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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501327/echo-particle-image-velocimetry-for-estimation-of-carotid-artery-wall-shear-stress-repeatability-reproducibility-and-comparison-with-phase-contrast-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Arati Gurung, Phillip E Gates, Luciano Mazzaro, Jonathan Fulford, Fuxing Zhang, Alex J Barker, Jean Hertzberg, Kunihiko Aizawa, William D Strain, Salim Elyas, Angela C Shore, Robin Shandas
Measurement of hemodynamic wall shear stress (WSS) is important in investigating the role of WSS in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Echo particle image velocimetry (echo PIV) is a novel ultrasound-based technique for measuring WSS in vivo that has previously been validated in vitro using the standard optical PIV technique. We evaluated the repeatability and reproducibility of echo PIV for measuring WSS in the human common carotid artery. We measured WSS in 28 healthy participants (18 males and 10 females, mean age: 56 ± 12 y)...
May 10, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493464/first-trimester-ultrasound-screening-for-trisomy-21-based-on-maternal-age-fetal-nuchal-translucency-and-different-methods-of-ductus-venosus-assessment
#2
Philipp Wagner, Jiri Sonek, Jessika Klein, Markus Hoopmann, Harald Abele, Karl Oliver Kagan
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether combining the dichotomous assessment of the a-wave and the Ductus venosus (DV) PIV measurement improves first-trimester-screening performance. METHODS: Retrospective study performed at the University Hospital of Tuebingen based on singleton pregnancies that underwent first-trimester-screening including DV flow assessment. In each case, the risk of trisomy 21 was calculated based on maternal age, fetal NT, and DV flow either as dichotomous classification of the a-wave, as measurement of the DV PIV, or both...
May 11, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472480/characterizing-the-cellular-immune-response-to-parainfluenza-virus-3
#3
Paibel I Aguayo-Hiraldo, Reuben J Arasaratnam, Ifigeneia Tzannou, Manik Kuvalekar, Premal Lulla, Swati Naik, Caridad A Martinez, Pedro A Piedra, Juan F Vera, Ann M Leen
Parainfluenza virus (PIV) 3 infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals with no approved therapies. Our group has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of adoptively transferred virus-specific T cells for the prevention and treatment of a broad range of viral infections including BK virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, human herpesvirus 6 and Epstein-Barr virus. However, this approach is restricted to well-characterized viruses with known immunogenic/protective T cell target antigens, precluding extension to PIV-3...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471975/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-il-33-and-periostin-in-hospitalized-infants-with-viral-bronchiolitis
#4
María Luz García-García, Cristina Calvo, Ana Moreira, José Antonio Cañas, Francisco Pozo, Beatriz Sastre, Sergio Quevedo, Inmaculada Casas, Victoria Del Pozo
Much attention has recently been focused on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-33, and periostin in allergic disease, but less is known about their role in viral bronchiolitis.The aim of the study was to investigate whether infants exhibit enhanced nasal airway secretion of TSLP, IL-33, and periostin during natural respiratory viral bronchiolitis compared to healthy controls.In total, 213 infants < 2 years of age, hospitalized with bronchiolitis from October/2013 to April/2016 were enrolled alongside 45 healthy infants...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471928/complication-rates-of-3-hypertonic-saline-infusion-through-peripheral-intravenous-access
#5
Claudia Andira Perez, Stephen A Figueroa
INTRODUCTION: Hyperosmolar therapy with hypertonic saline (HTS) is a cornerstone in the management of intracranial hypertension and hyponatremia in the neurological intensive care unit. Theoretical safety concerns remain for infiltration, thrombophlebitis, tissue ischemia, and venous thrombosis associated with continuous 3% HTS administered via peripheral intravenous (pIV) catheters. It is common practice at many institutions to allow only central venous catheter infusion of 3% HTS. METHODS: Hospital policy was changed to allow the administration of 3% HTS via 16- to 20-gauge pIVs to a maximum infusion rate of 50 mL/h in patients without central venous access...
June 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466381/tetherin-antagonism-by-v-proteins-is-a-common-trait-among-the-genus-rubulavirus
#6
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Morihiro Ito, Machiko Nishio
Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) is an anti-viral factor that restricts the budding of several enveloped viruses. Most of these viruses have evolved to encode tetherin antagonists. Our previous study demonstrated that the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2), a member of the genus Rubulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae, was inhibited by tetherin, and its V protein decreases the amount of cell surface tetherin by the interaction. In the present study, we investigated whether tetherin inhibits the growth of other rubulaviruses including PIV-5, mumps virus (MuV), simian virus 41, and hPIV-4, and whether their V proteins act as tetherin antagonists...
