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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780847/community-acquired-respiratory-paramyxovirus-infection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-a-single-center-experience
#1
Yasmin Spahr, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Veronika Baettig, Francesca Compagno, Michael Tamm, Jörg Halter, Sabine Gerull, Jakob Passweg, Hans H Hirsch, Nina Khanna
Background: Paramyxoviruses include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), and human metapneumovirus (MPV), which may cause significant respiratory tract infectious disease (RTID) and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, clinical data regarding frequency and outcome are scarce. Methods: We identified all paramyxovirus RTIDs in allogeneic HCT recipients diagnosed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction between 2010 and 2014...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777867/antibiotic-exposure-prior-to-respiratory-viral-infection-is-associated-with-progression-to-lower-respiratory-tract-disease-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients
#2
Chikara Ogimi, Elizabeth M Krantz, Jonathan L Golob, Alpana Waghmare, Catherine Liu, Wendy M Leisenring, Christopher R Woodard, Sara Marquis, Jane M Kuypers, Keith R Jerome, Steven A Pergam, David N Fredricks, Mohamed L Sorror, Janet A Englund, Michael Boeckh
INTRODUCTION: Recent publications note an association between antibiotic exposure and respiratory viral infections (RVIs). Antibiotics affect microbiota and impair immune response against RVIs in mice, and low microbiome diversity is associated with pulmonary complications including viral lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. In this study, we examined whether antibiotic exposure was associated with increased risk of disease progression in RVIs post-transplantation...
May 16, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772822/measurement-of-wall-shear-stress-in-high-speed-air-flow-using-shear-sensitive-liquid-crystal-coating
#3
Jisong Zhao
Wall shear stress is an important quantity in fluid mechanics, but its measurement is a challenging task. An approach to measure wall shear stress vector distribution using shear-sensitive liquid crystal coating (SSLCC) is described. The wall shear stress distribution on the test surface beneath high speed jet flow is measured while using the proposed technique. The flow structures inside the jet flow are captured and the results agree well with the streakline pattern that was visualized using the oil-flow technique...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771962/progression-of-the-radiologic-severity-index-predicts-mortality-in-patients-with-parainfluenza-virus-associated-lower-respiratory-infections
#4
Ajay Sheshadri, Dimpy P Shah, Myrna Godoy, Jeremy J Erasmus, Juhee Song, Liang Li, Scott E Evans, Roy F Chemaly, Burton F Dickey, David E Ost
BACKGROUND: Radiologic severity may predict adverse outcomes after lower respiratory tract infection (LRI). However, few studies have quantified radiologic severity of LRIs. We sought to evaluate whether a semi-quantitative scoring tool, the Radiologic Severity Index (RSI), predicted mortality after parainfluenza virus (PIV)-associated LRI. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of consecutively-enrolled adult patients with hematologic malignancy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and with PIV detected in nasal wash who subsequently developed radiologically-confirmed LRI...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761195/convection-inside-condensing-and-evaporating-droplets-of-aqueous-solution
#5
Tapan Kumar Pradhan, Pradipta Kumar Panigrahi
We experimentally study the fluid convection inside a condensing droplet of aqueous NaCl solution and compare it with that of an evaporating droplet. The droplets are sandwiched between two horizontal hydrophobic surfaces and surrounded by a reservoir with solution of different concentration. Condensation and evaporation of the droplets occur due to the vapor pressure difference between the droplet and the reservoir solution. The micro-PIV technique has been used to study the velocity field inside the droplets...
