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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527946/the-microbiome-and-hepatobiliary-pancreatic-cancers
#1
Kosuke Mima, Shigeki Nakagawa, Hiroshi Sawayama, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Katsunori Imai, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Daisuke Hashimoto, Yoshifumi Baba, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Akira Chikamoto, Hideo Baba
The human intestinal microbiome encompasses at least 100 trillion microorganisms that can influence host immunity and disease conditions, including cancer. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancers have been associated with poor prognosis owing to their high level of tumor invasiveness, distant metastasis, and resistance to conventional treatment options, such as chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence from animal models suggests that specific microbes and microbial dysbiosis can potentiate hepatobiliary-pancreatic tumor development by damaging DNA, activating oncogenic signaling pathways, and producing tumor-promoting metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526852/health-benefit-of-vegetable-fruit-juice-based-diet-role-of-microbiome
#2
Susanne M Henning, Jieping Yang, Paul Shao, Ru-Po Lee, Jianjun Huang, Austin Ly, Mark Hsu, Qing-Yi Lu, Gail Thames, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
The gut microbiota is an important contributor to human health. Vegetable/fruit juices provide polyphenols, oligosaccharides, fiber and nitrate (beet juice), which may induce a prebiotic-like effect. Juice-based diets are becoming popular. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence of their health benefits. It was our hypothesis that changes in the intestinal microbiota induced by a juice-based diet play an important role in their health benefits. Twenty healthy adults consumed only vegetable/fruit juices for 3 days followed by 14 days of customary diet...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513546/edible-plants-and-their-influence-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-acne
#4
REVIEW
Ashley K Clark, Kelly N Haas, Raja K Sivamani
Acne vulgaris affects most people at some point in their lives. Due to unclear etiology, likely with multiple factors, targeted and low-risk treatments have yet to be developed. In this review, we explore the multiple causes of acne and how plant-based foods and supplements can control these. The proposed causative factors include insulin resistance, sex hormone imbalances, inflammation and microbial dysbiosis. There is an emerging body of work on the human gut microbiome and how it mediates feedback between the foods we eat and our bodies...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507982/the-role-of-carrageenan-and-carboxymethylcellulose-in-the-development-of-intestinal-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
John Vincent Martino, Johan Van Limbergen, Leah E Cahill
Although the exact pathophysiology remains unknown, the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is influenced by the interplay between genetics, the immune system, and environmental factors such as diet. The commonly used food additives, carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), are used to develop intestinal inflammation in animal models. These food additives are excluded from current dietary approaches to induce disease remission in Crohn's disease such as exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) using a polymeric formula...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504277/role-of-dietary-onion-in-modifying-the-faecal-bile-acid-content-in-rats-fed-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#6
Diana González-Peña, Lucía Giménez, Begoña de Ancos, Concepción Sánchez-Moreno
The determination of faecal bile patterns offers new opportunities in the search for non-invasive biomarkers of disease status. The objective of this study was to describe the shifts in faecal bile acid (BA) composition induced by feeding a high-cholesterol/cholic acid diet (HC) over 7 weeks of experimental feeding in Wistar rats, and to evaluate the effect of onion included as a functional ingredient (HCO). A HPLC-MS/MS method allowed the detection of 29 bile acids, 10 of which were tentatively identified and 12 confirmed and quantified by means of standards and calibration curves...
