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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665003/the-inside-tract-the-appendicular-cecal-and-colonic-microbiome-of-captive-aye-ayes
#1
Lydia K Greene, Erin A McKenney
OBJECTIVES: The aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is famous for its feeding strategies that target structurally defended, but high-quality resources. Nonetheless, the influence of this digestible diet on gut microbial contributions to aye-aye metabolism and nutrition remains unexplored. When four captive aye-ayes were unexpectedly lost to persin toxicity, we opportunistically collected samples along the animals' gastrointestinal tracts. Here we describe the diversity and composition of appendicular, cecal, and colonic consortia relative to the aye-aye's unusual feeding ecology...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661149/development-of-the-tonsillar-microbiome-in-pigs-from-newborn-through-weaning
#2
Luis Carlos Pena Cortes, Rhiannon M LeVeque, Julie Funk, Terence L Marsh, Martha H Mulks
BACKGROUND: Porcine tonsils are lympho-epithelial tissues, colonized by numerous bacteria and viruses, that act as a reservoir for both host-specific pathogens and zoonotic pathogens with a high potential of transmission to humans. There are no existing studies describing the development of the tonsillar microbiome. We sequenced 16S rRNA genes from tonsillar samples of pigs to follow the development of the microbial communities from birth through weaning. Samples derived from sows were also analyzed to determine potential sources for the tonsil microbiome in piglets...
April 16, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657127/the-intestinal-microbiota-in-colorectal-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Herbert Tilg, Timon E Adolph, Romana R Gerner, Alexander R Moschen
Experimental evidence from the past years highlights a key role for the intestinal microbiota in inflammatory and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Diet exhibits a strong impact on microbial composition and provides risk for developing colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Large metagenomic studies in human CRC associated microbiome signatures with the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence, suggesting a fundamental role of the intestinal microbiota in the evolution of gastrointestinal malignancy. Basic science established a critical function for the intestinal microbiota in promoting tumorigenesis...
March 19, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651370/effect-of-the-specific-carbohydrate-diet-on-the-microbiome-of-a-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-and-ulcerative-colitis-patient
#4
Alanna Dubrovsky, Christopher L Kitts
A 20-year-old female was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC) at age 14 and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) at age 16. The PSC was successfully treated with high doses of oral vancomycin; however, the UC was more difficult to manage. After many drug treatments failed to treat the UC, the patient began following the specific carbohydrate diet (SCD). This report documents fecal microbiome changes resulting from following the SCD for two weeks. The DNA extracted from fecal samples was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing to quantify bacterial species abundance...
February 9, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648587/characterization-of-the-ruminal-fermentation-and-microbiome-in-lambs-supplemented-with-hydrolysable-and-condensed-tannins
#5
Saheed A Salami, Bernardo Valenti, Marco Bella, Michael N O ' Grady, Giuseppe Luciano, Joseph P Kerry, Eleanor Jones, Alessandro Priolo, Charles J Newbold
This study characterised the response of ruminal fermentation and the rumen microbiome in lambs fed commercial vegetal sources of hydrolysable tannins (HT) and condensed tannins (CT). Forty-four lambs (19.56 ± 2.06 kg) were randomly assigned to either a concentrate diet (CON, n = 8) or CON supplemented with 4% of two HT [chestnut (Castanea sativa, HT-c) and tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, HT-t)] and CT [mimosa (Acacia negra, CT-m) and gambier (Uncaria gambir, CT-g)] extracts (all, n = 9) for 75 days pre-slaughter...
April 10, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642378/pasture-feeding-changes-the-bovine-rumen-and-milk-metabolome
#6
Tom F O'Callaghan, Rosa Vázquez-Fresno, Arnau Serra-Cayuela, Edison Dong, Rupasri Mandal, Deirdre Hennessy, Stephen McAuliffe, Pat Dillon, David S Wishart, Catherine Stanton, R Paul Ross
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pasture feeding systems-perennial ryegrass (GRS) and perennial ryegrass and white clover (CLV)-and an indoor total mixed ration (TMR) system on the (a) rumen microbiome; (b) rumen fluid and milk metabolome; and (c) to assess the potential to distinguish milk from different feeding systems by their respective metabolomes. Rumen fluid was collected from nine rumen cannulated cows under the different feeding systems in early, mid and late lactation, and raw milk samples were collected from ten non-cannulated cows in mid-lactation from each of the feeding systems...
