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Accessory proteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723582/overexpression-and-purification-of-dicer-and-accessory-proteins-for-biochemical-and-structural-studies
#1
Niladri K Sinha, Brenda L Bass
The Dicer family of ribonucleases plays a key role in small RNA-based regulatory pathways by generating short dsRNA fragments that modulate expression of endogenous genes, or protect the host from invasive nucleic acids. Beginning with its initial discovery, biochemical characterization of Dicer has provided insight about its catalytic properties. However, a comprehensive understanding of how Dicer's domains contribute to substrate-specific recognition and catalysis is lacking. One reason for this void is the lack of high-resolution structural information for a metazoan Dicer in the apo- or substrate-bound state...
July 16, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718449/the-dual-function-chaperone-hych-improves-assembly-of-the-formate-hydrogenlyase-complex
#2
Ute Lindenstrauß, Philipp Skorupa, Jennifer S McDowall, Frank Sargent, Constanze Pinske
The assembly of multi-protein complexes requires the concerted synthesis and maturation of its components and subsequently their co-ordinated interaction. The membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex is the primary hydrogen-producing enzyme in Escherichia coli and is composed of seven subunits mostly encoded within the hycA-I operon for [NiFe]-hydrogenase-3 (Hyd-3). The HycH protein is predicted to have an accessory function and is not part of the final structural FHL complex. In this work, a mutant strain devoid of HycH was characterized and found to have significantly reduced FHL activity due to instability of the electron transfer subunits...
July 17, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714556/non-canonical-activation-of-histidine-kinase-kdpd-by-phosphotransferase-protein-ptsn-through-interaction-with-the-transmitter-domain
#3
Markus Mörk-Mörkenstein, Ralf Heermann, Yvonne Göpel, Kirsten Jung, Boris Görke
The two-component system KdpD/KdpE governs K(+) homeostasis by controlling synthesis of the high affinity K(+) transporter KdpFABC. When sensing low environmental K(+) concentrations, the dimeric kinase KdpD autophosphorylates in trans and transfers the phosphoryl-group to the response regulator KdpE, which subsequently activates kdpFABC transcription. In Escherichia coli, KdpD can also be activated by interaction with the non-phosphorylated form of the accessory protein PtsN. PtsN stimulates KdpD kinase activity thereby increasing phospho-KdpE levels...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713398/a-hops-protein-movps41-is-crucially-important-for-vacuolar-morphogenesis-vegetative-growth-reproduction-and-virulence-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#4
Xiaojie Zhang, Guanghui Wang, Chengdong Yang, Jun Huang, Xiaofeng Chen, Jie Zhou, Guangpu Li, Justice Norvienyeku, Zonghua Wang
The homotypic fusion and protein sorting protein complex (HOPS) is the first known tether complex identified in the endocytic system that plays a key role in promoting homotypic vacuolar fusion, vacuolar biogenesis and trafficking in a wide range of organisms, including plant and fungi. However, the exact influence of the HOPS complex on growth, reproduction and pathogenicity of the economically destructive rice blast fungus has not been investigated. In this study, we identified M. oryzae vacuolar protein sorting 41 (MoVps41) an accessory subunit of HOPS complex and used targeted gene deletion approach to evaluate its contribution to growth, reproduction and infectious life cycle of the rice blast fungus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710280/the-assembly-of-the-plant-urease-activation-complex-and-the-essential-role-of-the-urease-accessory-protein-g-ureg-in-delivery-of-nickel-to-urease
#5
Till Myrach, Anting Zhu, Claus-Peter Witte
Urease is a ubiquitous nickel metalloenzyme. In plants, its activation requires three urease accessory proteins (UAPs), UreD, UreF, and UreG. In bacteria, the UAPs interact with urease and facilitate activation, which involves the channeling of two nickel ions into the active site. So far this process has not been investigated in eukaryotes. Using affinity pull-downs of Strep-tagged UAPs from Arabidopsis and rice transiently expressed in planta, we demonstrate that a urease:UreD:UreF:UreG complex exists in plants and show its stepwise assembly...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701884/cis-prenyltransferase-interacts-with-a-nogo-b-receptor-homolog-for-dolichol-biosynthesis-in-panax-ginseng-meyer
