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Accessory proteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213370/promiscuity-among-the-mraps
#1
Adrian J L Clark, Li F Chan
The melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) was originally discovered to be an essential co-receptor for the ACTH receptor/melanocortin 2 receptor, and it physically interacts with this receptor and is required for receptor trafficking and ligand binding. A related molecule, MRAP2, is mainly expressed in the CNS and appears to have a role with the melanocortin 4 receptor. Consistent with this is the observation that a massively obese phenotype develops when the Mrap2 gene is deleted in mice. However, the characteristics of this phenotype differ from those of Mc4r deleted mice, and suggest that an additional role, possibly resulting from an interaction with other receptors is possible...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213182/microbial-nickel-cellular-uptake-and-delivery-to-enzyme-centers
#2
REVIEW
Conor J Zeer-Wanklyn, Deborah B Zamble
Nickel enzymes allow microorganisms to access chemistry that can be vital for survival and virulence. In this review we highlight recent work on several systems that import nickel ions and deliver them to the active sites of these enzymes. Small molecules, in particular l-His and derivatives, may chelate nickel ions before import at TonB-dependent outer-membrane and ABC-type inner-membrane transporters. Inside the cell, nickel ions are used by maturation factors required to produce nickel enzymes such as [NiFe]-hydrogenase, urease and lactate racemase...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209641/mechanisms-for-initiating-cellular-dna-replication
#3
REVIEW
Franziska Bleichert, Michael R Botchan, James M Berger
Cellular DNA replication factories depend on ring-shaped hexameric helicases to aid DNA synthesis by processively unzipping the parental DNA helix. Replicative helicases are loaded onto DNA by dedicated initiator, loader, and accessory proteins during the initiation of DNA replication in a tightly regulated, multistep process. We discuss here the molecular choreography of DNA replication initiation across the three domains of life, highlighting similarities and differences in the strategies used to deposit replicative helicases onto DNA and to melt the DNA helix in preparation for replisome assembly...
February 16, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206711/localization-patterns-of-dopamine-active-transporter-synthesizing-cells-during-development-of-brine-shrimp
#4
Bo Yong Kim, Gyeong Hee Shin, In Soo Lee, Suhng Wook Kim, Ho Seung Kim, Jin Kwan Kim, Seung Gwan Lee
There have been many studies on dopamine active transporter (DAT) in humans and laboratory animals; however, there is a lack of information on DAT in brine shrimp. In this study, we demonstrated the neuronal and nonneuronal characteristics of DAT-synthesizing (DAT(+) cells) during development of brine shrimp. In neuronal cells, the DAT(+) neurons in the central body and lobes of a protocerebrum (PC) controlled the deutocerebrum. The sensory cells of nauplius eyes projected their decussated axons to the PC, and the DAT(+) cells at the posterior region were associated with migration and control of the 10 posterior neurons during the early nauplius stage...
February 16, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202763/inhibition-of-vpx-mediated-samhd1-and-vpr-mediated-hltf-degradation-by-selective-disruption-of-viral-crl4-dcaf1-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-assembly
#5
Hong Wang, Haoran Guo, Jiaming Su, Yajuan Rui, Wenwen Zheng, Wenying Gao, Wenyan Zhang, Zhaolong Li, Guanchen Liu, Wei Wei, Xiao-Fang Yu
The lentiviral accessory proteins Vpx and Vpr are known to utilize CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase to induce the degradation of the host restriction factor SAMHD1 or transcriptional factor HLTF, respectively. Selective disruption of viral CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase could be a promising antiviral strategy. Recently, we have determined that post-translational modification (neddylation) of Cullin-4 is required for the activation of Vpx-CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase. However, the mechanism of Vpx/Vpr-CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase assembly is still poorly understood...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202673/molecular-architecture-of-polycomb-repressive-complexes
#6
REVIEW
Emily C Chittock, Sebastian Latwiel, Thomas C R Miller, Christoph W Müller
The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are a large and diverse family that epigenetically repress the transcription of key developmental genes. They form three broad groups of polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) known as PRC1, PRC2 and Polycomb Repressive DeUBiquitinase, each of which modifies and/or remodels chromatin by distinct mechanisms that are tuned by having variable compositions of core and accessory subunits. Until recently, relatively little was known about how the various PcG proteins assemble to form the PRCs; however, studies by several groups have now allowed us to start piecing together the PcG puzzle...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186134/virulence-inhibitors-from-brazilian-peppertree-block-quorum-sensing-and-abate-dermonecrosis-in-skin-infection-models
#7
Amelia Muhs, James T Lyles, Corey P Parlet, Kate Nelson, Jeffery S Kavanaugh, Alexander R Horswill, Cassandra L Quave
Widespread antibiotic resistance is on the rise and current therapies are becoming increasingly limited in both scope and efficacy. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents a major contributor to this trend. Quorum sensing controlled virulence factors include secreted toxins responsible for extensive damage to host tissues and evasion of the immune system response; they are major contributors to morbidity and mortality. Investigation of botanical folk medicines for wounds and infections led us to study Schinus terebinthifolia (Brazilian Peppertree) as a potential source of virulence inhibitors...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168040/role-of-the-il-33-st2-axis-in-sepsis
#8
REVIEW
Hui Xu, Heth R Turnquist, Rosemary Hoffman, Timothy R Billiar
