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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105723/current-views-on-hunter-gatherer-nutrition-and-the-evolution-of-the-human-diet
#1
Alyssa N Crittenden, Stephanie L Schnorr
Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102970/microbiomes-in-respiratory-health-and-disease-an-asia-pacific-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Shaan L Gellatly, Kurtis F Budden, Micheál Mac Aogain, Shakti D Shukla, David L A Wood, Philip Hugenholtz, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro
There is currently enormous interest in studying the role of the microbiome in health and disease. Microbiome's role is increasingly being applied to respiratory diseases, in particular COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. The changes in respiratory microbiomes that occur in these diseases and how they are modified by environmental challenges such as cigarette smoke, air pollution and infection are being elucidated. There is also emerging evidence that gut microbiomes play a role in lung diseases through the modulation of systemic immune responses and can be modified by diet and antibiotic treatment...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092151/issues-in-nutrition-carbohydrates
#3
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087899/increasing-dietary-nitrate-has-no-effect-on-cancellous-bone-loss-or-fecal-microbiome-in-ovariectomized-rats
#4
Melissa N Conley, Cooper Roberts, Thomas J Sharpton, Urszula T Iwaniec, Norman Hord
Studies suggest diets rich in fruit and vegetables reduce bone loss, although the specific compounds responsible are unknown. Substrates for endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production, including organic nitrates and dietary nitrate, may support NO production in age-related conditions, including osteoporosis. We investigated the capability of dietary nitrate to improve NO bioavailability, reduce bone turnover and loss. Six-month-old Sprague Dawley rats [30 ovariectomized (OVX) and 10 sham-operated (sham)] were randomized into 3 groups: (1) vehicle (water) control, (2) low-dose nitrate (LDN, 0...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076766/are-gut-microbes-responsible-for-post-dieting-weight-rebound
#5
Julien Chilloux, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas
One of the dieting conundrums in the age of the obesity epidemic is the cycle of weight loss and regain known as the "yo-yo effect." Thaiss et al. (2016) demonstrate that the microbiome plays a key role in this phenomenon and that simple dietary supplementations can reset the weight-rebound clock.
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071710/micropattern-a-web-based-tool-for-microbe-set-enrichment-analysis-and-disease-similarity-calculation-based-on-a-list-of-microbes
#6
Wei Ma, Chuanbo Huang, Yuan Zhou, Jianwei Li, Qinghua Cui
The microbiota colonized on human body is renowned as "a forgotten organ" due to its big impacts on human health and disease. Recently, microbiome studies have identified a large number of microbes differentially regulated in a variety of conditions, such as disease and diet. However, methods for discovering biological patterns in the differentially regulated microbes are still limited. For this purpose, here, we developed a web-based tool named MicroPattern to discover biological patterns for a list of microbes...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#7
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070176/advances-in-ibs-2016-a-review-of-current-and-emerging-data
#8
Philip S Schoenfeld
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic intermittent abdominal pain and associated diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation (IBS-C), or both. IBS can significantly impact patient function and quality of life. The diagnosis of IBS is based on the presence of characteristic symptoms, the exclusion of concerning features, and selected tests to exclude organic diseases that can mimic IBS. The pathophysiology of IBS remains incompletely understood, and new contributing factors have been identified over the past decade...
August 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067835/an-integrated-view-of-the-effects-of-wine-polyphenols-and-their-relevant-metabolites-on-gut-and-host-health
#9
REVIEW
Carolina Cueva, Irene Gil-Sánchez, Begoña Ayuda-Durán, Susana González-Manzano, Ana María González-Paramás, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Begoña Bartolomé, M Victoria Moreno-Arribas
Over the last few decades, polyphenols, and flavonoids in particular, have attracted the interest of researchers, as they have been associated with the health-promoting effects derived from diets rich in vegetables and fruits, including moderate wine consumption. Recent scientific evidence suggests that wine polyphenols exert their effects through interactions with the gut microbiota, as they seem to modulate microbiota and, at the same time, are metabolized by intestinal bacteria into specific bioavailable metabolites...
