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Accessory proteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330702/ptac10-an-s1-domain-containing-component-of-the-transcriptionally-active-chromosome-complex-is-essential-for-plastid-gene-expression-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-is-phosphorylated-by-chloroplast-targeted-casein-kinase-ii
#1
Qing-Bo Yu, Tuan-Tuan Zhao, Lin-Shan Ye, Ling Cheng, Ying-Qian Wu, Chao Huang, Zhong-Nan Yang
In higher plant chloroplasts, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) consists of four catalytic subunits and numerous nuclear-encoded accessory proteins, including pTAC10, an S1-domain-containing protein. In this study, pTAC10 knockout lines were characterized. Two ptac10 mutants had an albino phenotype and severely impaired chloroplast development. The pTAC10 genomic sequence fused to a four-tandem MYC tag driven by its own promoter functionally complemented the ptac10-1 mutant phenotype. pTAC10 was present in both the chloroplast stroma and thylakoids...
January 12, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330604/driving-forces-of-translocation-through-bacterial-translocon-secyeg
#2
Denis G Knyazev, Roland Kuttner, Mirjam Zimmermann, Ekaterina Sobakinskaya, Peter Pohl
This review focusses on the energetics of protein translocation via the Sec translocation machinery. First we complement structural data about SecYEG's conformational rearrangements by insight obtained from functional assays. These include measurements of SecYEG permeability that allow assessment of channel gating by ligand binding and membrane voltage. Second we will discuss the power stroke and Brownian ratcheting models of substrate translocation and the role that the two models assign to the putative driving forces: (i) ATP (SecA) and GTP (ribosome) hydrolysis, (ii) interaction with accessory proteins, (iii) membrane partitioning and folding, (iv) proton motive force (PMF), and (v) entropic contributions...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329537/the-hiv-1-accessory-proteins-nef-and-vpu-downregulate-total-and-cell-surface-cd28-in-cd4-t-cells
#3
Emily N Pawlak, Brennan S Dirk, Rajesh Abraham Jacob, Aaron L Johnson, Jimmy D Dikeakos
BACKGROUND: The HIV-1 accessory proteins Nef and Vpu alter cell surface levels of multiple host proteins to modify the immune response and increase viral persistence. Nef and Vpu can downregulate cell surface levels of the co-stimulatory molecule CD28, however the mechanism of this function has not been completely elucidated. RESULTS: Here, we provide evidence that Nef and Vpu decrease cell surface and total cellular levels of CD28. Moreover, using inhibitors we implicate the cellular degradation machinery in the downregulation of CD28...
January 12, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325991/bothrops-jararaca-accessory-venom-gland-is-an-ancillary-source-of-toxins-to-the-snake
#4
Richard Hemmi Valente, Milene Schmidt Luna, Ursula Castro de Oliveira, Milton Yutaka Nishiyama-Junior, Inácio de Loiola Junqueira-de-Azevedo, José Antonio Portes-Junior, Patricia Bianca Clissa, Luciana Godoy Viana, Leonardo Sanches, Ana Maria Moura-da-Silva, Jonas Perales, Norma Yamanouye
In Viperidae snakes, it has been attributed to the main venom gland, a component of the venom gland apparatus, the function of synthesizing all venom toxins and storing them inside a basal-central lumen. However, the role of the accessory gland is still unknown. Here, we analyzed the proteome and the transcriptome of the accessory gland during venom production and secretion cycle. We showed that the accessory gland expresses and synthesizes toxins that are similar to those produced by the main venom gland such as C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like proteins, metalloproteinase, phospholipase A2, cysteine rich secretory protein, nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, serine proteinase, and l-amino acid oxidase...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324226/human-specific-adaptations-in-vpu-conferring-anti-tetherin-activity-are-critical-for-efficient-early-hiv-1-replication-in%C3%A2-vivo
#5
Eri Yamada, Shinji Nakaoka, Lukas Klein, Elisabeth Reith, Simon Langer, Kristina Hopfensperger, Shingo Iwami, Gideon Schreiber, Frank Kirchhoff, Yoshio Koyanagi, Daniel Sauter, Kei Sato
