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Electron transport chain

Mark A Frye, Euijung Ryu, Malik Nassan, Gregory D Jenkins, Ana C Andreazza, Jared M Evans, Susan L McElroy, Devin Oglesbee, W Edward Highsmith, Joanna M Biernacka
Converging genetic, postmortem gene-expression, cellular, and neuroimaging data implicate mitochondrial dysfunction in bipolar disorder. This study was conducted to investigate whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and single nucleotide variants (SNVs) are associated with sub-phenotypes of bipolar disorder. MtDNA from 224 patients with Bipolar I disorder (BPI) was sequenced, and association of sequence variations with 3 sub-phenotypes (psychosis, rapid cycling, and adolescent illness onset) was evaluated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Erik Norberg, Ana Lako, Pei-Hsuan Chen, Illana A Stanley, Feng Zhou, Scott B Ficarro, Bjoern Chapuy, Linfeng Chen, Scott Rodig, Donghyuk Shin, Dong Wook Choi, Sangho Lee, Margaret A Shipp, Jarrod A Marto, Nika N Danial
Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are a highly heterogeneous group of tumors in which subsets share molecular features revealed by gene expression profiles and metabolic fingerprints. While B-cell receptor (BCR)-dependent DLBCLs are glycolytic, OxPhos-DLBCLs rely on mitochondrial energy transduction and nutrient utilization pathways that provide pro-survival benefits independent of BCR signaling. Integral to these metabolic distinctions is elevated mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) activity in OxPhos-DLBCLs compared with BCR-DLBCLs, which is linked to greater protein abundance of ETC components...
October 21, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Bingxian Yang, Qijie Guan, Jingkui Tian, Setsuko Komatsu
: High level of UV-B irradiation followed by dark treatment (HUV-B+D) causes accumulation of secondary metabolites in Clematis terniflora DC. To investigate the response mechanism under HUV-B+D, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed in leaves of C. terniflora. The number of genes related to tetrapyrrole synthesis, amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and mitochondrial electron transport chains was hierarchically changed in leaves of C. terniflora under HUV-B+D...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
C O Brito, J L L Dutra, T N Dias, L T Barbosa, C S Nascimento, A P G Pinto, L F T Albino, R P M Fernandes, M S Macário, J S Melo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine on performance, protein deposition and respiratory chain gene expression in male broilers. A total of 252 Cobb 500 broilers were distributed, in a completely randomized design, into four treatments with seven replicates of nine birds per experimental unit. Experimental treatments consisted of diets based on corn and soybean meal, with four levels of digestible lysine: 1.016%, 1.099%, 1.182% and 1.265%. The increase in the level of digestible lysine in the diet provided higher weight gains, feed efficiency and body protein deposition...
October 21, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Mei Chen, Jin Zhang, Lei Zhao, Jiale Xing, Lianwei Peng, Tingyun Kuang, Jean-David Rochaix, Fang Huang
We have identified hpm91, a Chlamydomonas mutant lacking Proton Gradient Regulation5 (PGR5) capable of producing hydrogen (H2 ) for 25 days with more than 30-fold yield increase compared to wild type. Thus hpm91 displays a higher capacity of H2 production than a previously characterised pgr5 mutant. Physiological and biochemical characterization of hpm91 reveal that the prolonged H2 production is due to enhanced stability of PSII which correlates with increased ROS scavenging capacity during sulfur deprivation...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Mª Del Mar Blanquer-Rosselló, Reyniel Hernández-López, Pilar Roca, Jordi Oliver, Adamo Valle
BACKGROUND: The polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) is found in the skin of red grapes and has been reported to exhibit anticancer properties. The antitumor effects of RSV in the gastrointestinal tract have gained considerable interest due to the high exposure of this tissue to this dietary compound. One of the hallmarks of cancer cells is their particular metabolism mainly relying on glycolysis for ATP production rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Although RSV has been described to act as a calorie-restriction mimetic, modulating energy metabolism in normal tissues, little efforts have been done to study the effects of this polyphenol in the metabolism of cancer cells...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gargi Mahapatra, Ashwathy Varughese, Qinqin Ji, Icksoo Lee, Jenney Liu, Asmita Vaishnav, Christopher Sinkler, Alexandr A Kapralov, Carlos T Moraes, Thomas H Sanderson, Timothy L Stemmler, Lawrence I Grossman, Valerian E Kagan, Joseph S Brunzelle, Arthur R Salomon, Brian F P Edwards, Maik Hüttemann
