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Accessory proteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335493/melatonin-mt%C3%A2-and-mt%C3%A2-receptors-in-the-ram-reproductive-tract
#1
Marta González-Arto, David Aguilar, Elena Gaspar-Torrubia, Margarita Gallego, Melissa Carvajal-Serna, Luis V Herrera-Marcos, Edith Serrano-Blesa, Thais Rose Dos Santos Hamilton, Rosaura Pérez-Pé, Teresa Muiño-Blanco, José A Cebrián-Pérez, Adriana Casao
Some melatonin functions in mammals are exerted through MT₁ and MT₂ receptors. However, there are no reports of their presence in the reproductive tract of the ram, a seasonal species. Thus, we have investigated their existence in the ram testis, epididymis, accessory glands and ductus deferens. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed higher levels of m-RNA for both receptors in the testis, ampulla, seminal vesicles, and vas deferens, than in the other organs of the reproductive tract (p < 0...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334966/structural-and-mechanistic-insights-into-regulation-of-hbo1-histone-acetyltransferase-activity-by-brpf2
#2
Ye Tao, Chen Zhong, Junjun Zhu, Shutong Xu, Jianping Ding
HBO1, a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), is required for global acetylation of histone H3K14 and embryonic development. It functions as a catalytic subunit in multisubunit complexes comprising a BRPF1/2/3 or JADE1/2/3 scaffold protein, and two accessory proteins. BRPF2 has been shown to be important for the HAT activity of HBO1 toward H3K14. Here we demonstrated that BRPF2 can regulate the HAT activity of HBO1 toward free H3 and H4, and nucleosomal H3. Particularly, a short N-terminal region of BRPF2 is sufficient for binding to HBO1 and can potentiate its activity toward H3K14...
February 24, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331087/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-evolutionarily-acquires-two-proteins-vif-and-protease-capable-of-antagonizing-feline-apobec3
#3
Rokusuke Yoshikawa, Junko S Takeuchi, Eri Yamada, Yusuke Nakano, Naoko Misawa, Yuichi Kimura, Fengrong Ren, Takayuki Miyazawa, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
The interplay between viral and host proteins has been well studied to elucidate virus-host interactions and their relevance to virulence. Mammalian genes encode apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins, which act as intrinsic restriction factors against lentiviruses. To overcome APOBEC3-mediated anti-viral actions, lentiviruses have evolutionarily acquired an accessory protein, viral infectivity factor (Vif), and Vif degrades host APOBEC3 proteins via a ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330103/profiling-and-production-of-hemicellulases-by-thermophilic-fungus-malbranchea-flava-and-the-role-of-xylanases-in-improved-bioconversion-of-pretreated-lignocellulosics-to-ethanol
#4
Manju Sharma, Chhavi Mahajan, Manpreet S Bhatti, Bhupinder Singh Chadha
This study reports thermophilic fungus Malbranchea flava as a potent source of xylanase and xylan-debranching accessory enzymes. M. flava produced high levels of xylanase on sorghum straw containing solidified culture medium. The optimization of culture conditions for production of hemicellulases was carried out using one factor at a time approach and Box-Behnken design of experiments with casein (%), inoculum age (h) and inoculum level (ml) as process variables and xylanase, β-xylosidase, acetyl esterases and arabinofuranosidase as response variables...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323168/production-and-characterization-of-a-highly-pure-rna-polymerase-holoenzyme-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
Omar Herrera-Asmat, Lucyna Lubkowska, Mikhail Kashlev, Carlos J Bustamante, Daniel G Guerra, Maria L Kireeva
Recent publications have shown that active RNA polymerase (RNAP) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtbRNAP) can be produced by expressing all four subunits in a single recombinant Escherichia coli strain [1-3]. By reducing the number of plasmids and changing the codon usage of the Mtb genes in the co-expression system published by Banerjee et al. [1], we present a simplified, detailed and reproducible protocol for the purification of recombinant MtbRNAP containing the ω subunit. Moreover, we describe the formation of ternary elongation complexes (TECs) with a short fluorescence-labeled RNA primer and DNA oligonucleotides, suitable for transcription elongation studies...
