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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724659/human-milk-microbial-community-structure-is-relatively-stable-and-related-to-variations-in-macronutrient-and-micronutrient-intakes-in-healthy-lactating-women
#1
Janet E Williams, Janae M Carrothers, Kimberly A Lackey, Nicola F Beatty, Mara A York, Sarah L Brooker, Bahman Shafii, William J Price, Matthew L Settles, Mark A McGuire, Michelle K McGuire
Background: The human milk microbiome has been somewhat characterized, but little is known about changes over time and relations with maternal factors such as nutrient intake.Objective: We sought to characterize the human milk microbiome and described associations with maternal nutrient intake, time postpartum, delivery mode, and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)).Methods: Milk samples (n = 104) and 24-h diet recalls were collected 9 times from 21 healthy lactating women from day 2 to 6 mo postpartum. Women were classified by BMI as healthy weight (<25) or overweight or obese (≥25)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724546/high-protein-diet-promotes-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiome-without-altering-brain-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#2
Lixin Wang, Jonathan P Jacobs, Venu Lagishetty, Pu-Qing Yuan, Shuping Vincent Wu, Mulugeta Million, Joseph R Reeve, Joseph R Pisegna, Yvette Taché
High protein diet (HPD) curtails obesity and/or fat mass but it is unknown whether it reverses neuroinflammation, altered glucose levels, cholecystokinin (CCK) sensitivity and gut microbiome in rats fed a Western diet (WD)-induced obesity (DIO). Male rats fed a WD (high fat and sugar) for 12 weeks were switched to a HPD for 6 weeks. Body composition, food intake, meal pattern, sensitivity to intraperitoneal CCK-8S, blood glucose, brain signaling, and cecal microbiota were assessed. Compared to normal diet, WD increased body weight (9...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720399/prenatal-and-postnatal-administration-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics
#3
REVIEW
Kristin Sohn, Mark A Underwood
Colonization of the neonatal gut by beneficial bacteria is important for the establishment and maintenance of the mucosal barrier, thus protecting the neonate from enteric pathogens and local and systemic inflammation. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by infant diet, environment, and the maternal microbiome. Dysbiosis in pregnancy increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, diabetes, infection, preterm labor, and later childhood atopy. Dysbiosis of the neonatal gut plays an important role in colic in the term infant, in the disease processes which plague preterm infants, including necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, and in the long-term outcomes of neonates...
July 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718724/black-raspberries-and-their-anthocyanin-and-fiber-fractions-alter-the-composition-and-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-f-344-rats
#4
Pan Pan, Vy Lam, Nita Salzman, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Li-Shu Wang
Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717234/dietary-lipid-content-reorganizes-gut-microbiota-and-probiotic-l-rhamnosus-attenuates-obesity-and-enhances-catabolic-hormonal-milieu-in-zebrafish
#5
Silvia Falcinelli, Ana Rodiles, Azadeh Hatef, Simona Picchietti, Lina Cossignani, Daniel L Merrifield, Suraj Unniappan, Oliana Carnevali
In the present study, we explored whether dietary lipid content influences the gut microbiome in adult zebrafish. Diets containing three different lipid levels (high [HFD], medium [MFD], and low [LFD]) were administered with or without the supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (P) to zebrafish in order to explore how the dietary lipid content may influence the gut microbiome. Dietary lipid content shifted the gut microbiome structure. The addition of L. rhamnosus in the diets, induced transcriptional reduction of orexigenic genes, upregulation of anorexigenic genes, and transcriptional decrease of genes involved in cholesterol and triglyceride (TAG) metabolism, concomitantly with lower content of cholesterol and TAG...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715992/the-hibernator-microbiome-host-bacterial-interactions-in-an-extreme-nutritional-symbiosis
#6
Hannah V Carey, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710145/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-polyols-on-gastrointestinal-health-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Adrienne Lenhart, William D Chey
