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Accessory proteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097817/revisiting-regulation-of-potassium-homeostasis-in-escherichia-coli-the-connection-to-phosphate-limitation
#1
Hannah Schramke, Vera Laermann, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Andreas Brachmann, Kirsten Jung, Karlheinz Altendorf
Two-component signal transduction constitutes the predominant strategy used by bacteria to adapt to fluctuating environments. The KdpD/KdpE system is one of the most widespread, and is crucial for K(+) homeostasis. In Escherichia coli, the histidine kinase KdpD senses K(+) availability, whereas the response regulator KdpE activates synthesis of the high-affinity K(+) uptake system KdpFABC. Here we show that, in the absence of KdpD, kdpFABC expression can be activated via phosphorylation of KdpE by the histidine kinase PhoR...
January 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096448/loss-of-function-mutations-in-hspr-rescue-the-growth-defect-of-a-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteasome-activator-e-pafe-mutant
#2
Jordan B Jastrab, Marie I Samanovic, Richard Copin, Bo Shopsin, K Heran Darwin
: Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses a proteasome to degrade proteins by both ATP-dependent and -independent pathways. While much has been learned about ATP-dependent degradation, relatively little is understood about the ATP-independent pathway, which is controlled by Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasome accessory factor E (PafE). Recently, we found that a Mycobacterium tuberculosis pafE mutant has slowed growth in vitro and is sensitive to killing by heat stress. However, we did not know if these phenotypes were caused by an inability to degrade the PafE-proteasome substrate HspR (heat shock protein repressor), an inability to degrade any damaged or misfolded proteins, or a defect in another protein quality control pathway...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088165/genomic-characterization-of-ensifer-aridi-a-proposed-new-species-of-nitrogen-fixing-rhizobium-recovered-from-asian-african-and-american-deserts
#3
Antoine Le Quéré, Nisha Tak, Hukam Singh Gehlot, Celine Lavire, Thibault Meyer, David Chapulliot, Sonam Rathi, Ilham Sakrouhi, Guadalupe Rocha, Marine Rohmer, Dany Severac, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Jose-Antonio Munive
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen fixing bacteria isolated from hot arid areas in Asia, Africa and America but from diverse leguminous plants have been recently identified as belonging to a possible new species of Ensifer (Sinorhizobium). In this study, 6 strains belonging to this new clade were compared with Ensifer species at the genome-wide level. Their capacities to utilize various carbon sources and to establish a symbiotic interaction with several leguminous plants were examined. RESULTS: Draft genomes of selected strains isolated from Morocco (Merzouga desert), Mexico (Baja California) as well as from India (Thar desert) were produced...
January 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087460/identification-of-the-doublesex-protein-binding-sites-that-activate-expression-of-lozenge-in-the-female-genital-disc-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Shunsuke Wagamitsu, Dan Takase, Fugaku Aoki, Masataka G Suzuki
Normal sexual differentiation in the genital organs is essential for the animal species that use sexual reproduction. Although it is known that doublesex (dsx) is required for the sexual development of the genitalia in various insect species, the direct target genes responsible for the sexual differentiation of the genitalia have not been identified. The lozenge (lz) gene is expressed in the female genital disc and is essential for developments of spermathecae and accessory glands in Drosophila melanogaster...