Mammalian cytochrome c (Cytc) plays a key role in cellular life and death decisions, functioning as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain (ETC) and as a trigger of apoptosis when released from the mitochondria. However, its regulation is not well understood. We show that the major fraction of Cytc isolated from kidneys is phosphorylated on Thr28, leading to a partial inhibition of respiration in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase. To further study the effect of Cytc phosphorylation in vitro, we generated Thr28Glu phosphomimetic Cytc, revealing superior behavior regarding protein stability and its ability to degrade reactive oxygen species compared to wild-type unphosphorylated Cytc...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
M A Sinetova, D A Los
Systemic analysis of stress transcriptomes of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis revealed that all stress-induced genes can be separated into two groups: one is clustered around heat-shock- and another - around cold-shock inducible genes. Genes for so-called heat shock proteins (HSPs) are induced by various stressors, e.g. heat, salt, hyperosmotic environment, reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in light intensity and quality, or in the redox potential of the photosynthetic electron transport chain components...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Hyunbum Kang, Wonho Lee, Jiho Oh, Taesu Kim, Changyeon Lee, Bumjoon J Kim
All-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs), consisting of conjugated polymers as both electron donor (PD) and acceptor (PA), have recently attracted great attention. Remarkable progress has been achieved during the past few years, with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) now approaching 8%. In this Account, we first discuss the major advantages of all-PSCs over fullerene-polymer solar cells (fullerene-PSCs): (i) high light absorption and chemical tunability of PA, which affords simultaneous enhancement of both the short-circuit current density (JSC) and the open-circuit voltage (VOC), and (ii) superior long-term stability (in particular, thermal and mechanical stability) of all-PSCs due to entangled long PA chains...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ying Peng, Pu Xia, Junjiang Zhang, Daniel L Villeneuve, Jiamin Zhang, Zhihao Wang, Si Wei, Hongxia Yu, Xiaowei Zhang
Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are analogs of PBDEs with hundreds of possible structures and are frequently detected in the environment. However, the in vivo evidence on the toxicity of OH-PBDEs is still very limited. Here the developmental toxicity of 6-OH-BDE47, a predominant congener of OH-PBDEs detected in the environment, in chicken embryos was assessed using a toxicogenomic approach. Fertilized chicken eggs were dosed via in ovo administration of 0.006 to 0.474 nmol 6-OH-BDE47/g egg followed by 18-days incubation...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Jiong Zhao, Honggi Nam, Thuc Hue Ly, Seok Joon Yun, Sera Kim, Suyeon Cho, Heejun Yang, Young Hee Lee
Defects in bulk crystals can be classified into vacancies, interstitials, grain boundaries, stacking faults, dislocations, and so forth. In particular, the vacancy in semiconductors is a primary defect that governs electrical transport. Concentration of vacancies depends mainly on the growth conditions. Individual vacancies instead of aggregated vacancies are usually energetically more favorable at room temperature because of the entropy contribution. This phenomenon is not guaranteed in van der Waals 2D materials due to the reduced dimensionality (reduced entropy)...
October 17, 2016: Small
Nick Lawson, Chung-Han Hsieh, Dana March, Xinnan Wang
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by physical and mental exhaustion. The underlying pathogenesis is unknown, but impairments in certain mitochondrial functions have been found in some CFS patients. To thoroughly reveal mitochondrial deficiencies in CFS patients, here we examine the key aspects of mitochondrial function in blood cells from a paired CFS patient-control series. Surprisingly, we discover that in patients the ATP levels are higher and mitochondrial cristae are more condensed compared to their paired controls, while the mitochondrial crista length, mitochondrial size, shape, density, membrane potential, and enzymatic activities of the complexes in the electron transport chain remain intact...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Daria Chrobok, Simon R Law, Bastiaan Brouwer, Pernilla Lindén, Agnieszka Ziolkowska, Daniela Liebsch, Reena Narsai, Bozena Szal, Thomas Moritz, Nicolas Rouhier, James Whelan, Per Gardestrom, Olivier Keech
The functions of mitochondria during leaf senescence, a type of programmed cell death aiming at the massive retrieval of nutrients from the senescing organ to the rest of the plant, remain elusive. Here, combining experimental and analytical approaches, we showed that mitochondrial integrity is conserved until the latest stages of leaf senescence, while their number drops by 30%. Adenylate phosphorylation state assays and mitochondrial respiratory measurements indicated that the leaf energy status is also maintained during this time period...
