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Philipp Marx, Wojciech Kowalczyk, Aydin Demircioglu, Gary Neil Brault, Hermann Wendt, Sharaf-Eldin Shehada, Konstantinos Tsagakis, Mohamed El Gabry, Heinz Jakob, Daniel Wendt
The aim of the present in vitro study was the evaluation of the fluid dynamical performance of the Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT Magna Ease depending on the prosthetic size (21, 23, and 25 mm) and the cardiac output (3.6-6.4 L/min). A self-constructed flow channel in combination with particle image velocimetry (PIV) enabled precise results with high reproducibility, focus on maximal and local peek velocities, strain, and velocity gradients. These flow parameters allow insights into the generation of forces that act on blood cells and the aortic wall...
2018: BioMed Research International
Vrishank Raghav, Sudeep Sastry, Neelakantan Saikrishnan
Experimental flow field characterization is a critical component of the assessment of the hemolytic and thrombogenic potential of heart valve substitutes, thus it is important to identify best practices for these experimental techniques. This paper presents a brief review of commonly used flow assessment techniques such as Particle image velocimetry (PIV), Laser doppler velocimetry, and Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and a comparison of these methodologies. In particular, recommendations for setting up planar PIV experiments such as recommended imaging instrumentation, acquisition and data processing are discussed in the context of heart valve flows...
March 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Jane H Hartman, John Baker, James F Bena, Shannon L Morrison, Nancy M Albert
PURPOSE: Determine if the pediatric peripheral vascular access algorithm (PPVAA) led to differences in first-attempt and overall peripheral intravenous (PIV) success, staff attempting PIV access per episode and overall attempts and first PIV attempt success by provider. DESIGN/METHODS: A two-cohort pre-/post-implementation comparative design involved pediatric nurses and patients. The PPVAA included four components: a patient comfort plan, PIV grading score, nurses' self-assessed IV access capability and nurse decision to stop-the-line...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Sheree W O'Neil, Mary Ann Friesen, Debra Stanger, Amber Williams Trickey
PURPOSE: Although pediatric patients report venipuncture as their most feared experience during hospitalization, blood sampling from peripheral intravenous accesses (PIVs) is not standard of care. Blood sampling from PIVs has long been considered by healthcare personnel to harm the access. In an effort to minimize painful procedures, pediatric nursing staff conducted a prospective, observational study to determine if blood sampling using existing PIVs resulted in the loss of the access...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Xiangju Qu, Yang Song, Ying Jin, Zhenhua Li, Xuezhen Wang, ZhenYan Guo, Yunjing Ji, Anzhi He
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a necessary flow field diagnostic technique that provides instantaneous velocimetry information non-intrusively. Three-dimensional (3D) PIV methods can supply the full understanding of a 3D structure, the complete stress tensor, and the vorticity vector in the complex flows. In synthetic aperture particle image velocimetry (SAPIV), the flow field can be measured with large particle intensities from the same direction by different cameras. During SAPIV particle reconstruction, particles are commonly reconstructed by manually setting a threshold to filter out unfocused particles in the refocused images...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Malinee Chittaganpitch, Sunthareeya Waicharoen, Thitipong Yingyong, Prabda Praphasiri, Somchai Sangkitporn, Sonja J Olsen, Kim A Lindblade
BACKGROUND: Information on the burden, characteristics and seasonality of non-influenza respiratory viruses is limited in tropical countries. OBJECTIVES: Describe the epidemiology of selected non-influenza respiratory viruses in Thailand between June 2010 and May 2014 using a sentinel surveillance platform established for influenza. METHODS: Patients with influenza-like illness (ILI; history of fever or documented temperature >38°C, cough, not requiring hospitalization) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI; history of fever or documented temperature >38°C, cough, onset <10 days, requiring hospitalization) were enrolled from 10 sites...
