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Accessory proteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430876/ift25-an-intraflagellar-transporter-protein-dispensable-for-ciliogenesis-in-somatic-cells-is-essential-for-sperm-flagella-formation
#1
Hong Liu, Wei Li, Yong Zhang, Zhengang Zhang, Xuejun Shang, Ling Zhang, Shiyang Zhang, Yanwei Li, Andres V Somoza, Brandon Delpi, George L Gerton, James A Foster, Rex A Hess, Gregory J Pazour, Zhibing Zhang
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. However, IFT25, a component of the IFT complex is not required for the formation of cilia in somatic tissues. In mice, the gene is highly expressed in the testis, and its expression is up-regulated during the final phase when sperm flagella are formed. To investigate the role of IFT25 in sperm flagella formation, the gene was specifically disrupted in male germ cells. All homozygous knockout mice survived to adulthood and did not show any gross abnormalities...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430596/snm1b-apollo-in-the-dna-damage-response-and-telomere-maintenance
#2
REVIEW
Maren Schmiester, Ilja Demuth
hSNM1B/Apollo is a member of the highly conserved β-CASP subgroup within the MBL superfamily of proteins. It interacts with several DNA repair proteins and functions within the Fanconi anemia pathway in response to DNA interstrand crosslinks. As a shelterin accessory protein, hSNM1B/Apollo is also vital for the generation and maintenance of telomeric overhangs. In this review, we will summarize studies on hSNM1B/Apollo's function, including its contribution to DNA damage signaling, replication fork maintenance, control of topological stress and telomere protection...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428250/functional-roles-of-globin-proteins-in-hypoxia-tolerant-ectothermic-vertebrates
#3
Angela Fago
Globins are heme-containing proteins ubiquitously expressed in vertebrates, where they serve a broad range of biological functions, directly or indirectly related to the tight control of oxygen levels and its toxic products in vivo. Perhaps the most investigated of all proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin are primarily involved in oxygen transport and storage, but also in facilitating arterial vasodilation, suppressing mitochondrial respiration and preventing tissue oxidative damage via accessory redox enzymatic activities during hypoxia...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424288/virion-associated-vpr-alleviates-a-post-integration-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-dendritic-cells
#4
Caitlin M Miller, Hisashi Akiyama, Luis M Agosto, Ann Emery, Chelsea R Ettinger, Ronald I Swamstrom, Andrew J Henderson, Suryaram Gummuluru
Viral protein R (Vpr) is an HIV-1 accessory protein whose function remains poorly understood. In this report, we sought to determine the requirement of Vpr in facilitating HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), one of the first cells to encounter virus in the peripheral mucosal tissues. We characterize in this report a significant restriction to Vpr-deficient virus replication and spread in MDDCs alone and in cell-to-cell spread in MDDC - CD4(+) T cell co-cultures. This restriction to HIV-1 replication in MDDCs was observed in a single round of virus replication and was rescued by expression of Vpr in trans in the incoming virion...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423184/the-differentiated-and-conserved-roles-of-swi5-sfr1-in-homologous-recombination
#5
REVIEW
Bilge Argunhan, Yasuto Murayama, Hiroshi Iwasaki
Homologous recombination (HR) is the process whereby two DNA molecules that share high sequence similarity are able to recombine to generate hybrid DNA molecules. Throughout evolution, the ability of HR to identify highly similar DNA sequences has been adopted for numerous biological phenomena including DNA repair, meiosis, telomere maintenance, ribosomal DNA amplification, and immunological diversity. Although Rad51 and Dmc1 are the key proteins that promote HR in mitotic and meiotic cells, respectively, accessory proteins that allow Rad51 and Dmc1 to effectively fulfil their functions have been identified in all examined model systems...
