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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918371/willems-method-of-dental-age-estimation-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
J S Sehrawat, Monika Singh
BACKGROUND: Age estimation from dental developmental stages is considered comparatively more accurate, reliable and precise than other methods used in forensic sciences. Willems method is the revised version of Demirjian method, based on modified dental maturity scores to estimate age of children in years for both the sexes. AIMS: To test the applicability and accuracy level of Willems method of dental age estimation in diverse population samples by quantifying the variations between the chronological and estimated ages of an individual...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913594/developmental-trajectory-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-a-systematic-review-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#2
Sónia S Sousa, Edson Amaro, Alberto Crego, Óscar F Gonçalves, Adriana Sampaio
Fluctuations in gray and white matter volumes in addition to the fibers' reorganization and refinement of synaptic connectivity apparently happen in a particular temporo-spatial sequence during the dynamic and prolonged process of cerebral maturation. These developmental events are associated with regional modifications of brain tissues and neural circuits, contributing to networks' specialization and enhanced cognitive processing. According to several studies, improvements in cognitive processes are possibly myelin-dependent and associated to white matter maturation...
September 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905163/data-sharing-mandates-developmental-science-and-responsibly-supporting-authors
#3
EDITORIAL
Roger J R Levesque
Data sharing has come of age. Long expected as a professional courtesy but rarely honored, data sharing is now highlighted in codes of ethics, supported by research communities, required by leading funding organizations, and variously encouraged and mandated by journals and even publishers. These developments reveal how sharing generates many benefits, all of which go to the integrity of the scientific process. Yet, sharing remains a complex phenomenon. This Editorial explains the journal's response to the publisher's mandate to establish an appropriate data sharing policy for the Journal of Youth and Adolescence...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899121/unconscious-fantasy-and-the-priming-phenomenon
#4
Anne Erreich
This paper is the third in a series of investigations into (1) the nature and development of unconscious fantasy, (2) its place in a contemporary model of mind that, parenthetically, suggests a possible solution to the problem of theoretical pluralism, and (3) its mode of operation in the mind. The aim of these investigations is to update the notion of unconscious fantasy, an indispensable construct in psychoanalytic theories that assume out-of-awareness mentation, and to situate that construct within contemporary views of mental functioning in disciplines such as philosophy of mind, cognitive science, and developmental psychology...
April 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898979/obesity-pathogenesis-an-endocrine-society-scientific-statement
#5
Michael W Schwartz, Randy J Seeley, Lori M Zeltser, Adam Drewnowski, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman, Rudolph L Leibel
Obesity is among the most common and costly chronic disorders worldwide. Estimates suggest that in the United States obesity affects one-third of adults, accounts for up to one-third of total mortality, is concentrated among lower income groups, and increasingly affects children as well as adults. A lack of effective options for long-term weight reduction magnifies the enormity of this problem; individuals who successfully complete behavioral and dietary weight-loss programs eventually regain most of the lost weight...
August 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889019/psychotraumatology-what-researchers-and-clinicians-can-learn-from-an-evolutionary-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Alfonso Troisi
This review outlines the contribution of evolutionary science to experimental and clinical psychotraumatology. From an evolutionary perspective, traumatic and psychosocial stressors are conceived of as events or circumstances that thwart the achievement of biological goals. The more important is the adaptive value of the goal, the more painful is the emotional impact of the life event that endangers goal achievement. Life history theory and sexual selection theory help to explain why goal priorities differ between the sexes and across age groups...
September 6, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879313/developmental-procedures-for-the-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-conscious-sedation-in-dentistry-for-the-korean-academy-of-dental-sciences
#7
So-Youn An, Kwang-Suk Seo, Seungoh Kim, Jongbin Kim, Deok-Won Lee, Kyung-Gyun Hwang, Hyun Jeong Kim
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are defined as "statements that are scientifically reviewed about evidence and systematically developed to assist in the doctors' and patients' decision making in certain clinical situations." This recommendation aims to promote good clinical practice for the provision of safe and effective practices of conscious sedation in dentistry. METHODS: The development of this clinical practice guideline was conducted by performing a systematic search of the literature for evidence-based CPGs...
December 2016: J Dent Anesth Pain Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874451/mendelism-new-insights-from-gregor-mendel-s-lectures-in-brno
#8
Hui Zhang, Wen Chen, Kun Sun
Interpretation of Gregor Mendel's work has previously been based on study of his published paper "Experiments in Plant Hybridization." In contrast, the lectures that he gave preceding publication of this work have been largely neglected for more than 150 years. Here, we report on and interpret the content of Mendel's previous two lectures, as they were reported in a local newspaper. We comprehensively reference both the text of his paper and the historical background of his experiments. Our analysis shows that while Mendel had inherited the traditional research program on interspecific hybridization in plants, he introduced the novel method of ratio analysis for representing the variation of unit-characters among offspring of hybrids...