January 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086774/androgenic-effects-of-aqueous-and-methanolic-extracts-of-ficus-asperifolia-in-male-wistar-rats
#5
Pierre Watcho, Hermine Meli Watio, Modeste Wankeu-Nya, Esther Ngadjui, Patrick Deeh Defo, Pepin Alango Nkeng-Efouet, Telesphore Benoit Nguelefack, Albert Kamanyi
BACKGROUND: Androgen deficiency is a clinical syndrome resulting from the inability of the testes to produce physiological levels of testosterone due to a disturbance occurring at one or more levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the androgenic properties of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ficus asperifolia on normal and castrated immature rats. METHODS: Normal rats were treated either per os with aqueous or methanolic extract of Ficus asperifolia (100 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg b...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077287/iron-oxide-nanoparticles-modulate-heat-shock-proteins-and-organ-specific-markers-expression-in-mice-male-accessory-organs
#6
Kiruthika Sundarraj, Azhwar Raghunath, Lakshmikanthan Panneerselvam, Ekambaram Perumal
With increased industrial utilization of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs), concerns on adverse reproductive health effects following exposure have been immensely raised. In the present study, the effects of Fe2O3-NPs exposure in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland were studied in mice. Mice were exposed to two different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) of Fe2O3-NPs along with the control and analyzed the expressions of heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and organ specific markers (Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1)...
January 7, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065598/cas13b-is-a-type-vi-b-crispr-associated-rna-guided-rnase-differentially-regulated-by-accessory-proteins-csx27-and-csx28
#7
Aaron A Smargon, David B T Cox, Neena K Pyzocha, Kaijie Zheng, Ian M Slaymaker, Jonathan S Gootenberg, Omar A Abudayyeh, Patrick Essletzbichler, Sergey Shmakov, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Feng Zhang
CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems defend microbes against foreign nucleic acids via RNA-guided endonucleases. Using a computational sequence database mining approach, we identify two class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems (subtype VI-B) that lack Cas1 and Cas2 and encompass a single large effector protein, Cas13b, along with one of two previously uncharacterized associated proteins, Csx27 and Csx28. We establish that these CRISPR-Cas systems can achieve RNA interference when heterologously expressed. Through a combination of biochemical and genetic experiments, we show that Cas13b processes its own CRISPR array with short and long direct repeats, cleaves target RNA, and exhibits collateral RNase activity...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062807/junctional-adhesion-molecule-a-expression-in-the-murine-epididymal-tract-and-accessory-organs-and-acquisition-by-maturing-sperm
#8
Kathie Z Wu, Kun Li, Deni S Galileo, Patricia A Martin-DeLeon
STUDY QUESTION: Is junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), a sperm protein essential for normal motility, expressed in the murine post-testicular pathway and involved in sperm maturation? SUMMARY ANSWER: JAM-A is present in the prostate and seminal vesicles and in all three regions of the epididymis where it is secreted in epididymosomes in the luminal fluid and can be delivered to sperm in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: JAM-A shares with the plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase 4 (PMCA4, the major Ca(2+) efflux pump in murine sperm) a common interacting partner, CASK (Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent serine kinase)...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062580/hidden-female-physiological-resistance-to-male-accessory-gland-substances-in-a-simultaneous-hermaphrodite
#9
Monica Lodi, Joris M Koene
To increase fertilization chances compared to rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases paternity by inhibiting the digestion of donated sperm...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057306/the-drosophila-accessory-gland-as-a-model-for-prostate-cancer-and-other-pathologies
#10
C Wilson, A Leiblich, D C I Goberdhan, F Hamdy
The human prostate is a gland of the male reproductive tract, which together with the seminal vesicles, is responsible for most seminal fluid production. It is a common site of cancer, and unlike other glands, it typically enlarges in aging men. In flies, the male accessory glands make many major seminal fluid components. Like their human equivalents, they secrete proteins from several conserved families, including proteases, lectins, and cysteine-rich secretory proteins, some of which interact with sperm and affect fertility...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053228/diverse-evolutionary-patterns-of-pneumococcal-antigens-identified-by-pangenome-wide-immunological-screening
#11
Nicholas J Croucher, Joseph J Campo, Timothy Q Le, Xiaowu Liang, Stephen D Bentley, William P Hanage, Marc Lipsitch
Characterizing the immune response to pneumococcal proteins is critical in understanding this bacterium's epidemiology and vaccinology. Probing a custom-designed proteome microarray with sera from 35 healthy US adults revealed a continuous distribution of IgG affinities for 2,190 potential antigens from the species-wide pangenome. Reproducibly elevated IgG binding was elicited by 208 "antibody binding targets" (ABTs), which included 109 variants of the diverse pneumococcal surface proteins A and C (PspA and PspC) and zinc metalloprotease A and B (ZmpA and ZmpB) proteins...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045026/saturated-palmitic-acid-induces-myocardial-inflammatory-injuries-through-direct-binding-to-tlr4-accessory-protein-md2
#12
Yi Wang, Yuanyuan Qian, Qilu Fang, Peng Zhong, Weixin Li, Lintao Wang, Weitao Fu, Yali Zhang, Zheng Xu, Xiaokun Li, Guang Liang
Obesity increases the risk for a number of diseases including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Excess saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in obesity play a significant role in cardiovascular diseases by activating innate immunity responses. However, the mechanisms by which SFAs activate the innate immune system are not fully known. Here we report that palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant circulating SFA, induces myocardial inflammatory injury through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) accessory protein MD2 in mouse and cell culture experimental models...