The HIV-1-encoded accessory protein Vpu exerts several immunomodulatory functions, including counteraction of the host restriction factor tetherin, downmodulation of CD4, and inhibition of NF-κB activity to facilitate HIV-1 infection. However, the relative contribution of individual Vpu functions to HIV-1 infection in vivo remained unclear. Here, we used a humanized mouse model and HIV-1 strains with selective mutations in vpu to demonstrate that the anti-tetherin activity of Vpu is a prerequisite for efficient viral spread during the early phase of infection...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321722/distinct-virulent-network-between-healthcare-and-community-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-based-on-proteomic-analysis
#6
Lei He, Hongwei Meng, Qian Liu, Mo Hu, Yanan Wang, Xiaoying Chen, Xiaoyun Liu, Min Li
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus or SA) is a leading cause of healthcare-associated (HA-) and community-associated (CA) infection. HA-SA isolates usually cause nosocomial pneumonia, bloodstream infections, catheter-related urinary tract infections, etc. On the other hand, CA-SA isolates usually cause highly fatal diseases, such as SSTIs as well as post influenza necrotic hemorrhagic pneumonia. The differences of the infection types are partially due to the unique characteristics between HA-SA and CA-SA isolates...
2018: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321323/hiv-1-vif-s-capacity-to-manipulate-the-cell-cycle-is-species-specific
#7
Edward L Evans, Jordan T Becker, Stephanie L Fricke, Kishan Patel, Nathan M Sherer
Cells derived from mice and other rodents exhibit profound blocks to HIV-1 virion production reflecting species-specific incompatibilities between viral Tat and Rev proteins and essential host factors Cyclin T1 (CCNT1) and Exportin-1 (XPO1, also known as CRM1), respectively. To determine if mouse cell blocks other than CCNT1 and XPO1 affect HIV's post-integration stages, we studied HIV-1NL4-3 gene expression in mouse NIH 3T3 cells modified to constitutively express HIV-1 compatible versions of CCNT1 and XPO1 (3T3...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320748/true-molecular-scale-visualization-of-variable-clustering-properties-of-ryanodine-receptors
#8
Isuru Jayasinghe, Alexander H Clowsley, Ruisheng Lin, Tobias Lutz, Carl Harrison, Ellen Green, David Baddeley, Lorenzo Di Michele, Christian Soeller
Signaling nanodomains rely on spatial organization of proteins to allow controlled intracellular signaling. Examples include calcium release sites of cardiomyocytes where ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are clustered with their molecular partners. Localization microscopy has been crucial to visualizing these nanodomains but has been limited by brightness of markers, restricting the resolution and quantification of individual proteins clustered within. Harnessing the remarkable localization precision of DNA-PAINT (<10 nm), we visualized punctate labeling within these nanodomains, confirmed as single RyRs...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317735/syntaxins-on-granules-promote-docking-of-granules-via-interactions-with-munc18
#9
Maria Borisovska
SNAREs and SNARE-binding accessory proteins are believed to be central molecular components of neurotransmitter release, although the precise sequence of molecular events corresponding to distinct physiological states is unclear. The mechanism of docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane remains elusive, as the anchoring protein residing on vesicles is unknown. Here I show that targeting small amounts of syntaxin to granules by transmembrane domain alteration leads to a substantial enhancement of syntaxin clustering beneath granules, as well as of morphological granule docking...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316791/serine-integrases-advancing-synthetic-biology
#10
Christine Merrick, Jia Zhao, Susan Rosser
Serine integrases catalyze precise rearrangement of DNA through site-specific recombination of small sequences of DNA called attachment (att) sites. Unlike other site-specific recombinases, the recombination reaction driven by serine integrases is highly directional and can only be reversed in the presence of an accessory protein called a recombination directionality factor (RDF). The ability to control reaction directionality has led to the development of serine integrases as tools for controlled rearrangement and modification of DNA in synthetic biology, gene therapy, and biotechnology...