#6
Ngoc Quy Nguyen, Sang-Choon Lee, Tae-Jin Yang, Ok Ran Lee
BACKGROUND: Prenyltransferases catalyze the sequential addition of isopentenyl diphosphate units to allylic prenyl diphosphate acceptors and are classified as either trans-prenyltransferases (TPTs) or cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs). The functions of CPTs have been well characterized in bacteria, yeast, and mammals compared to plants. The characterization of CPTs also has been less studied than TPTs. In the present study, molecular cloning and functional characterization of a CPT from a medicinal plant, Panax ginseng Mayer were addressed...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701393/hiv-1-env-and-vpu-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-responses-associated-with-elite-control-of-hiv
#7
Vijaya Madhavi, Bruce D Wines, Janaki Amin, Sean Emery, Ester Lopez, Anthony Kelleher, Rob J Center, P Mark Hogarth, Amy W Chung, Stephen J Kent, Ivan Stratov
Studying HIV-infected individuals who control HIV replication (elite controllers, ECs) enable exploration of effective anti-HIV immunity. HIV Env- and non-Env-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) may contribute to protection from progressive HIV infection but the evidence is limited. We recruited 22 ECs and matched them with 44 viremic subjects. HIV Env- and Vpu-specific ADCC responses were studied in sera using a novel ELISA-based dimeric recombinant soluble (rs) FcγRIIIa-binding assay, surface plasmon resonance, antibody-dependent natural killer (NK) cell activation assays and ADCC-mediated killing assays...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699853/foxo4-negatively-controls-tat-mediated-hiv-1-transcription-through-the-post-transcriptional-suppression-of-tat-encoding-mrna
#8
Alexandra Oteiza, Nadir Mechti
The connection between the repression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) transcription and the resting CD4+ T cell state suggests that the host transcription factors involved in the active maintenance of lymphocyte quiescence are likely to repress the viral transactivator, Tat, thereby restricting HIV-1 transcription. In this study, we analysed the interplay between Tat and the forkhead box transcription factors, FoxO1 and FoxO4. We show that FoxO1 and FoxO4 antagonize Tat-mediated transactivation of HIV-1 promoter through the repression of Tat protein expression...
July 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698313/hiv-and-hiv-tat-inhibit-lps-induced-il-27-production-in-human-macrophages-by-distinct-intracellular-signaling-pathways
#9
Niranjala Gajanayaka, Shifawn O'Hara, Yulia Konarski, Jason Fernandes, Kar Muthumani, Maya Kozlowski, Jonathan B Angel, Ashok Kumar
Monocyte-derived Mϕs (MDMs) from HIV-infected patients and MDM infected in vitro with HIV exhibit a reduced ability to secrete various cytokines, including IL-12. Recently, IL-27, an IL-12 family cytokine, was shown to inhibit HIV replication in Mϕ. Whether HIV infection or HIV accessory protein(s) impact IL-27 production in Mϕs remains unknown. Herein, we show that in vitro HIV infection, as well as intracellular HIV-Tat (Tat) and Tat peptides, inhibit LPS-induced IL-27 production in human MDMs, suggesting impairment of the TLR4 signaling pathway...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695648/three-glycosylated-serine-rich-repeat-proteins-play-a-pivotal-role-in-adhesion-and-colonization-of-the-pioneer-commensal-bacterium-streptococcus-salivarius
#10
Benoit Couvigny, Nicolas Lapaque, Lionel Rigottier-Gois, Alain Guillot, Sophie Chat, Thierry Meylheuc, Saulius Kulakauskas, Manfred Rohde, Michel-Yves Mistou, Pierre Renault, Joel Doré, Romain Briandet, Pascale Serror, Eric Guédon
