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Inhaled nitric oxide

Natalie E Taylor, Sarah E Baker, Thomas P Olson, Sophie Lalande, Bruce D Johnson, Eric M Snyder
BACKGROUND: Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) are located throughout the body including airway and alveolar cells. The β2ARs regulate lung fluid clearance through a variety of mechanisms including ion transport on alveolar cells and relaxation of the pulmonary lymphatics. We examined the effect of an inhaled β2-agonist (albuterol) on alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) in healthy humans. METHODS: We assessed the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) at baseline, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes following nebulized albuterol (2...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
O Karam, F Gebistorf, J Wetterslev, A Afshari
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Inhaled nitric oxide has been used to improve oxygenation but its role remains controversial. Our primary objective in this systematic review was to examine the effects of inhaled nitric oxide administration on mortality in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We included all randomised, controlled trials, irrespective of date of publication, blinding status, outcomes reported or language. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality...
October 20, 2016: Anaesthesia
Keiji Ohata, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Toshi Menju, Ei Miyamoto, Satona Tanaka, Mamoru Takahashi, Hideki Motoyama, Kyoko Hijiya, Akihiro Aoyama, Hiroshi Date
BACKGROUND: Rho-kinase, an intracellular serine/threonine kinase, is a key regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Recent studies have demonstrated that Rho-kinase is involved in the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) pathogenesis of many organs; however, its involvement with lung IRI remains unclear. This study assessed the association of Rho-kinase with lung IRI and evaluated the protective effect of inhaled Rho-kinase inhibitors in lung IRI. METHODS: The study included isolated rat lung perfusion models, divided into three groups: sham, Rho-kinase inhibitor, and warm ischemia (n = 6 each)...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Laveena Munshi, Hayley B Gershengorn, Eddy Fan, Hannah Wunsch, Niall D Ferguson, Therese A Stukel, Gordon D Rubenfeld
RATIONALE: Adoption and de-adoption of adjuvant strategies to mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure (ARF), and factors associated with their selection, have not been extensively evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate change in use of adjuvants to mechanical ventilation for ARF (2008-2013), the impact of landmark publications on adoption and de-adoption, and factors associated with use. METHODS: Changes in use of four adjuvants for ARF from 2008-2013, the impact of landmark publications on use, and factors associated with use were evaluated using the Premier Database...
October 13, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Thông Hua-Huy, Sy Duong-Quy, Hoa Pham, Julien Pansiot, Jean-Christophe Mercier, Olivier Baud, Anh Tuan Dinh-Xuan
Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is commonly used in the treatment of very ill pre-term newborns. Previous studies showed that exogenous NO could affect endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity and expression in vascular endothelial cell cultures or adult rat models, but this has never been fully described in newborn rat lungs. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of iNO on eNOS expression and activity in newborn rats. Rat pups, post-natal day (P) 0 to P7, and their dams were placed in a chamber containing NO at 5 ppm (iNO-5 ppm group) or 20 ppm (iNO-20 ppm group), or in room air (control group)...
January 2016: ERJ Open Research
Luke R Putnam, Kuojen Tsao, Francesco Morini, Pamela A Lally, Charles C Miller, Kevin P Lally, Matthew T Harting
Importance: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is an expensive, commonly used therapy among patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH); however, data to support its ongoing use in this patient population are lacking. Objective: To describe the spectrum of iNO use among patients with CDH and its association with pulmonary hypertension (pHTN) and mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: A review was conducted of prospectively collected patient data in the Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Study Group registry between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2014, from 70 participating centers in 13 countries...
October 10, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Hideki Inoue, Akio Niimi, Hisako Matsumoto, Isao Ito, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Kojiro Otsuka, Tomoshi Takeda, Hitoshi Nakaji, Tomoko Tajiri, Toshiyuki Iwata, Tadao Nagasaki, Michiaki Mishima
Patch formulation of tulobuterol has been used in asthma treatment as a long-acting β2 -agonist (LABA) through sustained skin absorption. Its treatment efficacy, especially in small airways, remains poorly understood. The study aim was to investigate LABA add-on effects of tulobuterol patch (TP) and salmeterol inhaler (SA) on pulmonary function, asthma control, and health status. Patients who had adult-onset under-controlled asthma, despite taking inhaled corticosteroids, were enrolled in a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, proof-of-concept study of 12-week add-on treatment with TP (n = 16) or SA (n = 17)...
