. Specifically, we discuss the role of homeolog expression biases in setting the stage for biased fractionation, and the evidence for transposable element silencing as a possible mechanism for homeolog expression biases...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903882/exercise-decreases-lipogenic-gene-expression-in-adipose-tissue-and-alters-adipocyte-cellularity-during-weight-regain-after-weight-loss
#8
Erin D Giles, Amy J Steig, Matthew R Jackman, Janine A Higgins, Ginger C Johnson, Rachel C Lindstrom, Paul S MacLean
Exercise is a potent strategy to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. In addition to increasing energy expenditure and reducing appetite, exercise also favors the oxidation of dietary fat, which likely helps prevent weight re-gain. It is unclear whether this exercise-induced metabolic shift is due to changes in energy balance, or whether exercise imparts additional adaptations in the periphery that limit the storage and favor the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose tissue lipid metabolism and related gene expression were studied in obese rats following weight loss and during the first day of relapse to obesity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26838462/evidence-for-the-stability-of-the-west-antarctic-ice-sheet-divide-for-1-4-million-years
#9
Andrew S Hein, John Woodward, Shasta M Marrero, Stuart A Dunning, Eric J Steig, Stewart P H T Freeman, Finlay M Stuart, Kate Winter, Matthew J Westoby, David E Sugden
Past fluctuations of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) are of fundamental interest because of the possibility of WAIS collapse in the future and a consequent rise in global sea level. However, the configuration and stability of the ice sheet during past interglacial periods remains uncertain. Here we present geomorphological evidence and multiple cosmogenic nuclide data from the southern Ellsworth Mountains to suggest that the divide of the WAIS has fluctuated only modestly in location and thickness for at least the last 1...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26318184/cis-regulatory-changes-associated-with-a-recent-mating-system-shift-and-floral-adaptation-in-capsella
#10
Kim A Steige, Johan Reimegård, Daniel Koenig, Douglas G Scofield, Tanja Slotte
The selfing syndrome constitutes a suite of floral and reproductive trait changes that have evolved repeatedly across many evolutionary lineages in response to the shift to selfing. Convergent evolution of the selfing syndrome suggests that these changes are adaptive, yet our understanding of the detailed molecular genetic basis of the selfing syndrome remains limited. Here, we investigate the role of cis-regulatory changes during the recent evolution of the selfing syndrome in Capsella rubella, which split from the outcrosser Capsella grandiflora less than 200 ka...
October 2015: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25856241/predicting-plant-diversity-patterns-in-madagascar-understanding-the-effects-of-climate-and-land-cover-change-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#11
Kerry A Brown, Katherine E Parks, Colin A Bethell, Steig E Johnson, Mark Mulligan
Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence records for 828 plant genera and 2186 plant species...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25691747/hybrid-origins-and-the-earliest-stages-of-diploidization-in-the-highly-successful-recent-polyploid-capsella-bursa-pastoris
#12
Gavin M Douglas, Gesseca Gos, Kim A Steige, Adriana Salcedo, Karl Holm, Emily B Josephs, Ramesh Arunkumar, J Arvid Ågren, Khaled M Hazzouri, Wei Wang, Adrian E Platts, Robert J Williamson, Barbara Neuffer, Martin Lascoux, Tanja Slotte, Stephen I Wright
Whole-genome duplication (WGD) events have occurred repeatedly during flowering plant evolution, and there is growing evidence for predictable patterns of gene retention and loss following polyploidization. Despite these important insights, the rate and processes governing the earliest stages of diploidization remain poorly understood, and the relative importance of genetic drift, positive selection, and relaxed purifying selection in the process of gene degeneration and loss is unclear. Here, we conduct whole-genome resequencing in Capsella bursa-pastoris, a recently formed tetraploid with one of the most widespread species distributions of any angiosperm...
March 3, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25355363/centennial-scale-changes-in-the-global-carbon-cycle-during-the-last-deglaciation
#13
Shaun A Marcott, Thomas K Bauska, Christo Buizert, Eric J Steig, Julia L Rosen, Kurt M Cuffey, T J Fudge, Jeffery P Severinghaus, Jinho Ahn, Michael L Kalk, Joseph R McConnell, Todd Sowers, Kendrick C Taylor, James W C White, Edward J Brook
Global climate and the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are correlated over recent glacial cycles. The combination of processes responsible for a rise in atmospheric CO2 at the last glacial termination (23,000 to 9,000 years ago), however, remains uncertain. Establishing the timing and rate of CO2 changes in the past provides critical insight into the mechanisms that influence the carbon cycle and helps put present and future anthropogenic emissions in context. Here we present CO2 and methane (CH4) records of the last deglaciation from a new high-accumulation West Antarctic ice core with unprecedented temporal resolution and precise chronology...
October 30, 2014: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25077019/species-level-view-of-population-structure-and-gene-flow-for-a-critically-endangered-primate-varecia-variegata
#14
Andrea L Baden, Sheila M Holmes, Steig E Johnson, Shannon E Engberg, Edward E Louis, Brenda J Bradley
Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow is maintained among remnant populations will help to diagnose and target conservation priorities...
