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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230215/potential-effects-of-horizontal-gene-exchange-in-the-human-gut
#1
Aaron Lerner, Torsten Matthias, Rustam Aminov
Many essential functions of the human body are dependent on the symbiotic microbiota, which is present at especially high numbers and diversity in the gut. This intricate host-microbe relationship is a result of the long-term coevolution between the two. While the inheritance of mutational changes in the host evolution is almost exclusively vertical, the main mechanism of bacterial evolution is horizontal gene exchange. The gut conditions, with stable temperature, continuous food supply, constant physicochemical conditions, extremely high concentration of microbial cells and phages, and plenty of opportunities for conjugation on the surfaces of food particles and host tissues, represent one of the most favorable ecological niches for horizontal gene exchange...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228991/the-rumen-microbiome-as-a-reservoir-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-pathogenicity-genes-is-directly-affected-by-diet-in-beef-cattle
#2
Marc D Auffret, Richard J Dewhurst, Carol-Anne Duthie, John A Rooke, R John Wallace, Tom C Freeman, Robert Stewart, Mick Watson, Rainer Roehe
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is the most urgent current threat to human and animal health. An improved understanding of the abundance of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes associated with microbial colonisation and pathogenicity in the animal gut will have a major role in reducing the contribution of animal production to this problem. Here, the influence of diet on the ruminal resistome and abundance of pathogenicity genes was assessed in ruminal digesta samples taken from 50 antibiotic-free beef cattle, comprising four cattle breeds receiving two diets containing different proportions of concentrate...
December 11, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225968/metabolic-differences-between-dogs-of-different-body-sizes
#3
Rondo P Middleton, Sebastien Lacroix, Marie-Pier Scott-Boyer, Nikola Dordevic, Adam D Kennedy, Amanda R Slusky, Jerome Carayol, Christina Petzinger-Germain, Alison Beloshapka, Jim Kaput
Introduction: The domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris, has been selectively bred to produce extreme diversity in phenotype and genotype. Dogs have an immense diversity in weight and height. Specific differences in metabolism have not been characterized in small dogs as compared to larger dogs. Objectives: This study aims to identify metabolic, clinical, and microbiota differences between small and larger dogs. Methods: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, clinical chemistry analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 16S pyrosequencing were used to characterize blood metabolic, clinical, and fecal microbiome systems, respectively...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224799/editorial-overview-gastrointestinal-new-frontiers-in-therapeutics-for-gi-diseases-and-disorders-from-micrornas-to-novel-pharmaceutics-to-low-fodmap-diets-and-microbiome
#4
EDITORIAL
Fievos L Christofi, Adil E Bharucha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224093/sex-effects-at-the-ramparts-nutrient-and-microbe-mediated-regulation-of-the-immune-metabolic-interface
#5
Nyrie Israelian, Jayne S Danska
The relationships between dietary compounds, derivative metabolites, and host metabolism and immunity are controlled by diverse molecular mechanisms. Essential contributions to these dynamics come from the community of microbes (the microbiome) inhabiting the human digestive tract. The composition and function of the microbiome are shaped by available nutrients, and reciprocally, these organisms produce an as yet poorly defined repertoire of molecules that communicate with the epithelial barrier and the mucosal immune system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223827/colonic-aberrant-crypt-formation-accompanies-an-increase-of-opportunistic-pathogenic-bacteria-in-c57bl-6-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#6
Huawei Zeng, Suzanne L Ishaq, Zhenhua Liu, Michael R Bukowski
The increasing worldwide incidence of colon cancer has been linked to obesity and consumption of a high-fat Western diet. To test the hypothesis that a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes colonic aberrant crypt (AC) formation in a manner associated with gut bacterial dysbiosis, we examined the susceptibility to azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic AC and microbiome composition in C57/BL6 mice fed a modified AIN93G diet (AIN, 16% fat, energy) or an HFD (45% fat, energy) for 14 weeks. Mice receiving the HFD exhibited increased plasma leptin, body weight, body fat composition and inflammatory cell infiltration in the ileum compared with those in the AIN group...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223004/towards-utilization-of-the-human-genome-and-microbiome-for-personalized-nutrition
#7
REVIEW
Stavros Bashiardes, Anastasia Godneva, Eran Elinav, Eran Segal