Bacterial adhesion is a critical step for colonization of the host. The pioneer colonizer and commensal bacterium of the human gastrointestinal tract, Streptococcus salivarius, has strong adhesive properties but the molecular determinants of this adhesion remain uncharacterized. Serine-rich repeat (SRR) glycoproteins are a family of adhesins that fulfill an important role in adhesion. In general, Gram-positive bacterial genomes have a unique SRR glycoprotein-encoding gene. We demonstrate that S. salivarius expresses three large and glycosylated surface-exposed proteins - SrpA, SrpB and SrpC - that show characteristics of SRR glycoproteins and are secreted through the accessory SecA2/Y2 system...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693148/expression-levels-and-clinical-significance-of-hepsin-and-hmgb1-proteins-in-cervical-carcinoma
#11
Hui Cheng, Weiqi Wang, Yanling Zhang, Bei Zhang, Jie Cheng, Peng Teng, Xin Tang
This study assessed the hypothesis that the protein levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and hepsin can be used as markers for diagnosis and prognosis in cervical carcinoma. Seventy patients with cervical cancer who were hospitalized in Xuzhou Central Hospital from May 2008 to June 2010 and underwent surgical treatment were selected for the observation group. At the same time, 20 patients with cervical benign lesions who underwent tumor stripping or accessory resection were selected for the control group...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691777/structure-and-evolution-of-enth-and-vhs-enth-like-domains-in-tepsin
#12
Tara L Archuleta, Meredith N Frazier, Anderson E Monken, Amy K Kendall, Joel Harp, Airlie J McCoy, Nicole Creanza, Lauren P Jackson
Tepsin is currently the only accessory trafficking protein identified in adaptor-related protein 4 (AP4) coated vesicles originating at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The molecular basis for interactions between AP4 subunits and motifs in the tepsin C-terminus have been characterized, but the biological role of tepsin remains unknown. We determined X-ray crystal structures of the tepsin ENTH and VHS/ENTH-like domains. Our data reveal unexpected structural features that suggest key functional differences between these and similar domains in other trafficking proteins...
July 10, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684414/kinetic-processivity-of-the-two-step-oxidations-of-progesterone-and-pregnenolone-to-androgens-by-human-cytochrome-p450-17a1
#13
Eric Gonzalez, F Peter Guengerich
Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 17A1 plays a critical role in steroid metabolism, catalyzing both the 17α-hydroxylation of pregnenolone and progesterone and the subsequent 17α,20-lyase reactions to form dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione (Andro), respectively, critical for generating glucocorticoids and androgens. Human P450 17A1 reaction rates examined are enhanced by the accessory protein cytochrome b5 (b5), but the exact role of b5 in P450 17A1-catalyzed reactions is unclear as are several details of these reactions...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681118/naturally-occurring-vpr-inhibitors-from-medicinal-plants-of-myanmar
#14
REVIEW
Nwet Nwet Win, Hla Ngwe, Ikuro Abe, Hiroyuki Morita
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is a lentiviral family member that encodes the retroviral Gag, Pol, and Env proteins, along with six additional accessory proteins, Tat, Rev, Vpu, Vif, Nef, and Vpr. The currently approved anti-HIV drugs target the Pol and Env encoded proteins. However, these drugs are only effective in reducing viral replication. Furthermore, the drugs' toxicities and the emergence of drug-resistant strains have become serious worldwide problems. Resistance eventually arises to all of the approved anti-HIV drugs, including the newly approved drugs that target HIV integrase (IN)...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676399/plant-e3-ligases-ubiquitinate-escherichia-coli-%C3%AF-32-in-vitro
#15
Xibing Xu, Ke Liang, Haiyan Li, Hao Liu, Qin Cao, Yan Shen
Ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) are extremely well-conserved among eukaryotes and prokaryotes allowing interactions between proteins from different organisms. For example, the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like proteins (Pups) and the Proteasome accessory factor A (PafA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are sufficient to pupylate at least 51 Escherichia coli proteins. This work shows that the plant E3 ligases BnTR1 and AT1G02860 can ubiquitinate E. coli σ(32), but not Hsp70 DnaK in vitro. Molecular biology and biochemical studies confirm that the RING finger domain of BnTR1 and AT1G02860 is essential for their function...
