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Idit Avrahami, Dikla Kersh, Alexander Liberzon
Arterial wall shear stress (WSS) parameters are widely used for prediction of the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and arterial pathologies. Traditional clinical evaluation of arterial condition relies on correlations of WSS parameters with average flow rate (Q) and heart rate (HR) measurements. We show that for pulsating flow waveforms in a straight tube with flow reversals that lead to significant reciprocating WSS, the measurements of HR and Q are not sufficient for prediction of WSS parameters...
2016: PloS One
Hanwook Park, Jun Hong Park, Sang Joon Lee
Measurements of the hemodynamic information of blood flows, especially wall shear stress (WSS), in animal models with circulatory vascular diseases (CVDs) are important to understand the pathological mechanism of CVDs. In this study, X-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) with high spatial resolution was applied to obtain velocity field information in stenosed blood vessels with high WSS. 3D clips fabricated with a 3D printer were applied to the abdominal aorta of a rat cadaver to induce artificial stenosis in the real blood vessel of an animal model...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ilkka Helanterä, Veli-Jukka Anttila, Raisa Loginov, Marko Lempinen
Parainfluenza (PIV) can cause serious infections after hematopoietic stem cell or lung transplantation. Limited data exist about PIV infections after kidney transplantation. We describe an outbreak of PIV-3 in a transplant unit. During the outbreak 45 patients were treated on the ward for postoperative care after kidney or simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation. Altogether 29 patients were tested for respiratory viruses (12 patients with respiratory symptoms, 17 asymptomatic exposed patients) from nasopharyngeal swabs with PCR...
November 26, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
D L Bark, B Johnson, D Garrity, L P Dasi
Cardiovascular development is influenced by the flow-induced stress environment originating from cardiac biomechanics. To characterize the stress environment, it is necessary to quantify flow and pressure. Here, we quantify the flow field in a developing zebrafish heart during the looping stage through micro-particle imaging velocimetry and by analyzing spatiotemporal plots. We further build upon previous methods to noninvasively quantify the pressure field at a low Reynolds number using flow field data for the first time, while also comparing the impact of viscosity models...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Gopalan Rajaraman, Kuduva R Vignesh, Stuart K Langley, Keith S Murray
We report the synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic properties of two new heterometallic octanuclear coordination complexes containing CoIII and DyIII ions. ([CoIII4DyIII4(μ-OH)4(μ3-OMe)4 (O2CC(CH3)3)4(tea)4(H2O)4]*4H2O (1) and [CoIII4DyIII4(μ-F)4(μ3-OH)4(o-tol)8(mdea)4]3H2O∙EtOH∙MeOH (2) Furthermore, the theoretical, magnetic and SMM properties of the isostructural complex; [CrIII4DyIII4(μ-F4)(μ3-OMe)1.25(μ3-OH)2.75(O2CPh)8(mdea)4] (3) are discussed and are compared to a structurally similar complex - [CrIII4DyIII4(µ3-OH)4(µ-N3)4(mdea)4(piv)4](4)...
November 18, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
R Akolekar, M Machuca, M Mendes, V Paschos, K H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the addition of maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) measured at 11-13 weeks' gestation improves the performance of screening for stillbirths that is achieved by a combination of maternal factors and first-trimester biomarkers such as maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), fetal ductus venosus pulsatility index for veins (DV-PIV) and uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI) and to evaluate the performance of screening with this model for all stillbirths and those due to impaired placentation and unexplained causes...
November 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Antonia Melas, Robert Kelly, Nicholas Jackson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Rei Asami, Tomohiko Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Kawabata, Kunio Hashiba, Takashi Okada, Tomohide Nishiyama
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of vector flow mapping (VFM) was investigated in comparison to stereo particle image velocimetry (stereo-PIV) measurements using a left ventricular phantom. VFM is an echocardiographic approach to visualizing two-dimensional flow dynamics by estimating the azimuthal component of flow from the mass-conservation equation. VFM provides means of visualizing cardiac flow, but there has not been a study that compared the flow estimated by VFM to the flow data acquired by other methods...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Echocardiography
Yange Zhang, Senthilkumar K Sakthivel, Anna Bramley, Seema Jain, Amber Haynes, James D Chappell, Weston Hymas, Noel Lenny, Anami Patel, Chao Qi, Krow Ampofo, Sandra R Arnold, Wesley H Self, Derek J Williams, David Hillyard, Evan J Anderson, Carlos G Grijalva, Yuwei Zhu, Richard G Wunderink, Kathryn M Edwards, Andrew T Pavia, Jonathan A McCullers, Dean D Erdman
Both molecular and serological assays have been used previously to determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the correlation of these methods and added diagnostic value of serology has not been fully evaluated. Using data from patients enrolled in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, we compared real-time RT-PCR and serology for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), parainfluenza viruses 1-3 (PIV) and adenovirus (AdV) infections...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Hui Lü, Yuqi Yuan, Na Sun, Zhenwang Bi, Bing Guan, Kun Shao, Tongzhan Wang, Zhenqiang Bi
Cholera continues to be a serious public health issue in developing countries. We analyzed the epidemiological data of cholera from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, an eastern coastal area of China. A total of 250 Vibrio cholerae isolates were selected for PCR analysis of virulence genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The analysis of the virulence genes showed that the positive rates for tcpA and tcpI were the highest among strains from the southwest region, which had the highest incidence rate of cholera...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Xiaojian Ma, Biao Huang, Guoyu Wang, Mindi Zhang
The objective of this paper is to investigate the transient conical bubble structure (CBS) and acoustic flow structure in ultrasonic field. In the experiment, the high-speed video and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are used to measure the acoustic cavitation patterns, as well as the flow velocity and vorticity fields. Results are presented for a high power ultrasound with a frequency of 18kHz, and the range of the input power is from 50W to 250W. The results of the experiment show the input power significantly affects the structures of CBS, with the increase of input power, the cavity region of CBS and the velocity of bubbles increase evidently...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Masoud Rahimi, Salman Movahedirad, Shahrokh Shahhosseini
Recently, great attention has been paid to predict the acoustic streaming field distribution inside the sonoreactors, induced by high-power ultrasonic wave generator. The focus of this paper is to model an ultrasonic vibrating horn and study the induced flow pattern with a newly developed moving boundary condition. The numerical simulation utilizes the modified cavitation model along with the "mixture" model for turbulent flow (RNG, k-ε), and a moving boundary condition with an oscillating parabolic-logarithmic profile, applied to the horn tip...
