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Karim Asehnoune, Mickael Vourc'h, Antoine Roquilly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postoperative complications are major healthcare problems and are associated with a reduced short-term and long-term survival. Major surgery is associated with a predictable and usually transient systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), depending on the magnitude of the surgical trauma. An excessive SIRS syndrome participates to the development of postoperative organ dysfunction, infection and mortality. Corticosteroids may decrease the postsurgical SIRS. This review aims to discuss recent findings on the use of corticosteroids in major surgery...
September 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Anna Sutherland, Katrien Naessens, Emma Plugge, Lynda Ware, Karen Head, Martin J Burton, Bee Wee
BACKGROUND: Olanzapine as an antiemetic represents a new use of an antipsychotic drug. People with cancer may experience nausea and vomiting whilst receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or whilst in the palliative phase of illness. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of olanzapine when used as an antiemetic in the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting related to cancer in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase for published data on 20th September 2017, as well as ClinicalTrials...
September 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Fuminori Taniguchi, Ikuko Ota, Yumiko Iba, Toshiko Toda, Yukiko Tagashira, Yorie Ohata, Hiroko Kurioka, Yusuke Endo, Hiroshi Sunada, Hisashi Noma, Yukihiro Azuma, Tasuku Harada
AIMS: Dydrogesterone is a retro-progesterone preparation widely used for over a half century. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dydrogesterone in Japanese women with dysmenorrhea. METHODS: This study was conducted as an open-label, single-arm, multicenter study. One dydrogesterone 5-mg tablet (Duphaston) was administered orally twice daily for 21 days from the 5th to 25th day of each menstrual cycle. A total of 44 (safety analysis) and 31 patients (efficacy analysis) were enrolled...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Kirill Pavlov, Parweez Koehestanie, Jaap J Beutler, Tessa E H Römkens, Ellen K Hoogeveen, Loes H C Nissen
This case report describes a young, immunocompromised patient who presented with thoracic pain. After an extensive workup, she was diagnosed with a varicella zoster virus infection with involvement of the gastric mucosa, pancreas and lungs for which she was treated with acyclovir. Although the viral load decreased significantly, the patient had persistent postherpetic neuralgia and nausea.
October 2018: Frontline Gastroenterology
Ivana Bušelić, Željka Trumbić, Jerko Hrabar, Anamarija Vrbatović, Ivana Bočina, Ivona Mladineo
Background: Anisakiasis is a zoonotic disease caused by accidental ingestion of live Anisakis spp. third-stage larvae present in raw or undercooked seafood. Symptoms of this emerging infectious disease include mild-to-severe abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. Some patients experience significant allergic reactions. Aims: In order to better understand the onset of anisakiasis, we aimed to: (i) histopathologically describe severe inflammatory/hemorrhagic infection site lesions in Sprague-Dawley rats experimentally infected with Anisakis pegreffii larvae; and (ii) qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the transcriptomes of affected tissues using RNA-Seq...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jan Tack, Michael Camilleri
Functional dyspepsia (FD) and gastroparesis are frequent causes of upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain or burning, upper abdominal bloating, bothersome belching, nausea and vomiting. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are heterogeneous and involved mechanisms such as abnormal gastric motility (accommodation, emptying), visceral hypersensitivity, low grade mucosal inflammation and cellular changes in enteric nerves, muscle or interstitial cells of Cajal...
September 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Julia R Amundson, David Straus, Basem Azab, Sandy Liu, Monica T Garcia Buitrago, Danny Yakoub
INTRODUCTION: Lipomas are uncommon tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; gastric lipomas account for <1% of all gastric tumors encountered (Nickloes and Sutphin [1]). Giant gastric lipomas, defined as ≥10 cm, are exceedingly rare with only 6 cases reported since 1980 (Cappell et al., Termos et al., Singh et al., Ramaraj et al., Rao et al., Priyadarshi et al., Neto et al. [3-9]). We hereby present a case of a giant gastric lipoma that became symptomatic seven years after its initial identification and was excised preserving gastric continuity...