April 19, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415792/a-cd44-specific-peptide-rp-1-exhibits-capacities-of-assisting-diagnosis-and-predicting-prognosis-of-gastric-cancer
#6
Weiming Li, Huan Jia, Jichang Wang, Hao Guan, Yan Li, Dan Zhang, Yanan Tang, Thomas D Wang, Shaoying Lu
Early diagnosis and evaluation of prognosis are both crucial for preventing poor prognosis of patients with gastric cancer (GC), a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), an indicator of cancer stem cells, can be specifically targeted by molecular probes and detected in tissues of GC in a large quantity. In current study we found that RP-1, a specific peptide binding to CD44 protein, exhibited the potentials of specific binding to CD44 high-expressing cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, and the capacity of predicting prognosis of human GC in a microarray assay...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414739/an-in-silico-pan-genomic-probe-for-the-molecular-traits-behind-lactobacillus-ruminis-gut-autochthony
#7
Ravi Kant, Airi Palva, Ingemar von Ossowski
As an ecological niche, the mammalian intestine provides the ideal habitat for a variety of bacterial microorganisms. Purportedly, some commensal genera and species offer a beneficial mix of metabolic, protective, and structural processes that help sustain the natural digestive health of the host. Among these sort of gut inhabitants is the Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus ruminis, a strict anaerobe with both pili and flagella on its cell surface, but also known for being autochthonous (indigenous) to the intestinal environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413119/the-two-dictyostelium-discoideum-autophagy-8-proteins-have-distinct-autophagic-functions
#8
Susanne Meßling, Jan Matthias, Qiuhong Xiong, Sarah Fischer, Ludwig Eichinger
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular degradation pathway which is crucial for various cellular processes. The autophagic process is subdivided in the initiation, autophagosome maturation and lysosomal degradation phases and involves more than forty core and accessory autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. Autophagy 8 (ATG8, in mammals LC3) is a well-established marker of autophagy and is linked to the autophagic membrane from initiation until fusion with the lysosome. We generated single and double knock-out mutants of the two Dictyostelium paralogues, ATG8a and ATG8b, as well as strains that expressed RFP-ATG8a and/or GFP-ATG8b, RFP-ATG8b, RFP-GFP-ATG8a or RFP-GFP-ATG8b in different knock-out mutants...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412244/a-central-role-for-cadherin-signaling-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Antonis Kourtidis, Ruifeng Lu, Lindy J Pence, Panos Z Anastasiadis
Cadherins are homophilic adhesion molecules with important functions in cell-cell adhesion, tissue morphogenesis, and cancer. In epithelial cells, E-cadherin accumulates at areas of cell-cell contact, coalesces into macromolecular complexes to form the adherens junctions (AJs), and associates via accessory partners with a subcortical ring of actin to form the apical zonula adherens (ZA). As a master regulator of the epithelial phenotype, E-cadherin is essential for the overall maintenance and homeostasis of polarized epithelial monolayers...
April 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408270/transcriptional-organization-of-pneumococcal-psrp-secy2a2-and-impact-of-gtfa-and-gtfb-deletion-on-psrp-associated-virulence-properties
#10
Anel Lizcano, Ramya Akula Suresh Babu, Anukul T Shenoy, Alison Maren Saville, Nikhil Kumar, Adonis D'Mello, Cecilia A Hinojosa, Ryan P Gilley, Jesus Segovia, Timothy J Mitchell, Hervé Tettelin, Carlos J Orihuela
Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP) is a glycoprotein that mediates Streptococcus pneumoniae attachment to lung cells and promotes biofilm formation. Herein, we investigated the transcriptional organization of psrP-secY2A2, the 37-kbp pathogenicity island encoding PsrP and its accessory genes. PCR amplification of cDNA and RNA-seq analysis found psrP-secY2A2 to be minimally composed of three operons: psrP-glyA, glyB, and glyC-asp5. Transcription of all three operons was greatest during biofilm growth and immunoblot analyses confirmed increased PsrP production by biofilm pneumococci...
