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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301967/demography-and-mating-system-shape-the-genome-wide-impact-of-purifying-selection-in-arabis-alpina
#1
Benjamin Laenen, Andrew Tedder, Michael D Nowak, Per Toräng, Jörg Wunder, Stefan Wötzel, Kim A Steige, Yiannis Kourmpetis, Thomas Odong, Andreas D Drouzas, Marco C A M Bink, Jon Ågren, George Coupland, Tanja Slotte
Plant mating systems have profound effects on levels and structuring of genetic variation and can affect the impact of natural selection. Although theory predicts that intermediate outcrossing rates may allow plants to prevent accumulation of deleterious alleles, few studies have empirically tested this prediction using genomic data. Here, we study the effect of mating system on purifying selection by conducting population-genomic analyses on whole-genome resequencing data from 38 European individuals of the arctic-alpine crucifer Arabis alpina We find that outcrossing and mixed-mating populations maintain genetic diversity at similar levels, whereas highly self-fertilizing Scandinavian A...
January 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298783/peritonitis-with-listeria-monocytogenes-in-a-patient-on-automated-peritoneal-dialysis
#2
Hanna Bjarkhamar Poulsen, Torkil Á Steig, Jonas T Björkman, Shahin Gaini
We present a case where Listeria monocytogenesserotype 1/2a was determined to be the causative agent of peritonitis in a patient on automated peritoneal dialysis. The patient, a 53-year-old Caucasian woman from the Faroe Islands was admitted to the National Hospital reporting of constant abdominal pain and a fever. Peritoneal cultures were positive for growth of L. monocytogenes. The patient was successfully treated with oral amoxicillin for 2 weeks and intraperitoneal vancomycin for 3 weeks. To date, the patient has not been readmitted due to peritonitis...
January 3, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234707/point-of-care-testing-of-fecal-calprotectin-as-a-substitute-for-routine-laboratory-analysis
#3
Julie Hejl, Klaus Theede, Brian Møllgren, Kirsten Vikkelsø Madsen, Ashraf Heidari, Anna Á Steig, Mogens Fenger
Objectives: Fecal calprotectin (FC) is widely used to monitor the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to tailor medical treatment to disease activity. Laboratory testing of fecal samples may have a turnaround time of 1-2 weeks, whereas FC home testing allows results within hours and thus enables a rapid response to clinical deterioration. Design and methods: Fifty-five stool samples were analyzed by the IBDoc® Calprotectin Home Testing kit and the BÜHLMANN fCAL® turbo assay on a Roche Cobas 6000 c501...
March 2018: Practical Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648168/-mitral-valve-endocarditis-diagnosed-after-panophthalmitis-with-enterococcus-faecalis
#4
Kasper Kyhl, Peter Bomholt Hansen, Elin Holm, Torkil Á Steig, Rudi Kollslíð, Shahin Gaïni
An 86-year-old man underwent cataract surgery on the left eye, but suddenly he lost his vision three days after surgery. Topical treatments for panophthalmitis were started according to international guidelines. Later, a broad-range polymerase chain reaction showed Enterococcus faecalis in corpus vitreum, and IV antiobiotic treatment was initiated. To exclude endocarditis an echocardiography was performed, and this showed mitral regurgitation with a small mobile vegetation. Uncertainty concerning a possible causality between panophthalmitis and mitral valve endocarditis remains...
June 26, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380489/moyamoya-in-a-patient-with-smith-magenis-syndrome
#5
Jacob Freeman, Frederic Deleyiannis, Timothy J Bernard, Laura Z Fenton, Steig Somme, C Corbett Wilkinson
Occurrence of moyamoya syndrome in a patient with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) has previously been reported once in a 10-year-old Asian female. We report a second case of moyamoya in a patient with SMS, in a now 25-year-old Asian female diagnosed with both conditions as a child. In addition to describing her medical and surgical history, we provide a detailed report of her omental transposition, in which the omental circulation was anastomosed to the superior thyroid artery and external jugular vein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of omental transposition for moyamoya in which omental vessels are anastomosed to vessels in the neck, as well as the second report of moyamoya in a patient with SMS...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173059/phylogenomic-reconstruction-of-sportive-lemurs-genus-lepilemur-recovered-from-mitogenomes-with-inferences-for-madagascar-biogeography
#6
Runhua Lei, Cynthia L Frasier, Melissa T R Hawkins, Shannon E Engberg, Carolyn A Bailey, Steig E Johnson, Adam T McLain, Colin P Groves, George H Perry, Stephen D Nash, Russell A Mittermeier, Edward E Louis
The family Lepilemuridae includes 26 species of sportive lemurs, most of which were recently described. The cryptic morphological differences confounded taxonomy until recent molecular studies; however, some species’ boundaries remain uncertain. To better understand the genus Lepilemur, we analyzed 35 complete mitochondrial genomes representing all recognized 26 sportive lemur taxa and estimated divergence dates. With our dataset we recovered 25 reciprocally monophyletic lineages, as well as an admixed clade containing Lepilemur mittermeieri and Lepilemur dorsalis...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096395/genomic-analysis-reveals-major-determinants-of-cis-regulatory-variation-in-capsella-grandiflora
