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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453266/the-gills-of-reef-fish-support-a-distinct-microbiome-influenced-by-host-specific-factors
#1
Zoe A Pratte, Marc Besson, Rebecca D Hollman, Frank J Stewart
Teleost fish represent the most diverse of the vertebrate groups and play important roles in food webs, as ecosystem engineers, and as vectors for microorganisms. However, the microbial ecology of fishes remains underexplored for most host taxa, and for certain niches on the fish body. This is particularly true for the gills, the key sites for respiration and waste exchange in fishes. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the gill microbiome. We focus on ecologically diverse taxa from coral reefs around Moorea, sampling the gill and intestines of adults and juveniles representing 15 families...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452584/high-phosphorus-intake-and-gut-related-parameters-results-of-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-human-intervention-study
#2
Ulrike Trautvetter, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Gerhard Jahreis, Stefan Lorkowski, Michael Glei
BACKGROUND: In recent years, high phosphate intakes were discussed critically. In the small intestine, a part of the ingested phosphate and calcium precipitates to amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which in turn can precipitate other intestinal substances, thus leading to a beneficial modulation of the intestinal environment. Therefore, we analysed faecal samples obtained from a human intervention study regarding gut-related parameters. METHODS: Sixty-two healthy subjects (men, n = 30; women, n = 32) completed the double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel designed study (mean age: 29 ± 7 years; mean BMI: 24 ± 3 kg/m 2 )...
February 16, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445454/rumen-protected-methionine-during-the-peripartal-period-in-dairy-cows-and-its-effects-on-abundance-of-major-species-of-ruminal-bacteria
#3
Mohamed K Abdelmegeid, Ahmed A Elolimy, Zheng Zhou, Vincenzo Lopreiato, Joshua C McCann, Juan J Loor
Background: Extensive degradation of amino acids in the rumen via microbial deamination decreases the post-ruminal availability of dietary indispensable amino acids. Together with the normal decrease in voluntary dry matter intake (DMI) around parturition in dairy cows, microbial metabolism contributes to a markedly negative balance of indispensable amino acids, including methionine which may be the first-limiting for milk production. The main objective of the current study was to profile changes in major bacterial species with key functions in cellulose and hemicellulose digestion, xylan breakdown, proteolytic action, propionic acid production, lactate utilization and ruminal biohydrogenation in cows supplemented with rumen-protected Methionine (SM; Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA, USA) from -23 through 30 d relative to parturition...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438631/plasma-endocannabinoid-levels-in-lean-overweight-and-obese-humans-relationships-with-intestinal-permeability-markers-inflammation-and-incretin-secretion
#4
Tanya J Little, Nada Cvijanovic, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Donovan A Argueta, Christopher K Rayner, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Richard L Young
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434315/association-of-gut-microbial-communities-with-plasma-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-lbp-in-premenopausal-women
#5
Jessica S Citronberg, Keith R Curtis, Emily White, Polly A Newcomb, Katherine Newton, Charlotte Atkinson, Xiaoling Song, Johanna W Lampe, Meredith Aj Hullar
The mechanisms by which obesity increases cancer risk are unclear, but some lines of evidence suggest that gut microbial communities (GMC) may contribute to chronic inflammation in obese individuals through raised systemic levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We evaluated associations of the GMC in stool with plasma LPS-binding protein (LBP, a measure of LPS) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in 110 premenopausal women in the United States. Diet was assessed using 3-day food records and GMCs were evaluated using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433995/precision-nutrition-for-prevention-and-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Dong D Wang, Frank B Hu
Precision nutrition aims to prevent and manage chronic diseases by tailoring dietary interventions or recommendations to one or a combination of an individual's genetic background, metabolic profile, and environmental exposures. Recent advances in genomics, metabolomics, and gut microbiome technologies have offered opportunities as well as challenges in the use of precision nutrition to prevent and manage type 2 diabetes. Nutrigenomics studies have identified genetic variants that influence intake and metabolism of specific nutrients and predict individuals' variability in response to dietary interventions...
February 9, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429621/rampant-host-switching-shaped-the-termite-gut-microbiome
#7
Thomas Bourguignon, Nathan Lo, Carsten Dietrich, Jan Šobotník, Sarah Sidek, Yves Roisin, Andreas Brune, Theodore A Evans
The gut microbiota of animals exert major effects on host biology [1]. Although horizontal transfer is generally considered the prevalent route for the acquisition of gut bacteria in mammals [2], some bacterial lineages have co-speciated with their hosts on timescales of several million years [3]. Termites harbor a complex gut microbiota, and their advanced social behavior provides the potential for long-term vertical symbiont transmission, and co-evolution of gut symbionts and host [4-6]. Despite clear evolutionary patterns in the gut microbiota of termites [7], a consensus on how microbial communities were assembled during termite diversification has yet to be reached...
