Read by QxMD icon Read

"Tree of life"

Stefan A Rensing
500Ma ago the terrestrial habitat was a barren, unwelcoming place for species other than, for example, bacteria or fungi. Most probably, filamentous freshwater algae adapted to aerial conditions and eventually conquered land. Adaptation to a severely different habitat apparently included sturdy cell walls enabling an erect body plan as well as protection against abiotic stresses such as ultraviolet radiation, drought and varying temperature. To thrive on land, plants probably required more elaborate signaling pathways to react to diverse environmental conditions, and phytohormones to control developmental programs...
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Jessica R Shartouny, Joshy Jacob
Discovering new therapeutics for human viral diseases is important for combatting emerging infectious viruses and omnipresent circulating viruses as well as those that can become resistant to the drugs we currently have available. The innate host defense peptide (HDP) repertoire present in animals is a wealth of potential antimicrobial agents that could be mined to meet these needs. While much of the body of research regarding HDPs is in the context of bacteria, there is increasing evidence that they can be an effective source for antivirals...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jonathan W Leff, Richard D Bardgett, Anna Wilkinson, Benjamin G Jackson, William J Pritchard, Jonathan R De Long, Simon Oakley, Kelly E Mason, Nicholas J Ostle, David Johnson, Elizabeth M Baggs, Noah Fierer
There are numerous ways in which plants can influence the composition of soil communities. However, it remains unclear whether information on plant community attributes, including taxonomic, phylogenetic, or trait-based composition, can be used to predict the structure of soil communities. We tested, in both monocultures and field-grown mixed temperate grassland communities, whether plant attributes predict soil communities including taxonomic groups from across the tree of life (fungi, bacteria, protists, and metazoa)...
March 9, 2018: ISME Journal
Cindy J Castelle, Jillian F Banfield
The recent recovery of genomes for organisms from phyla with no isolated representative (candidate phyla) via cultivation-independent genomics enabled delineation of major new microbial lineages, namely the bacterial candidate phyla radiation (CPR), DPANN archaea, and Asgard archaea. CPR and DPANN organisms are inferred to be mostly symbionts, and some are episymbionts of other microbial community members. Asgard genomes encode typically eukaryotic systems, and their inclusion in phylogenetic analyses results in placement of eukaryotes as a branch within Archaea...
March 8, 2018: Cell
Yaniv Harari, Yoav Ram, Nimrod Rappoport, Lilach Hadany, Martin Kupiec
Changes in ploidy are relatively rare, but play important roles in the development of cancer and the acquisition of long-term adaptations. Genome duplications occur across the tree of life, and can alter the rate of adaptive evolution. Moreover, by allowing the subsequent loss of individual chromosomes and the accumulation of mutations, changes in ploidy can promote genomic instability and/or adaptation. Although many studies have been published in the last years about changes in chromosome number and their evolutionary consequences, tracking and measuring the rate of whole-genome duplications have been extremely challenging...
February 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Orsolya Kapuy, P K Vinod, Gábor Bánhegyi, Béla Novák
Ostreococcus tauri is the smallest free-living unicellular organism with one copy of each core cell cycle genes in its genome. There is a growing interest in this green algae due to its evolutionary origin. Since O. tauri is diverged early in the green lineage, relatively close to the ancestral eukaryotic cell, it might hold a key phylogenetic position in the eukaryotic tree of life. In this study, we focus on the regulatory network of its cell division cycle. We propose a mathematical modelling framework to integrate the existing knowledge of cell cycle network of O...
