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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077389/enhanced-oxidative-capacity-of-ground-squirrel-brain-mitochondria-during-hibernation
#1
Mallory A Ballinger, Christine Schwartz, Matthew T Andrews
During hibernation, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) regularly cycle between bouts of torpor and interbout arousal (IBA).  Most of the brain is electrically quiescent during torpor, but regains activity quickly upon arousal to IBA resulting in extreme oscillations in energy demand during hibernation.  We predicted increased functional capacity of brain mitochondria during hibernation compared to spring to accommodate the variable energy demands of hibernation.  To address this hypothesis, we examined mitochondrial bioenergetics in the ground squirrel brain across three time points: spring (SP), torpor (TOR), and IBA...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072544/why-can-unnatural-electron-acceptors-protect-photosynthesizing-organisms-but-kill-the-others
#2
Stanislav Anatolievich Pshenichnyuk, Alexei S Komolov
The polychlorinated compounds captafol (CPL) and 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INI) are able to protect plants acting as a fungicide or an inductor of plant resistance, respectively. At the same time, CPL and INI are dangerous for the respiratory organisms, i.e. mammalians, bacteria and fungi. The high electron-withdrawing ability of these compounds enables them to serve as unnatural electron acceptors in the cellular ambient near to electron transport pathways located in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts or in the mitochondrial respiratory chain...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071918/stereoelectronic-effect-induced-conductance-switching-in-aromatic-chain-single-molecule-junctions
#3
Na Xin, Jinying Wang, Chuancheng Jia, Zitong Liu, Xisha Zhang, Chenmin Yu, Mingliang Li, Shuopei Wang, Yao Gong, Hantao Sun, Guanxin Zhang, Zhirong Liu, Guangyu Zhang, Jianhui Liao, Deqing Zhang, Xuefeng Guo
Biphenyl, as the elementary unit of organic functional materials, has been widely used in electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, over decades little has been fundamentally understood regarding how the intramolecular conformation of biphenyl dynamically affects its transport properties at the single-molecule level. Here, we establish the stereoelectronic effect of biphenyl on its electrical conductance based on the platform of graphene-molecule single-molecule junctions, where a specifically designed hexaphenyl aromatic chain molecule is covalently sandwiched between nanogapped graphene point contacts to create stable single-molecule junctions...
January 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071871/harmonization-of-mangiferin-on-methylmercury-engendered-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#4
Shubhankar Das, Ajanta Paul, Kamalesh D Mumbrekar, Satish B S Rao
Mangiferin (MGN), a C-glucosylxanthone abundantly found in mango plants, was studied for its potential to ameliorate methylmercury (MeHg) induced mitochondrial damage in HepG2 (human hepatocarcinoma) cell line. Cell viability experiments performed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) showed protective property of MGN in annulling MeHg-induced cytotoxicity. Conditioning the cells with optimal dose of MGN (50 µM) lowered MeHg-induced oxidative stress, calcium influx/efflux, depletion of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential and prevented mitochondrial fission as observed by decrease in Mitotracker red fluorescence, expression of pDRP1 (serine 616), and DRP1 levels...
February 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070695/barth-syndrome-connecting-cardiolipin-to-cardiomyopathy
#5
REVIEW
Nikita Ikon, Robert O Ryan
The Barth syndrome (BTHS) is caused by an inborn error of metabolism that manifests characteristic phenotypic features including altered mitochondrial membrane phospholipids, lactic acidosis, organic acid-uria, skeletal muscle weakness and cardiomyopathy. The underlying cause of BTHS has been definitively traced to mutations in the tafazzin (TAZ) gene locus on chromosome X. TAZ encodes a phospholipid transacylase that promotes cardiolipin acyl chain remodeling. Absence of tafazzin activity results in cardiolipin molecular species heterogeneity, increased levels of monolysocardiolipin and lower cardiolipin abundance...
January 9, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070154/proposed-mechanisms-of-photobiomodulation-or-low-level-light-therapy
#6
Lucas Freitas de Freitas, Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT), has been known for almost 50 years but still has not gained widespread acceptance, largely due to uncertainty about the molecular, cellular, and tissular mechanisms of action. However, in recent years, much knowledge has been gained in this area, which will be summarized in this review. One of the most important chromophores is cytochrome c oxidase (unit IV in the mitochondrial respiratory chain), which contains both heme and copper centers and absorbs light into the near-infra-red region...