July 2014: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24805345/tropical-forcing-of-the-recent-rapid-arctic-warming-in-northeastern-canada-and-greenland
#15
Qinghua Ding, John M Wallace, David S Battisti, Eric J Steig, Ailie J E Gallant, Hyung-Jin Kim, Lei Geng
Rapid Arctic warming and sea-ice reduction in the Arctic Ocean are widely attributed to anthropogenic climate change. The Arctic warming exceeds the global average warming because of feedbacks that include sea-ice reduction and other dynamical and radiative feedbacks. We find that the most prominent annual mean surface and tropospheric warming in the Arctic since 1979 has occurred in northeastern Canada and Greenland. In this region, much of the year-to-year temperature variability is associated with the leading mode of large-scale circulation variability in the North Atlantic, namely, the North Atlantic Oscillation...
May 8, 2014: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24711383/nitrogen-isotopes-in-ice-core-nitrate-linked-to-anthropogenic-atmospheric-acidity-change
#16
Lei Geng, Becky Alexander, Jihong Cole-Dai, Eric J Steig, Joël Savarino, Eric D Sofen, Andrew J Schauer
Nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ(15)N) in Greenland snow nitrate and in North American remote lake sediments has decreased gradually beginning as early as ∼1850 Christian Era. This decrease was attributed to increasing atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic nitrate, reflecting an anthropogenic impact on the global nitrogen cycle, and the impact was thought to be amplified ∼1970. However, our subannually resolved ice core records of δ(15)N and major ions (e.g., NO3(-), SO4(2-)) over the last ∼200 y show that the decrease in δ(15)N is not always associated with increasing NO3(-) concentrations, and the decreasing trend actually leveled off ∼1970...
April 22, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24385606/strong-sensitivity-of-pine-island-ice-shelf-melting-to-climatic-variability
#17
Pierre Dutrieux, Jan De Rydt, Adrian Jenkins, Paul R Holland, Ho Kyung Ha, Sang Hoon Lee, Eric J Steig, Qinghua Ding, E Povl Abrahamsen, Michael Schröder
Pine Island Glacier has thinned and accelerated over recent decades, significantly contributing to global sea-level rise. Increased oceanic melting of its ice shelf is thought to have triggered those changes. Observations and numerical modeling reveal large fluctuations in the ocean heat available in the adjacent bay and enhanced sensitivity of ice-shelf melting to water temperatures at intermediate depth, as a seabed ridge blocks the deepest and warmest waters from reaching the thickest ice. Oceanic melting decreased by 50% between January 2010 and 2012, with ocean conditions in 2012 partly attributable to atmospheric forcing associated with a strong La Niña event...
January 10, 2014: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24205149/sequence-evolution-and-expression-regulation-of-stress-responsive-genes-in-natural-populations-of-wild-tomato
#18
Iris Fischer, Kim A Steige, Wolfgang Stephan, Mamadou Mboup
The wild tomato species Solanum chilense and S. peruvianum are a valuable non-model system for studying plant adaptation since they grow in diverse environments facing many abiotic constraints. Here we investigate the sequence evolution of regulatory regions of drought and cold responsive genes and their expression regulation. The coding regions of these genes were previously shown to exhibit signatures of positive selection. Expression profiles and sequence evolution of regulatory regions of members of the Asr (ABA/water stress/ripening induced) gene family and the dehydrin gene pLC30-15 were analyzed in wild tomato populations from contrasting environments...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23749190/the-capsella-rubella-genome-and-the-genomic-consequences-of-rapid-mating-system-evolution
#19
Tanja Slotte, Khaled M Hazzouri, J Arvid Ågren, Daniel Koenig, Florian Maumus, Ya-Long Guo, Kim Steige, Adrian E Platts, Juan S Escobar, L Killian Newman, Wei Wang, Terezie Mandáková, Emilio Vello, Lisa M Smith, Stefan R Henz, Joshua Steffen, Shohei Takuno, Yaniv Brandvain, Graham Coop, Peter Andolfatto, Tina T Hu, Mathieu Blanchette, Richard M Clark, Hadi Quesneville, Magnus Nordborg, Brandon S Gaut, Martin A Lysak, Jerry Jenkins, Jane Grimwood, Jarrod Chapman, Simon Prochnik, Shengqiang Shu, Daniel Rokhsar, Jeremy Schmutz, Detlef Weigel, Stephen I Wright
The shift from outcrossing to selfing is common in flowering plants, but the genomic consequences and the speed at which they emerge remain poorly understood. An excellent model for understanding the evolution of self fertilization is provided by Capsella rubella, which became self compatible <200,000 years ago. We report a C. rubella reference genome sequence and compare RNA expression and polymorphism patterns between C. rubella and its outcrossing progenitor Capsella grandiflora. We found a clear shift in the expression of genes associated with flowering phenotypes, similar to that seen in Arabidopsis, in which self fertilization evolved about 1 million years ago...
July 2013: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23595644/females-are-the-ecological-sex-sex-specific-body-mass-ecogeography-in-wild-sifaka-populations-propithecus-spp
#20
Adam D Gordon, Steig E Johnson, Edward E Louis
Previous work in primates has shown that body size often covaries with ecological parameters related to resource or energy availability in the environment. This relationship may differ for males and females as access to resources has greater importance for reproductive success in females. We test the hypotheses that (1) female body mass may be more tightly constrained than male body mass by ecological variables, and (2) female body mass may respond more strongly than male body mass to changes in ecological variables (i...
May 2013: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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