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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028844/a-polyphenol-enriched-diet-and-ascaris-suum-infection-modulate-mucosal-immune-responses-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-pigs
#1
Andrew R Williams, Lukasz Krych, Hajar Fauzan Ahmad, Peter Nejsum, Kerstin Skovgaard, Dennis S Nielsen, Stig M Thamsborg
Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP), an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027650/correction-to-role-of-intestinal-microbiome-in-american-ginseng-mediated-colon-cancer-prevention-in-high-fat-diet-fed-aom-dss-mice
#2
C-Z Wang, W-H Huang, C-F Zhang, J-Y Wan, Y Wang, C Yu, S Williams, T-C He, W Du, M W Musch, E B Chang, C-S Yuan
This article was originally published with the wrong title.
October 13, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025734/dietary-copper-fructose-interactions-alter-gut-microbial-activity-in-male-rats
#3
Ming Song, Xiaohong Li, Xiang Zhang, Hongxue Shi, Miriam B Vos, Xiaoli Wei, Yuhua Wang, Hong Gao, Eric C Rouchka, Xinmin Yin, Zhanxiang Zhou, Russell A Prough, Matthew C Cave, Craig J McClain
Dietary copper-fructose interactions contribute to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Gut microbiota play critical roles in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary doses of copper and their interactions with high fructose on gut microbiome. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets with adequate copper (6 ppm, CuA), marginal copper (1.5 ppm, CuM) (low-copper) or supplemented copper (20 ppm, CuS) (high-copper) for 4 weeks...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022388/our-gut-microbiota-a-long-walk-to-homeostasis
#4
L M T Dicks, J Geldenhuys, L S Mikkelsen, E Brandsborg, H Marcotte
The microbiome of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of billions of bacteria, fungi and viruses, of which bacteria play the most important role in nutrition, immune development, production of vitamins and maintaining a well-balanced (homeostatic) microbial population. Many papers have been published on the microbiota in the human GIT, but little is known about the first group of bacteria that colonises an infant. The intestinal tract of an unborn is, despite general belief, not sterile, but contains bacteria that have been transferred from the mother...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021375/maternal-high-fiber-diet-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-influences-regulatory-t-cell-differentiation-in-offspring-in-mice
#5
Akihito Nakajima, Naoko Kaga, Yumiko Nakanishi, Hiroshi Ohno, Junki Miyamoto, Ikuo Kimura, Shohei Hori, Takashi Sasaki, Keiichi Hiramatsu, Ko Okumura, Sachiko Miyake, Sonoko Habu, Sumio Watanabe
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the end products of dietary fiber, influence the immune system. Moreover, during pregnancy the maternal microbiome has a great impact on the development of the offspring's immune system. However, the exact mechanisms by which maternal SCFAs during pregnancy and lactation influence the immune system of offspring are not fully understood. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation in offspring regulated by a maternal high fiber diet (HFD)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018117/reciprocal-prioritization-to-dietary-glycans-by-gut-bacteria-in-a-competitive-environment-promotes-stable-coexistence
#6
Yunus E Tuncil, Yao Xiao, Nathan T Porter, Bradley L Reuhs, Eric C Martens, Bruce R Hamaker
When presented with nutrient mixtures, several human gut Bacteroides species exhibit hierarchical utilization of glycans through a phenomenon that resembles catabolite repression. However, it is unclear how closely these observed physiological changes, often measured by altered transcription of glycan utilization genes, mirror actual glycan depletion. To understand the glycan prioritization strategies of two closely related human gut symbionts, Bacteroides ovatus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, we performed a series of time course assays in which both species were individually grown in a medium with six different glycans that both species can degrade...
October 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993009/fenugreek-galactomannan-and-citrus-pectin-improve-several-parameters-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-and-modulate-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#7
Miriam G Shtriker, Michal Hahn, Elise Taieb, Abraham Nyska, Uzi Moallem, Oren Tirosh, Zecharia Madar
OBJECTIVE: Galactomannans derived from fenugreek confer known health benefits; however, there is little information regarding health benefits of citrus pectin (CP) and its association with gut microbiome metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine links between galactomannan and CP consumption, microbiota development, and glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Male C57 BL/6 J mice ages 7 to 8 wk were fed ad libitum with a normal diet or one supplemented with 15% of either galactomannan or CP...