April 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406398/lissencephaly-1-is%C3%A2-a-context-dependent-regulator%C3%A2-of-the-human-dynein-complex
#11
Janina Baumbach, Andal Murthy, Mark A McClintock, Carly I Dix, Ruta Zalyte, Ha Thi Hoang, Simon L Bullock
The cytoplasmic dynein-1 (dynein) motor plays a central role in microtubule organisation and cargo transport. These functions are spatially regulated by association of dynein and its accessory complex dynactin with dynamic microtubule plus ends. Here, we elucidate in vitro the roles of dynactin, end-binding protein-1 (EB1) and Lissencephaly-1 (LIS1) in the interaction of end tracking and minus end-directed human dynein complexes with these sites. LIS1 promotes dynactin-dependent tracking of dynein on both growing and shrinking plus ends...
April 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402234/apple-snail-perivitellin-precursor-properties-help-explain-predators-feeding-behavior
#12
María Pilar Cadierno, Marcos Sebastián Dreon, Horacio Heras
In contrast with vitellogenin maturation, it is unknown whether gastropod perivitellin precursors are subject to large structural changes. The gastropod reproductive tract includes an accessory organ, the albumen gland (AG), that produces and secretes perivitelline fluid. In the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, the large, reddish-pink AG provides eggs with perivitellins that are defensive against predators. Although the AG makes a considerable contribution to apple snail biomass, field observations indicate that it is rejected by avian and mammalian predators, although the underlying reason remains unknown...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400640/a-pilot-study-evaluating-therapeutic-response-of-different-dosage-of-oral-glucocorticoid-in-two-children-with-familial-glucocorticoid-deficiency-presenting-with-diffuse-mucocutaneous-hyperpigmentation
#13
Uttam Kumar Sarkar, Nilendu Sarma, Sambreeta Debbarma, Asok Kumar Mandal, Ashok Kumar Bala
INTRODUCTION: Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a rare autosomal recessive potentially life-threatening condition, characterized by glucocorticoid deficiency, preserved aldosterone/renin secretion, and secondary rise in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone level. This occurs due to either mutation in adrenocorticotropic receptor (25%, FGD Type-1) or in the MC2 receptor accessory protein (15%-20%). However, in about 50% patients, no identifiable mutations have been identified. Clinically, it manifests with weakness, fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypoglycemia, and hypothermia...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400531/genomics-and-evolution-of-protein-phosphatases
#14
Mark J Chen, Jack E Dixon, Gerard Manning
Protein phosphatases are the essential opposite to protein kinases; together, these enzymes regulate all protein phosphorylation and most cellular processes. To better understand the global roles of protein phosphorylation, we cataloged the human protein phosphatome, composed of 189 known and predicted human protein phosphatase genes. We also identified 79 protein phosphatase pseudogenes or retrogenes, some of which may have residual function. We traced the origin and diversity of phosphatases by building protein phosphatomes for eight other eukaryotes, from the protist Dictyostelium to the sea urchin...
April 11, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399507/the-emerging-role-of-retromer-in-neuroprotection
#15
REVIEW
Kirsty J McMillan, Hendrick C Korswagen, Peter J Cullen
Efficient sorting and transportation of integral membrane proteins, such as ion channels, nutrient transporters, signalling receptors, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules is essential for the function of cellular organelles and hence organism development and physiology. Retromer is a master controller of integral membrane protein sorting and transport through one of the major sorting station within eukaryotic cells, the endosomal network. Subtle de-regulation of retromer is an emerging theme in the pathoetiology of Parkinson's disease...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397143/tropism-intracerebral-distribution-and-transduction-efficiency-of-hiv-and-siv-based-lentiviral-vectors-after-injection-into-the-mouse-brain-a-qualitative-and-quantitative-in-vivo-study
#16
Juraj Hlavatý, Zbyněk Tonar, Matthias Renner, Sylvia Panitz, Helga Petznek, Matthias Schweizer, Silke Schüle, Björn-Philipp Kloke, Rudolf Moldzio, Kirsti Witter
Lentiviruses are suitable to transfer potential therapeutic genes into non-replicating cells such as neurons, but systematic in vivo studies on transduction of neural cells within the complete brain are missing. We analysed the distribution of transduced cells with respect to brain structure, virus tropism, numbers of transduced neurons per brain, and influence of the Vpx or Vpr accessory proteins after injection of vectors based on SIVsmmPBj, HIV-2, and HIV-1 lentiviruses into the right striatum of the mouse brain...