Polyols are sugar alcohols found in certain fruits, vegetables, and sugar-free sweeteners. They make up a component of the diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which is gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of polyols on the gastrointestinal tract in healthy men and women and in patients with IBS. Utilizing PubMed, Ovid, and Embase databases, we conducted a search on individual polyols and each of these terms: fermentation, absorption, motility, permeability, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709393/microbiome-associated-with-severe-caries-in-canadian-first-nations-children
#8
M Agnello, J Marques, L Cen, B Mittermuller, A Huang, N Chaichanasakul Tran, W Shi, X He, R J Schroth
Young Indigenous children in North America suffer from a higher degree of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) than the general population, leading to speculation that the etiology and characteristics of the disease may be distinct in this population. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted the first microbiome analysis of an Indigenous population using modern molecular techniques. We investigated the caries-associated microbiome among Canadian First Nations children with S-ECC. Thirty First Nations children <72 mo of age with S-ECC and 20 caries-free children were recruited in Winnipeg, Canada...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706193/polydextrose-changes-the-gut-microbiome-and-attenuates-fasting-triglyceride-and-cholesterol-levels-in-western-diet-fed-mice
#9
Ghulam Shere Raza, Heli Putaala, Ashley A Hibberd, Esa Alhoniemi, Kirsti Tiihonen, Kari Antero Mäkelä, Karl-Heinz Herzig
Obesity and dyslipidemia are hallmarks of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Polydextrose (PDX), a soluble fiber has lipid lowering effects. We hypothesize that PDX reduces triglycerides and cholesterol by influencing gut microbiota, which in turn modulate intestinal gene expression. C57BL/6 male mice were fed a Western diet (WD) ±75 mg PDX twice daily by oral gavage for 14 days. Body weight and food intake were monitored daily. Fasting plasma lipids, caecal microbiota and gene expression in intestine and liver were measured after 14 days of feeding...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704445/taxon-abundance-diversity-co-occurrence-and-network-analysis-of-the-ruminal-microbiota-in-response-to-dietary-changes-in-dairy-cows
#10
Ilma Tapio, Daniel Fischer, Lucia Blasco, Miika Tapio, R John Wallace, Ali R Bayat, Laura Ventto, Minna Kahala, Enyew Negussie, Kevin J Shingfield, Johanna Vilkki
The ruminal microbiome, comprising large numbers of bacteria, ciliate protozoa, archaea and fungi, responds to diet and dietary additives in a complex way. The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of increasing the depth of the community analysis in describing and explaining responses to dietary changes. Quantitative PCR, ssu rRNA amplicon based taxa composition, diversity and co-occurrence network analyses were applied to ruminal digesta samples obtained from four multiparous Nordic Red dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704429/effects-of-coconut-oil-on-glycemia-inflammation-and-urogenital-microbial-parameters-in-female-ossabaw-mini-pigs
#11
Annie E Newell-Fugate, Katherine Lenz, Cassandra Skenandore, Romana A Nowak, Bryan A White, Andrea Braundmeier-Fleming
Forty percent of American women are obese and at risk for type II diabetes, impaired immune function, and altered microbiome diversity, thus impacting overall health. We investigated whether obesity induced by an excess calorie, high fat diet containing hydrogenated fats, fructose, and coconut oil (HFD) altered glucose homeostasis, peripheral immunity, and urogenital microbial dynamics. We hypothesized that HFD would cause hyperglycemia, increase peripheral inflammation, and alter urogenital microbiota to favor bacterial taxonomy associated with inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703319/brain-carnitine-deficiency-causes-nonsyndromic-autism-with-an-extreme-male-bias-a-hypothesis
#12
REVIEW
Arthur L Beaudet
Could 10-20% of autism be prevented? We hypothesize that nonsyndromic or "essential" autism involves extreme male bias in infants who are genetically normal, but they develop deficiency of carnitine and perhaps other nutrients in the brain causing autism that may be amenable to early reversal and prevention. That brain carnitine deficiency might cause autism is suggested by reports of severe carnitine deficiency in autism and by evidence that TMLHE deficiency - a defect in carnitine biosynthesis - is a risk factor for autism...