April 6, 2018: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629422/can-diet-influence-our-health-by-altering-intestinal-microbiota-derived-fecal-metabolites
#7
Qiang Lyu, Cheng-Chih Hsu
The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse, highly mutualistic microbial flora which could produce a myriad of specialized metabolites. These specialized metabolites are the chemical cellphones that gut microflora use to communicate with their human host and could potentially be used to cure diseases. Chemical compounds in diet also shape the gut flora. In order to understand which and how the gut microbe-derived specialized metabolites affect human health, the "gut microbiome-metabolomic-human health axis" is thus proposed...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627041/obesity-and-asthma
#8
REVIEW
Ubong Peters, Anne E Dixon, Erick Forno
Obesity is a vast public health problem and both a major risk factor and disease modifier for asthma in children and adults. Obese subjects have increased asthma risk, and obese asthmatic patients have more symptoms, more frequent and severe exacerbations, reduced response to several asthma medications, and decreased quality of life. Obese asthma is a complex syndrome, including different phenotypes of disease that are just beginning to be understood. We examine the epidemiology and characteristics of this syndrome in children and adults, as well as the changes in lung function seen in each age group...
April 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626394/microbiome-and-health-ramifications-of-intelligent-deception
#9
George B Stefano, Rachel Fine, Richard M Kream
Ten thousand years ago, the foundation for agricultural development and animal domestication was laid. Neolithic founder crops were carbohydrate-laden cereal grasses that facilitated transformation of hunter-gather societies into ancient civilizations with realistic capabilities for population expansion. In the last 3-4 decades, however, debilitating medical consequences of a progressively narrowed high caloric diet incorporating processed carbohydrates, animal protein, saturated fat and cholesterol, are translated into a global epidemic of obesity linked to metabolic and endocrine disorders, which, in part, emerged from the enhancement of our longevity...
April 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624599/a-snapshot-of-gut-microbiota-of-an-adult-urban-population-from-western-region-of-india
#10
Disha Tandon, Mohammed Monzoorul Haque, Saravanan R, Shafiq Shaikh, Sriram P, Ashok Kumar Dubey, Sharmila S Mande
The human gut microbiome contributes to a broad range of biochemical and metabolic functions that directly or indirectly affect human physiology. Several recent studies have indicated that factors like age, geographical location, genetic makeup, and individual health status significantly influence the diversity, stability, and resilience of the gut microbiome. Of the mentioned factors, geographical location (and related dietary/socio-economic context) appears to explain a significant portion of microbiome variation observed in various previously conducted base-line studies on human gut microbiome...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621980/modulations-in-the-offspring-gut-microbiome-are-refractory-to-postnatal-synbiotic-supplementation-among-juvenile-primates
#11
Ryan M Pace, Amanda L Prince, Jun Ma, Benjamin D W Belfort, Alexia S Harvey, Min Hu, Karalee Baquero, Peter Blundell, Diana Takahashi, Tyler Dean, Paul Kievit, Elinor L Sullivan, Jacob E Friedman, Kevin Grove, Kjersti M Aagaard
BACKGROUND: We and others have previously shown that alterations in the mammalian gut microbiome are associated with diet, notably early life exposure to a maternal high fat diet (HFD). Here, we aimed to further these studies by examining alterations in the gut microbiome of juvenile Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) that were exposed to a maternal HFD, weaned onto a control diet, and later supplemented with a synbiotic comprised of psyllium seed and Enterococcus and Lactobacillus species...
April 5, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620942/food-withdrawal-alters-the-gut-microbiota-and-metabolome-in-mice
#12
Xiaojiao Zheng, Kejun Zhou, Yunjing Zhang, Xiaolong Han, Aihua Zhao, Jiajian Liu, Chun Qu, Kun Ge, Fengjie Huang, Brenda Hernandez, Herbert Yu, Jun Panee, Tianlu Chen, Weiping Jia, Wei Jia
Food withdrawal as a health-enhancing measure has beneficial effects on aging, disease prevention, and treatment. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involving gut microbial changes and metabolic consequences resulting from food withdrawal have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we subjected lean and obese mice to a dietary intervention that consisted of a 4-d complete food withdrawal and an 8-d 50% food withdrawal, and we studied changes in cecal microbiome and host serum metabolome. The abundance of potentially pathogenic Proteobacteria was decreased and Akkermansia muciniphila was elevated by food withdrawal in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
April 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617868/responses-in-the-rumen-microbiome-of-bos-taurus-and-indicus-steers-fed-a-low-quality-rice-straw-diet-and-supplemented-protein
#13
E A Latham, K K Weldon, T A Wickersham, J A Coverdale, W E Pinchak
Bos indicus typically perform better than Bos taurus when consuming a low-quality diet; however, the response to supplementation is generally greater in B. taurus. The underlying mechanisms supporting these responses have not been fully elucidated. Characterization of differences in rumen prokaryotic populations and their functional role in the two subspecies may provide additional insight. Ten cannulated steers (5 Angus and 5 Brahman) were used in concurrent 5 × 5 Latin squares. Animals were offered ad libitum access to rice straw (4...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617864/rumen-bacterial-community-structure-impacts-feed-efficiency-in-beef-cattle