March 8, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Sabrina Ribeiro de Almeida Queiroz, José Valter Joaquim Silva Júnior, Andréa Nazaré Monteiro Rangel da Silva, Amanda Gomes de Oliveira Carvalho, Jefferson José da Silva Santos, Laura Helena Vega Gonzales Gil
INTRODUCTION: Pseudo-infectious yellow fever viral particles (YFV-PIVs) have been used to study vaccines and viral packaging. Here, we report the development of a packaging cell line, which expresses the YFV prM/E proteins. METHODS: HEK293 cells were transfected with YFV prM/E and C (84 nt) genes to generate HEK293-YFV-PrM/E-opt. The cells were evaluated for their ability to express the heterologous proteins and to package the replicon repYFV-17D-LucIRES, generating YFV-PIVs...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Jean-Nicolas Comps, Constantin Tuleasca, Beatrice Goncalves-Matoso, Luis Schiappacasse, Maud Marguet, Marc Levivier
INTRODUCTION: Facial nerve schwannomas are rare tumors and account for less than 2% of intracranial neurinomas, despite being the most common tumors of the facial nerve. The optimal management is currently under debate and includes observation, microsurgical resection, radiosurgery (RS), and fractionated radiotherapy. Radiosurgery might be a valuable alternative, as a minimally invasive technique, in symptomatic patients and/or presenting tumor growth. METHODS: We review our series of four consecutive cases, treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) between July 2010 and July 2017 in Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland...
February 28, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Chiara Robba, Danilo Cardim, Tamara Tajsic, Justine Pietersen, Michael Bulman, Frank Rasulo, Rita Bertuetti, Joseph Donnelly, Liu Xiuyun, Zofia Czosnyka, Manuel Cabeleira, Peter Smielewski, Basil Matta, Alessandro Bertuccio, Marek Czosnyka
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) can be invaluable in the management of critically ill patients. Invasive measurement of ICP remains the "gold standard" and should be performed when clinical indications are met, but it is invasive and brings some risks. In this project, we aim to validate the non-invasive ICP (nICP) assessment models based on arterious and venous transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD)...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Stephen D Hammack, Campbell D Carter, Aaron W Skiba, Christopher A Fugger, Josef J Felver, Joseph D Miller, James R Gord, Tonghun Lee
Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of hydroxyl (OH) and formaldehyde (CH2 O) radicals was performed alongside stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) at a 20 kHz repetition rate in a highly turbulent Bunsen flame. A dual-pulse burst-mode laser generated envelopes of 532 nm pulse pairs for PIV as well as a pair of 355 nm pulses, the first of which was used for CH2 O PLIF. A diode-pumped solid-state Nd:YAG/dye laser system produced the excitation beam for the OH PLIF. The combined diagnostics produced simultaneous, temporally resolved two-dimensional fields of OH and CH2 O and two-dimensional, three-component velocity fields, facilitating the observation of the interaction of fluid dynamics with flame fronts and preheat layers...
March 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Mireya Robledo-Aceves, María de Jesús Moreno-Peregrina, Fernando Velarde-Rivera, Elba Ascencio-Esparza, Francisco M Preciado-Figueroa, Miguela A Caniza, Griselda Escobedo-Melendez
Severe bronchiolitis is the most common reason for hospitalization among children younger than 2 years. This study analyzed the prevalence of community-acquired respiratory virus infection and the risk factors for hospitalization of Mexican children with severe bronchiolitis treated in an Emergency department.This retrospective study included 134 children 2 years or younger with severe viral bronchiolitis, and 134 healthy age-matched controls. The study period was September 2012 to January 2015. We determined the viral etiology and coinfections with multiple viruses and compared the risk factors detected in children with severe viral bronchiolitis with those in the control group...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hanwook Park, Sung Yong Jung, Jun Hong Park, Jun Ho Kim, Sang Joon Lee
The X-ray PIV (particle image velocimetry) technique has been used as a non-invasive measurement modality to investigate the haemodynamic features of blood flow. However, the extraction of two-dimensional velocity field data from the three-dimensional volumetric information contained in X-ray images is technically unclear. In this study, a new two-dimensional velocity field extraction technique is proposed to overcome technological limitations. To resolve the problem of finding a correction coefficient, the velocity field information obtained by X-ray PIV and micro-PIV techniques for disturbed flow in a concentric stenosis with 50% severity was quantitatively compared...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Johanna Clauser, Marius S Knieps, Martin Büsen, Andreas Ding, Thomas Schmitz-Rode, Ulrich Steinseifer, Jutta Arens, Giorgio Cattaneo
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a commonly used method for in vitro investigation of fluid dynamics in biomedical devices, such as flow diverters for intracranial aneurysm treatment. Since it is limited to transparent blood substituting fluids like water-glycerol mixture, the influence of coagulation and platelet aggregation is neglected. We aimed at the development and the application of a modified platelet rich plasma as a new PIV fluid with blood-like rheological and coagulation properties. In standardized intracranial aneurysm silicone models, the effect of this new PIV plasma on the fluid dynamics before and after flow diverter implantation was evaluated and compared with water-glycerol measurements...