May 2, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440380/viscosity-of-particulate-soap-films-approaching-the-jamming-of-2d-capillary-suspensions
#7
Yousra Timounay, Florence Rouyer
We compute the effective viscosity of particulate soap films thanks to local velocity fields obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) during film retraction experiments. We identify the jamming of these 2D capillary suspensions at a critical particle surface fraction (≃0.84) where effective viscosity diverges. Pair correlation function and number of neighbors in contact or close to contact reveal the cohesive nature of this 2D capillary granular media. The experimental 2D dynamic viscosities can be predicted by a model considering viscous dissipation at the liquid interfaces induced by the motion of individual particles...
May 14, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409325/velocity-field-visualization-in-usp-dissolution-apparatus-3-using-particle-image-velocimetry
#8
Satish Perivilli, Richard Prevost, Erika Stippler
PURPOSE: The hydrodynamics in USP dissolution apparatus 3, at five different dip rates, was characterized by analyzing phase-averaged velocity fields obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). METHODS: Phase locked 2 Component-PIV (2C-PIV) measurements were recorded on a typical dissolution apparatus 3 configuration with a black painted tablet fixed at the center of the bottom porous screen of the reciprocating cylinder. A trigger mechanism was employed to capture data over 12 phase positions for each reciprocation cycle...
June 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393124/a-leishmania-murine-model-to-evaluate-the-immunomodulatory-properties-of-pythium-insidiosum-proteins
#9
Tatiana Maria Inêz-Ferreira, Leonel Mendoza, Raquel Vilela, Hélida Monteiro de Andrade, João Paulo Haddad, Fernanda Freire Campos Nunes, Isabela Moreira Gondim, Tânia Mara Pinto Dabés Guimarães, Vicente de Paulo Coelho Peixoto de Toledo
Pythium insidiosum immunomodulatory vaccine (PiV) has been tested in clinical and experimental pythiosis. Previous data showed that P. insidiosum immunogens have the ability to switch the Th2 immune response, normally in place during pythiosis, to a curative Th1 response. Pythiosis cannot be reproduced in experimental rodents with the exception of rabbits, and thus thorough evaluation of PiV´s immunomodulatory properties has been limited by the lack of a compatible inbred mouse model. In this study, we took advantage of the murine BALB/c Leishmania infection model, where infected mice produce a Th2 response, to evaluate the PiV Th2 to Th1 immunomodulatory potential...
March 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379938/effects-of-cone-shaped-bend-inlet-cannulas-of-an-axial-blood-pump-on-thrombus-formation-an-experiment-and-simulation-study
#10
Guangmao Liu, Jianye Zhou, Hansong Sun, Yan Zhang, Haibo Chen, Shengshou Hu
BACKGROUND Cannula shape and connection style influence the risk of thrombus formation in the blood pump by varying the blood flow characteristics inside the pump. Inlet cannulas should be designed based on the need for anatomical fit and reducing the risk of thrombus generation in the blood pump. The effects on thrombus formation of the cone-shaped bend inlet cannulas of axial blood pumps should be studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cannulas were designed as cone-shaped, with 1 bent section connecting 2 straight sections...
April 5, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374198/optimum-design-of-the-entrance-of-a-fishpond-laterally-to-the-main-stream-of-an-open-channel
#11
Yiannis Savvidis, Evangelos Keramaris, George Pechlivanidis, Christopher Koutitas
In this study, the optimum design of the entrance of a fishpond laterally to the main flow of an open channel was investigated numerically and experimentally. The flow characteristic measurements were realized with the PIV (particle image velocimetry) method. The mathematical simulations were based on the development of a two dimensional -mean in depthhydrodynamic model and a quasi three dimensional sediment transport model which includes processes of advection, diffusion, and settling of conservative suspended matter...
April 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348044/model-assisted-measurements-of-suspension-feeding-flow-velocities
#12
Kevin T Du Clos, Ian T Jones, Tyler J Carrier, Damian C Brady, Peter A Jumars
Benthic marine suspension feeders provide an important link between benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The strength of this link is determined by suspension-feeding rates. Many studies have measured suspension-feeding rates using indirect clearance-rate methods, which are based on the depletion of suspended particles. Direct methods that measure the flow of water itself are less common, but they can be more broadly applied because, unlike indirect methods, direct methods are not affected by properties of the cleared particles...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341436/optimal-dosage-and-duration-of-pivmecillinam-treatment-for-uncomplicated-lower-urinary-tract-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Mariona Pinart, Jennifer Kranz, Katrin Jensen, Tanja Proctor, Kurt Naber, Frank Kunath, Florian Wagenlehner, Stefanie Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of different pivmecillinam (PIV) regimes for uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections (UTIs). METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) involving adults or children with symptoms suggestive of uncomplicated UTI and that compared different PIV regimes or PIV versus other antibiotics were included. Meta-analyses were conducted to obtain direct and indirect efficacy estimates...