January 9, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313060/an-md2-derived-peptide-promotes-lps-aggregation-facilitates-its-internalization-in-thp-1-cells-and-inhibits-lps-induced-pro-inflammatory-responses
#11
Anshika Tandon, Munesh Kumar Harioudh, Nayab Ishrat, Amit Kumar Tripathi, Saurabh Srivastava, Jimut Kanti Ghosh
MD2, a 160-residue accessory glycoprotein, is responsible for the recognition and binding of Gram-negative bacterial membrane component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Internalization of pathogen inside the mononuclear phagocytes has also been attributed to MD2 which leads to the clearance of pathogens from the host. However, not much is known about the segments in MD2 that are responsible for LPS interaction or internalization of pathogen inside the defense cells. A 16-residue stretch (MD54) from MD2 protein has been identified that possesses a short heptad repeat sequence and four cationic residues enabling it to participate in both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with LPS...
January 8, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298890/full-length-glycosylated-gag-of-murine-leukemia-virus-can-associate-with-the-viral-envelope-as-a-type-i-integral-membrane-protein
#12
Tyler Milston Renner, Kasandra Bélanger, Cindy Lam, Maria Rosales Gerpe, Joanne Eileen McBane, Marc-André Langlois
The glycosylated Gag protein (gPr80) of murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) has been shown to exhibit multiple roles in facilitating retrovirus release, infection and resistance to host-encoded retroviral restriction factors such as APOBEC3, SERINC3 and SERINC5. One way gPr80 helps MLVs escape host innate immune restriction is by increasing capsid stability, a feature that protects viral replication intermediates from being detected by cytosolic DNA sensors. gPr80 also increases the resistance of MLVs against deamination and restriction by mouse APOBEC3 (mA3)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298677/the-variome-of-pneumococcal-virulence-factors-and-regulators
#13
Gustavo Gámez, Andrés Castro, Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Mauricio Gallego, Alejandro Bedoya, Mauricio Camargo, Sven Hammerschmidt
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the idea of a highly immunogenic protein-based vaccine to combat Streptococcus pneumoniae and its severe invasive infectious diseases has gained considerable interest. However, the target proteins to be included in a vaccine formulation have to accomplish several genetic and immunological characteristics, (such as conservation, distribution, immunogenicity and protective effect), in order to ensure its suitability and effectiveness. This study aimed to get comprehensive insights into the genomic organization, population distribution and genetic conservation of all pneumococcal surface-exposed proteins, genetic regulators and other virulence factors, whose important function and role in pathogenesis has been demonstrated or hypothesized...
January 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295889/the-actin-cytoskeleton-and-actin-based-motility
#14
REVIEW
Tatyana Svitkina
SUMMARYThe actin cytoskeleton-a collection of actin filaments with their accessory and regulatory proteins-is the primary force-generating machinery in the cell. It can produce pushing (protrusive) forces through coordinated polymerization of multiple actin filaments or pulling (contractile) forces through sliding actin filaments along bipolar filaments of myosin II. Both force types are particularly important for whole-cell migration, but they also define and change the cell shape and mechanical properties of the cell surface, drive the intracellular motility and morphogenesis of membrane organelles, and allow cells to form adhesions with each other and with the extracellular matrix...
January 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288293/delta-opioid-receptors-recycle-to-the-membrane-after-sorting-to-the-degradation-path
#15
Iness Charfi, Khaled Abdallah, Louis Gendron, Graciela Pineyro
Soon after internalization delta opioid receptors (DOPrs) are committed to the degradation path by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-associated binding protein. Here we provide evidence that this classical post-endocytic itinerary may be rectified by downstream sorting decisions which allow DOPrs to regain to the membrane after having reached late endosomes (LE). The LE sorting mechanism involved ESCRT accessory protein Alix and the TIP47/Rab9 retrieval complex which supported translocation of the receptor to the TGN, from where it subsequently regained the cell membrane...