January 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040730/mutations-in-the-accessory-subunit-ndufb10-result-in-isolated-complex-i-deficiency-and-illustrate-the-critical-role-of-intermembrane-space-import-for-complex-i-holoenzyme-assembly
#13
Marisa W Friederich, Alican J Erdogan, Curtis R Coughlin, Mihret T Elos, Hua Jiang, Courtney O'Rourke, Mark A Lovell, Eric Wartchow, Katherine Gowan, Kathryn C Chatfield, Wallace S Chick, Elaine Spector, Johan L K Van Hove, Jan Riemer
An infant presented with fatal infantile lactic acidosis and cardiomyopathy, and was found to have profoundly decreased activity of respiratory chain complex I in muscle, heart and liver. Exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in NDUFB10, an accessory subunit located within the PD part of complex I. One mutation resulted in a premature stop codon and absent protein, while the second mutation replaced the highly conserved cysteine 107 with a serine residue. Protein expression of NDUFB10 was decreased in muscle and heart, and less so in liver and fibroblasts, resulting in perturbed assembly of the holoenzyme at the 830 kDa stage...
December 30, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040624/a-chloroplast-wake-up-mechanism-illumination-with-weak-light-activates-the-photosynthetic-antenna-function-in-dark-adapted-plants
#14
Ewa Janik, Joanna Bednarska, Monika Zubik, Rafal Luchowski, Radoslaw Mazur, Karol Sowinski, Wojciech Grudzinski, Maciej Garstka, Wieslaw I Gruszecki
The efficient and fluent operation of photosynthesis in plants relies on activity of pigment-protein complexes called antenna, absorbing light and transferring excitations toward the reaction centers. Here we show, based on the results of the fluorescence lifetime imaging analyses of single chloroplasts, that pigment-protein complexes, in dark-adapted plants, are not able to act effectively as photosynthetic antennas, due to pronounced, adverse excitation quenching. It appeared that the antenna function could be activated by a short (on a minute timescale) illumination with light of relatively low intensity, substantially below the photosynthesis saturation threshold...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039566/the-structure-of-fcpb-a-light-harvesting-complex-in-the-diatom-cyclotella-meneghiniana
#15
Anja Röding, Egbert Boekema, Claudia Büchel
Diatoms possess fucoxanthin chlorophyll proteins (FCP) as light-harvesting systems. These membrane intrinsic proteins bind fucoxanthin as major carotenoid and Chl c as accessory chlorophyll. The relatively high sequence homology to higher plant light-harvesting complex II gave rise to the assumption of a similar overall structure. From centric diatoms like Cyclotella meneghiniana, however, two major FCP complexes can be isolated. FCPa, composed of Fcp2 and Fcp6 subunits, was demonstrated to be trimeric, whereas FCPb, known to contain Fcp5 polypeptides, is of higher oligomeric state...