May 15, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742628/evaluation-of-dwell-time-for-peripheral-intravenous-catheters-started-in-the-field-for-geriatric-blunt-trauma-patients
#6
Darcy L Day, Francisco Conde
Replacement time for peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters started in the field is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare field-start PIV catheter dwell time of 2 days or less versus field-start PIV catheter dwell time of more than 2 days for the development of indicators of infection for geriatric blunt trauma patients. A retrospective case series was conducted at the state-designated trauma referral center. Activated trauma team patients with blunt injury were included if 65 years or older and if admitted from the field for 7 days or more with a PIV catheter placed prehospital...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733316/experimental-investigation-of-the-flow-structure-over-a-delta-wing-via-flow-visualization-methods
#7
Lu Shen, Zong-Nan Chen, Chihyung Wen
It is well known that the flow field over a delta wing is dominated by a pair of counter rotating leading edge vortices (LEV). However, their mechanism is not well understood. The flow visualization technique is a promising non-intrusive method to illustrate the complex flow field spatially and temporally. A basic flow visualization setup consists of a high-powered laser and optic lenses to generate the laser sheet, a camera, a tracer particle generator, and a data processor. The wind tunnel setup, the specifications of devices involved, and the corresponding parameter settings are dependent on the flow features to be obtained...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729852/assessment-of-human-left-ventricle-flow-using-statistical-shape-modelling-and-computational-fluid-dynamics
#8
S S Khalafvand, J D Voorneveld, A Muralidharan, F J H Gijsen, J G Bosch, T van Walsum, A Haak, N de Jong, S Kenjeres
Blood flow patterns in the human left ventricle (LV) have shown relation to cardiac health. However, most studies in the literature are limited to a few patients and results are hard to generalize. This study aims to provide a new framework to generate more generalized insights into LV blood flow as a function of changes in anatomy and wall motion. In this framework, we studied the four-dimensional blood flow in LV via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in conjunction with a statistical shape model (SSM), built from segmented LV shapes of 150 subjects...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720526/-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-protease-iv-exacerbates-pneumococcal-pneumonia-and-systemic-disease
#9
Jessica L Bradshaw, Armando R Caballero, Michael A Bierdeman, Kristen V Adams, Haley R Pipkins, Aihua Tang, Richard J O'Callaghan, Larry S McDaniel
Pneumonia is a pulmonary disease affecting people of all ages and is consistently a leading cause of childhood mortality and adult hospitalizations. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major lung pathogens commonly associated with community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Additionally, mixed lung infections involving these bacterial pathogens are increasing in prevalence and are frequently more severe than single infections. The cooperative interactions of these two pathogens that impact pulmonary disease severity are understudied...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715362/characterizing-the-heartmate-ii-left-ventricular-assist-device-outflow-using-particle-image-velocimetry
#10
Grant W Rowlands, Bryan C Good, Steven Deutsch, Keefe B Manning
Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are implanted in patients with a diseased ventricle to maintain peripheral perfusion as a bridge-to-transplant or as destination therapy. However, some patients with continuous flow VADs (e.g., HeartMate II (HMII)) have experienced gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, in part caused by the proteolytic cleavage or mechanical destruction of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a clotting glycoprotein. in vitro studies were performed to measure the flow located within the HMII outlet cannula under both steady and physiological conditions using particle image velocimetry (PIV)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691022/improving-the-thermal-stability-of-wood-based-cellulose-by-esterification
#11
Melissa B Agustin, Fumiaki Nakatsubo, Hiroyuki Yano
Improvement in the thermal stability of wood-based cellulose; the needle-leaf, bleached, krafp pulp (NBKP) and the wood cellulose nanofibers (WCNF) obtained from the NBKP, was achieved by esterification. Initially, four different types of NBKP esters (acetyl, C2; myristoyl, C14; benzoyl, BNZ; and pivaloyl, PIV) with different degree of substitution (DS) values were prepared to evaluate the effect of esterifying the hemicellulose. The findings revealed that an optimum DS, which possibly completely esterifies the hemicellulose and amorphous cellulose, is needed to achieve significant improvement in thermal stability...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678322/measurement-of-wall-shear-stress-exerted-by-flowing-blood-in-the-human-carotid-artery-ultrasound-doppler-velocimetry-and-echo-particle-image-velocimetry
#12
Phillip E Gates, Arati Gurung, Luciano Mazzaro, Kuni Aizawa, Salim Elyas, William D Strain, Angela C Shore, Robin Shandas
Vascular endothelial cells lining the arteries are sensitive to wall shear stress (WSS) exerted by flowing blood. An important component of the pathophysiology of vascular diseases, WSS is commonly estimated by centerline ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV). However, the accuracy of this method is uncertain. We have previously validated the use of a novel, ultrasound-based, particle image velocimetry technique (echo PIV) to compute 2-D velocity vector fields, which can easily be converted into WSS data. We compared WSS data derived from UDV and echo PIV in the common carotid artery of 27 healthy participants...
April 17, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663466/first-trimester-screening-for-major-cardiac-defects-based-on-the-ductus-venosus-flow-in-fetuses-with-trisomy-21
#13
Philipp Wagner, Jiri Sonek, Katrin Eberle, Harald Abele, Markus Hoopmann, Natalia Prodan, Karl Oliver Kagan
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether in fetuses with trisomy 21 (T21), the ductus venosus (DV) flow differs in presence of a major cardiac defect (CHD) and whether this affects the risk distribution in first trimester screening for T21. METHODS: Retrospective study involving pregnant women who underwent first trimester screening. This involves an examination of the CRL, the NT, the DV flow, and the heart. 3 groups of fetuses were examined: euploid without CHD, T21 with and without CHD...
