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Accessory proteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148792/proteomic-markers-of-the-functional-sperm-population-in-bovines-1-comparison-of-low-and-high-density-spermatozoa-following-cryopreservation
#1
Olivier D'Amours, Gilles Frenette, Sylvie Bourassa, Ezequiel Calvo, Patrick Blondin, Robert Sullivan
Mammalian semen contains a heterogeneous population of sperm cells. This heterogeneity results from variability in the complex processes of cell differentiation in the testis, biochemical modifications undergone by spermatozoa during transit along the male reproductive tract, interactions with secretions from accessory sex glands at ejaculation, and, in the context of reproductive technologies, in the ability of ejaculated spermatozoa to resist damage associated with freeze-thaw procedures. When submitted to density gradient centrifugation, ejaculated spermatozoa distribute themselves into two distinct populations: a low-density population characterized by low motility parameters, and a high-density population with high motility characteristics...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147584/il-33-acts-to-express-schaffer-collateral-ca1-ltp-and-regulate-learning-and-memory-by-targeting-myd88
#2
Tomoyuki Nishizaki
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is recognized to transmit a signal through a heterodimeric receptor complex ST2/interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) bearing activation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). High-frequency stimulation to the Schaffer collateral induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from wild-type control mice. Schaffer collateral/CA1 LTP in IL-33-deficient mice was significantly suppressed, which was neutralized by application with IL-33. Similar suppression of the LTP was found with MyD88-deficient mice but not with ST2-deficient mice...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146447/in-the-ovary-of-ciona-intestinalis-type-a-immune-related-galectin-and-phenoloxidase-genes-are-differentially-expressed-by-the-follicle-accessory-cells
#3
Daniela Parrinello, Maria Antonietta Sanfratello, Maria Giovanna Parisi, Aiti Vizzini, Matteo Cammarata
Riboprobes (in situ hybridization) and antibodies (immunohistochemistry), previously used to show the upregulation of Ciona intestinalis (Type A) galectins (CiLgals-a, CiLgals-b) and phenoloxidase (CinPO2) immune-related genes, were tested on histological sections of the ovary. The ovarian follicles are composed of oocytes encased by follicular cells (FCs) and test cells (TCs). Results show the transcription upregulation of both CiLgals and CinPO2 genes in the vitellogenic FCs, conversely distinct cytolocalization of the proteins are shown...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145803/unraveling-the-evolution-and-coevolution-of-small-regulatory-rnas-and-coding-genes-in-listeria
#4
Franck Cerutti, Ludovic Mallet, Anaïs Painset, Claire Hoede, Annick Moisan, Christophe Bécavin, Mélodie Duval, Olivier Dussurget, Pascale Cossart, Christine Gaspin, Hélène Chiapello
BACKGROUND: Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are widely found in bacteria and play key roles in many important physiological and adaptation processes. Studying their evolution and screening for events of coevolution with other genomic features is a powerful way to better understand their origin and assess a common functional or adaptive relationship between them. However, evolution and coevolution of sRNAs with coding genes have been sparsely investigated in bacterial pathogens. RESULTS: We designed a robust and generic phylogenomics approach that detects correlated evolution between sRNAs and protein-coding genes using their observed and inferred patterns of presence-absence in a set of annotated genomes...