December 30, 2016: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031475/physiological-characterization-of-a-plant-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Enrico Teardo, Luca Carraretto, Stephan Wagner, Elide Formentin, Smrutisanjita Behera, Sara De Bortoli, Veronique Larosa, Philippe Fuchs, Fiorella Lo Lo Schiavo, Anna Raffaello, Rosario Rizzuto, Alex Costa, Markus Schwarzländer, Ildiko Szabo
Over the recent years, several proteins that make up the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex (MCUC) mediating Ca2+uptake into the mitochondrial matrix have been identified in mammals, including the channel-forming protein MCU. Although six MCU gene homologs are conserved in the model plant Arabidopsis in which mitochondria can accumulate Ca2+, a functional characterization of plant MCU homologs has been lacking. Using electrophysiology we show that one isoform, AtMCU1, gives rise to a Ca2+-permeable channel activity that can be observed even in the absence of accessory proteins implicated in the formation of the active mammalian channel...
December 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031466/cell-based-fluorescence-complementation-reveals-a-role-for-hiv-1-nef-dimerization-in-ap-2-recruitment-and-cd4-downregulation
#17
Sherry T Shu, Lori A Emert-Sedlak, Thomas E Smithgall
The HIV-1 Nef accessory factor enhances viral infectivity, immune evasion, and AIDS progression. Nef triggers rapid downregulation of CD4 via the endocytic adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex, a process linked to enhanced viral infectivity and immune escape. Here we describe a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay to visualize the interaction of Nef with AP-2 and CD4 in living cells. Interacting protein pairs were fused to complementary, non-fluorescent fragments of YFP and co-expressed in 293T cells...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031278/vfrb-is-a-key-activator-of-the-staphylococcus-aureus-saers-two-component-system
#18
Christina N Krute, Kelly C Rice, Jeffrey L Bose
During previous studies, we identified the fatty acid kinase VfrB as a potent regulator of α-hemolysin and other virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus In this study, we have demonstrated that VfrB is a positive activator of the SaeRS two-component regulatory system. Analysis of vfrB, saeR, and saeS mutant strains revealed that VfrB is functioning in the same pathway as SaeRS. At the transcriptional level, promoter activity of SaeRS class I (coa) and class II (hla) target genes is down-regulated during exponential growth phase in the vfrB mutant compared to the wild-type strain...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028173/human-mitochondrial-transcription-factor-b2-is-required-for-promoter-melting-during-initiation-of-transcription
#19
Viktor Posse, Claes M Gustafsson
The mitochondrial transcription initiation machinery in humans consists of three proteins, the RNA polymerase (POLRMT) and two accessory factors; transcription factors A and B2 (TFAM and TFB2M respectively). This machinery is required for the expression of mitochondrial DNA and the biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Previous experiments suggested that TFB2M is required for promoter melting, but conclusive experimental proof for this effect has not been presented. Moreover, the role of TFB2M in promoter unwinding has not been discriminated from that of TFAM...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024184/serpinb9-is-a-marker-of-antigen-cross-presenting-dendritic-cells
#20
M S Mangan, J Vega-Ramos, L T Joeckel, A J Mitchell, A Rizzitelli, B Roediger, D Kaiserman, W W Weninger, J A Villadangos, P I Bird
Serpinb9 (Sb9, also called Spi6) is an intracellular inhibitor of granzyme B (grB) that protects cytotoxic lymphocytes from grB-mediated death. In addition, Sb9 is also expressed in accessory immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), although its role is debated. Recently, we have demonstrated that Sb9 plays a grB-independent role in cross-presentation of antigens by CD8(+) DCs. Here, using a mouse line expressing green fluorescent protein knocked in under the control of the Sb9 promoter, we demonstrate that Sb9 expression is highest in those tissue-resident and migratory DC subsets capable of cross-presentation...
December 23, 2016: Molecular Immunology
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