February 19, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
G A Shilovsky, T S Putyatina, V V Ashapkin, O S Luchkina, A V Markov
Measurements of variation are of great importance for studying the stability of pathological phenomena and processes. For the biology of aging, it is very important not only to determine average mortality, but also to study its stability in time and the size of fluctuations that are indicated by the variation coefficient of lifespan (CVLS ). It is believed that a relatively small (~20%) value of CVLS in humans, comparable to the coefficients of variation of other events programmed in ontogenesis (for example, menarche and menopause), indicates a relatively rigid determinism (N...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Zhichao Zhou, Yang Liu, Meng Li, Ji-Dong Gu
The deep phylogenetic topology of tree of life is in the center of a long-time dispute. The Woeseian three-domain tree theory, with the Eukarya evolving as a sister clade to Archaea, competes with the two-domain tree theory (the eocyte tree), with the Eukarya branched within Archaea. Revealed by the ongoing debate over the last three decades, sophisticated and proper phylogenetic methods should necessarily be paid with more emphasis, especially these are focusing on the compositional heterogeneity of sites and lineages, and the heterotachy issue...
February 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Longhua Guo, Alice Accorsi, Shuonan He, Carlos Guerrero-Hernández, Shamilene Sivagnanam, Sean McKinney, Matthew Gibson, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
BACKGROUND: The ability to efficiently visualize and manipulate chromosomes is fundamental to understanding the genome architecture of organisms. Conventional chromosome preparation protocols developed for mammalian cells and those relying on species-specific conditions are not suitable for many invertebrates. Hence, a simple and inexpensive chromosome preparation protocol, adaptable to multiple invertebrate species, is needed. RESULTS: We optimized a chromosome preparation protocol and applied it to several planarian species (phylum Platyhelminthes), the freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (phylum Mollusca), and the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum Cnidaria)...
February 26, 2018: BMC Biology
Ilya Pozdnyakov, Olga Matantseva, Sergei Skarlato
Four-domain voltage-gated cation channels (FVCCs) represent a large family of pseudo-tetrameric ion channels which includes voltage-gated calcium (Cav ) and sodium (Nav ) channels, as well as their homologues. These transmembrane proteins are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, such as membrane excitability, rhythmical activity, intracellular signalling, etc. Information about actual diversity and phylogenetic relationships of FVCCs across the eukaryotic tree of life is scarce. We for the first time performed a taxonomically broad phylogenetic analysis of 277 FVCC sequences from a variety of eukaryotes and showed that many groups of eukaryotic organisms have their own clades of FVCCs...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Federico Sabbadin, Glyn R Hemsworth, Luisa Ciano, Bernard Henrissat, Paul Dupree, Theodora Tryfona, Rita D S Marques, Sean T Sweeney, Katrin Besser, Luisa Elias, Giovanna Pesante, Yi Li, Adam A Dowle, Rachel Bates, Leonardo D Gomez, Rachael Simister, Gideon J Davies, Paul H Walton, Neil C Bruce, Simon J McQueen-Mason
Thermobia domestica belongs to an ancient group of insects and has a remarkable ability to digest crystalline cellulose without microbial assistance. By investigating the digestive proteome of Thermobia, we have identified over 20 members of an uncharacterized family of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). We show that this LPMO family spans across several clades of the Tree of Life, is of ancient origin, and was recruited by early arthropods with possible roles in remodeling endogenous chitin scaffolds during development and metamorphosis...
February 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Jean-Baptiste Raina, Laura Eme, F Joseph Pollock, Anja Spang, John M Archibald, Tom A Williams
The concept of symbiosis - defined in 1879 by de Bary as 'the living together of unlike organisms' - has a rich and convoluted history in biology. In part, because it questioned the concept of the individual, symbiosis fell largely outside mainstream science and has traditionally received less attention than other research disciplines. This is gradually changing. In nature organisms do not live in isolation but rather interact with, and are impacted by, diverse beings throughout their life histories. Symbiosis is now recognized as a central driver of evolution across the entire tree of life, including, for example, bacterial endosymbionts that provide insects with vital nutrients and the mitochondria that power our own cells...
February 22, 2018: Biology Open
Anna Gogleva, Hajk-Georg Drost, Sebastian Schornack
Motivation: The secretome denotes the collection of secreted proteins exported outside of the cell. The functional roles of secreted proteins include the maintenance and remodelling of the extracellular matrix as well as signalling between host and non-host cells. These features make secretomes rich reservoirs of biomarkers for disease classification and host-pathogen interaction studies. Common biomarkers are extracellular proteins secreted via classical pathways that can be predicted from sequence by annotating the presence or absence of N-terminal signal peptides...