November 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144446/structure-and-assembly-of-the-ebola-virus-nucleocapsid
#5
William Wan, Larissa Kolesnikova, Mairi Clarke, Alexander Koehler, Takeshi Noda, Stephan Becker, John A G Briggs
Ebola and Marburg viruses are filoviruses: filamentous, enveloped viruses that cause haemorrhagic fever. Filoviruses are within the order Mononegavirales, which also includes rabies virus, measles virus, and respiratory syncytial virus. Mononegaviruses have non-segmented, single-stranded negative-sense RNA genomes that are encapsidated by nucleoprotein and other viral proteins to form a helical nucleocapsid. The nucleocapsid acts as a scaffold for virus assembly and as a template for genome transcription and replication...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127204/mutations-in-the-x-linked-atp6ap2-cause-a-glycosylation-disorder-with-autophagic-defects
#6
Maria A Rujano, Magda Cannata Serio, Ganna Panasyuk, Romain Péanne, Janine Reunert, Daisy Rymen, Virginie Hauser, Julien H Park, Peter Freisinger, Erika Souche, Maria Clara Guida, Esther M Maier, Yoshinao Wada, Stefanie Jäger, Nevan J Krogan, Oliver Kretz, Susana Nobre, Paula Garcia, Dulce Quelhas, Thomas D Bird, Wendy H Raskind, Michael Schwake, Sandrine Duvet, Francois Foulquier, Gert Matthijs, Thorsten Marquardt, Matias Simons
The biogenesis of the multi-subunit vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum with the assembly of the proton pore V0, which is controlled by a group of assembly factors. Here, we identify two hemizygous missense mutations in the extracellular domain of the accessory V-ATPase subunit ATP6AP2 (also known as the [pro]renin receptor) responsible for a glycosylation disorder with liver disease, immunodeficiency, cutis laxa, and psychomotor impairment. We show that ATP6AP2 deficiency in the mouse liver caused hypoglycosylation of serum proteins and autophagy defects...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125828/comprehensive-analysis-of-gene-expression-patterns-in-friedreich-s-ataxia-fibroblasts-by-rna-sequencing-reveals-altered-levels-of-protein-synthesis-factors-and-solute-carriers
#7
Jill Sergesketter Napierala, Yanjie Li, Yue Lu, Kevin Lin, Lauren A Hauser, David R Lynch, Marek Napierala
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease usually caused by large homozygous expansions of GAA repeat sequences in intron 1 of the frataxin (FXN) gene. FRDA patients homozygous for GAA expansions have low FXN mRNA and protein levels when compared with heterozygous carriers or healthy controls. Frataxin is a mitochondrial protein involved in iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, and many FRDA phenotypes result from deficiencies in cellular metabolism due to lowered expression of FXN Presently, there is no effective treatment for FRDA, and biomarkers to measure therapeutic trial outcomes and/or to gauge disease progression are lacking...
November 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124890/new-perspectives-on-telomerase-rna-structure-and-function
#8
REVIEW
Cherie Musgrove, Linnea I Jansson, Michael D Stone
Telomerase is an ancient ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that protects the ends of linear chromosomes from the loss of critical coding sequences through repetitive addition of short DNA sequences. These repeats comprise the telomere, which together with many accessory proteins, protect chromosomal ends from degradation and unwanted DNA repair. Telomerase is a unique reverse transcriptase (RT) that carries its own RNA to use as a template for repeat addition. Over decades of research, it has become clear that there are many diverse, crucial functions played by telomerase RNA beyond simply acting as a template...
November 9, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122978/the-structural-basis-of-ryanodine-receptor-ion-channel-function
#9
REVIEW
Gerhard Meissner
Large-conductance Ca(2+) release channels known as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) mediate the release of Ca(2+) from an intracellular membrane compartment, the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum. There are three mammalian RyR isoforms: RyR1 is present in skeletal muscle; RyR2 is in heart muscle; and RyR3 is expressed at low levels in many tissues including brain, smooth muscle, and slow-twitch skeletal muscle. RyRs form large protein complexes comprising four 560-kD RyR subunits, four ∼12-kD FK506-binding proteins, and various accessory proteins including calmodulin, protein kinases, and protein phosphatases...