January 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059614/western-diets-gut-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-diseases-are-they-linked
#10
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
Obesity afflicts 36.5% of the US population and 600 million individuals world-wide. Thus, it is imperative to understand the risk factors underlying metabolic disease including diet, activity level, sleep, and genetics. Another key contributory factor is the gut microbiota given its widely reported role in the development of metabolic disease. The gut microbiota, particularly its structure and function, is heavily influenced by Western style diets rich in a complex mixture of fats and high in simple sugars...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049818/impact-of-short-chain-galactooligosaccharides-on-the-gut-microbiome-of-lactose-intolerant-individuals
#11
M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Andrew J Ritter, Dennis Savaiano, Andrea Monteagudo-Mera, Carlton Anderson, Scott T Magness, Todd R Klaenhammer
Directed modulation of the colonic bacteria to metabolize lactose effectively is a potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. A randomized, double-blind, multisite placebo-controlled trial conducted in human subjects demonstrated that administration of a highly purified (>95%) short-chain galactooligosaccharide (GOS), designated "RP-G28," significantly improved clinical outcomes for lactose digestion and tolerance. In these individuals, stool samples were collected pretreatment (day 0), after GOS treatment (day 36), and 30 d after GOS feeding stopped and consumption of dairy products was encouraged (day 66)...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#12
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030510/clinical-and-fecal-microbial-changes-with-diet-therapy-in-active-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
David L Suskind, Stanley A Cohen, Mitchell J Brittnacher, Ghassan Wahbeh, Dale Lee, Michele L Shaffer, Kimberly Braly, Hillary S Hayden, Jani Klein, Benjamin Gold, Matthew Giefer, Angela Stallworth, Samuel I Miller
GOAL: To determine the effect of the specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) on active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). BACKGROUND: IBD is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory intestinal disorder associated with fecal dysbiosis. Diet is a potential therapeutic option for IBD based on the hypothesis that changing the fecal dysbiosis could decrease intestinal inflammation. STUDY: Pediatric patients with mild to moderate IBD defined by pediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI 10-45) or pediatric ulcerative colitis activity index (PUCAI 10-65) were enrolled into a prospective study of the SCD...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028487/exploring-the-cockatiel-nymphicus-hollandicus-fecal-microbiome-bacterial-inhabitants-of-a-worldwide-pet
#14
Luis David Alcaraz, Apolinar M Hernández, Mariana Peimbert
BACKGROUND: Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) were originally endemic to Australia; now they are popular pets with a global distribution. It is now possible to conduct detailed molecular studies on cultivable and uncultivable bacteria that are part of the intestinal microbiome of healthy animals. These studies show that bacteria are an essential part of the metabolic capacity of animals. There are few studies on bird microbiomes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the cockatiel microbiome...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026894/by-their-own-devices-invasive-argentine-ants-have-shifted-diet-without-clear-aid-from-symbiotic-microbes
#15
Yi Hu, David A Holway, Piotr Łukasik, Linh Chau, Adam D Kay, Edward G LeBrun, Katie A Miller, Jon G Sanders, Andrew V Suarez, Jacob A Russell
The functions and compositions of symbiotic bacterial communities often correlate with host ecology. Yet cause-and-effect relationships, and the order of symbiont versus host change, remain unclear in the face of ancient symbioses and conserved host ecology. Several groups of ants exemplify this challenge, as their low-nitrogen diets and specialized symbioses appear conserved and ancient. To address whether nitrogen-provisioning symbionts might be important in the early stages of ant trophic shifts we studied bacteria from the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile-an invasive species that has transitioned toward greater consumption of sugar-rich, nitrogen-poor foods in parts of its introduced range...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026141/in-vitro-fermentative-capacity-of-swine-large-intestine-comparison-between-native-lantang-and-commercial-duroc-breeds
#16
Peng Hui Cheng, Juan Boo Liang, Yin Bao Wu, Yan Wang, Vincenzo Tufarelli, Vito Laudadio, Xin Di Liao
Native Lantang and commercial Duroc pigs were used as animal models to evaluate the differences existing in dietary fiber utilization ability between breeds. Animals were fed the same diet from weaning (4 weeks) to 4 months of age. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from wheat bran (as substrate) and fecal samples from the two breeds (as inoculum) were used in an in vitro gas production trial. Results showed that cumulative and maximum gas productions were higher in inocula from Lantang than those from the Duroc breed (P < 0...