October 8, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
R Sahni, X Ameer, K Ohira-Kist, J-T Wung
OBJECTIVES: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is effective in conjunction with tracheal intubation (TI) and mechanical ventilation (MV) for treating arterial pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) in near-term and term newborns. Non-invasive respiratory support with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is increasingly used to avoid morbidity associated with TI and MV, yet the effectiveness of iNO delivery via nasal CPAP remains unknown. To evaluate the effectiveness of iNO delivered via the bubble nasal CPAP system in term and preterm newborns with HRF...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Woo-Jung Song, Ha-Kyeong Won, Sung-Do Moon, Soo-Jie Chung, Sung-Yoon Kang, Kyoung-Hee Sohn, Ju-Young Kim, Byung-Keun Kim, Kyung-Hwan Lim, Mi-Yeong Kim, Min-Suk Yang, Heung-Woo Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Byung-Jae Lee, Alyn H Morice, Sang-Heon Cho
BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) is a safe and convenient test for assessing TH2 airway inflammation, which is potentially useful in the management of patients with chronic cough. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current evidence on the diagnostic usefulness of Feno for predicting inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) responsiveness in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify articles published in peer-reviewed journals up to February 2015, without language restriction...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Asako Oka, Tsunahiko Hirano, Yoshikazu Yamaji, Kosuke Ito, Keiji Oishi, Nobutaka Edakuni, Reo Kawano, Kazuto Matsunaga
BACKGROUND: Characterizing associations between the upper and lower airways is important for asthma management. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the determinants of incomplete asthma control in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. METHODS: Multiple factors including age, sex, atopy, smoking history, medication use, Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score, FEV1, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), and rhinitis questionnaire score were examined...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Andrea L Conroy, Michael Hawkes, Chloe R McDonald, Hani Kim, Sarah J Higgins, Kevin R Barker, Sophie Namasopo, Robert O Opoka, Chandy C John, W Conrad Liles, Kevin C Kain
Background.  Host responses to infection are critical determinants of disease severity and clinical outcome. The development of tools to risk stratify children with malaria is needed to identify children most likely to benefit from targeted interventions. Methods.  This study investigated the kinetics of candidate biomarkers of mortality associated with endothelial activation and dysfunction (angiopoietin-2 [Ang-2], soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 [sFlt-1], and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1]) and inflammation (10 kDa interferon γ-induced protein [CXCL10/IP-10] and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 [sTREM-1]) in the context of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm trial evaluating inhaled nitric oxide versus placebo as adjunctive therapy to parenteral artesunate for severe malaria...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Hanh Nguyen-Thi-Bich, Huong Duong-Thi-Ly, Vu Thi Thom, Nhung Pham-Thi-Hong, Long Doan Dinh, Huong Le-Thi-Minh, Timothy John Craig, Sy Duong-Quy
INTRODUCTION: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board...
2016: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
Lukasz Antoniewicz, Jenny A Bosson, Jeanette Kuhl, Samy M Abdel-Halim, Anna Kiessling, Fariborz Mobarrez, Magnus Lundbäck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The use of electronic cigarettes is increasing dramatically on a global scale and its effects on human health remain uncertain. In the present study, we measured endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and microvesicles (MVs) in healthy young volunteers following short-term exposure to inhalation of e-cigarette vapor (ECV) to determine vascular changes. METHODS: Sixteen healthy seldom smokers were randomized into two groups either exposed or not exposed to 10 puffs of ECV for 10 min, in a crossover design...