May 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503170/drosophila-melanogaster-as-a-high-throughput-model-for-host-microbiota-interactions
#7
Mark Trinder, Brendan A Daisley, Josh S Dube, Gregor Reid
Microbiota research often assumes that differences in abundance and identity of microorganisms have unique influences on host physiology. To test this concept mechanistically, germ-free mice are colonized with microbial communities to assess causation. Due to the cost, infrastructure challenges, and time-consuming nature of germ-free mouse models, an alternative approach is needed to investigate host-microbial interactions. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) can be used as a high throughput in vivo screening model of host-microbiome interactions as they are affordable, convenient, and replicable...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502120/gut-microbial-communities-of-american-pikas-ochotona-princeps-evidence-for-phylosymbiosis-and-adaptations-to-novel-diets
#8
Kevin D Kohl, Johanna Varner, Jennifer L Wilkening, M Denise Dearing
1.Gut microbial communities provide many physiological functions to their hosts, especially in herbivorous animals. We still lack an understanding of how these microbial communities are structured across hosts in nature, especially within a given host species. Studies on laboratory mice have demonstrated that host genetics can influence microbial community structure, but that diet can overwhelm these genetic effects. 2.We aimed to test these ideas in a natural system, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). First, pikas are high elevation specialists with significant population structure across various mountain ranges in the USA, allowing us to investigate whether similarities in microbial communities match host genetic differences...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498878/the-malleable-gut-microbiome-of-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-diet-dependent-shifts-of-bacterial-community-structures
#9
Stéphanie Céline Michl, Jenni-Marie Ratten, Matt Beyer, Mario Hasler, Julie LaRoche, Carsten Schulz
Plant-derived protein sources are the most relevant substitutes for fishmeal in aquafeeds. Nevertheless, the effects of plant based diets on the intestinal microbiome especially of juvenile Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are yet to be fully investigated. The present study demonstrates, based on 16S rDNA bacterial community profiling, that the intestinal microbiome of juvenile Rainbow trout is strongly affected by dietary plant protein inclusion levels. After first feeding of juveniles with either 0%, 50% or 97% of total dietary protein content derived from plants, statistically significant differences of the bacterial gut community for the three diet-types were detected, both at phylum and order level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497760/the-intestinal-microbiome-and-paediatric-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Daniel H Leung, Dean Yimlamai
The intestinal microbiome has been the intense focus of recent study, but how the microbiota affects connected organs, such as the liver, has not been fully elucidated. The microbiome regulates intestinal permeability and helps to metabolise the human diet into small molecules, thus directly affecting liver health. Several studies have linked intestinal dysbiosis to the severity and progression of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, total parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, and cystic fibrosis-associated liver disease...
June 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493980/characterization-of-the-juvenile-green-turtle-chelonia-mydas-microbiome-throughout-an-ontogenetic-shift-from-pelagic-to-neritic-habitats
#11
James T Price, Frank V Paladino, Margaret M Lamont, Blair E Witherington, Scott T Bates, Tanya Soule
The gut microbiome of herbivorous animals consists of organisms that efficiently digest the structural carbohydrates of ingested plant material. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) provide an interesting model of change in these microbial communities because they undergo a pronounced shift from a surface-pelagic distribution and omnivorous diet to a neritic distribution and herbivorous diet. As an alternative to direct sampling of the gut, we investigated the cloacal microbiomes of juvenile green turtles before and after recruitment to neritic waters to observe any changes in their microbial community structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480145/insights-of-the-dental-calculi-microbiome-of-pre-columbian-inhabitants-from-puerto-rico
#12
Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez, Yvonne Narganes-Storde, Luis Chanlatte-Baik, Gary A Toranzos, Raul J Cano
BACKGROUND: The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we investigated the dental calculi microbiome and predicted function of one of these cultures, known as the Saladoid. The Saladoids were horticulturalists that emphasized root-crop production...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476139/optimizing-methods-and-dodging-pitfalls-in-microbiome-research
#13
REVIEW
Dorothy Kim, Casey E Hofstaedter, Chunyu Zhao, Lisa Mattei, Ceylan Tanes, Erik Clarke, Abigail Lauder, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Christel Chehoud, Judith Kelsen, Máire Conrad, Ronald G Collman, Robert Baldassano, Frederic D Bushman, Kyle Bittinger
Research on the human microbiome has yielded numerous insights into health and disease, but also has resulted in a wealth of experimental artifacts. Here, we present suggestions for optimizing experimental design and avoiding known pitfalls, organized in the typical order in which studies are carried out. We first review best practices in experimental design and introduce common confounders such as age, diet, antibiotic use, pet ownership, longitudinal instability, and microbial sharing during cohousing in animal studies...
May 5, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475713/tcdd-influences-reservoir-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-murine-gut-microbiome
#14
Robert D Stedtfeld, Tiffany M Stedtfeld, Kelly A Fader, Maggie R Williams, Prianca Bhaduri, John Quensen, Timothy R Zacharewski, James M Tiedje, Syed A Hashsham
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome via antibiotics, changes in diet, and infection can select for bacterial groups that more frequently harbor antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). However, the impact of environmental toxicants on the reservoir of ARGs in the gut microbiome has received less attention. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist with multiple toxic health effects including immune dysfunction. The selective pressure of TCDD on the abundance of ARG and MGE harboring gut populations was examined using C57BL/6 mice exposed to 0-30 μg/kg TCDD for 28 and 92 days with the latter having a 30-day recovery period...