April 16, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621344/hemodynamic-forces-in-the-left-and-right-ventricles-of-the-human-heart-using-4d-flow-magnetic-resonance-imaging-phantom-validation-reproducibility-sensitivity-to-respiratory-gating-and-free-analysis-software
#14
Johannes Töger, Per M Arvidsson, Jelena Bock, Mikael Kanski, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Marcus Carlsson, Håkan Arheden, Einar Heiberg
PURPOSE: To investigate the accuracy, reproducibility and sensitivity to respiratory gating, field strength and ventricle segmentation of hemodynamic force quantification in the left and right ventricles of the heart (LV and RV) using 4D-flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to provide free hemodynamic force analysis software. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pulsatile flow phantom was imaged using 4D flow MRI and laser-based particle image velocimetry (PIV). Cardiac 4D flow MRI was performed in healthy volunteers at 1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620934/factors-associated-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#15
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana R Amaral, Laura Freimanis, D Robert Harris, Christiana Smith, George Siberry
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that predispose HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) to higher incidence of severe infections, hospitalization and death in the first 6 to 24 months of life compared with HEUs with and without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 6 months of life. DESIGN: Nested case-control study of 107 LRTI+ infants enrolled in the NISDI Perinatal and LILAC studies with and 140 LRTI- in the first 6 months of, matched by date and place of birth...
March 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620051/manipulation-free-cultures-of-human-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-offer-a-novel-screening-method-for-cardiotoxicity
#16
Sheeja Rajasingh, Dona Greta Isai, Saheli Samanta, Zhi-Gang Zhou, Buddhadeb Dawn, William H Kinsey, Andras Czirok, Johnson Rajasingh
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based cardiac regenerative medicine requires the efficient generation, structural soundness and proper functioning of mature cardiomyocytes, derived from the patient's somatic cells. The most important functional property of cardiomyocytes is the ability to contract. Currently available methods routinely used to test and quantify cardiomyocyte function involve techniques that are labor-intensive, invasive, require sophisticated instruments or can adversely affect cell vitality...
April 5, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611866/gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-arteriovenous-malformations-general-principles-and-preliminary-results-in-a-swiss-cohort
#17
Matthieu Raboud, Constantin Tuleasca, Philippe Maeder, Luis Schiappacasse, Maud Marguet, Roy Thomas Daniel, Marc Levivier
INTRODUCTION: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a type of vascular malformation characterised by an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system. This absence of capillaries generates an elevated pressure (hyperdebit), in both the AVM and the venous drainage, increasing the risk of rupture. Management modalities are: observation, microsurgical clipping, endovascular treatment and radiosurgery. The former can be used alone or in the frame of a multidisciplinary approach...
April 3, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597349/numerical-study-of-surfactant-dynamics-during-emulsification-in-a-t-junction-microchannel
#18
Antoine Riaud, Hao Zhang, Xue-Ying Wang, Kai Wang, Guangsheng Luo
Microchannel emulsification requires large amounts of surfactant to prevent coalescence and improve emulsions lifetime. However, most numerical studies have considered surfactant-free mixtures as models for droplet formation in microchannels, without taking into account the distribution of surfactant on the droplet surface. In this paper, we investigate the effects of non-uniform surfactant coverage on the microfluidic flow pattern using an extended Lattice-Boltzmann model. This numerical study, supported by micro-PIV experiments, reveals the likelihood of uneven distribution of surfactant during the droplet formation and the appearance of a stagnant cap...
March 30, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579503/effect-of-peripheral-iv-based-blood-collection-on-catheter-dwell-time-blood-collection-and-patient-response
#19
Deborah F Mulloy, Susan M Lee, Matthew Gregas, Kate E Hoffman, Stanley W Ashley
AIM: To evaluate the effect of daily PIV-based phlebotomy using the PIVO device on PIVC dwell times and replacement rates, as well as the reliability of blood sample collection, and patient response to this method of blood collection. BACKGROUND: Blood draws which are also known as phlebotomy for laboratory analyses are one of the most common experiences for hospitalized patients. When performed by venipuncture, they are often associated with pain and anxiety for patients...
April 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570758/benchmark-for-numerical-models-of-stented-coronary-bifurcation-flow
#20
Pedro Garcia Carrascal, Javier Garcia, Jose Sierra Pallares, Francisco Castro Ruiz, Fernando Manuel Martín
In-stent restenosis ails many patients who have undergone stenting. When the stented artery is a bifurcation, the intervention is especially critical because of the complex stent geometry involved in these structures. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has demonstrated to be an effective approach when modelling blood flow behavior and understanding the mechanisms that underlie in-stent restenosis. These CFD models, however, require validation through experimental data in order to be reliable. It is with this purpose in mind that we performed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocity fields within flows through a simplified coronary bifurcation...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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