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diet microbiome

Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David A Sela
Bifidobacterium is a diverse genus of anaerobic, saccharolytic bacteria that colonize many animals, notably humans and other mammals. The presence of these bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract represents a potential coevolution between the gut microbiome and its mammalian host mediated by diet. To study the relationship between bifidobacterial gut symbionts and host nutrition, we analyzed the genome of two bifidobacteria strains isolated from the feces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a primate species studied for its ability to subsist on host-indigestible carbohydrates...
June 15, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Achim G Beule
The microbiome is defined as the total of cellular microorganisms of baczerial, viral or e. g., parasite origin living on the surface of a body. Within the anatomical areas of otorhinolaryngology, a significant divergence and variance can be demonstrated. For ear, nose, throat, larynx and cutis different interactions of microbiome and common factors like age, diet and live style factors (e. g., smoking) have been detected in recent years. Besides, new insights hint at a passible pathognomic role of the microbiome towards diseases in the ENT area...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Lifeng Zhu, Zhisong Yang, Ran Yao, Liangliang Xu, Hua Chen, Xiaodong Gu, Tonggui Wu, Xuyu Yang
Gut microbes can enhance the ability of hosts to consume secondary plant compounds and, therefore, expand the dietary niche breadth of mammalian herbivores. The giant and red pandas are bamboo-eating specialists within the mammalian order Carnivora. Bamboo contains abundant plant secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanide-containing compounds). However, Carnivora species, including the giant panda, have deficient levels of rhodanese (one of the essential cyanide detoxification enzymes) in their tissues compared with the same tissues of herbivores...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Anupriya Tripathi, Alexey V Melnik, Jin Xue, Orit Poulsen, Michael J Meehan, Gregory Humphrey, Lingjing Jiang, Gail Ackermann, Daniel McDonald, Dan Zhou, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein, Gabriel G Haddad
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by episodic obstruction to breathing due to upper airway collapse during sleep. Because of the episodic airway obstruction, intermittently low O2 (hypoxia) and high CO2 (hypercapnia) ensue. OSA has been associated with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes, although data regarding potential causal pathways are still evolving. As changes in inspired O2 and CO2 can affect the ecology of the gut microbiota and the microbiota has been shown to contribute to various cardiometabolic disorders, we hypothesized that OSA alters the gut ecosystem, which, in turn, exacerbates the downstream physiological consequences...
May 2018: MSystems
Rostyslav V Bubnov, Lidiia P Babenko, Liudmyla M Lazarenko, Victoria V Mokrozub, Mykola Ya Spivak
Background: Probiotics have tremendous potential to develop healthy diets, treatment, and prevention. Investigation of in vitro cultural properties of health-promoting microorganisms like lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria is crucial to select probiotic strains for treatments based on gut microbiota modulation to justify individualized and personalized approach for nutrition and prevention of variety of diseases. The aim was to study the biological properties of LAB and bifidobacteria probiotic strains, namely adhesive properties; resistance to antibiotics; and biological fluids (gastric juice, bile, pancreatic enzymes), and to overview the literature in the field...
June 2018: EPMA Journal
Conor P Kerley
Evidence supporting the role of nutrition in heart failure (HF) incidence and severity is growing. A comprehensive search of online databases was conducted using relevant keywords to identify human studies including diet and HF. Several plant-based diets have consistently been associated with decreased HF incidence and severity, notably the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets. Several other plant-based dietary patterns, including low-fat diets and the rice diet, also show promise...
May 2018: Cardiac failure review
Kruttika Phalnikar, Krushnamegh Kunte, Deepa Agashe
Bacterial communities associated with insects can substantially influence host ecology, evolution and behaviour. Host diet is a key factor that shapes bacterial communities, but the impact of dietary transitions across insect development is poorly understood. We analysed bacterial communities of 12 butterfly species across different developmental stages, using amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Butterfly larvae typically consume leaves of a single host plant, whereas adults are more generalist nectar feeders...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Vincent C Lombardi, Kenny L De Meirleir, Krishnamurthy Subramanian, Sam M Nourani, Ruben K Dagda, Shannon L Delaney, András Palotás
The gut-brain-axis refers to the bidirectional communication between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system. Mounting evidence supports the premise that the intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in its function and has led to the more common and perhaps more accurate term gut-microbiota-brain axis. Numerous studies have identified associations between an altered microbiome and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory diseases. In most cases, it is unknown if these associations are cause or effect; notwithstanding, maintaining or restoring homeostasis of the microbiota may represent future opportunities when treating or preventing these diseases...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Christina Tsigalou, Elisavet Stavropoulou, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease, among the most common ones, that targets mainly the exocrine glands as well as extra-glandular epithelial tissues. Their lymphocytic infiltration leads to manifestations from other organs (e.g., kidneys, lungs, liver, or thyroid), apart from sicca symptoms (xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis). SS is more prevalent in women than in men (9:1). Moreover, p.SS patients are in increased risk to develop lymphoma. Certain autoantibodies (e.g., antibodies against ribonucleoprotein autoantigens Ro-SSA and La-SSB) are ultimate hallmarks for the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Marco Ceresoli, Giulia Lo Bianco, Luca Gianotti, Luca Nespoli