February 27, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Elisabetta Tedaldi, Chiara Montanari, Kenneth I Aycock, Francesco Sturla, Alberto Redaelli, Keefe B Manning
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have been used for over five decades as an alternative to anticoagulation therapy in the treatment of venous thromboembolic disease. However, complications associated with IVC filters remain common. Though many studies have investigated blood flow in the IVC, the effects of respiration-induced IVC collapse have not been evaluated. Our hypothesis is that IVC collapse may have an influence on IVC filter performance. Therefore, we herein investigate the hemodynamics in uncollapsed and collapsed IVC configurations using in vitro flow experiments and computational simulations...
February 24, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Gregory F Pirrone, Rose M Mathew, Alexey A Makarov, Frank Bernardoni, Artis Klapars, Robert Hartman, John Limanto, Erik L Regalado
Impurity fate and purge studies are critical in order to establish an effective impurity control strategy for approval of the commercial filing application of new medicines. Reversed phase liquid chromatography-diode array-mass spectrometry (RPLC-DAD-MS) has traditionally been the preferred tool for impurity fate mapping. However, separation of some reaction mixtures by LC can be very problematic requiring combination LC-UV for area % analysis and a different LC-MS method for peak identification. In addition, some synthetic intermediates might be chemically susceptible to the aqueous conditions used in RPLC separations...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Lina Meng, Cherwyn M Nguyen, Samit Patel, Michael Mlynash, Anna Finley Caulfield
PURPOSE: One institution's experience with use of peripheral i.v. (PIV) catheters for prolonged infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection at rates up to 100 mL/hr is described. METHODS: A prospective, observational, 13-month quality assurance project was conducted at an academic medical center to evaluate frequencies of patient and catheter phlebitis among adult inpatients who received both an infusion of 3% sodium chloride injection for a period of ≥4 hours through a dedicated PIV catheter and infusions of routine-care solutions (RCSs) through separate PIV catheters during the same hospital stay...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Olga Vlasova, Nikolai Kozlov
The behaviour of a heavy cylindrical body in a rotating horizontal cylindrical cavity filled with viscous liquid is investigated experimentally. Several modes of the body behaviour depending on the rate of the cavity rotation, i.e., the ratio of the centrifugal force of inertia and the gravity, are detected. At a fast rotation rate, the body makes the solid-body rotation, remaining immobile relative to the cavity due to the action of the centrifugal force. In the absence of rotation, under the influence of gravity, the body occupies a position in the lower part of the cavity...
February 20, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Royanne L Lichliter, Lynea E Tremewan, Nicole M Shonka, Jennifer E Mehnert, Laney Brennan, Jodi M Thrasher, Teri L Hernandez
Repeated venipunctures and fingersticks to confirm serum drug concentrations cause pain and dissatisfaction for pediatric patients and their families. In many organizations, the standard of care to obtain therapeutic serum drug concentrations by peripheral venipuncture or capillary fingerstick, even when the patient has an existing peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) or central venous catheter (CVC). The primary objective of this study was to assess agreement between serum tobramycin/vancomycin concentrations collected from a CVC or PIV, versus venipuncture or fingerstick...
February 20, 2018: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
Mohsen Meidani, Seyed Alireza Mirmohammad Sadeghi
Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h), upper and lower respiratory symptoms...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Yihua Ren, Wei Cui, Shuiqing Li
We report an electrohydrodynamic instability in a premixed stagnation flame under manipulations of a dc electric field. This instability occurs when the electric field strength is at a certain value below the breakdown threshold, which is 0.75 kV/cm in the experimental setup. Above this value the flame front suddenly transits from a substrate-stabilized near-flat shape to a nozzle-stabilized conical surface, accompanied by a jump in the electric current through the flame field. At the transition moment, the flame spontaneously propagates upstream to the nozzle while the flow velocity at the upstream of the flame front decreases to zero, as revealed by high-speed photographs and PIV measurements...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
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