February 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427903/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-novel-regulator-of-cardiovascular-function-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Micah L Battson, Dustin M Lee, Tiffany L Weir, Christopher L Gentile
The gut microbiome has emerged as a critical regulator of human physiology. Deleterious changes to the composition or number of gut bacteria, commonly referred to as gut dysbiosis, has been linked to the development and progression of numerous diet-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most CVD risk factors, including aging, obesity, certain dietary patterns, and a sedentary lifestyle, have been shown to induce gut dysbiosis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal inflammation and reduced integrity of the gut barrier, which in turn increases circulating levels of bacterial structural components and microbial metabolites that may facilitate the development of CVD...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427583/a-gut-feeling-microbiome-brain-immune-interactions-modulate-social-and-affective-behaviors
#9
REVIEW
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
The expression of a wide range of social and affective behaviors, including aggression and investigation, as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, involves interactions among many different physiological systems, including the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Recent work suggests that the gut microbiome may also play a critical role in modulating behavior and likely functions as an important integrator across physiological systems. Microbes within the gut may communicate with the brain via both neural and humoral pathways, providing numerous avenues of research in the area of the gut-brain axis...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425888/understanding-the-microbiome-emerging-biomarkers-for-exploiting-the-microbiota-for-personalized-medicine-against-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Meenakshi Rajpoot, Anil K Sharma, Anil Sharma, Girish Kumar Gupta
The human body is a home to more than 1 trillion microbes with a diverse variety of commensal microbes that play a crucial role towards the health of the individual. These microbes occupy different habitats such as gut, skin, vagina, oral etc. Not only the types and abundance of microbes are different in different organs, but also these may differ in different individuals. The genome of these microbiota and their ecosystem constitute to form a microbiome. Factors such as diet, environment, host genetics etc...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413010/nutritional-interventions-in-the-patient-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
REVIEW
Berkeley N Limketkai, Andrea Wolf, Alyssa M Parian
Nutritional strategies have been explored as primary or adjunct therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Exclusive enteral nutrition is effective for the induction of remission in Crohn disease and is recommended as a first-line therapy for children. Dietary strategies focus on adjusting the ratio of consumed nutrients that are proinflammatory or antiinflammatory. Treatments with dietary supplements focus on the antiinflammatory effects of the individual supplements (eg, curcumin, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) or their positive effects on the intestinal microbiome (eg, prebiotics, probiotics)...
March 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410981/diet-and-microbiota-linked-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
T Requena, M C Martínez-Cuesta, C Peláez
Diet has shaped microbiota profiles through human evolution. Traditional gut microbiomes are described to be driven by high levels of Prevotella. In the present, however, it is consistently described a lower microbial richness in urban industrialized populations compared with individuals living in rural settings, Bacteroides being predominant among urban-industrial gut microbiomes. Components of diet are highly influential in shaping the gut microbiota, being fiber, fat, proteins, polyphenols and micronutrients differentially metabolized by generalist and specialized microorganisms alone or through the phenomenon of cross-feeding...
February 7, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409860/feeding-the-developing-brain-juvenile-rats-fed-diet-rich-in-prebiotics-and-bioactive-milk-fractions-exhibit-reduced-anxiety-related-behavior-and-modified-gene-expression-in-emotion-circuits
#13
Agnieszka Mika, Michelle Gaffney, Rachel Roller, Abigail Hills, Courtney A Bouchet, Kristina A Hulen, Robert S Thompson, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Early life nutrition is critical for brain development. Dietary prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions support brain development by increasing plasticity and altering activity in brain regions important for cognition and emotion regulation, perhaps through the gut-microbiome-brain axis. Here we examined the impact of a diet containing prebiotics, lactoferrin, and milk fat globule membrane (test diet) on beneficial gut bacteria, basal gene expression for activity and plasticity markers within brain circuits important for cognition and anxiety, and anxiety-related behavior in the open field...