Generalized dietary and lifestyle guidelines have been formulated and published for decades now from a variety of relevant agencies in an attempt to guide people towards healthy choices. As the pandemic rise in metabolic diseases continues to increase, it has become clear that the one-fit-for-all diet approach does not work and that there is a significant variation in inter-individual responses to diet and lifestyle interventions. Recent technological advances have given an unprecedented insight into the sources of this variation, pointing towards our genome and microbiome as potentially and previously under-explored culprits contributing to individually unique dietary responses...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221800/gut-microbiome-and-antibiotics
#8
REVIEW
Tadasu Iizumi, Thomas Battaglia, Victoria Ruiz, Guillermo I Perez Perez
Despite that the human gastrointestinal tract is the most populated ecological niche by bacteria in the human body, much is still unknown about its characteristics. This site is highly susceptible to the effects of many external factors that may affect in the quality and the quantity of the microbiome. Specific factors such as diet, personal hygiene, pharmacological drugs and the use of antibiotics can produce a significant impact on the gut microbiota. The effect of these factors is more relevant early in life, when the gut microbiota has not yet fully established...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216634/lysine-restriction-affects-feed-intake-and-amino-acid-metabolism-via-gut-microbiome-in-piglets
#9
Jie Yin, Hui Han, Yuying Li, Zhaojin Liu, Yurong Zhao, Rejun Fang, Xingguo Huang, Jie Zheng, Wenkai Ren, Fei Wu, Gang Liu, Xin Wu, Kai Wang, Liping Sun, Chunyong Li, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our previous reports suggested that dietary supplementation with lysine influenced intestinal absorption and metabolism of amino acids. In this study, we further investigated the effect of lysine restriction (30%) on feed intake and we also tested the hypothesis that gut microbiome contributed to the potential mechanism of lysine restriction-mediated feeding behavior. Here, we profiled gut microbial communities by sequencing 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes from gut samples as well as growth performance, serum hormones, and intestinal lysine transport in a piglet model...
December 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214107/diet-and-rosacea-the-role-of-dietary-change-in-the-management-of-rosacea
#10
REVIEW
Emma Weiss, Rajani Katta
Dietary change may play a role in the therapy of rosacea. Certain foods and beverages may act as "triggers" for rosacea exacerbations. These may be divided into heat-related, alcohol-related, capsaicin-related, and cinnamaldehyde-related. One potential pathogenic mechanism may be via the activation of transient receptor potential cation channels, which result in neurogenic vasodilatation. Further research is needed on the role of the gut skin connection in rosacea. Epidemiologic studies suggest that patients with rosacea have a higher prevalence of gastrointestinal disease, and one study reported improvement in rosacea following successful treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth...
October 2017: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212730/hierarchical-social-networks-shape-gut-microbial-composition-in-wild-verreaux-s-sifaka
#11
Amanda C Perofsky, Rebecca J Lewis, Laura A Abondano, Anthony Di Fiore, Lauren Ancel Meyers
In wild primates, social behaviour influences exposure to environmentally acquired and directly transmitted microorganisms. Prior studies indicate that gut microbiota reflect pairwise social interactions among chimpanzee and baboon hosts. Here, we demonstrate that higher-order social network structure-beyond just pairwise interactions-drives gut bacterial composition in wild lemurs, which live in smaller and more cohesive groups than previously studied anthropoid species. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and social network analysis of grooming contacts, we estimate the relative impacts of hierarchical (i...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209439/comparative-study-of-probiotic-effects-of-lactobacillus-and-bifidobacteria-strains-on-cholesterol-levels-liver-morphology-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-obese-mice
#12
Rostyslav V Bubnov, Lidiia P Babenko, Liudmyla M Lazarenko, Viktoria V Mokrozub, Oleksandr A Demchenko, Oleksiy V Nechypurenko, Mykola Ya Spivak
Background: Microbiome-modulating interventions are promising for treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome. The number of probiotic strains demonstrated ability to decrease cholesterol level in vivo, however, it was poorly confirmed in a clinical setting. The aim was to study the effects of L. acidophilus IMV B-7279, L. casei IMV B-7280, B. animalіs VKL and B. animalіs VKB separately and in various compositions on the level of serum cholesterol, gut microbiota contents and liver morphology on a high-calorie-induced obesity model in BALB/c mice...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202198/adverse-effects-of-gluten-ingestion-and-advantages-of-gluten-withdrawal-in-nonceliac-autoimmune-disease
#13
Aaron Lerner, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Torsten Matthias
In light of the coincident surge in overall gluten intake and the incidence of autoimmune diseases, the possible biological adverse effects of gluten were explored. PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library databases were screened for reports published between 1964 and 2016 regarding the adverse effects of gluten as well as the effects of a gluten-free diet on autoimmune diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies describing gluten intake in animal models or cell lines and gluten-free diets in human autoimmune diseases were reviewed...