#7
Kim A Steige, Benjamin Laenen, Johan Reimegård, Douglas G Scofield, Tanja Slotte
Understanding the causes of cis-regulatory variation is a long-standing aim in evolutionary biology. Although cis-regulatory variation has long been considered important for adaptation, we still have a limited understanding of the selective importance and genomic determinants of standing cis-regulatory variation. To address these questions, we studied the prevalence, genomic determinants, and selective forces shaping cis-regulatory variation in the outcrossing plant Capsella grandiflora We first identified a set of 1,010 genes with common cis-regulatory variation using analyses of allele-specific expression (ASE)...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911783/deglacial-temperature-history-of-west-antarctica
#8
Kurt M Cuffey, Gary D Clow, Eric J Steig, Christo Buizert, T J Fudge, Michelle Koutnik, Edwin D Waddington, Richard B Alley, Jeffrey P Severinghaus
The most recent glacial to interglacial transition constitutes a remarkable natural experiment for learning how Earth's climate responds to various forcings, including a rise in atmospheric CO2 This transition has left a direct thermal remnant in the polar ice sheets, where the exceptional purity and continual accumulation of ice permit analyses not possible in other settings. For Antarctica, the deglacial warming has previously been constrained only by the water isotopic composition in ice cores, without an absolute thermometric assessment of the isotopes' sensitivity to temperature...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760787/phylogenomic-reconstruction-of-sportive-lemurs-genus-lepilemur-recovered-from-mitogenomes-with-inferences-for-madagascar-biogeography
#9
Runhua Lei, Cynthia L Frasier, Melissa T R Hawkins, Shannon E Engberg, Carolyn A Bailey, Steig E Johnson, Adam T McLain, Colin P Groves, George H Perry, Stephen D Nash, Russell A Mittermeier, Edward E Louis
The family Lepilemuridae includes 26 species of sportive lemurs, most of which were recently described. The cryptic morphological differences confounded taxonomy until recent molecular studies; however, some species' boundaries remain uncertain. To better understand the genus Lepilemur, we analyzed 35 complete mitochondrial genomes representing all recognized 26 sportive lemur taxa and estimated divergence dates. With our dataset we recovered 25 reciprocally monophyletic lineages, as well as an admixed clade containing Lepilemur mittermeieri and Lepilemur dorsalis Using modern distribution data, an ancestral area reconstruction and an ecological vicariance analysis were performed to trace the history of diversification and to test biogeographic hypotheses...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469283/routine-high-precision-analysis-of-triple-water-isotope-ratios-using-cavity-ring-down-spectroscopy
#10
Andrew J Schauer, Spruce W Schoenemann, Eric J Steig
RATIONALE: Water isotope analysis for δ(2) H and δ(18) O values via laser spectroscopy is routine for many laboratories. While recent work has added the δ(17) O value to the high-precision suite, it does not follow that researchers will routinely obtain high precision (17) O excess (Δ(17) O). We demonstrate the routine acquisition of high-precision δ(2) H, δ(17) O, δ(18) O, d, and Δ(17) O values using a commercially available laser spectroscopy instrument. METHODS: We use a Picarro L2140-i cavity ring-down spectroscopy analyzer with discrete liquid injections into an A0211 vaporization module by a Leap Technologies LC PAL autosampler...
September 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465027/rapid-evolution-of-genomic-imprinting-in-two-species-of-the-brassicaceae
#11
Marcelinus R Hatorangan, Benjamin Laenen, Kim A Steige, Tanja Slotte, Claudia Köhler
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon occurring in mammals and flowering plants that causes genes to adopt a parent-of-origin-specific mode of expression. While the imprinting status of genes is well conserved in mammals, clear estimates for the degree of conservation were lacking in plants. We therefore analyzed the genome-wide imprinting status of Capsella rubella, which shared a common recent ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana ∼10 to 14 million years ago. However, only ∼14% of maternally expressed genes (MEGs) and ∼29% of paternally expressed genes (PEGs) in C...
August 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443735/climate-science-cooling-in-the-antarctic
#12
COMMENT
Eric J Steig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118739/relapsing-peritonitis-with-bacillus-cereus-in-a-patient-on-continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis
#13
Eyð Tausen Magnussen, Amanda Gratton Vang, Torkil á Steig, Shahin Gaini
We present a case where Bacillus cereus was determined to be the causative agent of relapsing peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient, a 70-year-old man from the Faroe Islands, was admitted with relapsing peritonitis four times over a 3-month period. Peritoneal cultures were positive for growth of B. cereus, a rare bacterial cause of peritonitis. The cultures demonstrated susceptibility to vancomycin, and therefore the patient was treated with intraperitoneal vancomycin, intraperitoneal gentamycin and oral ciprofloxacin...
