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Xiaojian Ma, Biao Huang, Guoyu Wang, Mindi Zhang
The objective of this paper is to investigate the transient conical bubble structure (CBS) and acoustic flow structure in ultrasonic field. In the experiment, the high-speed video and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are used to measure the acoustic cavitation patterns, as well as the flow velocity and vorticity fields. Results are presented for a high power ultrasound with a frequency of 18kHz, and the range of the input power is from 50W to 250W. The results of the experiment show the input power significantly affects the structures of CBS, with the increase of input power, the cavity region of CBS and the velocity of bubbles increase evidently...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Masoud Rahimi, Salman Movahedirad, Shahrokh Shahhosseini
Recently, great attention has been paid to predict the acoustic streaming field distribution inside the sonoreactors, induced by high-power ultrasonic wave generator. The focus of this paper is to model an ultrasonic vibrating horn and study the induced flow pattern with a newly developed moving boundary condition. The numerical simulation utilizes the modified cavitation model along with the "mixture" model for turbulent flow (RNG, k-ε), and a moving boundary condition with an oscillating parabolic-logarithmic profile, applied to the horn tip...
October 17, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Fuyou Liang, Xiaosheng Liu, Ryuhei Yamaguchi, Hao Liu
Recent studies raised increasing concern about the reliability of computer models in reproducing in vivo hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms. Boundary condition problem is among the most frequently addressed issues since three-dimensional (3-D) modeling is usually restricted to local arterial segments. The present study focused on aneurysms on the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) which represent a large subgroup of detected cerebral aneurysms and, in particular, have a relatively high risk of rupture compared to aneurysms located in other regions...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
A H Haidari, S G J Heijman, W G J van der Meer
It is widely accepted that our understanding about the membrane process increases by investigation of the hydraulic conditions of membranes. While numerical studies have been broadly used for this purpose, the experimental studies of a comparable resolution are scarce. In this study, we compared the pressure drop, the temporal and the spatial velocity maps of a spacer-filled channel and an empty channel of the same size to determine the effect of presence of the feeds spacer on hydraulic conditions. The velocity maps are obtained experimentally by using of the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique...
October 5, 2016: Water Research
Nektarios Koukourakis, Bob Fregin, Jörg König, Lars Büttner, Jürgen W Czarske
Imaging-based flow measurement techniques, like particle image velocimetry (PIV), are vulnerable to time-varying distortions like refractive index inhomogeneities or fluctuating phase boundaries. Such distortions strongly increase the velocity error, as the position assignment of the tracer particles and the decrease of image contrast exhibit significant uncertainties. We demonstrate that wavefront shaping based on spatially distributed guide stars has the potential to significantly reduce the measurement uncertainty...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
Jeffrey M Hammann, Diana Haas, Carl-Phillip Tüllmann, Konstantin Karaghiosoff, Paul Knochel
A highly diastereoselective cross-coupling of variously substituted cycloalkyl iodides with alkynyl and (hetero)aryl Grignard reagents using cobalt(II) chloride has been successfully developed. With the THF-soluble CoCl2·LiCl and the inexpensive ortho-phenanthroline derivative, neocuproine, as a ligand, diastereomeric ratios of up to 99:1 were achieved. A range of functional groups are tolerated in the Grignard reagent (e.g., CF3, Piv, CN, OPiv, NMe2, CO2NEt2, SF5, OTBS).