May 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069455/5-hydroxy-1-4-naphthalenedione-exerts-anticancer-effects-on-glioma-cells-through-interaction-with-the-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain
#7
Kastytis Sidlauskas, Ruta Sidlauskiene, Ningning Li, Julius Liobikas
Survival of patients with glioblastoma remains within the range of several months despite advances in therapeutic options. We have already shown that 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione (juglone) exerts antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and cytotoxic effects on glioma C6 cells. Here, we further revealed that juglone is relatively selective to glioma cells as compared to the normal glial culture, and investigated its mechanisms of action. The incubation of glioma C6 cells with juglone generated high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067254/unusual-respiratory-capacity-and-nitrogen-metabolism-in-a-parcubacterium-od1-of-the-candidate-phyla-radiation
#8
Cindy J Castelle, Christopher T Brown, Brian C Thomas, Kenneth H Williams, Jillian F Banfield
The Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) is a large group of bacteria, the scale of which approaches that of all other bacteria. CPR organisms are inferred to depend on other community members for many basic cellular building blocks and all appear to be obligate anaerobes. To date, there has been no evidence for any significant respiratory capacity in an organism from this radiation. Here we report a curated draft genome for 'Candidatus Parcunitrobacter nitroensis' a member of the Parcubacteria (OD1) superphylum of the CPR...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065841/the-neurotoxic-mechanisms-of-amphetamine-step-by-step-for-striatal-dopamine-depletion
#9
Che-Se Tung, Shang-Tang Chang, Chuen-Lin Huang, Nai-Kuei Huang
Amphetamine (AMPH) is a commonly abused psychostimulant that induces neuronal cell death/degeneration in humans and experimental animals. Although multiple neurotoxic mechanisms of AMPH have been intensively investigated, the interplay between these mechanisms has remained elusive. In this study, we used a rat model of AMPH-induced long-lasting striatal dopamine (DA) depletion and identified mechanisms of neurotoxicity, energy failure, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress. Pretreatment with nicotinamide (NAM, a co-factor for the electron transport chain) blocked AMPH-induced free radical formation, energy failure, and striatal DA decrease...
January 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064392/chemical-composition-structural-properties-and-source-apportionment-of-organic-macromolecules-in-atmospheric-pm10-in-a-coastal-city-of-southeast-china
#10
Yanting Chen, Wenjiao Du, Jinsheng Chen, Youwei Hong, Jinping Zhao, Lingling Xu, Hang Xiao
Particulate matter (PM10) associated with the fractions of organic macromolecules, including humic acid (HA), kerogen + black carbon (KB), and black carbon (BC), was determined during summer and winter at urban and suburban sites in a coastal city of southeast China. The organic macromolecules were characterized by elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and their sources were identified by using stable carbon/nitrogen isotope (δ(13)C/δ(15)N) and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Model...
January 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063846/systematic-expression-analysis-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-identifies-ndufs1-as-a-biomarker-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
Jörg Ellinger, Mirjam Poss, Maria Brüggemann, Arabella Gromes, Doris Schmidt, Nadja Ellinger, Yuri Tolkach, Dimo Dietrich, Glen Kristiansen, Stefan C Müller
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial dysfunction is common in cancer, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain is often affected in carcinogenesis. So far, little is known about the expression of the mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) subunits in clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (ccRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An expression profile of the mitochondrial complex I subunits was determined using the NextBio database. Subsequently, the expression of selected subunits was experimentally validated on mRNA (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein (Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry) level...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062414/a-novel-complex-i-inhibitor-protects-against-hypertension-induced-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#12
Nobutoshi Matsumura, Ian M Robertson, Shereen M Hamza, Carrie-Lynn M Soltys, Miranda M Sung, Grant Masson, Donna L Beker, Jason R B Dyck
Since left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) increases the susceptibility for the development of other cardiac conditions, pharmacotherapy that mitigates pathological cardiac remodeling may prove to be beneficial in patients with LVH. Previous work has shown that the activation of the energy-sensing kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), can inhibit some of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in LVH. Of interest, metformin activates AMPK through its inhibition of mitochondrial complex 1 in the electron transport chain, and can prevent LVH induced by pressure overload...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059762/highly-stretchable-polymer-semiconductor-films-through-the-nanoconfinement-effect
#13
Jie Xu, Sihong Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan Wang, Chenxin Zhu, Shaochuan Luo, Lihua Jin, Xiaodan Gu, Shucheng Chen, Vivian R Feig, John W F To, Simon Rondeau-Gagné, Joonsuk Park, Bob C Schroeder, Chien Lu, Jin Young Oh, Yanming Wang, Yun-Hi Kim, He Yan, Robert Sinclair, Dongshan Zhou, Gi Xue, Boris Murmann, Christian Linder, Wei Cai, Jeffery B-H Tok, Jong Won Chung, Zhenan Bao
Soft and conformable wearable electronics require stretchable semiconductors, but existing ones typically sacrifice charge transport mobility to achieve stretchability. We explore a concept based on the nanoconfinement of polymers to substantially improve the stretchability of polymer semiconductors, without affecting charge transport mobility. The increased polymer chain dynamics under nanoconfinement significantly reduces the modulus of the conjugated polymer and largely delays the onset of crack formation under strain...