August 3, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992216/links-between-natural-variation-in-the-microbiome-and-host-fitness-in-wild-mammals
#8
Taichi A Suzuki
Recent studies in model organisms have shown that compositional variation in the microbiome can affect a variety of host phenotypes including those related to digestion, development, immunity, and behavior. Natural variation in the microbiome within and between natural populations and species may also affect host phenotypes and thus fitness in the wild. Here, I review recent evidence that compositional variation in the microbiome may affect host phenotypes and fitness in wild mammals. Studies over the last decade indicate that natural variation in the mammalian microbiome may be important in the assistance of energy uptake from different diet types, detoxification of plant secondary compounds, protection from pathogens, chemical communication, and behavior...
July 25, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988196/the-oral-microbiota-in-colorectal-cancer-is-distinctive-and-predictive
#9
Burkhardt Flemer, Ryan D Warren, Maurice P Barrett, Katryna Cisek, Anubhav Das, Ian B Jeffery, Eimear Hurley, Micheal O'Riordain, Fergus Shanahan, Paul W O'Toole
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Microbiota alterations are linked with colorectal cancer (CRC) and notably higher abundance of putative oral bacteria on colonic tumours. However, it is not known if colonic mucosa-associated taxa are indeed orally derived, if such cases are a distinct subset of patients or if the oral microbiome is generally suitable for screening for CRC. METHODS: We profiled the microbiota in oral swabs, colonic mucosae and stool from individuals with CRC (99 subjects), colorectal polyps (32) or controls (103)...
October 7, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985395/nonhuman-primates-and-translational-research-cardiovascular-disease
#10
Laura A Cox, Michael Olivier, Kimberly Spradling-Reeves, Genesio M Karere, Anthony G Comuzzie, John L VandeBerg
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Human epidemiological studies provide challenges for understanding mechanisms that regulate initiation and progression of CVD due to variation in lifestyle, diet, and other environmental factors. Studies describing metabolic and physiologic aspects of CVD, and those investigating genetic and epigenetic mechanisms influencing CVD initiation and progression, have been conducted in multiple Old World nonhuman primate (NHP) species...
August 28, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985326/the-effects-of-captivity-on-the-mammalian-gut-microbiome
#11
Valerie J McKenzie, Se Jin Song, Frédéric Delsuc, Tiffany L Prest, Angela M Oliverio, Timothy M Korpita, Alexandra Alexiev, Katherine R Amato, Jessica L Metcalf, Martin Kowalewski, Nico L Avenant, Andres Link, Anthony Di Fiore, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Claudia Feh, Ludovic Orlando, Joseph R Mendelson, Jon Sanders, Rob Knight
Recent studies increasingly note the effect of captivity or the built environment on the microbiome of humans and other animals. As symbiotic microbes are essential to many aspects of biology (e.g., digestive and immune functions), it is important to understand how lifestyle differences can impact the microbiome, and, consequently, the health of hosts. Animals living in captivity experience a range of changes that may influence the gut bacteria, such as diet changes, treatments, and reduced contact with other individuals, species and variable environmental substrates that act as sources of bacterial diversity...
August 7, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983290/studying-the-differences-of-bacterial-metabolome-and-microbiome-in-the-colon-between-landrace-and-meihua-piglets
#12
Shijuan Yan, Cui Zhu, Ting Yu, Wenjie Huang, Jianfeng Huang, Qian Kong, Jingfang Shi, Zhongjian Chen, Qinjian Liu, Shaolei Wang, Zongyong Jiang, Zhuang Chen
This study was conducted to compare the microbiome and metabolome differences in the colon lumen from two pig breeds with different genetic backgrounds. Fourteen weaned piglets at 30 days of age, including seven Landrace piglets (a lean-type pig breed with a fast growth rate) and seven Meihua piglets (a fatty-type Chinese local pig breed with a slow growth rate), were fed the same diets for 35 days. Untargeted metabolomics analyses showed that a total of 401 metabolites differed between Landrace and Meihua...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979265/impact-of-age-caloric-restriction-and-influenza-infection-on-mouse-gut-microbiome-an-exploratory-study-of-the-role-of-age-related-microbiome-changes-on-influenza-responses
#13
Jenna M Bartley, Xin Zhou, George A Kuchel, George M Weinstock, Laura Haynes
Immunosenescence refers to age-related declines in the capacity to respond to infections such as influenza (flu). Caloric restriction represents a known strategy to slow many aging processes, including those involving the immune system. More recently, some changes in the microbiome have been described with aging, while the gut microbiome appears to influence responses to flu vaccination and infection. With these considerations in mind, we used a well-established mouse model of flu infection to explore the impact of flu infection, aging, and caloric restriction on the gut microbiome...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977692/ant-plant-mutualism-a-dietary-by-product-of-a-tropical-ant-s-macronutrient-requirements
#14
Lina M Arcila Hernández, Jon G Sanders, Gabriel A Miller, Alison Ravenscraft, Megan E Frederickson
Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to defend their host plants against herbivores, or whether plant defense is a by-product benefit of ant foraging for insect prey...