October 7, 2016: Organic Letters
Angkur Shaikeea, Saptarshi Basu, Sandeep Hatte, Lalit Bansal
Particle-laden droplet-based systems ranging from micro- to nanoscale have become increasingly popular in applications such as inkjet printing, pharmaceutics, nanoelectronics, and surface patterning. All such applications involve multidroplet arrays in which vapor-mediated interactions can significantly affect the evaporation dynamics and morphological topology of precipitates. A fundamental study was conducted on nanocolloidal paired droplets (droplets kept adjacent to each other as in an array) to understand the physics related to the evaporation dynamics, internal flow pattern, particle transport, and nanoparticle self-assembly, primarily using optical diagnostic techniques [such as micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV)]...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Tolgay Tuyan Ilhan, Akin Sivaslioglu, Türkan Ilhan, Mustafa Gazi Uçar, İsmail Dolen
INTRODUCTION: Vaginal vault prolapsus is a challenging problem for the patients and physicians. There may be differences between young and elderly patients in terms of efficiency and safety of surgical procedures. AIM: The aim of our study was to compare the efficiency of the Posterior Intravaginal Sling (PIVS) procedure in older versus younger patient groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients who underwent the PIVS procedure were chosen...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Anna P Durbin
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that spread rapidly through South and Central America in 2015 to 2016. Microcephaly has been causally associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and the World Health Organization declared Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. To address this crisis, many groups have expressed their commitment to developing a Zika virus vaccine. Different strategies for Zika virus vaccine development are being considered including recombinant live attenuated vaccines, purified inactivated vaccines (PIVs), DNA vaccines, and viral vectored vaccines...
September 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Heba H Mostafa, Peter Vogel, Ashok Srinivasan, Charles J Russell
In immunocompromised patients, parainfluenza virus (PIV) infections have an increased potential to spread to the lower respiratory tract (LRT), resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Understanding the immunologic defects that facilitate viral spread to the LRT will help in developing better management protocols. In this study, we immunosuppressed mice with dexamethasone and/or cyclophosphamide then monitored the spread of viral infection into the LRT by using a noninvasive bioluminescence imaging system and a reporter Sendai virus (murine PIV type 1)...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Kélig Aujogue, Alban Pothérat, Ian Bates, François Debray, Binod Sreenivasan
In this paper, we present a new experimental facility, Little Earth Experiment, designed to study the hydrodynamics of liquid planetary cores. The main novelty of this apparatus is that a transparent electrically conducting electrolyte is subject to extremely high magnetic fields (up to 10 T) to produce electromagnetic effects comparable to those produced by moderate magnetic fields in planetary cores. This technique makes it possible to visualise for the first time the coupling between the principal forces in a convection-driven dynamo by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in a geometry relevant to planets...
August 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Sofia Mastrodima, Ranjit Akolekar, Guelen Yerlikaya, Thanasis Tzelepis, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVES: To develop a model for prediction of stillbirth based on a combination of maternal characteristics and medical history with first trimester biochemical and biophysical markers and evaluate the performance of screening of this model for all stillbirths and those due to impaired placentation and unexplained causes. METHODS: This was a prospective screening study of 76,897 singleton pregnancies including 76,629 live births and 268 (0.35%) antepartum stillbirths; 157 (59%) were secondary to impaired placentation and 111 (41%) were due to other or unexplained causes...
August 26, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Ranjit Akolekar, Mirian Machuca, Mariane Mendes, Vasileios Paschos, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether measurement of maternal serum placental growth factor (PLGF) at 11-13 weeks' gestation improves the performance of screening for stillbirths that is achieved by a combination of maternal factors and first trimester biomarkers such as maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), ductus venosus pulsatility index for veins (DV-PIV) and uterine artery pulsatility index (UT-PI) PI and to evaluate the performance of screening of this model for all stillbirths and those due to impaired placentation and unexplained causes...
August 26, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Selda Goktas, Fazil E Uslu, William J Kowalski, Erhan Ermek, Bradley B Keller, Kerem Pekkan
The role of hemodynamic forces within the embryo as biomechanical regulators for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling is well supported through the experimental studies. Furthermore, clinical experience suggests that perturbed flow disrupts the normal vascular growth process as one etiology for congenital heart diseases (CHD) and for fetal adaptation to CHD. However, the relationships between hemodynamics, gene expression and embryonic vascular growth are poorly defined due to the lack of concurrent, sequential in vivo data...