November 9, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111459/myeloid-differentiation-protein-2-induced-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-upregulation-of-ros-through-a-tlr4-nox4-pathway
#10
Huaicheng Chen, Zongming Song, Shilong Ying, Xi Yang, Wei Wu, Qiufan Tan, Xin Ju, Wencan Wu, Xin Zhang, Jia Qu, Yi Wang
Retinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is common in many ophthalmic diseases. Recent studies have shown that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in ischemic retinal injury. Activation of TLRs requires specific accessory proteins such as myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2), which facilitate in ligand responsiveness. Therefore, inhibiting MD2 may be a novel approach to modulate TLR4 signaling and deleterious downstream effects in ischemic retinal injury. We used human Müller MIO-M1 cells treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to establish an in vitro I/R model of oxidative injury and tested the therapeutic effect of inhibiting MD2...
October 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110758/apol1-renal-risk-variants-fertile-soil-for-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#11
REVIEW
Jeffrey B Kopp, Jurgen Heymann, Cheryl A Winkler
Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants are potent risk factors for glomerular disease, but one or more additional factors are required for expression of glomerular disease. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the most potent susceptibility factor for APOL1 nephropathy that has been identified to date. APOL1 variants are associated with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a podocyte disease, but not with HIV-immune complex disease, primarily a disease of the mesangium...
November 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101170/the-prorenin-receptor-in-the-cardiovascular-system-and-beyond
#12
Matthew T Hennrikus, Alexis A Gonzalez, Minolfa C Prieto
Since the prorenin receptor (PRR) was first reported, investigations into its role in many cellular processes have been underway. Renin and prorenin binding to PRR and its soluble form (sPRR) increases angiotensin I formation and intracellular pathways resulting in induction of profibrotic factors. The PRR has supplementary roles as a vital accessory protein of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase and also as an intermediate in Wnt signaling. As a component of the H-ATPase, the PRR has been found upregulated during cardiac stress...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099275/identification-of-fkh1-and-fkh2-binding-site-variants-associated-with-dynamically-bound-dna-elements-including-replication-origins
#13
A Zachary Ostrow, Oscar M Aparicio
Forkhead Box (Fox) DNA binding proteins control multiple genome activities, including transcription, replication, and repair. These activities are organized spatially and temporally in the nucleus, and Fox proteins Fkh1 and Fkh2 have emerged as regulators of long-range chromosomal interactions involved with these activities, such as the clustering of replication origins programmed for early initiation. Fkh1 and Fkh2 bind a subset of replication origins and are thought to dimerize to mediate long-range chromosomal contacts between these origins...
November 3, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097338/expansion-of-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-with-various-mgrb-mutations-giving-rise-to-colistin-resistance-the-role-of-isl3-on-plasmids
#14
Cesira Giordano, Simona Barnini, Constantinos Tsioutis, Monika A Chlebowicz, Effie V Scoulica, Achilleas Gikas, John W Rossen, Alexander W Friedrich, Erik Bathoorn
BACKGROUND: mcr-1 has been reported as first plasmid gene to confer colistin-resistance. In KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-KP) isolates, however, colistin resistance is rapidly emerging through other mechanisms. This is frequently the result of disruption of mgrB gene by insertion sequences, for instance ISL3. The aim of this study is to investigate the expansion of mgrB-mutated KPC-KP. In addition, we identify localization and targets of ISL3 sequences within the core and accessory genome of common KPC-KP lineages...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081732/lar-rptp-clustering-is-modulated-by-competitive-binding-between-synaptic-adhesion-partners-and-heparan-sulfate
#15
Seoung Youn Won, Cha Yeon Kim, Doyoun Kim, Jaewon Ko, Ji Won Um, Sung Bae Lee, Matthias Buck, Eunjoon Kim, Won Do Heo, Jie-Oh Lee, Ho Min Kim