January 6, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049716/sideroflexin-3-is-a-%C3%AE-synuclein-dependent-mitochondrial-protein-that-regulates-synaptic-morphology
#14
Inês S Amorim, Laura C Graham, Roderick N Carter, Nicholas M Morton, Fella Hammachi, Tilo Kunath, Giuseppa Pennetta, Sarah M Carpanini, Jean C Manson, Douglas J Lamont, Thomas M Wishart, Thomas H Gillingwater
α-synuclein plays a central role in Parkinson's disease, where it contributes to the vulnerability of synapses to degeneration. However, the downstream mechanisms through which α-synuclein controls synaptic stability and degeneration are not fully understood. Here, comparative proteomics on synapses isolated from α-synuclein(-/-) mouse brain identified mitochondrial proteins as primary targets of α-synuclein, revealing 37 mitochondrial proteins not previously linked to α-synuclein or neurodegeneration pathways...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049330/cu-metalated-carbyne-acting-as-a-promising-molecular-wire
#15
Xingchen Tu, Hao Wang, Ziyong Shen, Yongfeng Wang, Stefano Sanvito, Shimin Hou
The atomic structure and electronic transport properties of Cu-metalated carbyne are investigated by using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that the incorporation of Cu atom in carbyne improves its robustness against Peierls distortion, thus to make Cu-metalated carbyne behave as a one-dimensional metal. When a finite Cu-metalated carbyne chain is connected to two (111)-oriented platinum electrodes, nearly linear current-voltage characteristics are obtained for both the atop and adatom binding sites...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040647/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-phenol-tolerance-mechanism-of-evolved-chlorella-strain
#16
Lin Zhou, Dujia Cheng, Liang Wang, Juan Gao, Quanyu Zhao, Wei Wei, Yuhan Sun
The growth of microalgae is inhibited by high concentration phenol due to reactive oxygen species. An evolved strain tolerated to 500mg/L phenol, Chlorella sp. L5, was obtained in previous study. In this study, comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed for Chlorella sp. L5 and its original strain (Chlorella sp. L3). The tolerance mechanism of Chlorella sp. L5 for high concentration phenol was explored on genome scale. It was identified that the up-regulations of the related genes according to antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, CAT and GR) and carotenoids (astaxanthin, lutein and lycopene) biosynthesis had critical roles to tolerate high concentration phenol...
December 22, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040265/pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4-deficiency-attenuates-cisplatin-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#17
Chang Joo Oh, Chae-Myeong Ha, Young-Keun Choi, Sungmi Park, Mi Sun Choe, Nam Ho Jeoung, Yang Hoon Huh, Hyo-Jeong Kim, Hee-Seok Kweon, Ji-Min Lee, Sun Joo Lee, Jae-Han Jeon, Robert A Harris, Keun-Gyu Park, In-Kyu Lee
Clinical prescription of cisplatin, one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents, is limited by its side effects, particularly tubular injury-associated nephrotoxicity. Since details of the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, we investigated the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Among the PDK isoforms, PDK4 mRNA and protein levels were markedly increased in the kidneys of mice treated with cisplatin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation was involved in cisplatin-induced renal PDK4 expression...
December 28, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035368/5-aminolevulinic-acid-enhances-mitochondrial-stress-upon-ionizing-irradiation-exposure-and-increases-delayed-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-cell-death-in-glioma-cells
#18
Kunihiro Ueta, Junkoh Yamamoto, Tohru Tanaka, Yoshiteru Nakano, Takehiro Kitagawa, Shigeru Nishizawa
5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) can accumulate protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumour cell mitochondria and is well known for its utility in fluorescence-guided resection of malignant gliomas as a live molecular marker. Previously, we and other authors demonstrated that 5-ALA has a radiosensitizing effect for tumours. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the radiosensitizing effect of 5-ALA by focusing on glioma cell mitochondria. Using an enhancer (ciprofloxacin) of 5-ALA-induced PpIX accumulation, we evaluated the influence of ionizing irradiation (IR) and delayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production 12 h after IR by colony-forming assay and flow cytometry (FCM) with different amounts of PpIX accumulation...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035092/spin-sensitive-interference-due-to-majorana-state-on-the-interface-between-normal-and-superconducting-leads
#19
J Barański, A Kobiałka, T Domański
We investigate the subgap spectrum and transport properties of the quantum dot on the interface between the metallic and superconducting leads and additionally side-coupled to the edge of the topological superconducting (TS) chain, hosting the Majorana quasiparticle. Due to the chiral nature of the Majorana states only one spin component of the quantum dot electrons (say [Formula: see text]) is directly affected, however the proximity induced on-dot pairing transmits its influence on the opposite spin as well...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024157/hybrid-metal-organic-chalcogenide-nanowires-with-electrically-conductive-inorganic-core-through-diamondoid-directed-assembly
#20
Hao Yan, J Nathan Hohman, Fei Hua Li, Chunjing Jia, Diego Solis-Ibarra, Bin Wu, Jeremy E P Dahl, Robert M K Carlson, Boryslav A Tkachenko, Andrey A Fokin, Peter R Schreiner, Arturas Vailionis, Taeho Roy Kim, Thomas P Devereaux, Zhi-Xun Shen, Nicholas A Melosh
Controlling inorganic structure and dimensionality through structure-directing agents is a versatile approach for new materials synthesis that has been used extensively for metal-organic frameworks and coordination polymers. However, the lack of 'solid' inorganic cores requires charge transport through single-atom chains and/or organic groups, limiting their electronic properties. Here, we report that strongly interacting diamondoid structure-directing agents guide the growth of hybrid metal-organic chalcogenide nanowires with solid inorganic cores having three-atom cross-sections, representing the smallest possible nanowires...
December 26, 2016: Nature Materials
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