Sepsis remains a major clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. As new inflammatory mediators are characterized, it is important to understand their roles in sepsis. Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a recently described member of the IL-1 family that is widely expressed in cells of barrier tissues. Upon tissue damage, IL-33 is released as an alarmin and activates various types of cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system through binding to the ST2/IL-1 receptor accessory protein complex. IL-33 has apparent pleiotropic functions in many disease models, with its actions strongly shaped by the local microenvironment...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167520/a-new-essential-cell-division-protein-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#9
Aurora Osorio, Laura Camarena, Miguel Angel Cevallos, Sebastian Poggio
: Bacterial cell division is a complex process that relies on a multiprotein complex composed of a core of widely conserved and generally essential proteins and on accessory proteins that vary in number and identity in different bacteria. The assembly of this complex and in particular, the initiation of constriction is a regulated process that has come under intensive study. In this work, we characterize the function of DipI, a protein conserved in alpha and beta proteobacteria that is essential in Caulobacter crescentus Our results show that DipI is a periplasmic protein that is recruited late to the division site and that is required for the initiation of constriction...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161653/low-level-laser-therapy-lllt-accelerates-the-sternomastoid-muscle-regeneration-process-after-myonecrosis-due-to-bupivacaine
#10
Cristiane Neves Alessi Pissulin, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes, Alejandro Manuel Sanchez Orellana, Renata Calciolari Rossi E Silva, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus
BACKGROUND: Because of its long-lasting analgesic action, bupivacaine is an anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block and relief of postoperative pain. Muscle degeneration and neurotoxicity are its main limitations. There is strong evidence that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) assists in muscle and nerve repair. The authors evaluated the effects of a Gallium Arsenide laser (GaAs), on the regeneration of muscle fibers of the sternomastoid muscle and accessory nerve after injection of bupivacaine...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159873/the-role-of-pkc%C3%AE-in-cord-blood-t-cell-maturation-towards-th1-cytokine-profile-and-its-epigenetic-regulation-by-fish-oil
#11
Hani Harb, James Irvine, Manori Amarasekera, Charles S Hii, Dörthe A Kesper, Yuefang Ma, Nina D'Vaz, Harald Renz, Daniel P Potaczek, Susan L Prescott, Antonio Ferrante
While immunodeficiency of immaturity of the neonate has been considered important as the basis for unusual susceptibility to infection, it has also been recognized that the ability to progress from an immature Th2 cytokine predominance to a Th1 profile has relevance in determining whether children will develop allergy, providing an opportunity for epigenetic regulation through environmental pressures. However, this notion remains relatively unexplored. Here we present evidence that there are two major control points to explain the immunodeficiency in cord blood (CB) T-cells, a deficiency in interleukin-12 (IL-12) producing and IL-10 overproducing accessory cells, leading to a decreased interferon-γ (IFNγ) synthesis, and the other an intrinsic defect in T-cell protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) expression...
February 3, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149656/immune-and-inflammatory-gene-expressions-are-different-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-compared-to-those-in-familial-mediterranean-fever
#12
Filiz Türe Özdemir, Emel Ekşioğlu Demiralp, Sibel Z Aydın, Pamir Atagündüz, Tülin Ergun, Haner Direskeneli
OBJECTIVE: The immune classification of Behçet's disease (BD) is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to compare the immune/inflammatory gene expressions in BD with those in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autoinflammatory disorder with innate immune activation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CD4+ T cells and CD14+ monocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Behçet's disease patients (n=10), FMF (n=6) patients, and healthy controls (n=4) with microbeads, and then, the mRNA was isolated...
December 2016: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137878/dynamics-of-greb-rna-polymerase-interaction-allow-a-proofreading-accessory-protein-to-patrol-for-transcription-complexes-needing-rescue
#13
Larry E Tetone, Larry J Friedman, Melisa L Osborne, Harini Ravi, Scotty Kyzer, Sarah K Stumper, Rachel A Mooney, Robert Landick, Jeff Gelles
The secondary channel (SC) of multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) allows access to the active site and is a nexus for the regulation of transcription. Multiple regulatory proteins bind in the SC and reprogram the catalytic activity of RNAP, but the dynamics of these factors' interactions with RNAP and how they function without cross-interference are unclear. In Escherichia coli, GreB is an SC protein that promotes proofreading by transcript cleavage in elongation complexes backtracked by nucleotide misincorporation...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133776/non-homologous-end-joining-common-interaction-sites-and-exchange-of-multiple-factors-in-the-dna-repair-process
#14
Stuart L Rulten, Gabrielle J Grundy
Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the dominant means of repairing chromosomal DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and is essential in human cells. Fifteen or more proteins can be involved in the detection, signalling, synapsis, end-processing and ligation events required to repair a DSB, and must be assembled in the confined space around the DNA ends. We review here a number of interaction points between the core NHEJ components (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4 and Ligase IV) and accessory factors such as kinases, phosphatases, polymerases and structural proteins...