December 27, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012242/a-12-week-intervention-with-nonivamide-a-trpv1-agonist-prevents-a-dietary-induced-body-fat-gain-and-increases-peripheral-serotonin-in-moderately-overweight-subjects
#17
Christina M Hochkogler, Barbara Lieder, Petra Rust, David Berry, Samuel M Meier, Marc Pignitter, Alessandra Riva, Alina Leitinger, Anne Bruk, Simone Wagner, Joachim Hans, Sabine Widder, Jakob P Ley, Gerhard E Krammer, Veronika Somoza
SCOPE: A bolus administration of 0.15 mg nonivamide has previously been demonstrated to reduce energy intake in moderately overweight men. This 12-week intervention investigated whether a daily consumption of nonivamide in a protein-based product formulation promotes a reduction in body weight in healthy overweight subjects, and affects outcome measures associated with mechanisms regulating food intake, e.g. plasma concentrations of an-/orexigenic hormones, energy substrates as well as changes in fecal microbiota ...
December 24, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008325/lactobacilli-dominance-and-vaginal-ph-why-is-the-human-vaginal-microbiome-unique
#18
Elizabeth A Miller, DeAnna E Beasley, Robert R Dunn, Elizabeth A Archie
The human vaginal microbiome is dominated by bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus, which create an acidic environment thought to protect women against sexually transmitted pathogens and opportunistic infections. Strikingly, lactobacilli dominance appears to be unique to humans; while the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the human vagina is typically >70%, in other mammals lactobacilli rarely comprise more than 1% of vaginal microbiota. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain humans' unique vaginal microbiota, including humans' distinct reproductive physiology, high risk of STDs, and high risk of microbial complications linked to pregnancy and birth...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005145/-nutrition-and-mental-diseases-focus-depressive-disorders
#19
L Libuda, J Antel, J Hebebrand, M Föcker
Dietary interventions are currently being discussed as additional treatment options for mental disorders. The pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood. It is hypothesized that certain nutrients and dietary pattern influence immune and inflammatory processes, the microbiome, the leptin-melanocortinergic axis and hypothalamic-pituitary axis, as well as neurotransmitters of the cholinergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling cascades and neurotrophins. Observational studies have shown that traditional dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet have a protective effect on mental health...
December 22, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003647/metabolic-phenotyping-for-discovery-of-urinary-biomarkers-of-diet-xenobiotics-and-blood-pressure-in-the-intermap-study-an-overview
#20
REVIEW
Queenie Chan, Ruey Leng Loo, Timothy M D Ebbels, Linda Van Horn, Martha L Daviglus, Jeremiah Stamler, Jeremy K Nicholson, Elaine Holmes, Paul Elliott
The etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is multifactorial. Adverse blood pressure (BP) is a major independent risk factor for epidemic CVD affecting ~40% of the adult population worldwide and resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Metabolic phenotyping of biological fluids has proven its application in characterizing low-molecular-weight metabolites providing novel insights into gene-environmental-gut microbiome interaction in relation to a disease state. In this review, we synthesize key results from the INTERnational study of MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) Study, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women aged 40-59 years from Japan, the People's Republic of China, the United Kingdom and the United States...
December 22, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
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