May 4, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473973/salivary-diagnostics-in-pediatrics-applicability-translatability-and-limitations
#15
REVIEW
Mona Hassaneen, Jill L Maron
In the last decade, technological advances, combined with an improved appreciation of the ability of saliva to inform caregivers about both oral health and systemic disease, have led to the emergence of salivary diagnostic platforms. However, the majority of these assays have targeted diseases that more commonly affect the adult population, largely neglecting infants and children who arguably could benefit the most from non-invasive assessment tools for health monitoring. Gaining access into development, infection, and disease through comprehensive "omic" analyses of saliva could significantly improve care and enhance health access...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468301/the-impact-of-exclusive-enteral-nutrition-een-on-the-gut-microbiome-in-crohn-s-disease-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Amber MacLellan, Jessica Moore-Connors, Shannan Grant, Leah Cahill, Morgan G I Langille, Johan Van Limbergen
Crohn's disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is thought to arise from a complex interaction of genetics, the gut microbiome, and environmental factors, such as diet. There is clear evidence that dietary intervention is successful in the treatment of CD-exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is able to induce remission in up to 80% of CD patients. While the mechanism of action of EEN is not clear, EEN is known to cause profound changes in the gut microbiome. Understanding how EEN modifies the gut microbiome to induce remission could provide insight into CD etiopathogenesis and aid the development of microbiome-targeted interventions to guide ongoing dietary therapy to sustain remission...
May 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468010/nutrition-and-liver-health
#17
Alan A Jackson
Good clinical practice is based on a secure and accurate diagnosis. Poor nutrition is frequently associated with disorders of the liver, and a specific nutrition diagnosis is needed for providing best care and experiencing successful outcome. There is opportunity for better-structured approaches to making secure and consistent nutritional diagnoses in patients with liver disease. Nutrition is the set of integrated processes by which cells, tissues, organs and the whole body acquire the energy and nutrients to retain normal structure and perform the required functions...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462738/models-of-antimicrobial-pressure-on-intestinal-bacteria-of-the-treated-host-populations
#18
V V Volkova, C L Cazer, Y T Gröhn
Antimicrobial drugs are used to treat pathogenic bacterial infections in animals and humans. The by-stander enteric bacteria of the treated host's intestine can become exposed to the drug or its metabolites reaching the intestine in antimicrobially active form. We consider which processes and variables need to be accounted for to project the antimicrobial concentrations in the host's intestine. Those include: the drug's fraction (inclusive of any active metabolites) excreted in bile; the drug's fractions and intestinal segments of excretion via other mechanisms; the rates and intestinal segments of the drug's absorption and re-absorption; the rates and intestinal segments of the drug's abiotic and biotic degradation in the intestine; the digesta passage time through the intestinal segments; the rates, mechanisms, and reversibility of the drug's sorption to the digesta and enteric microbiome; and the volume of luminal contents in the intestinal segments...
May 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460795/obesity-and-associated-comorbidities-in-people-and-companion-animals-a-one-health-perspective
#19
REVIEW
M Chandler, S Cunningham, E M Lund, C Khanna, R Naramore, A Patel, M J Day
This article reviews the biology, prevalence and risks for obesity in people and companion dogs and cats, and explores the links between obesity and diabetes mellitus and cancer across these species. Obesity is a major healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine and there is an increasing prevalence of obesity in people and pets. In people and animals, obesity is a complex disorder involving diet, level of physical activity, behavioural factors, socioeconomic factors, environment exposures, genetics, metabolism and the microbiome...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455495/repeated-inoculation-of-cattle-rumen-with-bison-rumen-contents-alters-the-rumen-microbiome-and-improves-nitrogen-digestibility-in-cattle
#20
Gabriel O Ribeiro, Daniela B Oss, Zhixiong He, Robert J Gruninger, Chijioke Elekwachi, Robert J Forster, WenZhu Yang, Karen A Beauchemin, Tim A McAllister
Future growth in demand for meat and milk, and the socioeconomic and environmental challenges that farmers face, represent a "grand challenge for humanity". Improving the digestibility of crop residues such as straw could enhance the sustainability of ruminant production systems. Here, we investigated if transfer of rumen contents from bison to cattle could alter the rumen microbiome and enhance total tract digestibility of a barley straw-based diet. Beef heifers were adapted to the diet for 28 days prior to the experiment...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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