December 29, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286299/evolution-and-virulence-of-influenza-a-virus-protein-pb1-f2
#16
REVIEW
Ram P Kamal, Irina V Alymova, Ian A York
PB1-F2 is an accessory protein of most human, avian, swine, equine, and canine influenza A viruses (IAVs). Although it is dispensable for virus replication and growth, it plays significant roles in pathogenesis by interfering with the host innate immune response, inducing death in immune and epithelial cells, altering inflammatory responses, and promoting secondary bacterial pneumonia. The effects of PB1-F2 differ between virus strains and host species. This can at least partially be explained by the presence of multiple PB1-F2 sequence variants, including premature stop codons that lead to the expression of truncated PB1-F2 proteins of different lengths and specific virulence-associated residues that enhance susceptibility to bacterial superinfection...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285382/il18-rs360719-a-g-il18r1-rs13015714-g-t-il18rap-rs917997-c-t-and-il28b-rs8099917-t-g-polymorphisms-and-risk-of-gastric-cardiac-adenocarcinoma
#17
Jun Yin, Changqing Dong, Weifeng Tang, Ruiping Liu, Suocheng Chen, Liang Zheng, Haiyong Gu
The present study was conducted to investigate the association between gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma (GCA) and four functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including interleukin 18 (IL18) rs360719 A>G, IL18 receptor 1 (IL18R1) rs13015714 G>T, IL18 receptor accessory protein (IL18RAP) rs917997 C>T and interleukin 28B (IL28B) rs8099917 T>G variants. A hospital-based case-control study was performed to evaluate the genetic effects of these SNPs. A total of 243 GCA cases and 476 controls were enrolled in this study...
December 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262337/apache-is-an-ap2-interacting-protein-involved-in-synaptic-vesicle-trafficking-and-neuronal-development
#18
Alessandra Piccini, Enrico Castroflorio, Pierluigi Valente, Fabrizia C Guarnieri, Davide Aprile, Caterina Michetti, Mattia Bramini, Giorgia Giansante, Bruno Pinto, Annalisa Savardi, Fabrizia Cesca, Angela Bachi, Angela Cattaneo, Jonathan D Wren, Anna Fassio, Flavia Valtorta, Fabio Benfenati, Silvia Giovedì
Synaptic transmission is critically dependent on synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling. Although the precise mechanisms of SV retrieval are still debated, it is widely accepted that a fundamental role is played by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, a form of endocytosis that capitalizes on the clathrin/adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) coat and several accessory factors. Here, we show that the previously uncharacterized protein KIAA1107, predicted by bioinformatics analysis to be involved in the SV cycle, is an AP2-interacting clathrin-endocytosis protein (APache)...
December 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262320/the-arginine-methyltransferase-prmt6-regulates-dna-methylation-and-contributes-to-global-dna-hypomethylation-in-cancer
#19
Nicolas Veland, Swanand Hardikar, Yi Zhong, Sitaram Gayatri, Jiameng Dan, Brian D Strahl, Scott B Rothbart, Mark T Bedford, Taiping Chen
DNA methylation plays crucial roles in chromatin structure and gene expression. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns, including global hypomethylation and regional hypermethylation, are associated with cancer and implicated in oncogenic events. How DNA methylation is regulated in developmental and cellular processes and dysregulated in cancer is poorly understood. Here, we show that PRMT6, a protein arginine methyltransferase responsible for asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2me2a), negatively regulates DNA methylation and that PRMT6 upregulation contributes to global DNA hypomethylation in cancer...
December 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260004/comparative-genomics-identifies-male-accessory-gland-proteins-in-five-glossina-species
#20
Muna F Abry, Kelvin M Kimenyi, Daniel Masiga, Benard W Kulohoma
Accessory gland proteins (ACPs) are important reproductive proteins produced by the male accessory glands (MAGs) of most insect species. These proteins are essential for male insect fertility, and are transferred alongside semen to females during copulation. ACPs are poorly characterized in Glossina species (tsetse fly), the principal vector of the parasite that causes life-threatening Human African Trypanosomiasis and Animal trypanosomiasis in endemic regions in Africa. The tsetse fly has a peculiar reproductive cycle because of the absence of oviposition...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
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