September 22, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Kazutaka Mori, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Naoki Inui, Dai Hashimoto, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Shigeki Kuroishi, Koshi Yokomura, Mikio Toyoshima, Shiro Imokawa, Takashi Yamada, Toshihiro Shirai, Masafumi Masuda, Hiroshi Hayakawa, Kingo Chida, Takafumi Suda
BACKGROUND: The stepping down of asthma treatment can be considered when asthma symptoms have been well controlled with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs)/long-acting β2 adrenergic agonists (LABAs). However, few data are available comparing the efficacy between two step-down strategies, to reduce ICS/LABA dose or to withdraw LABA continuing ICS, in well-controlled asthmatics. METHODS: This was a prospective multicentre randomized, two-arm, controlled study. Ninety-one asthmatic patients controlled by budesonide/formoterol combination (BFC) 320/9 μg twice daily were assigned to 2 stepping-down treatments as follows: the BFC group; BUD/FM 160/4...
October 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Seiichi Kobayashi, Masakazu Hanagama, Shinsuke Yamanda, Masatsugu Ishida, Masaru Yanai
BACKGROUND: The clinical phenotypes and underlying mechanisms of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate a comparison of COPD patients with and without ACOS, focusing on inflammatory biomarkers, in an outpatient COPD cohort. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study analyzing prospectively collected data from the Ishinomaki COPD Network registry. All participants were diagnosed with COPD, confirmed by using spirometry, and were aged 40-90 years and former smokers...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chane-Yu Lai, Ching-Huang Lai, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Chih-Hong Pan, Cheng-Chieh Yen, Wen-Yi Lin, Jen-Kun Chen, Lian-Yu Lin, Kai-Jen Chuang
Occupational exposure to welding fumes causes a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease; however, the association remains unclear. To clarify the possible association, exposure assessment of metal fumes with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 μm (PM2.5) in welding and office areas was characterized in a shipyard in Taiwan. Cardiovascular toxicity caused by PM2.5 was determined in workers (in both the welding and office areas). Significant amounts of bimodal metal fume particles with count median diameters (CMDs) of 14...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sachin D Tadphale, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Jeffrey M Gossett, Brandon W Beam, Asif Padiyath, Michael L Schmitz, Punkaj Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes associated with the use of inhaled nitric oxide during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of data from an existing administrative national database, Pediatric Health Information system (2004-2014). Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to study the effect of inhaled nitric oxide during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on study outcomes. SETTING: Forty-two children's hospitals across the United States...
September 13, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
David L Prior, Heath Adams, Trevor J Williams
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease with a poor prognosis if not treated. Pharmacological treatment options for PAH have increased significantly over the past 10 years, with availability of intravenous, oral and inhaled drugs targeting the nitric oxide, endothelin and prostacyclin pathways. Treatment with these therapies in specialised pulmonary hypertension centres has resulted in reductions in patient symptoms, disease progression and mortality, and improved exercise capacity. Recognition of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is important, as this cause of pulmonary hypertension may be amenable to surgical treatment...
September 19, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Praveen Chandrasekharan, Rafal Kozielski, Vasantha H S Kumar, Munmun Rawat, Veena Manja, Changxing Ma, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is being increasingly used in preterm infants < 34 weeks with hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) and/or pulmonary hypertension (PH). Objective To evaluate the risk factors, survival characteristics, and lung histopathology in preterm infants with PH/HRF. Methods Retrospective chart review was conducted to determine characteristics of 93 preterm infants treated with iNO in the first 28 days and compared with 930 matched controls. Factors associated with survival with preterm HRF and smooth muscle actin from nine autopsies were evaluated...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Myung-Chul Chung, Farhang Alem, Sarah G Hamer, Aarthi Narayanan, Konstantin Shatalin, Charles Bailey, Evgeny Nudler, Ramin M Hakami
BACKGROUND: Using Bacillus anthracis as a model gram-positive bacterium, we investigated the effects of host protein S-nitrosylation during bacterial infection. B. anthracis possesses a bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) that is important for its virulence and survival. However, the role of S-nitrosylation of host cell proteins during B. anthracis infection has not been determined. METHODS: Nitrosoproteomic analysis of human small airway epithelial cells (HSAECs) infected with toxigenic B...
September 7, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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