April 10, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396658/characterisation-of-aerotolerant-forms-of-a-robust-chicken-colonizing-campylobacter-coli
#17
Peter M O'Kane, Ian F Connerton
Campylobacter contaminated poultry meat is a major source of human foodborne illness. Campylobacter coli strain OR12 is a robust colonizer of chickens that was previously shown to outcompete and displace other Campylobacter strains from the chicken's gastrointestinal tract. This strain is capable of aerobic growth on blood agar. Serial aerobic passage increased this aerotolerance as assessed by quantitative assays for growth and survival on solid media. Aerotolerance was also associated with increased peroxide stress resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396352/association-of-the-cold-shock-dead-box-rna-helicase-rhle-to-the-rna-degradosome-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#18
Angel A Aguirre, Alexandre M Vicente, Steven W Hardwick, Daniela M Alvelos, Ricardo R Mazzon, Ben F Luisi, Marilis V Marques
In diverse bacterial lineages, multi-enzyme assemblies have evolved that are central elements of RNA metabolism and RNA-mediated regulation. The aquatic, Gram-negative bacteria Caulobacter crescentus, which has been a model system for studying the bacterial cell cycle, has an RNA degradosome assembly that is formed by the endoribonuclease RNase E and includes the DEAD-box RNA helicase RhlB. Immunoprecipitations of extracts from cells expressing an epitope-tagged RNase E reveal that RhlE, another member of the DEAD-box helicase family, associates with the degradosome at temperatures below the optimum for growth...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393888/molecular-basis-for-the-behavioral-effects-of-the-odorant-degrading-enzyme-esterase-6-in-drosophila
#19
Faisal Younus, Nicholas J Fraser, Chris W Coppin, Jian-Wei Liu, Galen J Correy, Thomas Chertemps, Gunjan Pandey, Martine Maïbèche, Colin J Jackson, John G Oakeshott
Previous electrophysiological and behavioural studies implicate esterase 6 in the processing of the pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate and various food odorants that affect aggregation and reproductive behaviours. Here we show esterase 6 has relatively high activity against many of the short-mid chain food esters, but negligible activity against cis-vaccenyl acetate. The crystal structure of esterase 6 confirms its substrate-binding site can accommodate many short-mid chain food esters but not cis-vaccenyl acetate...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388673/proteolysis-of-mature-hiv-1-p6-gag-protein-by-the-insulin-degrading-enzyme-ide-regulates-virus-replication-in-an-env-dependent-manner
#20
Friedrich Hahn, Adrian Schmalen, Christian Setz, Melanie Friedrich, Stefan Schlößer, Julia Kölle, Robert Spranger, Pia Rauch, Kirsten Fraedrich, Tatjana Reif, Julia Karius-Fischer, Ashok Balasubramanyam, Petra Henklein, Torgils Fossen, Ulrich Schubert
There is a significantly higher risk for type II diabetes in HIV-1 carriers, albeit the molecular mechanism for this HIV-related pathology remains enigmatic. The 52 amino acid HIV-1 p6 Gag protein is synthesized as the C-terminal part of the Gag polyprotein Pr55. In this context, p6 promotes virus release by its two late (L-) domains, and facilitates the incorporation of the viral accessory protein Vpr. However, the function of p6 in its mature form, after proteolytic release from Gag, has not been investigated yet...
2017: PloS One
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