July 13, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702003/reduced-mass-and-diversity-of-the-colonic-microbiome-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-their-improvement-with-ketogenic-diet
#13
Alexander Swidsinski, Yvonne Dörffel, Vera Loening-Baucke, Christoph Gille, Önder Göktas, Anne Reißhauer, Jürgen Neuhaus, Karsten-Henrich Weylandt, Alexander Guschin, Markus Bock
Background: Colonic microbiome is thought to be involved in auto-immune multiple sclerosis (MS). Interactions between diet and the colonic microbiome in MS are unknown. Methods: We compared the composition of the colonic microbiota quantitatively in 25 MS patients and 14 healthy controls.Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 162 ribosomal RNA derived bacterial FISH probes was used. Ten of the MS patients received a ketogenic diet for 6 months. Changes in concentrations of 35 numerically substantial bacterial groups were monitored at baseline and at 2, 12, and 23/24 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698533/prevention-and-management-of-cow-s-milk-allergy-in-non-exclusively-breastfed-infants
#14
REVIEW
Yvan Vandenplas
Introduction: The prevention and management of cow milk allergy (CMA) is still debated. Since CMA is much less frequent in breastfed infants, breastfeeding should be stimulated. Method: Literature was searched using databases to find original papers and reviews on this topic. Results: Hydrolysates with a clinical proof of efficacy are recommended in the prevention and treatment of CMA. However, not all meta-analyses conclude that hydrolysates do prevent CMA or other atopic manifestations such as atopic dermatitis...
July 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691768/microbiome-inflammation-epigenetic-alterations-and-mental-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Reza Alam, Hamid M Abdolmaleky, Jin-Rong Zhou
Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690602/geography-ethnicity-or-subsistence-specific-variations-in-human-microbiome-composition-and-diversity
#16
REVIEW
Vinod K Gupta, Sandip Paul, Chitra Dutta
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683297/fighting-fire-with-fiber-preventing-t-cell-infiltration-in-diabetes
#17
Sydney Lavoie, Wendy S Garrett
Diet can alter the gut microbiota and shift its production of metabolites, which affect systemic immune function. In Nature Immunology, Mariño et al. (2017) explore diet-gut microbiome interactions in type 1 diabetes and identify mechanisms by which short-chain fatty acids prevent T cell destruction of pancreatic β-cells.
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678838/the-oral-bacterial-microbiome-of-occlusal-surfaces-in-children-and-its-association-with-diet-and-caries
#18
Apoena Aguiar Ribeiro, Maria Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Maria Belen Cadenas, Natasha Butz, Bruce J Paster, Tsute Chen, Eric Bair, Roland R Arnold
Dental caries is the most prevalent disease in humans globally. Efforts to control it have been invigorated by an increasing knowledge of the oral microbiome composition. This study aimed to evaluate the bacterial diversity in occlusal biofilms and its relationship with clinical surface diagnosis and dietary habits. Anamneses were recorded from thirteen 12-year-old children. Biofilm samples collected from occlusal surfaces of 46 permanent second molars were analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing combined with the BLASTN-based search algorithm for species identification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678528/21st-century-toolkit-for-optimizing-population-health-through-precision-nutrition
#19
Aifric O'Sullivan, Bethany Henrick, Bonnie Dixon, Daniela Barile, Angela Zivkovic, Jennifer Smilowitz, Danielle Lemay, William Martin, J Bruce German, Sara Elizabeth Schaefer
Scientific, technological, and economic progress over the last 100 years all but eradicated problems of widespread food shortage and nutrient deficiency in developed nations. But now society is faced with a new set of nutrition problems related to energy imbalance and metabolic disease, which require new kinds of solutions. Recent developments in the area of new analytical tools enable us to systematically study large quantities of detailed and multidimensional metabolic and health data, providing the opportunity to address current nutrition problems through an approach called Precision Nutrition...
July 5, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677210/gut-microbiome-diversity-influenced-more-by-the-westernized-dietary-regime-than-the-body-mass-index-as-assessed-using-effect-size-statistic
#20
Shannon C Davis, Jagjit S Yadav, Stephanie D Barrow, Boakai K Robertson
Human gut microbiome dysbiosis has been associated with the onset of metabolic diseases and disorders. However, the critical factors leading to dysbiosis are poorly understood. In this study, we provide increasing evidence of the association of diet type and body mass index (BMI) and how they relatively influence the taxonomic structure of the gut microbiota with respect to the causation of gut microbiome dysbiosis. The study included randomly selected Alabama residents (n = 81), including females (n = 45) and males (n = 36)...
July 4, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
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