May 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337500/direct-observation-of-orientation-distributions-of-actin-filaments-in-a-solution-undergoing-shear-banding
#14
K Sato, I Kunita, Y Takikawa, D Takeuchi, Y Tanaka, T Nakagaki, H Orihara
Shear banding is frequently observed in complex fluids. However, the configuration of macromolecules in solutions undergoing shear banding has not yet been directly observed. In this study, by using the fact that F-actin solutions exhibit shear banding and actin filaments are visualized by fluorescent labels, we directly observed the intrinsic states of an actin solution undergoing shear banding. By combining the 3D imaging of labeled actin filaments and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we obtained orientation distributions of actin filaments in both high and low shear rate regions, whose quantitative differences are indicated...
March 24, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332315/significant-increase-of-flow-kinetic-energy-in-nonresponders-patients-to-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy
#15
Sara Cimino, Dino Palombizio, Francesco Cicogna, Donatella Cantisani, Manuela Reali, Domenico Filomena, Valentina Petronilli, Carlo Iacoboni, Luciano Agati
BACKGROUNDS: It's still unclear if different patterns of intraventricular flow dynamics may be detected in patients nonresponders to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) as compared to responders ones. Aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of left ventricular (LV) flow dynamics 6-months after CRT to identify Echo-particle imaging velocity (PIV) patterns were more frequently detected in nonresponders patients. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, undergoing CRT, were enrolled in this study...
March 23, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329354/clinical-significance-of-human-coronavirus-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-samples-from-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients-and-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#16
Chikara Ogimi, Alpana A Waghmare, Jane M Kuypers, Hu Xie, Cecilia C Yeung, Wendy M Leisenring, Sachiko Seo, Su-Mi Choi, Keith R Jerome, Janet A Englund, Michael Boeckh
Background.: The possible role of human coronavirus (HCoV) in lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients and patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) has not been well studied. Methods.: We conducted a retrospective review of HCT/HM patients with HCoV detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). HCoV strains were identified in BAL samples using strain-specific polymerase chain reaction. Mortality rates were compared among HCT recipients with LRTD caused by HCoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, or parainfluenza virus (PIV) by multivariable Cox regression analysis...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325304/improved-resistance-of-chemically-modified-nanocellulose-against-thermally-induced-depolymerization
#17
Melissa B Agustin, Fumiaki Nakatsubo, Hiroyuki Yano
The study demonstrated the improvement in the resistance of nanocellulose against thermally-induced depolymerization by esterification with benzoyl (BNZ) and pivaloyl (PIV). The change in the degree of polymerization (DP) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) after thermal treatment in nitrogen and in air was investigated using viscometry and gel permeation chromatography. BNZ and PIV nanocellulose esters without α-hydrogens gave higher DP and narrower MWD than pure bacterial cellulose; and the acetyl and myristoyl esters, which possess α-hydrogens...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314051/electroosmotic-flow-measurements-in-a-freely-suspended-liquid-film-experimhents-and-numerical-simulations
#18
Abdulkadir Hussein Sheik, Himiyage Chaminda Hemaka Bandulasena, Victor Starov, Anna Trybala
Fluid flow profiles in free liquid films stabilised by anionic and cationic surfactants under an external electric field were investigated. Depthwise velocity fields were measured at the mid region of the free liquid film by confocal micron-resolution particle image velocimetry and corresponding numerical simulations were performed using Finite Element Method to model the system. Depthwise change in velocity profiles was observed with electroosmotic flow dominating in the vicinity of the gas-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces while backpressure drives fluid in the opposite direction at the core of the film...
March 17, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303845/diagnostic-value-of-nasopharyngeal-aspirates-in-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#19
Ai-Zhen Lu, Peng Shi, Li-Bo Wang, Li-Ling Qian, Xiao-Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) specimens in detecting lower respiratory pathogens remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of aspirates (NPAs) specimen in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children. METHODS: The prospective study was designed to collect the data of paired NPAs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from children with acute LRTIs from January 2013 to December 2015...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294224/creation-of-a-dual-porosity-and-dual-depth-micromodel-for-the-study-of-multiphase-flow-in-complex-porous-media
#20
Wonjin Yun, Cynthia M Ross, Sophie Roman, Anthony R Kovscek
Silicon-based microfluidic devices, so-called micromodels in this application, are particularly useful laboratory tools for the direct visualization of fluid flow revealing pore-scale mechanisms controlling flow and transport phenomena in natural porous media. Current microfluidic devices with uniform etched depths, however, are limited when representing complex geometries such as the multiple-scale pore sizes common in carbonate rocks. In this study, we successfully developed optimized sequential photolithography to etch micropores (1...
April 11, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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