April 26, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26943938/genomic-legacies-of-the-progenitors-and-the-evolutionary-consequences-of-allopolyploidy
#14
REVIEW
Kim A Steige, Tanja Slotte
The formation of an allopolyploid species involves the merger of genomes with separate evolutionary histories and thereby different genomic legacies. Contrary to expectations from theory, genes from one are often lost preferentially in allopolyploids - there is biased fractionation. Here, we provide an overview of two ways in which the genomic legacies of the progenitors may impact the fate of duplicated genes in allopolyploids. Specifically, we discuss the role of homeolog expression biases in setting the stage for biased fractionation, and the evidence for transposable element silencing as a possible mechanism for homeolog expression biases...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903882/exercise-decreases-lipogenic-gene-expression-in-adipose-tissue-and-alters-adipocyte-cellularity-during-weight-regain-after-weight-loss
#15
Erin D Giles, Amy J Steig, Matthew R Jackman, Janine A Higgins, Ginger C Johnson, Rachel C Lindstrom, Paul S MacLean
Exercise is a potent strategy to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. In addition to increasing energy expenditure and reducing appetite, exercise also favors the oxidation of dietary fat, which likely helps prevent weight re-gain. It is unclear whether this exercise-induced metabolic shift is due to changes in energy balance, or whether exercise imparts additional adaptations in the periphery that limit the storage and favor the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose tissue lipid metabolism and related gene expression were studied in obese rats following weight loss and during the first day of relapse to obesity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26838462/evidence-for-the-stability-of-the-west-antarctic-ice-sheet-divide-for-1-4-million-years
#16
Andrew S Hein, John Woodward, Shasta M Marrero, Stuart A Dunning, Eric J Steig, Stewart P H T Freeman, Finlay M Stuart, Kate Winter, Matthew J Westoby, David E Sugden
Past fluctuations of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) are of fundamental interest because of the possibility of WAIS collapse in the future and a consequent rise in global sea level. However, the configuration and stability of the ice sheet during past interglacial periods remains uncertain. Here we present geomorphological evidence and multiple cosmogenic nuclide data from the southern Ellsworth Mountains to suggest that the divide of the WAIS has fluctuated only modestly in location and thickness for at least the last 1...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26318184/cis-regulatory-changes-associated-with-a-recent-mating-system-shift-and-floral-adaptation-in-capsella
#17
Kim A Steige, Johan Reimegård, Daniel Koenig, Douglas G Scofield, Tanja Slotte
The selfing syndrome constitutes a suite of floral and reproductive trait changes that have evolved repeatedly across many evolutionary lineages in response to the shift to selfing. Convergent evolution of the selfing syndrome suggests that these changes are adaptive, yet our understanding of the detailed molecular genetic basis of the selfing syndrome remains limited. Here, we investigate the role of cis-regulatory changes during the recent evolution of the selfing syndrome in Capsella rubella, which split from the outcrosser Capsella grandiflora less than 200 ka...
October 2015: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25856241/predicting-plant-diversity-patterns-in-madagascar-understanding-the-effects-of-climate-and-land-cover-change-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#18
Kerry A Brown, Katherine E Parks, Colin A Bethell, Steig E Johnson, Mark Mulligan
Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence records for 828 plant genera and 2186 plant species...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25691747/hybrid-origins-and-the-earliest-stages-of-diploidization-in-the-highly-successful-recent-polyploid-capsella-bursa-pastoris
#19
Gavin M Douglas, Gesseca Gos, Kim A Steige, Adriana Salcedo, Karl Holm, Emily B Josephs, Ramesh Arunkumar, J Arvid Ågren, Khaled M Hazzouri, Wei Wang, Adrian E Platts, Robert J Williamson, Barbara Neuffer, Martin Lascoux, Tanja Slotte, Stephen I Wright
Whole-genome duplication (WGD) events have occurred repeatedly during flowering plant evolution, and there is growing evidence for predictable patterns of gene retention and loss following polyploidization. Despite these important insights, the rate and processes governing the earliest stages of diploidization remain poorly understood, and the relative importance of genetic drift, positive selection, and relaxed purifying selection in the process of gene degeneration and loss is unclear. Here, we conduct whole-genome resequencing in Capsella bursa-pastoris, a recently formed tetraploid with one of the most widespread species distributions of any angiosperm...
March 3, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25355363/centennial-scale-changes-in-the-global-carbon-cycle-during-the-last-deglaciation
#20
Shaun A Marcott, Thomas K Bauska, Christo Buizert, Eric J Steig, Julia L Rosen, Kurt M Cuffey, T J Fudge, Jeffery P Severinghaus, Jinho Ahn, Michael L Kalk, Joseph R McConnell, Todd Sowers, Kendrick C Taylor, James W C White, Edward J Brook
Global climate and the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are correlated over recent glacial cycles. The combination of processes responsible for a rise in atmospheric CO2 at the last glacial termination (23,000 to 9,000 years ago), however, remains uncertain. Establishing the timing and rate of CO2 changes in the past provides critical insight into the mechanisms that influence the carbon cycle and helps put present and future anthropogenic emissions in context. Here we present CO2 and methane (CH4) records of the last deglaciation from a new high-accumulation West Antarctic ice core with unprecedented temporal resolution and precise chronology...
October 30, 2014: Nature
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