October 4, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977605/hydrogen-sulfide-and-sulfate-prebiotic-stimulates-the-secretion-of-glp-1-and-improves-glycemia-in-male-mice
#15
Jennifer Pichette, Nancy Fynn-Sackey, Jeffrey Gagnon
Recently, the gastrointestinal microbiome, and its metabolites, has emerged as a potential regulator of host metabolism. However, to date little is known on the precise mechanisms of how this regulation occurs. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is abundantly produced in the colon by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). H2S is a bioactive gas that plays regulatory roles in many systems, including metabolic hormone regulation. This gas metabolite is produced in close proximity to the glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1)-secreting cells in the gut epithelium...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977604/metformin-affects-cortical-bone-mass-and-marrow-adiposity-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-male-mice
#16
Sheila Bornstein, Michele Moschetta, Yawara Kawano, Antonio Sacco, Daisy Huynh, Daniel Brooks, Salomon Manier, Heather Fairfield, Carolyne Falank, Aldo M Roccaro, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Mary Bouxein, Calvin Vary, Irene M Ghobrial, Clifford J Rosen, Michaela R Reagan
Obesity during maturation can affect the growing skeleton directly and indirectly, although these effects and the mechanisms behind them are not fully understood. Our objective was to determine how a high-fat diet with or without metformin treatment affects skeletal development. We also sought to characterize changes that occur in white adipose tissue, circulating metabolites, lipids, and gut microbiota. A diet-induced obesity C57BL/6J mouse model was used to test the effects of obesity and metformin on bone using bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976925/prebiotics-mediate-microbial-interactions-in-a-consortium-of-the-infant-gut-microbiome
#17
Daniel A Medina, Francisco Pinto, Aline Ovalle, Pamela Thomson, Daniel Garrido
Composition of the gut microbiome is influenced by diet. Milk or formula oligosaccharides act as prebiotics, bioactives that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes. The influence of prebiotics on microbial interactions is not well understood. Here we investigated the transformation of prebiotics by a consortium of four representative species of the infant gut microbiome, and how their interactions changed with dietary substrates. First, we optimized a culture medium resembling certain infant gut parameters...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968517/probiotics-modulate-gut-microbiota-and-improve-insulin-sensitivity-in-dio-mice
#18
Renata A Bagarolli, Natália Tobar, Alexandre G Oliveira, Tiago G Araújo, Bruno M Carvalho, Guilherme Z Rocha, Juliana F Vecina, Kelly Calisto, Dioze Guadagnini, Patrícia O Prada, Andrey Santos, Sara T O Saad, Mario J A Saad
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by subclinical inflammatory process. Changes in composition or modulation of the gut microbiota may play an important role in the obesity-associated inflammatory process. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidumi) on gut microbiota, changes in permeability, and insulin sensitivity and signaling in high-fat diet and control animals. More importantly, we investigated the effects of these gut modulations on hypothalamic control of food intake, and insulin and leptin signaling...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965248/decaffeinated-green-and-black-tea-polyphenols-decrease-weight-gain-and-alter-microbiome-populations-and-function-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#19
Susanne M Henning, Jieping Yang, Mark Hsu, Ru-Po Lee, Emma M Grojean, Austin Ly, Chi-Hong Tseng, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
PURPOSE: Decaffeinated green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) polyphenols inhibit weight gain in mice fed an obesogenic diet. Since the intestinal microflora is an important contributor to obesity, it was the objective of this study to determine whether the intestinal microflora plays a role in the anti-obesogenic effect of GT and BT. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF/HS, 32% energy from fat; 25% energy from sucrose) or the same diet supplemented with 0...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959247/microbiome-metabolome-responses-to-a-high-grain-diet-associated-with-the-hind-gut-health-of-goats
#20
Shiyu Tao, Ping Tian, Yanwen Luo, Jing Tian, Canfeng Hua, Yali Geng, Rihua Cong, Yingdong Ni, Ruqian Zhao
Studies on the effect of a high-concentrate (HC) diet on the hindgut microbiota and metabolome of ruminants are rarely reported. We used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA genes and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the effects of long-term feeding (HL) or short-term (HS) feeding of an HC diet on changes in bacterial microbiota and their metabolites in the hindgut, with Guanzhong goat as a ruminant model. Results indicated that an HC diet decreased bacterial diversity and induced metabolic disorder in the hindgut...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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