September 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872668/efficacy-of-oral-pharmacological-treatments-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Riccardo Masson, Emanuela Pagliano, Giovanni Baranello
AIM: To evaluate the actual evidence of efficacy of oral pharmacological treatments in the management of dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: A systematic review was performed according to the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology. Articles were searched for in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Database of Reviews of Effectiveness, OTSeeker, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, REHABDATA, and ClinicalTrials...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870276/the-developing-world-of-dohad
#10
K Suzuki
Since its debut in a ground-breaking report by Barker and Osmond in 1986, the concept of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) has been further developed in several aspects. Its methodology and conclusions relating to proposed origins and outcomes of early life events have been developing and spreading internationally. Indeed, the DOHaD concept now seems to have influenced many fields of research. This article aims to briefly review why the DOHaD concept is important in biomedical science, how it has developed, is currently developing, and how it should develop in future...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869186/neural-noise-hypothesis-of-developmental-dyslexia-trends-in-cognitive-sciences-21-434-448-2017
#11
Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857790/critical-thoughts-about-the-core-entrustable-professional-activities-in-undergraduate-medical-education
#12
Edward Krupat
The Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency (Core EPAs) have taken a strong hold on undergraduate medical education (UME). This Perspective questions their value added and considers the utility of the Core EPAs along two separate dimensions: (1) the ways they change the content and focus of the goals of UME; and (2) the extent to which entrustable professional activity (EPA)-based assessment conforms to basic principles of measurement theory as practiced in the social sciences. Concerning content and focus, the author asks whether the 13 Core EPAs frame UME too narrowly, putting competencies into the background and overlooking certain aspirational, but important and measurable, objectives of UME...
August 29, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839929/why-an-extended-evolutionary-synthesis-is-necessary
#13
REVIEW
Gerd B Müller
Since the last major theoretical integration in evolutionary biology-the modern synthesis (MS) of the 1940s-the biosciences have made significant advances. The rise of molecular biology and evolutionary developmental biology, the recognition of ecological development, niche construction and multiple inheritance systems, the '-omics' revolution and the science of systems biology, among other developments, have provided a wealth of new knowledge about the factors responsible for evolutionary change. Some of these results are in agreement with the standard theory and others reveal different properties of the evolutionary process...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839923/why-developmental-niche-construction-is-not-selective-niche-construction-and-why-it-matters
#14
Karola Stotz
In the last decade, niche construction has been heralded as the neglected process in evolution. But niche construction is just one way in which the organism's interaction with and construction of the environment can have potential evolutionary significance. The constructed environment does not just select for, it also produces new variation. Nearly 3 decades ago, and in parallel with Odling-Smee's article 'Niche-constructing phenotypes', West and King introduced the 'ontogenetic niche' to give the phenomena of exogenetic inheritance a formal name...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838577/the-effect-of-physical-activity-interventions-on-children-s-cognition-and-metacognition-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and%C3%A2-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Celia Álvarez-Bueno, Caterina Pesce, Iván Cavero-Redondo, Mairena Sánchez-López, José Alberto Martínez-Hortelano, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
OBJECTIVE: The objective was twofold: to assess the effect of physical activity (PA) interventions on children's and adolescents' cognition and metacognition; and to determine the characteristics of individuals and PA programs that enhance the development of cognitive and metacognitive functions. METHOD: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases from their inception to October 16, 2016...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836680/basic-science-and-treatment-innovation
#16
EDITORIAL
Jonathan Green
The idea of trans-diagnostic and modular treatments highlighted in this Editorial points the way beyond self-contained 'branded' therapies to a more flexible intervention science responsive to advances in basic science and relevant also to personalisation of therapies. For such approaches to be rigorous, there need to be empirically identified trans-diagnostic target mechanisms. The Editorial reviews two studies of potential mechanisms of this kind in the developmental neurobiology of stress response in children at risk from prenatal maternal stress and post natal neglect and maltreatment...
September 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828547/placing-health-trajectories-in-family-and-historical-context-a-proposed-enrichment-of-the-life-course-health-and-development-model
#17
Marian Moser Jones, Kevin Roy
Purpose This article offers constructive commentary on The Life Course Health and Development Model (LCHD) as an organizing framework for MCH research. Description The LCHD has recently been proposed as an organizing framework for MCH research. This model integrates biomedical, biopsychosocial, and life course frameworks, to explain how "individual health trajectories" develop over time. In this article, we propose that the LCHD can improve its relevance to MCH policy and practice by: (1) placing individual health trajectories within the context of family health trajectories, which unfold within communities and societies, over historical and generational time; and (2) placing greater weight on the social determinants that shape health development trajectories of individuals and families to produce greater or lesser health equity...
August 21, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828483/global-prevalence-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-among-children-and-youth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Gerrit Gmel, Jürgen Rehm, Larry Burd, Svetlana Popova
Importance: Prevalence estimates are essential to effectively prioritize, plan, and deliver health care to high-needs populations such as children and youth with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, most countries do not have population-level prevalence data for FASD. Objective: To obtain prevalence estimates of FASD among children and youth in the general population by country, by World Health Organization (WHO) region, and globally. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, Education Resource Information Center, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, PsychINFO, and Scopus were systematically searched for studies published from November 1, 1973, through June 30, 2015, without geographic or language restrictions...
August 21, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814532/developmental-process-and-early-phases-of-implementation-for-the-us-interagency-committee-on-human-nutrition-research-national-nutrition-research-roadmap-2016-2021
#19
Sheila E Fleischhacker, Rachel M Ballard, Pamela E Starke-Reed, Deborah A Galuska, Marian L Neuhouser
The Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and communication among federal agencies engaged in nutrition research and with facilitating the development and updating of plans for federal research programs to meet current and future domestic and international needs for nutrition. The ICHNR is co-chaired by the USDA Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics and Chief Scientist and the US Department of Health and Human Services Assistant Secretary for Health and is made up of >10 departments and agencies...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813259/alternatives-for-abandoned-children-insights-from-the-bucharest-early-intervention-project
#20
REVIEW
Charles H Zeanah, Kathryn L Humphreys, Nathan A Fox, Charles A Nelson
The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is the first and only randomized controlled trial of foster care as an alternative to institutional care for orphaned and abandoned children. Across various domains of brain and behavioral development we demonstrated that children in families developed more favorably than children in institutions, that foster care remediates some but not all compromises associated with institutional placement and that earlier placement in foster care leads to more developmental gains in some but not all domains...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
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