2016: PloS One
Ulrika Källman, Sara Bergstrand, Anna-Christina Ek, Maria Engström, Margareta Lindgren
OBJECTIVES: To describe individual blood flow responses in a nursing home resident population for one-hour periods of bed rest. METHODS: Blood flow was measured for one hour over the sacrum in 0° supine position and 30° supine tilt position in 25 individuals aged 65 years or older while lying on a pressure-redistributing mattress. Measurements were made at three tissue depths (1, 2 and 10 mm) using the non-invasive optical techniques LDF and PPG. RESULTS: Eleven participants had a pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV) response at 1 mm depth in both positions and seven participants had a lack of this response at this depth and positions...
August 17, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Linda M Cook, Jacinth Nichols-Dada, Samina Damani, Vickie Lawrence, Sandra Layson, Diane Mitchell, Shaqunna Muhammad, Lourdes Samaniego-Yamin, Jacquelyn Walters Talley, Barbara VanNatta, Melinda Higgins, Kim Cooley
PURPOSE: To determine whether 24% sucrose solution given orally before insertion of a peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter decreases neonatal pain. BACKGROUND: Prior studies of pain caused by heel and arterial needlesticks found oral administration of 24% sucrose to significantly blunt pain during these painful procedures. No studies have evaluated this treatment with needlestick pain associated with PIV catheter insertion. METHODS: Oral 24% sucrose or placebo solution was administered 2 minutes prior to PIV catheter insertion...
August 16, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Alejandro V Funes, Luca Carrella, Eva Rentschler, Pablo Alborés
We have prepared and structurally characterized a new member of the butterfly-like {Co(III) 2 Dy(III) 2 } single-molecule magnets (SMMs) through further Co(III) decoration, with the formula [Co(III) 4 Dy(III) 2 (OH)2 (teaH)2 (tea)2 (Piv)6 ] (teaH3 =triethanolamine; Piv=trimethylacetate or pivalate). Direct current (DC) susceptibility and magnetization measurements were performed allowing the extraction of possible crystal-field parameters. A simple electrostatic modeling shows reasonable agreement with experimental data...
September 26, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
D F Young, J Andrejeva, X Li, F Inesta-Vaquera, C Dong, V H Cowling, S Goodbourn, R E Randall
UNLABELLED: We have previously shown that IFIT1 is primarily responsible for the antiviral action of interferon (IFN) alpha/beta against parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV5), selectively inhibiting the translation of PIV5 mRNAs. Here we report that while PIV2, PIV5, and mumps virus (MuV) are sensitive to IFIT1, nonrubulavirus members of the paramyxoviridae such as PIV3, Sendai virus (SeV), and canine distemper virus (CDV) are resistant. The IFIT1 sensitivity of PIV5 was not rescued by coinfection with an IFIT1-resistant virus (PIV3), demonstrating that PIV3 does not specifically inhibit the antiviral activity of IFIT1 and that the inhibition of PIV5 mRNAs is regulated by cis-acting elements...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Swagatika Panda, Nirmal Kumar Mohakud, Mrutyunjay Suar, Subrat Kumar
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in low and middle income countries. To analyse the overall burden of respiratory viruses responsible for ARTIs in paediatrics population in eastern India, this study was performed. Clinical information, demographic information and nasal/oral swabs were collected from 332 paediatric patients (aged from one month to twelve years old) with the symptoms of ARTI, enrolled from the outpatient department from Nov 2012 to Oct 2014...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Kartik V Bulusu, Michael W Plesniak
The arterial network in the human vasculature comprises of ubiquitously present blood vessels with complex geometries (branches, curvatures and tortuosity). Secondary flow structures are vortical flow patterns that occur in curved arteries due to the combined action of centrifugal forces, adverse pressure gradients and inflow characteristics. Such flow morphologies are greatly affected by pulsatility and multiple harmonics of physiological inflow conditions and vary greatly in size-strength-shape characteristics compared to non-physiological (steady and oscillatory) flows (1 - 7)...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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