March 17, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322341/angiotensin-ii-induces-kidney-inflammatory-injury-and-fibrosis-through-binding-to-myeloid-differentiation-protein-2-md2
#6
Zheng Xu, Weixin Li, Jibo Han, Chunpeng Zou, Weijian Huang, Weihui Yu, Xiaoou Shan, Hazel Lum, Xiaokun Li, Guang Liang
Growing evidence indicates that angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent biologically active product of RAS, is a key regulator of renal inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Ang II induces renal inflammatory injury and fibrosis through interaction with myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD2), the accessory protein of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of the immune system. Results indicated that in MD2(-/-) mice, the Ang II-induced renal fibrosis, inflammation and kidney dysfunction were significantly reduced compared to control Ang II-infused wild-type mice...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320822/characterization-of-e3-ligases-involved-in-lysosomal-sorting-of-the-hiv-1-restriction-factor-bst2
#7
Nicolas Roy, Grégory Pacini, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent, Katy Janvier
The cellular protein BST2/ Tetherin acts as a major intrinsic antiviral protein that prevents the release of enveloped viruses by trapping nascent viral particles at the surface of infected cells. Viruses have evolved specific strategies to displace BST2 from viral budding sites in order to promote virus egress. In HIV-1, the accessory protein Vpu counters BST2 antiviral activity and promotes sorting of BST2 for lysosomal degradation. Vpu increases poly-ubiquitination of BST2 through recruitment of the E3 ligase complex SCF adaptor β-TrCP, a post translation modification required for Vpu-induced BST2 down-regulation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302998/distribution-and-diversity-of-enzymes-for-polysaccharide-degradation-in-fungi
#8
Renaud Berlemont
Fungi are important polysaccharide degraders in the environment and for biotechnology. Here, the increasing number of sequenced fungal genomes allowed for systematic identification of genes and proteins involved in polysaccharide degradation in 218 fungi. Globally, 9,003 sequences for glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases targeting cellulose, xylan, and chitin, were identified. Although abundant in most lineages, the distribution of these enzymes is variable even between organisms from the same genus...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299671/cbf%C3%A3-and-hiv-infection
#9
Dong Young Kim, John D Gross
In order to achieve a persistent infection, viruses must overcome the host immune system. Host restriction factors dominantly block virus transmission, but are subject to down regulation by viral accessory proteins. HIV encodes several accessory factors that overcome different cellular restriction factors. For example, the HIV-1 protein Vif down regulates the human APOBEC3 family of restriction factors by targeting them for proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Recently, this function was shown to require the transcription cofactor CBFβ, which acts as a template to assist in Vif folding and allow for assembly of an APOBEC3-targeting E3 ligase complex...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298080/unraveling-energy-and-dynamics-determinants-to-interpret-protein-functional-plasticity-the-limonene-1-2-epoxide-hydrolases-case-study
#10
Silvia Rinaldi, Alessandro Gori, Celeste Annovazzi, Erica Elisa Ferrandi, Daniela Monti, Giorgio Colombo
The balance between structural stability and functional plasticity in proteins that share common three-dimensional folds is the key factor that drives protein evolvability. The ability to distinguish the parts of homologous proteins that underlie common structural organization patterns from the parts acting as regulatory modules that can sustain modifications in response to evolutionary pressure may provide fundamental insights for understanding sequence-structure-dynamics relationships. In applicative terms, this would help develop rational protein design methods...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296340/lactadherin-is-a-candidate-oviduct-lewis-x-trisaccharide-receptor-on-porcine-spermatozoa
#11
E Silva, D Frost, L Li, N Bovin, D J Miller
A recent study has demonstrated that porcine spermatozoa recognize with high affinity carbohydrate structures containing Lewis X motifs. Sperm adhesion to Lewis X is proposed to mediate sperm binding to the oviduct epithelium to form a reservoir. The objective of this study was to identify Lewis X-binding proteins from porcine spermatozoa as candidate receptors for oviduct glycans. To identify low-abundance proteins typically masked by proteins originating from seminal fluid, Lewis X candidate receptors were enriched from cauda epididymal boar spermatozoa...
March 15, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293219/insights-into-dynamic-polymicrobial-synergy-revealed-by-time-coursed-rna-seq
#12
Erik L Hendrickson, David A C Beck, Daniel P Miller, Qian Wang, Marvin Whiteley, Richard J Lamont, Murray Hackett
Many bacterial infections involve polymicrobial communities in which constituent organisms are synergistically pathogenic. Periodontitis, a commonly occurring chronic inflammatory disorder, is induced by multispecies bacterial communities. The periodontal keystone pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and the accessory pathogen Streptococcus gordonii exhibit polymicrobial synergy in animal models of disease. Mechanisms of co-adhesion and community formation by P. gingivalis and S. gordonii are well-established; however, little is known regarding the basis for increased pathogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289379/dichotomous-distribution-of-putative-cholinergic-interneurons-in-mouse-accessory-olfactory-bulb
#13
Sarah Marking, Kurt Krosnowski, Tatsuya Ogura, Weihong Lin
Sensory information processing in the olfactory bulb (OB) relies on diverse populations of bulbar interneurons. In rodents, the accessory OB (AOB) is divided into two bulbar regions, the anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB), which differ substantially in their circuitry connections and associated behaviors. We previously identified and characterized a large number of morphologically diverse cholinergic interneurons in the main OB (MOB) using transgenic mice to visualize the cell bodies of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons and immunolabeling (Krosnowski et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278376/stapled-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-cav-%C3%AE-interaction-domain-aid-peptides-act-as-selective-protein-protein-interaction-inhibitors-of-cav-function
#14
Felix Findeisen, Marta Campiglio, Hyunil Jo, Fayal Abderemane-Ali, Christine H Rumpf, Lianne Pope, Nathan D Rossen, Bernhard E Flucher, William F DeGrado, Daniel L Minor
For many voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) creation of a properly functioning ion channel requires the formation of specific protein protein interactions between the transmembrane pore-forming subunits and cytoplasmic accessory subunits. Despite the importance of such protein-protein interactions in VGIC function and assembly, their potential as sites for VGIC modulator development has been largely overlooked. Here, we develop meta xylyl (m xylyl) stapled peptides that target a prototypic VGIC high affinity protein-protein interaction, the interaction between the voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV) pore forming subunit α interaction domain (AID) and cytoplasmic β subunit (CaVβ)...