September 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Stephen E Daniels, Hartley C Atkinson, Ioana Stanescu, Chris Frampton
PURPOSE: Acute pain is a significant burden to the individual and to society. There is a clear need for a pain medication that provides improved analgesia over common analgesics, without compromising tolerability. The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of a new fixed-dose combination of acetaminophen 975 mg and ibuprofen 292.5 mg (FDC 975/292.5) relative to acetaminophen or ibuprofen monotherapy, or placebo. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III trial included 408 adult volunteers aged 18 to 60 years experiencing moderate to severe pain after surgical removal of at least 2 impacted third molars...
September 20, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Gisela Chelimsky, Thomas Chelimsky
Orthostatic intolerance, including postural tachycardia syndrome, is often associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. In the vast majority of the cases, the gastrointestinal symptoms are not secondary to the orthostatic disorder, but rather just a comorbid condition. This concept is critical, since treatment aimed at the orthostatic condition will not improve the gastrointestinal symptoms. Only when the gastrointestinal symptoms develop in the upright position and improve or resolve in the supine position, they may be related to the orthostatic stress...
September 8, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
D Sánchez-Fabra, R Marinas Sanz, E Tarí Ferrer, A Gracia Gutiérrez, S López Garrido, M Morando Pérez, B Amores Arriaga, J Cebollada Del Hoyo
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of hypertensive urgencies at the emergency department, as well as the variables associated with early re-admission (<7 days) and re-admission at one month (<30 days). METHODS: We conducted a descriptive, retrospective study of all patients who were admitted to the emergency department of a third level hospital during 2013. Subsequently, a case-control analysis was performed to analyze the group of patients with readmission...
September 20, 2018: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
Teresa K L Boitano, Haller J Smith, Tullia Rushton, Mary C Johnston, Prentiss Lawson, Charles A Leath, Anisa Xhaja, Meredith P Guthrie, J Michael Straughn
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) on postoperative gastrointestinal function in gynecologic oncology patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared gynecology oncology patients undergoing non-emergent laparotomy from 10/2016 to 6/2017 managed on an ERAS protocol to a control cohort from the year prior to ERAS implementation. Major changes to postoperative care after ERAS implementation included multimodal analgesia, early feeding, goal-directed fluid resuscitation, and early ambulation...
September 20, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Pauliina Ellilä, Linda Laitinen, Miina Nurmi, Päivi Rautava, Mari Koivisto, Päivi Polo-Kantola
OBJECTIVES: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is frequent, affecting up to 70-85% of pregnant women. However, severity of NVP especially in clinical practice is often uncertainly assessed and thus both under- and overdiagnosing is probable. Furthermore, risk factors for NVP, although recognized, are not well established. The aim of our study was to evaluate the severity of NVP with a structured questionnaire and evaluate associative risk factors. STUDY DESIGN: Sample of 2411 women were recruited from maternity health care clinics...
September 14, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Alaa A M Osman, Moawia M A Elhassan, Blala H A AbdElrahim, Fatima H A Ahmed, Jihad B H Yousif, Malak A M Ahmed, Romisa H A Abdelhafeez, Umsalama M Y Ahmed
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a distressing adverse effect. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1RA)-containing regimens are the standard regimens for CINV prophylaxis in patients with cancer receiving highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC). NK1RA agents are expensive and were not registered in Sudan. Recently, regimens containing olanzapine, the available and affordable medication in Sudan, were introduced as another option. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of an olanzapine-containing regimen with the antiemetic regimen that was currently used in our institute for CINV prophylaxis in HEC/MEC settings...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Michael W Bishop, Shailesh M Advani, Milena Villarroel, Catherine A Billups, Fariba Navid, Cecilia Rivera, Juan A Quintana, Jami S Gattuso, Pamela S Hinds, Najat C Daw
PURPOSE: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) improves throughout treatment of patients with nonmetastatic osteosarcoma. We compared HRQOL for patients in the United States and Chile treated on an international trial (OS99) with polychemotherapy and surgery, and we assessed the relationships among HRQOL measures, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed, localized osteosarcoma and their parents completed three HRQOL instruments (PedsQL v...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