January 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408694/fructose-and-sugar-a-major-mediator-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
Thomas Jensen, Manal F Abdelmalek, Shelby Sullivan, Kristen J Nadeau, Melanie Green, Carlos Roncal, Takahiko Nakagawa, Masanari Kuwabara, Yuka Sato, Duk-Hee Kang, Dean R Tolan, Laura G Sanchez-Lozada, Hugo R Rosen, Miguel A Lanaspa, Anna Mae Diehl, Richard J Johnson
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, and its rising prevalence parallels the rise in obesity and diabetes. Historically thought to result from overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle, recent evidence suggests that diets high in sugar (from sucrose and/or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)) not only increases the risk for NAFLD, but also, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here we review the experimental and clinical evidence that fructose precipitates fat accumulation in the liver, due to both increased lipogenesis and impaired fat oxidation...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402949/interaction-of-genotype-and-diet-on-small-intestine-microbiota-of-japanese-quail-fed-a-cholesterol-enriched-diet
#15
Shasha Liu, Hein Min Tun, Frederick C Leung, Darin C Bennett, Hongfu Zhang, Kimberly M Cheng
Our previous study has shown that genetic selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet-induced atherosclerosis has affected the Japanese quail's cecal environment to accommodate distinctly different cecal microbiota. In this study, we fed the Atherosclerosis-resistant (RES) and -susceptable (SUS) quail a regular and a cholesterol enriched diet to examine the interaction of host genotype and diet on the diversity, composition, and metabolic functions of the duodenal and ileal microbiota with relations to atherosclerosis development...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399003/dietary-patterns-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-a-review-of-17-years-of-evidence-2000-2016
#16
Fred K Tabung, Lisa S Brown, Teresa T Fung
Purpose of review: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a global public health problem, with an estimated 1.4 million cases diagnosed worldwide in 2012. Evidence suggests that diet may be important for primary prevention. Recent findings: The 2017 WCRF/AICR Continuous Update Project on colorectal cancer concluded that there is convincing evidence linking several individual dietary factors with CRC risk but the evidence for dietary patterns was limited and inconclusive. Also, previous reviews and meta-analyses have not critically synthesized various dietary patterns...
December 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398104/the-human-virome
#17
REVIEW
Selene Zárate, Blanca Taboada, Martha Yocupicio-Monroy, Carlos F Arias
The human virome is composed by the set of all viruses, eukaryotic and prokaryotic, present in the human body; as each body compartment constitutes a different microenvironment, the virome varies with the body part. Additionally, other factors influence the virome composition, such as age, diet, and the presence of other components of the microbiome. The study of the virome takes advantage of the development of next generation sequencing, and has allowed the discovery of novel viruses, and the characterization of the virome in healthy and diseased individuals, allowing the association of viruses with specific diseases...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391488/age-associated-microbiome-shows-the-giant-panda-lives-on-hemicelluloses-not-on-cellulose
#18
Wenping Zhang, Wenbin Liu, Rong Hou, Liang Zhang, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Huaibo Sun, Junjin Xie, Yunfei Zhang, Chengdong Wang, Lifeng Li, Bisong Yue, He Huang, Hairui Wang, Fujun Shen, Zhihe Zhang
The giant panda feeds almost exclusively on bamboo, a diet highly enriched in lignin and cellulose, but is characterized by a digestive tract similar to carnivores. It is still large unknown if and how the giant panda gut microbiota contributes to lignin and cellulose degradation. Here we show the giant pandas' gut microbiota does not significantly contribute to cellulose and lignin degradation. We found that no operational taxonomic unit had a nearest neighbor identified as a cellulolytic species or strain with a significant higher abundance in juvenile than cubs, a very low abundance of putative lignin and cellulose genes existed in part of analyzing samples but a significant higher abundance of genes involved in starch and hemicellulose degradation in juveniles than cubs...
February 1, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384067/interplay-of-gut-microbiota-probiotics-in-obesity-a-review
#19
Ramesh Pothuraju, Raj Kumar Sharma
Excess caloric intake and less energy expenditure (eg. physical inactivity) are associated with acquired metabolic disorders due to sedentary life style. Pharmacological treatments are less effective in preventing obesity. Type of diet influence the gut microbiome alteration and it is interrelated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Modified gut microbiota by the harmful bacterial components (eg: lipopolysaccharides) is linked with the metabolic endotoxemia (low-grade inflammation) which results in damage to the gut barrier function...
January 30, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373727/determinants-of-reduced-genetic-capacity-for-butyrate-synthesis-by-the-gut-microbiome-in-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Emilio J Laserna-Mendieta, Adam G Clooney, Julián F Carretero-Gomez, Carthage Moran, Donal Sheehan, James A Nolan, Colin Hill, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce, Fergus Shanahan, Marcus J Claesson
Background and Aims: Alterations in short chain fatty acid metabolism, particularly butyrate, have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease, but results have been conflicting because of small study numbers and failure to distinguish disease type, activity or other variables such as diet. We performed a comparative assessment of the capacity of the microbiota for butyrate synthesis, by quantifying butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase [BCoAT] gene content in stool from patients with Crohn's disease [CD; n = 71], ulcerative colitis [UC; n = 58] and controls [n = 75], and determined whether it was related to active vs inactive inflammation, microbial diversity, and composition and/or dietary habits...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
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