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Robert Lindner, Angelika Kühnle
On-surface synthesis constitutes a rapidly growing field of research due to its promising application for creating stable molecular structures on surfaces. While self-assembled structures rely on reversible interactions, on-surface synthesis provides the potential for creating long-term stable structures with well-controlled properties, for example superior electron transport for future molecular electronic devices. On-surface synthesis holds the promise for preparing insoluble compounds that cannot be produced in solution...
June 8, 2015: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Insaf Abdi, Khulood Al-Sadhan, Amor Ben Ali
The title compound, (C3H12N2)2[AlF6][AlF4(H2O)2]·4H2O, was obtained by a solvothermal method in ethanol as solvent and with aluminium hydroxide, HF and 1,3-di-amino-propane as educts. The asymmetric unit contains a quarter each of two crystallographically independent propane-1,3-di-ammonium dicat-ions, [AlF6](3-) and [AlF4(H2O)2](-) anions and four water mol-ecules. The cations, anions and three of the independent water mol-ecules are situated on special positions mm, while the fourth water mol-ecule is disordered about a mirror plane...
December 1, 2014: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Structure Reports Online
Andreas Aurich, Robert Specht, Roland A Müller, Ulrich Stottmeister, Venelina Yovkova, Christina Otto, Martina Holz, Gerold Barth, Philipp Heretsch, Franziska A Thomas, Dieter Sicker, Athanassios Giannis
Oxo- and hydroxy-carboxylic acids are of special interest in organic synthesis. However, their introduction by chemical reactions tends to be troublesome especially with regard to stereoselectivity. We describe herein the biotechnological preparation of selected oxo- and hydroxycarboxylic acids under "green" conditions and their use as promising new building blocks. Thereby, our biotechnological goal was the development of process fundamentals regarding the variable use of renewable raw materials, the development of a multi purpose bioreactor and application of a pilot plant with standard equipment for organic acid production to minimize the technological effort...
2012: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Donna G Blackmond, Omar K Matar
The concept of reversibility in complex chemical reaction networks has recently been introduced in discussions concerning the origin of biological homochirality. In computational studies drawing on an analogy to recent experimental studies involving reversible crystallization processes, recycling of reaction educts has been suggested to provide a driving force for the spontaneous emergence of homochirality. We demonstrate here that reversible reaction networks closed to mass flow lead inexorably to a racemic state for thermally driven reactions, which must adhere to the principle of microscopic reversibility...
April 24, 2008: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
J J DeCosse, W L Donegan, N Sedransk, N F Jones, D B Claudon
Standardization of surgical procedures is both feasible and necessary in clinical trials. To the extent that an operation may influence prognosis, identify prognostic factors, or reveal variables upon which additional treatment is contingent, the operation must be defined precisely enough to permit the determinations to be made uniformly and to enable the surgeons to meet the necessary standardization. If uniform procedures are to be applied widely, surgeons who participate in therapeutic trials must meet the standards of clinical scientists and accept special obligations for eduction and self-discipline...
February 1980: Cancer Treatment Reports
W D Mayer
In 1971, the National Board of Medical Examiners appointed a Committee on Goals and Priorities, with a charge to provide advice, counsel, and recommendations relative to the Board's future directions. The report of the Committee, "Evaluation in the Continuum of Medical Education", was published as a monograph in 1973. It addressed itself to issues of evaluation, certification, licensure, and accreditation throughout the entire spectrum of medical education-undergraduate, graduate, and continuing. This paper, by the chairman of the Committee which authored the report, provides a review of: (a) the trends in medical eduction which formed the basis of the remmendations, (b) the recommendations themselves, (c) reactions to the report subsequent to its publication, and (d) actions taken by various groups relating to issues discussed in the report...
September 1975: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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