R Douglas Wilson, Aaron B Caughey, Stephen L Wood, George A Macones, Ian J Wrench, Jeffrey Huang, Mikael Norman, Karin Pettersson, William J Fawcett, Medhat M Shalabi, Amy Metcalfe, Leah Gramlich, Gregg Nelson
OBJECTIVE: This ERAS Guideline for perioperative care in Cesarean Delivery (CD) will provide best practice, evidenced-based, recommendations for pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative phases with primarily, a maternal focus. The 'focused' pathway process for scheduled and unscheduled CD, for this ERAS CD guideline will consider, from 'decision to operate (starting with the 30 - 60 minutes prior to skin incision) to hospital discharge'. METHODS: The literature search (1966-2017) used Embase and PubMed to search medical subject headings including "Cesarean Section", "Cesarean Section", "Cesarean Section Delivery" and all pre- and intra-operative ERAS® items...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Cristina Cruz, Alba Llop-Guevara, Judy E Garber, Banu K Arun, José A Pérez Fidalgo, Ana Lluch, Melinda L Telli, Cristian Fernández, Carmen Kahatt, Carlos M Galmarini, Arturo Soto-Matos, Vicente Alfaro, Aitor Pérez de la Haza, Susan M Domchek, Silvia Antolin, Linda Vahdat, Nadine M Tung, Rafael Lopez, Joaquín Arribas, Ana Vivancos, José Baselga, Violeta Serra, Judith Balmaña, Steven J Isakoff
PURPOSE: This multicenter phase II trial evaluated lurbinectedin (PM01183), a selective inhibitor of active transcription of protein-coding genes, in patients with metastatic breast cancer. A unicenter translational substudy assessed potential mechanisms of lurbinectedin resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two arms were evaluated according to germline BRCA1/2 status: BRCA1/2 mutated (arm A; n = 54) and unselected ( BRCA1/2 wild-type or unknown status; arm B; n = 35)...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Tonje A Sande, Barry J A Laird, Marie T Fallon
BACKGROUND: Opioids are the foundation of treatment for cancer pain but can cause side-effects, one of the most common being nausea and vomiting, which can impair quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence for the management of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. This systematic review was undertaken as part of an update of the European Association for Palliative Care's opioid guidelines. DESIGN: Searches of MEDLINE (1966-2017) and EMBASE (1980-2017) were done...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Linda Fiaschi, Gemma Housley, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Jack Gibson, Ayokunnu Raji, Shilpa Deb, Laila J Tata
AIMS: Prescribing drug treatment for the management of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), the most severe form of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, remains controversial. Since most manufacturers do not recommend prescribing antiemetics during pregnancy, little is known regarding which treatments are most prevalent among pregnant patients. Here, we report for the first time, evidence of actual treatments prescribed in English hospitals. METHODS: A retrospective pregnancy cohort was constructed using anonymised electronic records in the Nottingham University Hospitals Trust system for all women who delivered between January 2010 and February 2015...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Martina Führer, Clemens Dejaco, Brigitte Kopp, Johann Hammer
BACKGROUND: TRPA1 is an excitatory ion channel and is involved in sensory processes including thermal nociception and inflammatory pain. The allicin in garlic is a strong activator of the TRPA1 channel. AIM: To evaluate the effect of intragastric garlic powder containing allicin on perception, gastric tone, and mechanosensitivity. METHODS: An infusion-barostat balloon assembly was used for infusion of test solutions, for distension, and to measure proximal gastric compliance and tone...
September 21, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Hongyi Li, Xianbiao Xie, Junqiang Yin, Jian Tu, Xiaoshuai Wang, Weihai Liu, Jiajun Zhang, Hongbo Li, Changye Zou, Yongqian Wang, Jingnan Shen, Gang Huang
Background: The treatment algorithm for solitary bone lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (SBL-LCH) in children extremities still remains controversial. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to compare the feasibility of low-dose chemotherapy (LDC) and surgery for SBL-LCH in children extremities. Patients and methods: This study compares 43 pediatric patients starting LDC with a surgery control group (n = 44), matched for gender, age, follow-up time, and lesion sites and sizes, treated between 2001 and 2015 at our institution...
September 2018: Journal of Bone Oncology
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