November 30, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200959/polyphenols-and-health-interactions-between-fibre-plant-polyphenols-and-the-gut-microbiota
#14
C A Edwards, J Havlik, W Cong, W Mullen, T Preston, D J Morrison, E Combet
A high-fibre diet and one rich in fruit and vegetables have long been associated with lower risk of chronic disease. There are several possible mechanisms underpinning these associations, but one likely important factor is the production of bioactive molecules from plant-based foods by the bacteria in the colon. This links to our growing understanding of the role of the gut microbiome in promoting health. Polyphenolic-rich plant foods have been associated with potential health effects in many studies, but the bioavailability of polyphenol compounds, as eaten, is often very low...
December 2017: Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195678/the-interaction-between-smoking-alcohol-and-the-gut-microbiome
#15
REVIEW
Gabriele Capurso, Edith Lahner
The gastrointestinal microbiome is a complex echosystem that establishes a symbiotic, mutually beneficial relation with the host, being rather stable in health, but affected by age, drugs, diet, alcohol, and smoking. Alcohol and smoking contribute to changes in the stomach and affect H pylori-related disorders including the risk of gastric cancer. In the small intestine and in the colon alcohol causes depletion of bacteria with anti-inflammatory activity, eventually resulting in intestinal damage with "leaky gut"...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188341/a-review-of-metabolic-potential-of-human-gut-microbiome-in-human-nutrition
#16
REVIEW
Monika Yadav, Manoj Kumar Verma, Nar Singh Chauhan
The human gut contains a plethora of microbes, providing a platform for metabolic interaction between the host and microbiota. Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota act as a link between gut microbiota and its host. These metabolites act as messengers having the capacity to alter the gut microbiota. Recent advances in the characterization of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic relationship with the host have provided a platform to decode metabolic interactions. The human gut microbiota, a crucial component for dietary metabolism, is shaped by the genetic, epigenetic and dietary factors...
November 29, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188302/bamboo-specialists-from-two-mammalian-orders-primates-carnivora-share-a-high-number-of-low-abundance-gut-microbes
#17
Erin A McKenney, Michael Maslanka, Allen Rodrigo, Anne D Yoder
Bamboo specialization is one of the most extreme examples of convergent herbivory, yet it is unclear how this specific high-fiber diet might selectively shape the composition of the gut microbiome compared to host phylogeny. To address these questions, we used deep sequencing to investigate the nature and comparative impact of phylogenetic and dietary selection for specific gut microbial membership in three bamboo specialists-the bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus, Primates: Lemuridae), giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Carnivora: Ursidae), and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, Carnivora: Musteloideadae), as well as two phylogenetic controls-the ringtail lemur (Lemur catta) and the Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus)...
November 29, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182421/feeding-strategy-shapes-gut-metagenomic-enrichment-and-functional-specialization-in-captive-lemurs
#18
E A McKenney, Thomas M O'Connell, Allen Rodrigo, Anne D Yoder
Many studies have demonstrated the effects of host diet on gut microbial membership, metagenomics, and fermentation individually; but few have attempted to interpret the relationship among these biological phenomena with respect to host features (e.g. gut morphology). We quantitatively compare the fecal microbial communities, metabolic pathways, and fermentation products associated with the nutritional intake of frugivorous (fruit-eating) and folivorous (leaf-eating) lemurs. Our results provide a uniquely multidimensional and comparative perspective on the adaptive dynamics between host and microbiome...
November 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181381/impact-of-dietary-galacto-oligosaccharide-gos-on-chicken-s-gut-microbiota-mucosal-gene-expression-and-salmonella-colonization
#19
Rebecca-Ayme Hughes, Riawana A Ali, Mary A Mendoza, Hosni M Hassan, Matthew D Koci
Preventing Salmonella colonization in young birds is key to reducing contamination of poultry products for human consumption (eggs and meat). While several Salmonella vaccines have been developed that are capable of yielding high systemic antibodies, it is not clear how effective these approaches are at controlling or preventing Salmonella colonization of the intestinal tract. Effective alternative control strategies are needed to help supplement the bird's ability to prevent Salmonella colonization, specifically by making the cecum less hospitable to Salmonella...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178599/gut-microbiome-induced-shift-of-acetate-to-butyrate-positively-manages-dysbiosis-in-high-fat-diet
#20
Xu Si, Wenting Shang, Zhongkai Zhou, Padraig Strappe, Bing Wang, Anthony Bird, Chris Blanchard
SCOPE: A recent study revealed the accumulation of gut microbiota-produced acetate (GMPA) led to insulin over-secretion and obesity symptom. To further develop this scientific point, effect of resistant starch (RS) or exogenous acetate carried by RS (RSA) in the gut on metabolic syndrome is investigated using diet-induced obese rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: The metabonomics analysis showed that the gut of rats in RSA group generated more significant butyrate both in serum and feces rather than acetate compared to the rats in RS group, indicating the conversion among metabolites, in particular from acetate to butyrate via gut microbiota...
November 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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