March 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276606/smarca5-snf2h-is-required-for-proliferation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-differentiating-into-erythroid-and-myeloid-lineages
#15
Juraj Kokavec, Tomas Zikmund, Filipp Savvulidi, Vojtech Kulvait, Winfried Edelmann, Arthur I Skoultchi, Tomas Stopka
The Imitation Switch (ISWI) nuclear ATPase Smarca5 (Snf2h) is one of the most conserved chromatin remodeling factors. It exists in a variety of oligosubunit complexes that move DNA with respect to the histone octamer to generate regularly spaced nucleosomal arrays. Smarca5 interacts with different accessory proteins and represents a molecular motor for DNA replication, repair and transcription. We deleted Smarca5 at the onset of definitive hematopoiesis (Vav1-iCre) and observed that animals die during late fetal development due to anemia...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267385/clinical-development-landscape-in-gist-from-novel-agents-that-target-accessory-pathways-to-revisiting-non-targeted-therapies
#16
Kamalesh K Sankhala
Activating mutations in the genes encoding the tyrosine receptor kinases KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor occur in 85%-90% of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Although imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of GIST, most patients progress within a few years. Areas covered: Monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors targeting specific signaling pathways or proteins associated with resistance to existing treatments are being explored as alternative treatment approaches for GIST...
March 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266018/cell-type-dependent-axonal-localization-of-translational-regulators-and-mrna-in-mouse-peripheral-olfactory-neurons
#17
Lulu I T Korsak, Katherine A Shepard, Michael R Akins
Local protein synthesis in mature axons may play a role in synaptic plasticity, axonal arborization, or functional diversity of the circuit. To gain insight into this question, we investigated the axonal localization of translational regulators and associated mRNAs in five parallel olfactory circuits, four in the main olfactory bulb and one in the accessory olfactory bulb. Axons in all four main olfactory bulb circuits exhibited axonal localization of Fragile X granules (FXGs), structures that comprise ribosomes, mRNA, and RNA binding proteins including the Fragile X protein FMRP (Fragile X mental retardation protein) and the related protein FXR2P...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262096/olfactory-receptor-accessory-proteins-play-crucial-roles-in-receptor-function-and-gene-choice
#18
Ruchira Sharma, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Ian Davison, Kentaro Ikegami, Ming-Shan Chien, Helena You, Quiyi Chi, Momoka Kubota, Masafumi Yohda, Michael Ehlers, Hiroaki Matsunami
Each of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) chooses to express a single G protein-coupled olfactory receptor (OR) from a pool of hundreds. Here, we show the receptor transporting protein (RTP) family members play a dual role in both normal OR trafficking and determining OR gene choice probabilities. Rtp1 and Rtp2 double knockout mice (RTP1,2DKO) show OR trafficking defects and decreased OSN activation. Surprisingly, we discovered a small subset of the ORs are expressed in larger numbers of OSNs despite the presence of fewer total OSNs in RTP1,2DKO...
March 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261441/design-and-engineering-of-water-soluble-light-harvesting-protein-maquettes
#19
Goutham Kodali, Joshua A Mancini, Lee A Solomon, Tatiana V Episova, Nicholas Roach, Christopher J Hobbs, Pawel Wagner, Olga A Mass, Kunche Aravindu, Jonathan E Barnsley, Keith C Gordon, David L Officer, P Leslie Dutton, Christopher C Moser
Natural selection in photosynthesis has engineered tetrapyrrole based, nanometer scale, light harvesting and energy capture in light-induced charge separation. By designing and creating nanometer scale artificial light harvesting and charge separating proteins, we have the opportunity to reengineer and overcome the limitations of natural selection to extend energy capture to new wavelengths and to tailor efficient systems that better meet human as opposed to cellular energetic needs. While tetrapyrrole cofactor incorporation in natural proteins is complex and often assisted by accessory proteins for cofactor transport and insertion, artificial protein functionalization relies on a practical understanding of the basic physical chemistry of protein and cofactors that drive nanometer scale self-assembly...
January 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261241/analysis-of-plant-pan-genomes-and-transcriptomes-with-get_homologues-est-a-clustering-solution-for-sequences-of-the-same-species
#20
Bruno Contreras-Moreira, Carlos P Cantalapiedra, María J García-Pereira, Sean P Gordon, John P Vogel, Ernesto Igartua, Ana M Casas, Pablo Vinuesa
The pan-genome of a species is defined as the union of all the genes and non-coding sequences found in all its individuals. However, constructing a pan-genome for plants with large genomes is daunting both in sequencing cost and the scale of the required computational analysis. A more affordable alternative is to focus on the genic repertoire by using transcriptomic data. Here, the software GET_HOMOLOGUES-EST was benchmarked with genomic and RNA-seq data of 19 Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and then applied to the analysis of transcripts from 16 Hordeum vulgare genotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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