The pathogenesis of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis is still unclear and many different hypotheses have been formulated. Seemingly, there are several related factors such as chronic inflammation, gut microbiome, obesity and the immunogenic properties of fat tissue and diet. Inflammation plays a pivotal role in diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. The aim of the present review is to investigate the role of inflammation in diverticular disease as well as in mild and complicated acute diverticulitis with a focus on current research and treatment perspectives...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Caroline E Childs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Jacob W Bledsoe, Geoffrey C Waldbieser, Kelly S Swanson, Brian C Peterson, Brian C Small
The microbiota of teleost fish has gained a great deal of research attention within the past decade, with experiments suggesting that both host-genetics and environment are strong ecological forces shaping the bacterial assemblages of fish microbiomes. Despite representing great commercial and scientific importance, the catfish within the family Ictaluridae , specifically the blue and channel catfish, have received very little research attention directed toward their gut-associated microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Francesca Cignarella, Claudia Cantoni, Laura Ghezzi, Amber Salter, Yair Dorsett, Lei Chen, Daniel Phillips, George M Weinstock, Luigi Fontana, Anne H Cross, Yanjiao Zhou, Laura Piccio
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is more common in western countries with diet being a potential contributing factor. Here we show that intermittent fasting (IF) ameliorated clinical course and pathology of the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). IF led to increased gut bacteria richness, enrichment of the Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Prevotellaceae families and enhanced antioxidative microbial metabolic pathways. IF altered T cells in the gut with a reduction of IL-17 producing T cells and an increase in regulatory T cells...
June 5, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Manvi Vernekar, Rekha Singhal, Kalpana Joshi, Deepak Amarapurkar
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are becoming a major cause of chronic liver diseases globally. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been postulated as a potential treatment for NAFLD. They can be obtained from diet and are also endogenously synthesized by enzymes delta-6-desaturase (D6D), delta-5-desaturase, and elongases. The current study is aimed at investigating the differences in the intake and levels of plasma PUFA between NAFLD patients and controls in Asian Indians...
June 6, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Spenser Reed, Marija Knez, Atara Uzan, James Stangoulis, Raymond P Glahn, Omry Koren, Elad Tako
The structure and function of the cecal microbiota following the consumption of a zinc (Zn) biofortified wheat diet was evaluated in a novel animal model of human nutrition (Gallus gallus) during a six-week efficacy trial. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, a significant increase in β- but not α- microbial diversity was observed in the animals receiving the Zn biofortified wheat diet, relative to the control. No significant taxonomic differences were found between the two groups. Linear discriminant analysis revealed a group of metagenomic biomarkers that delineated the Zn replete versus Zn deficient phenotypes, such that enrichment of lactic acid bacteria and concomitant increases in Zn-dependent bacterial metabolic pathways were observed in the Zn biofortified group, and expansion of mucin-degraders and specific bacterial groups able to participate in maintaining host Zn homeostasis were observed in the control group...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ana Larroya-García, Diana Navas-Carrillo, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Gut microbiota has significant effects on the structure and function of the enteric and central nervous system including human behaviour and brain regulation. Herein, we analyze the role of this intestinal ecosystem, the effects of dietary changes and the administration of nutritional supplements, such as probiotics, prebiotics, or fecal transplantation in neuropsychiatric disorders. Numerous factors have been highlighted to influence gut microbiota composition, including genetics, health status, mode of birth delivery and environment...
June 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Benjamin Chin-Yee, S V Subramanian, Amol A Verma, Andreas Laupacis, Fahad Razak
Policy Points: Significant advances in clinical medicine that have broader societal relevance may be less accessible to population health researchers and policymakers because of increased specialization within fields. We describe important recent clinical advances and discuss their broader societal impact. These advances include more expansive strategies for disease prevention, the rise of precision medicine, applications of human microbiome research, and new and highly successful treatments for hepatitis C infection...
June 2018: Milbank Quarterly
Izaskun Garcia-Mantrana, Marta Selma-Royo, Cristina Alcantara, María C Collado
There is increasing evidence for the interaction between gut microbiome, diet, and health. It is known that dysbiosis is related to disease and that most of the times this imbalances in gut microbial populations can be promoted through diet. Western dietary habits, which are characterized by high intakes of calories, animal proteins, saturated fats, and simple sugars have been linked with higher risk of obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the impact of dietary patterns, dietary components, and nutrients on gut microbiota in healthy people...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nermin Akduman, Christian Rödelsperger, Ralf J Sommer
The interplay with bacteria is of crucial importance for the interaction of multicellular organisms with their environments. Studying the associations between the nematode model organisms Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus with bacteria constitutes a powerful system to investigate these interactions at a mechanistic level. P. pacificus is found in association with scarab beetles in nature and recent studies revealed the succession and dynamics of this nematode and its microbiome during the decomposition of one particular host species, the rhinoceros beetle Oryctes borbonicus on La Réunion Island...
2018: PloS One
Robert S Chapkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
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