October 15, 2016: Plant Physiology
Bradley W Abramson, Benjamin Kachel, David M Kramer, Daniel C Ducat
In plants, a limited capacity to utilize or export the end products of the Calvin Benson cycle (CB) from photosynthetically-active source cells to non-photosynthetic sink cells can result in reduced carbon capture, photosynthetic electron transport (PET) and lowered photochemical efficiency. The downregulation of photosynthesis caused by reduced capacity to utilize photosynthate has been termed "sink limitation". Recently, several cyanobacterial and algal strains engineered to over-produce target metabolites have exhibited increased photochemistry suggesting possible source-sink regulatory mechanisms may be involved...
October 13, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mark V Pinti, Quincy A Hathaway, John M Hollander
Heart failure (HF) is an endpoint resulting from a number of disease states. The prognosis for HF patients is poor with survival rates precipitously low. Energy metabolism is centrally linked to the development of HF and it involves the proteomic remodeling of numerous pathways, many of which are targeted to the mitochondrion. MicroRNA (miRNA) are noncoding RNAs that influence post-transcriptional gene regulation. MiRNA have garnered considerable attention for their ability to orchestrate changes to the transcriptome and ultimately the proteome, during HF...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Constanze Pinske, R Gary Sawers
Numerous recent developments in the biochemistry, molecular biology, and physiology of formate and H2 metabolism and of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase (Hyd) cofactor biosynthetic machinery are highlighted. Formate export and import by the aquaporin-like pentameric formate channel FocA is governed by interaction with pyruvate formate-lyase, the enzyme that generates formate. Formate is disproportionated by the reversible formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which has been isolated, allowing biochemical dissection of evolutionary parallels with complex I of the respiratory chain...
October 2016: EcoSal Plus
Xiaoli Peng, Jing Gan, Qian Wang, Zhenqiang Shi, Xiaodong Xia
3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is the most toxic chloropropanols compounds in foodstuff which mainly generated during thermal processing. Kidney is one of the primary target organs for 3-MCPD. Using human embryonic kidney cell (HEK293FT) as an in vitro model, we found that 3-MCPD caused concentration-dependent increase in cytoxicity as assessed by dye uptake, lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and MTT assays. HEK293FT cell treated with 3-MCPD suffered the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and the impairment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, especially the reduced amount of mRNA expression and protein synthesis of electron transport chain complex II, complex IV, and complex III...
October 9, 2016: Toxicology
Nicola Vannini, Mukul Girotra, Olaia Naveiras, Gennady Nikitin, Vasco Campos, Sonja Giger, Aline Roch, Johan Auwerx, Matthias P Lutolf
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) differ from their committed progeny by relying primarily on anaerobic glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for energy production. However, whether this change in the metabolic program is the cause or the consequence of the unique function of HSCs remains unknown. Here we show that enforced modulation of energy metabolism impacts HSC self-renewal. Lowering the mitochondrial activity of HSCs by chemically uncoupling the electron transport chain drives self-renewal under culture conditions that normally induce rapid differentiation...
October 12, 2016: Nature Communications
Michael Niklas, Mónica Benito, Sigmund Kohler, Gloria Platero
We analyze an AC-driven dimer chain connected to a strongly biased electron source and drain. It turns out that the resulting transport exhibits fingerprints of topology. They are particularly visible in the driving-induced current suppression and the Fano factor. Thus, shot noise measurements provide a topological phase diagram as a function of the driving parameters. The observed phenomena can be explained physically by a mapping to an effective time-independent Hamiltonian and the emergence of edge states...
November 11, 2016: Nanotechnology
Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes, Fernanda Vieira da Silva Cruz, Elisa Monteze Bicalho, Felipe Viègas Borges, Marcia Bacelar Fonseca, Philippe Juneau, Queila Souza Garcia
Glyphosate-formulations are widely used in the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna) with little or no control, threatening population of the endangered species Dimorphandra wilsonii. We investigated the toxicity of different concentrations (0, 5, 25 and 50 mg l(-1)) of glyphosate acid and one of its formulations (Roundup(®)) on seed germination in D. wilsonii. Glyphosate acid and Roundup drastically decreased seed germination by decreasing seed respiration rates. The activation of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase assure no hydrogen peroxide accumulation in exposed seeds...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Pollution
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