March 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Fuyou Liang, Xiaosheng Liu, Ryuhei Yamaguchi, Hao Liu
Recent studies raised increasing concern about the reliability of computer models in reproducing in vivo hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms. Boundary condition problem is among the most frequently addressed issues since three-dimensional (3-D) modeling is usually restricted to local arterial segments. The present study focused on aneurysms on the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) which represent a large subgroup of detected cerebral aneurysms and, in particular, have a relatively high risk of rupture compared to aneurysms located in other regions...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
A H Haidari, S G J Heijman, W G J van der Meer
It is widely accepted that our understanding about the membrane process increases by investigation of the hydraulic conditions of membranes. While numerical studies have been broadly used for this purpose, the experimental studies of a comparable resolution are scarce. In this study, we compared the pressure drop, the temporal and the spatial velocity maps of a spacer-filled channel and an empty channel of the same size to determine the effect of presence of the feeds spacer on hydraulic conditions. The velocity maps are obtained experimentally by using of the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique...
October 5, 2016: Water Research
Nektarios Koukourakis, Bob Fregin, Jörg König, Lars Büttner, Jürgen W Czarske
Imaging-based flow measurement techniques, like particle image velocimetry (PIV), are vulnerable to time-varying distortions like refractive index inhomogeneities or fluctuating phase boundaries. Such distortions strongly increase the velocity error, as the position assignment of the tracer particles and the decrease of image contrast exhibit significant uncertainties. We demonstrate that wavefront shaping based on spatially distributed guide stars has the potential to significantly reduce the measurement uncertainty...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
Jeffrey M Hammann, Diana Haas, Carl-Phillip Tüllmann, Konstantin Karaghiosoff, Paul Knochel
A highly diastereoselective cross-coupling of variously substituted cycloalkyl iodides with alkynyl and (hetero)aryl Grignard reagents using cobalt(II) chloride has been successfully developed. With the THF-soluble CoCl2·LiCl and the inexpensive ortho-phenanthroline derivative, neocuproine, as a ligand, diastereomeric ratios of up to 99:1 were achieved. A range of functional groups are tolerated in the Grignard reagent (e.g., CF3, Piv, CN, OPiv, NMe2, CO2NEt2, SF5, OTBS).
October 7, 2016: Organic Letters
Angkur Shaikeea, Saptarshi Basu, Sandeep Hatte, Lalit Bansal
Particle-laden droplet-based systems ranging from micro- to nanoscale have become increasingly popular in applications such as inkjet printing, pharmaceutics, nanoelectronics, and surface patterning. All such applications involve multidroplet arrays in which vapor-mediated interactions can significantly affect the evaporation dynamics and morphological topology of precipitates. A fundamental study was conducted on nanocolloidal paired droplets (droplets kept adjacent to each other as in an array) to understand the physics related to the evaporation dynamics, internal flow pattern, particle transport, and nanoparticle self-assembly, primarily using optical diagnostic techniques [such as micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV)]...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Tolgay Tuyan Ilhan, Akin Sivaslioglu, Türkan Ilhan, Mustafa Gazi Uçar, İsmail Dolen
INTRODUCTION: Vaginal vault prolapsus is a challenging problem for the patients and physicians. There may be differences between young and elderly patients in terms of efficiency and safety of surgical procedures. AIM: The aim of our study was to compare the efficiency of the Posterior Intravaginal Sling (PIVS) procedure in older versus younger patient groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients who underwent the PIVS procedure were chosen...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Anna P Durbin
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that spread rapidly through South and Central America in 2015 to 2016. Microcephaly has been causally associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and the World Health Organization declared Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. To address this crisis, many groups have expressed their commitment to developing a Zika virus vaccine. Different strategies for Zika virus vaccine development are being considered including recombinant live attenuated vaccines, purified inactivated vaccines (PIVs), DNA vaccines, and viral vectored vaccines...
September 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Heba H Mostafa, Peter Vogel, Ashok Srinivasan, Charles J Russell
In immunocompromised patients, parainfluenza virus (PIV) infections have an increased potential to spread to the lower respiratory tract (LRT), resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Understanding the immunologic defects that facilitate viral spread to the LRT will help in developing better management protocols. In this study, we immunosuppressed mice with dexamethasone and/or cyclophosphamide then monitored the spread of viral infection into the LRT by using a noninvasive bioluminescence imaging system and a reporter Sendai virus (murine PIV type 1)...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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