February 16, 2018: Bioinformatics
Dominic Simm, Martin Kollmar
Stable single-alpha helices (SAH-domains) function as rigid connectors and constant force springs between structural domains, and can provide contact surfaces for protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. SAH-domains mainly consist of charged amino acids and are monomeric and stable in polar solutions, characteristics which distinguish them from coiled-coil domains and intrinsically disordered regions. Although the number of reported SAH-domains is steadily increasing, genome-wide analyses of SAH-domains in eukaryotic genomes are still missing...
2018: PloS One
Vivek Philip Cyriac, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah
The tree of life is highly asymmetrical in its clade wise species richness and this has often been attributed to variation in diversification rates either across time or lineages. Variations across lineages are usually associated with traits that increase lineage diversification. Certain traits can also hinder diversification by increasing extinction and such traits are called evolutionary dead-ends. Ecological specialization has usually been considered as an evolutionary dead-end. However, recent analyses of specializations along single axes have provided mixed support for this model...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Raquel Quatrini, D Barrie Johnson
Extremely acidic environments have global distribution and can have natural or, increasingly, anthropogenic origins. Extreme acidophiles grow optimally at pH 3 or less, have multiple strategies for tolerating stresses that accompany high levels of acidity and are scattered in all three domains of the tree of life. Metagenomic studies have expanded knowledge of the diversity of extreme acidophile communities, their ecological networks and their metabolic potentials, both confirmed and inferred. High resolution compositional and functional profiling of these microbiomes have begun to reveal spatial diversity patterns at global, regional, local, zonal and micro-scales...
February 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Jessica M Nelson, Duncan A Hauser, Rosemary Hinson, A Jonathan Shaw
Fungal symbioses are ubiquitous in plants, but their effects have mostly been studied in seed plants. This study aimed to assess the diversity of fungal endophyte effects in a bryophyte and identify factors contributing to the variability of outcomes in these interactions. Fungal endophyte cultures and axenic liverwort clones were isolated from wild populations of the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. These collections were combined in a gnotobiotic system to test the effects of fungal isolates on the growth rates of hosts under laboratory conditions...
February 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Matthew A Kolmann, Jonathan M Huie, Kory Evans, Adam P Summers
Although rare within the context of 30 000 species of extant fishes, scale-feeding as an ecological strategy has evolved repeatedly across the teleost tree of life. Scale-feeding (lepidophagous) fishes are diverse in terms of their ecology, behaviour, and specialized morphologies for grazing on scales and mucus of sympatric species. Despite this diversity, the underlying ontogenetic changes in functional and biomechanical properties of associated feeding morphologies in lepidophagous fishes are less understood...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Stephen L Wechman, Anjan K Pradhan, Rob DeSalle, Swadesh K Das, Luni Emdad, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
Autophagy is a functionally conserved self-degradation process that facilitates the survival of eukaryotic life via the management of cellular bioenergetics and maintenance of the fidelity of genomic DNA. The first known autophagy inducer was Beclin-1. Beclin-1 is expressed in multicellular eukaryotes ranging throughout plants to animals, comprising a nonmonophyllic group, as shown in this report via aggressive BLAST searches. In humans, Beclin-1 is a haploinsuffient tumor suppressor as biallelic deletions have not been observed in patient tumors clinically...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Diying Huang, Gustavo Hormiga, Chenyang Cai, Yitong Su, Zongjun Yin, Fangyuan Xia, Gonzalo Giribet
Understanding the genealogical relationships among the arachnid orders is an onerous task, but fossils have aided in anchoring some branches of the arachnid tree of life. The discovery of Palaeozoic fossils with characters found in both extant spiders and other arachnids provided evidence for a series of extinctions of what was thought to be a grade, Uraraneida, that led to modern spiders. Here, we report two extraordinarily well-preserved Mesozoic members of Uraraneida with a segmented abdomen, multi-articulate spinnerets with well-defined spigots, modified male palps, spider-like chelicerae and a uropygid-like telson...
February 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"