The leukocyte common antigen-related receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) are cellular receptors of heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans that direct axonal growth and neuronal regeneration. LAR-RPTPs are also synaptic adhesion molecules that form trans-synaptic adhesion complexes by binding to various postsynaptic adhesion ligands, such as Slit- and Trk-like family of proteins (Slitrks), IL-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1), interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) and neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinase C (TrkC), to regulate synaptogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079575/hiv-1-vpr-protein-directly-loads-helicase-like-transcription-factor-hltf-onto-the-crl4-dcaf1-e3-ubiquitin-ligase
#16
Xiaohong Zhou, Maria Delucia, Caili Hao, Kasia Hrecka, Christina Monnie, Jacek Skowronski, Jinwoo Ahn
The Vpr protein is an accessory virulence factor of HIV-1 that facilitates infection in immune cells. Cellular functions of Vpr are tied to its interaction with DCAF1, a substrate receptor component of the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Recent proteomic approaches suggested that Vpr degrades HLTF DNA helicase in a proteasome-dependent manner by redirecting the CRL4-DCAF1 E3 ligase. However, the precise molecular mechanism of Vprdependent HLTF depletion is not known. Here, using in vitro reconstitution assays, we show that Vpr mediates polyubiquitination of HLTF, by directly loading it onto the C-terminal WD40 domain of DCAF1 in complex with the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077272/inhibition-of-md2-dependent-inflammation-attenuates-the-progression-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Yali Zhang, Beibei Wu, Hailing Zhang, Xiangting Ge, Shilong Ying, Mengwei Hu, Weixin Li, Yi Huang, Li Wang, Chao Chen, Xiaoou Shan, Guang Liang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can progress to the more serious non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), characterized by inflammatory injury and fibrosis. The pathogenic basis of NAFLD progressing to NASH is currently unknown, but growing evidence suggests MD2 (myeloid differentiation factor 2), an accessory protein of TLR4, is an important signalling component contributing to this disease. We evaluated the effectiveness of the specific MD2 inhibitor, L6H21, in reducing inflammatory liver injury in a relevant high-fat diet (HFD) mouse model of NASH and in the palmitic acid (PA)-stimulated human liver cell line (HepG2)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068386/how-next-generation-sequencing-has-aided-our-understanding-of-the-sequence-composition-and-origin-of-b-chromosomes
#18
REVIEW
Alevtina Ruban, Thomas Schmutzer, Uwe Scholz, Andreas Houben
Accessory, supernumerary, or-most simply-B chromosomes, are found in many eukaryotic karyotypes. These small chromosomes do not follow the usual pattern of segregation, but rather are transmitted in a higher than expected frequency. As increasingly being demonstrated by next-generation sequencing (NGS), their structure comprises fragments of standard (A) chromosomes, although in some plant species, their sequence also includes contributions from organellar genomes. Transcriptomic analyses of various animal and plant species have revealed that, contrary to what used to be the common belief, some of the B chromosome DNA is protein-encoding...
October 25, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062897/synergistic-activity-between-two-antifungal-proteins-the-plant-defensin-nad1-and-the-bovine-pancreatic-trypsin-inhibitor
#19
Mark R Bleackley, Charlotte S Dawson, James A McKenna, Pedro Quimbar, Brigitte M E Hayes, Nicole L van der Weerden, Marilyn A Anderson
Defensins are a large family of small, cationic, cysteine-rich proteins that are part of the defense arsenal that plants use for protection against potentially damaging fungal infections. The plant defensin NaD1 from Nicotiana alata is a potent antifungal protein that inhibits growth and kills a variety of fungal pathogens that affect both plant and animal (human) hosts. Some serine protease inhibitors have also been reported to be antifungal molecules, while others have no inhibitory activity against fungi...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062386/proteins-regulating-the-intercellular-transfer-and-function-of-p-glycoprotein-in-multidrug-resistant-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Deep Pokharel, Ariane Roseblade, Vici Oenarto, Jamie F Lu, Mary Bebawy
Chemotherapy is an essential part of anticancer treatment. However, the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the subsequent emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) hampers successful treatment clinically. P-gp is a multidrug efflux transporter that functions to protect cells from xenobiotics by exporting them out from the plasma membrane to the extracellular space. P-gp inhibitors have been developed in an attempt to overcome P-gp-mediated MDR; however, lack of specificity and dose limiting toxicity have limited their effectiveness clinically...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
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