January 30, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131088/long-term-passage-of-vif-null-hiv-1-in-cd4-t-cells-expressing-sub-lethal-levels-of-apobec-proteins-fails-to-develop-apobec-resistance
#15
Eri Miyagi, Sandra Kao, Miyoshi Fumitaka, Alicia Buckler-White, Ron Plishka, Klaus Strebel
APOBEC3G (A3G) is a cytidine deaminase with potent antiviral activity that is antagonized by Vif. A3G is expressed in a cell type-specific manner and some semi-permissive cells, including A3.01, express A3G but fail to block replication of Vif-null HIV-1. Here we explored the semi-permissive nature of A3.01 cells and found it to be defined exclusively by the levels of A3G. Indeed, minor changes in A3G levels rendered A3.01 cells either fully permissive or non-permissive for Vif-null HIV-1. Our data indicate that A3...
January 25, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122978/conserved-interaction-of-lentiviral-vif-molecules-with-hiv-1-gag-and-differential-effects-of-species-specific-vif-on-virus-production
#16
Wenwen Zheng, Limian Ling, Zhaolong Li, Hong Wang, Yajuan Rui, Wenying Gao, Shaohua Wang, Xing Su, Wei Wei, Xiao-Fang Yu
: Open reading frame virion infectivity factor (Vif) is conserved among most lentiviruses. Vif molecules contribute to viral replication by inactivating host anti-viral factors, the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. However, various species of lentiviral Vif proteins have evolved different strategies for overcoming host APOBEC3. Whether different species of lentiviral Vif proteins still preserve certain common features has not been reported. Here, we show for the first time that diverse lentiviral Vif molecules maintain the ability to interact with the HIV-1 Gag precursor (Pr55(Gag)) polyprotein...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115201/life-and-death-of-yeast-telomerase-rna
#17
REVIEW
Yulia Vasianovich, Raymund J Wellinger
Telomerase reverse transcriptase elongates telomeres to overcome their natural attrition and allow unlimited cellular proliferation, a characteristic shared by stem cells as well as the majority of malignant cancerous cells. The telomerase holoenzyme comprises a core RNA molecule, a catalytic protein subunit and other accessory proteins. Malfunction of certain telomerase components can cause serious genetic disorders including dyskeratosis congenita and aplastic anemia. A hierarchy of tightly regulated steps constitute the process of telomerase biogenesis, which if interrupted or misregulated, can impede production of a functional enzyme and severely affect telomere maintenance...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115015/early-changes-in-gene-expression-and-inflammatory-proteins-in-systemic-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-patients-on-canakinumab-therapy
#18
Arndt H Brachat, Alexei A Grom, Nico Wulffraat, Hermine I Brunner, Pierre Quartier, Riva Brik, Liza McCann, Huri Ozdogan, Lidia Rutkowska-Sak, Rayfel Schneider, Valeria Gerloni, Liora Harel, Maria Terreri, Kristin Houghton, Rik Joos, Daniel Kingsbury, Jorge M Lopez-Benitez, Stephan Bek, Martin Schumacher, Marie-Anne Valentin, Hermann Gram, Ken Abrams, Alberto Martini, Daniel J Lovell, Nanguneri R Nirmala, Nicolino Ruperto
BACKGROUND: Canakinumab is a human anti-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) monoclonal antibody neutralizing IL-1β-mediated pathways. We sought to characterize the molecular response to canakinumab and evaluate potential markers of response using samples from two pivotal trials in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA). METHODS: Gene expression was measured in patients with febrile SJIA and in matched healthy controls by Affymetrix DNA microarrays. Transcriptional response was assessed by gene expression changes from baseline to day 3 using adapted JIA American College of Rheumatology (aACR) response criteria (50 aACR JIA)...
January 23, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112218/mtorc1-phosphorylates-larp6-to-stimulate-type-i-collagen-expression
#19
Yujie Zhang, Branko Stefanovic
Excessive deposition of type I collagen causes fibrotic diseases. Binding of La ribonucleoprotein domain family, member 6 (LARP6) to collagen mRNAs regulates their translation and is necessary for high type I collagen expression. Here we show that mTORC1 phosphorylates LARP6 on S348 and S409. The S348A/S409A mutant of LARP6 acts as a dominant negative protein in collagen biosynthesis, which retards secretion of type I collagen and causes excessive posttranslational modifications. Similar effects are seen using mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin or by knocking down raptor...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111926/membrane-remodeling-and-organization-elements-common-to-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes
#20
REVIEW
Luz A Vega-Cabrera, Liliana Pardo-López
Membrane remodeling processes in eukaryotes, such as those involved in endocytosis and intracellular trafficking, are mediated by a large number of structural, accessory and regulatory proteins. These processes occur in all cell types, enabling the exchange of signals and/or nutrients with the external medium and with neighboring cells; likewise, they are required for the intracellular trafficking of various cargo molecules between organelles, as well as the recycling of these structures. Recent studies have demonstrated that some elements of the molecular machinery involved in regulating and mediating endocytosis in eukaryotic cells are also present in some bacteria, where they participate in processes such as cell division, sporulation and signal transduction...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
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