July 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662722/yeast-lysates-carrying-the-nucleoprotein-from-measles-virus-vaccine-as-a-novel-subunit-vaccine-platform-to-deliver-plasmodium-circumsporozoite-antigen
#16
Daria Jacob, Claude Ruffie, Chantal Combredet, Pauline Formaglio, Rogerio Amino, Robert Ménard, Frédéric Tangy, Monica Sala
BACKGROUND: Yeast cells represent an established bioreactor to produce recombinant proteins for subunit vaccine development. In addition, delivery of vaccine antigens directly within heat-inactivated yeast cells is attractive due to the adjuvancy provided by the yeast cell. In this study, Pichia pastoris yeast lysates carrying the nucleoprotein (N) from the measles vaccine virus were evaluated as a novel subunit vaccine platform to deliver the circumsporozoite surface antigen (CS) of Plasmodium...
June 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662343/effect-of-chronic-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-administration-on-ghb-toxicokinetics-and-ghb-induced-respiratory-depression
#17
Bridget L Morse, Gurkishan S Chadha, Melanie A Felmlee, Kristin E Follman, Marilyn E Morris
BACKGROUND: γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has a high potential for illicit use; overdose of this compound results in sedation, respiratory depression and death. Tolerance to the hypnotic/sedative and electroencephalogram effects of GHB occurs with chronic GHB administration; however, tolerance to respiratory depression has not been evaluated. GHB toxicodynamic effects are mediated predominantly by GABAB receptors. Chronic treatment may affect monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and alter the absorption, renal clearance and brain uptake of GHB...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658627/tspan12-is-a-norrin-co-receptor-that-amplifies-frizzled4-ligand-selectivity-and-signaling
#18
Maria B Lai, Chi Zhang, Jianli Shi, Verity Johnson, Lavan Khandan, John McVey, Michael W Klymkowsky, Zhe Chen, Harald J Junge
Accessory proteins in Frizzled (FZD) receptor complexes are thought to determine ligand selectivity and signaling amplitude. Genetic evidence indicates that specific combinations of accessory proteins and ligands mediate vascular β-catenin signaling in different CNS structures. In the retina, the tetraspanin TSPAN12 and the ligand norrin (NDP) mediate angiogenesis, and both genes are linked to familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), yet the molecular function of TSPAN12 remains poorly understood. Here, we report that TSPAN12 is an essential component of the NDP receptor complex and interacts with FZD4 and NDP via its extracellular loops, consistent with an action as co-receptor that enhances FZD4 ligand selectivity for NDP...
June 27, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658296/ultrastructural-analysis-of-salivary-glands-in-a-phytophagous-stink-bug-revealed-the-presence-of-unexpected-muscles
#19
Nathaly Castellanos, Luis C Martínez, Eder H Silva, Adenir V Teodoro, José Eduardo Serrão, Eugênio E Oliveira
The exceptional abilities of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to colonize a diverse group of plants have been attributed to the feeding behaviors and the functions of the salivary complex of these insects. Here, we describe the ultrastructure of the salivary glands of the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, which is a major component of the pentatomid pest complex on soybeans, Glycine max, in the neotropics. Our results revealed a salivary gland complex consisting of two lobes (i.e., anterior and posterior), with a constriction between them (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652864/the-laci-family-protein-glyr3-co-regulates-the-celc-operon-and-manb-in-clostridium-thermocellum
#20
Jinlyung Choi, Dawn M Klingeman, Steven D Brown, Chris D Cox
BACKGROUND: Clostridium thermocellum utilizes a wide variety of free and cellulosomal cellulases and accessory enzymes to hydrolyze polysaccharides present in complex substrates. To date only a few studies have unveiled the details by which the expression of these cellulases are regulated. Recent studies have described the auto regulation of the celC operon and determined that the celC-glyR3-licA gene cluster and nearby manB-celT gene cluster are co-transcribed as polycistronic mRNA. RESULTS: In this paper, we demonstrate that the GlyR3 protein mediates the regulation of manB...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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