#14
Henry A Paz, Kristin E Hales, James E Wells, Larry A Kuehn, Harvey C Freetly, Elaine D Berry, Michael D Flythe, Matthew L Spangler, Samodha C Fernando
The importance of the rumen microbiota on nutrient cycling to the animal is well recognized; however, our understanding of the influence of the rumen microbiome composition on feed efficiency is limited. The rumen microbiomes of two large animal cohorts (125 heifers and 122 steers) were characterized to identify specific bacterial members (operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) associated with feed efficiency traits (ADFI, ADG, and G:F) in beef cattle. The heifer and steer cohorts were fed a forage-based diet and a concentrate-based diet, respectively...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610702/acidification-increases-abundances-of-vibrionales-and-planctomycetia-associated-to-a-seaweed-grazer-system-potential-consequences-for-disease-and-prey-digestion-efficiency
#15
Tania Aires, Alexandra Serebryakova, Frédérique Viard, Ester A Serrão, Aschwin H Engelen
Ocean acidification significantly affects marine organisms in several ways, with complex interactions. Seaweeds might benefit from rising CO2 through increased photosynthesis and carbon acquisition, with subsequent higher growth rates. However, changes in seaweed chemistry due to increased CO2 may change the nutritional quality of tissue for grazers. In addition, organisms live in close association with a diverse microbiota, which can also be influenced by environmental changes, with feedback effects. As gut microbiomes are often linked to diet, changes in seaweed characteristics and associated microbiome can affect the gut microbiome of the grazer, with possible fitness consequences...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605308/effects-of-spray-dried-plasma-protein-product-on-early-lactation-dairy-cows
#16
C Lee, A W Tebbe, J M Campbell, W P Weiss
Spray-dried plasma protein (SDP) compared with blood meal (BM) may contain various functional and active components that may benefit animal health. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding SDP or BM on production and blood profile in dairy cows during the transition and early-lactation periods. Seventy-two Holstein cows at 14 d before calving were used in a randomized block design. During the prepartum period, cows were fed a typical late-gestation diet containing BM (100 g/cow per day; 100BM, n = 24) or SDP (100 g/cow per day; 100SDP; n = 48)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604350/exercise-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-bone-loss-marrow-adiposity-and-dysbiosis-in-male-mice
#17
Laura R McCabe, Regina Irwin, Arjun Tekalur, Christian Evans, Jonathan Schepper, Narayanan Parameswaran, Mae Ciancio
High fat diets can have detrimental effects on the skeleton as well as cause intestinal dysbiosis. Exercise prevents high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and also improves bone density and prevents the intestinal dysbiosis that promotes energy storage. Previous studies indicate a link between intestinal microbial balance and bone health. Therefore, we examined whether exercise could prevent HF-induced bone pathology in male mice and determined whether benefits correlate to changes in host intestinal microbiota...
March 28, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601351/how-to-predict-and-improve-prognosis-of-food-allergy
#18
Lamia Dahdah, Valentina Pecora, Carla Riccardi, Vincenzo Fierro, Rocco Valluzzi, Maurizio Mennini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of food allergy is increasing. More children are being diagnosed with food allergies, and it is taking longer to outgrow them, among those who develop tolerance. The aim of this review is to draw the profile of the persistent food allergic, so that prevention strategies can be developed and active treatment set up. RECENT FINDINGS: Many determinants are involved in food allergy prognosis: ethnicity and sex, type of food, innate immune system, eliciting dose, sensitization status and other biomarkers determination, gut microbiome composition, and the presence of comorbidities...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600282/investigating-colonization-of-the-healthy-adult-gastrointestinal-tract-by-fungi
#19
Thomas A Auchtung, Tatiana Y Fofanova, Christopher J Stewart, Andrea K Nash, Matthew C Wong, Jonathan R Gesell, Jennifer M Auchtung, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino
A wide diversity of fungi have been detected in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract with the potential to provide or influence important functions. However, many of the fungi most commonly detected in stool samples are also present in food or the oral cavity. Therefore, to recognize which gut fungi are likely to have a sustained influence on human health, there is a need to separate transient members of the GI tract from true colonizers. To identify colonizing fungi, the eukaryotic rRNA operon's second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) was sequenced from the stool, saliva, and food of healthy adults following consumption of different controlled diets...
March 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589768/ioc-consensus-statement-dietary-supplements-and-the-high-performance-athlete
#20
Ronald J Maughan, Louise M Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Eric S Rawson, Neil P Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M Shirreffs, Lawrence L Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M Ali, Richard G M Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition program. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including the management of micronutrient deficiencies, supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and provision of direct benefits to performance or indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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