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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446709/control-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function-by-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system
#1
REVIEW
Piotr Bragoszewski, Michal Turek, Agnieszka Chacinska
Mitochondria are pivotal organelles in eukaryotic cells. The complex proteome of mitochondria comprises proteins that are encoded by nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins requires their transport in an unfolded state with a high risk of misfolding. The mislocalization of mitochondrial proteins is deleterious to the cell. The electron transport chain in mitochondria is a source of reactive oxygen species that damage proteins. Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to many pathological conditions and, together with the loss of cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis), are hallmarks of ageing and ageing-related degeneration diseases...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443664/theory-and-electrochemistry-of-cytochrome-c
#2
Salman S Seyedi, Morteza M M Waskasi, Dmitry V Matyushov
Extensive simulations of cytochrome c in solution are performed to address the apparent contradiction between large reorganization energies of protein electron transfer typically reported by atomistic simulations and much smaller values produced by protein electrochemistry. The two sets of data are reconciled by deriving the activation barrier for electrochemical reaction in terms of an effective reorganization energy composed of half the Stokes shift (characterizing the medium polarization in response to electron transfer) and the variance reorganization energy (characterizing the breadth of electrostatic fluctuations)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443479/melatonin-improves-mitochondrial-respiration-in-syncytiotrophoblasts-from-placentas-of-obese-women
#3
Kayla E Ireland, Alina Maloyan, Leslie Myatt
Maternal obesity is associated with increased oxidative stress but decreased placental mitochondrial respiration and expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I to V. Melatonin acts as an antioxidant and prevents oxidative stress-induced changes in cytotrophoblasts. Placentas were collected at term by cesarean delivery from obese (first trimester body mass index [BMI] ≥30, n = 10) or lean (BMI < 25, n = 6) women. Cytotrophoblasts were isolated and allowed to syncytialize for 72 hours with or without melatonin (0...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442376/copper-sulfate-pretreatment-prevents-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-damage-and-apoptosis-against-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity
#4
Moisés Rubio-Osornio, Marisol Orozco-Ibarra, Araceli Díaz-Ruiz, Eduardo Brambila, Marie-Catherine Boll, Antonio Monroy-Noyola, Jorge Guevara, Sergio Montes, Camilo Ríos
Intrastriatal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) is considered a model to reproduce some biochemical alterations observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Among those alterations, inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity, increased free radical production and reduced antioxidant responses have been reported. Copper (Cu) plays an important role in the metabolism and antioxidative responses through its participation as a cofactor in the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme (COX), Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), and metallothioneins...
April 22, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434671/resveratrol-improves-mitochondrial-function-in-the-remnant-kidney-from-5-6-nephrectomized-rats
#5
Yan Hui, Miaomiao Lu, Yarong Han, Hongli Zhou, Wei Liu, Lijing Li, Ruixia Jin
Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Resveratrol has been demonstrated to be beneficial for the recovery of kidney diseases. In this study, the 5/6 nephrectomized rat was used as a CKD model and the TGF-β1-exposed mouse mesangial cells were used as an in vitro model. Pathological examination showed that resveratrol treatment attenuated glomerular injury in the remnant kidney of 5/6 nephrectomized rat. Additionally, resveratrol improved mitochondrial function in vivo and in vitro, as evidenced by increasing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing ATP, decreasing reactive oxygen species production and enhancing activities of complex I and III...
April 20, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432755/mitochondria-and-ageing-role-in-heart-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue
#6
REVIEW
Kerstin Boengler, Maik Kosiol, Manuel Mayr, Rainer Schulz, Susanne Rohrbach
Age is the most important risk factor for most diseases. Mitochondria play a central role in bioenergetics and metabolism. In addition, several lines of evidence indicate the impact of mitochondria in lifespan determination and ageing. The best-known hypothesis to explain ageing is the free radical theory, which proposes that cells, organs, and organisms age because they accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage over time. Mitochondria play a central role as the principle source of intracellular ROS, which are mainly formed at the level of complex I and III of the respiratory chain...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432125/sequential-adaptive-changes-in-a-c-myc-driven-model-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
James M Dolezal, Huabo Wang, Sucheta Kulkarni, Laura Jackson, Jie Lu, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Eric S Goetzman, Sivakama Bharathi, Kevin Beezhold, Craig A Byersdorfer, Edward V Prochownik
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer that frequently over-expresses the c-Myc (Myc) oncoprotein. Using a mouse model of Myc-induced HCC, we studied the metabolic, biochemical and molecular changes accompanying HCC progression, regression and recurrence. These involved altered rates of pyruvate and fatty acid β-oxidation and the likely re-directing of glutamine into biosynthetic rather than energy-generating pathways. Initial tumors also showed reduced mitochondrial mass and differential contributions of electron transport chain Complexes I and II to respiration...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431972/mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-of-rat-hippocampus-after-treatment-with-the-antidepressants-desipramine-and-fluoxetine
#8
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Laura Bagini, Antonella Gorini, Nicoletta Brunello, Fabio Tascedda
Alterations in mitochondrial functions have been hypothesized to participate in the pathogenesis of depression, because brain bioenergetic abnormalities have been detected in depressed patients by neuroimaging in vivo studies. However, this hypothesis is not clearly demonstrated in experimental studies: some suggest that antidepressants are inhibitors of mitochondrial metabolism, while others observe the opposite. In this study, the effects of 21-day treatment with desipramine (15 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) were examined on the energy metabolism of rat hippocampus, evaluating the catalytic activity of regulatory enzymes of mitochondrial energy-yielding metabolic pathways...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431359/reconstruction-of-microbial-community-structures-as-evidences-for-soil-redox-coupled-reductive-dechlorination-of-pcp-in-a-mangrove-soil
#9
Yan Xu, Yan He, Xianjin Tang, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
The aim was to investigate the influence of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the soil microbial communities and the coupled mechanism between PCP reductive dechlorination and soil redox under anaerobic condition. Accordingly, a slurry incubation experiment was carried out in which bacterial and archaeal communities were detected by MiSeq amplicon sequencing. The original microbial community balance was gradually disrupted and new microbial structure was reconstructed subsequently through self-regulation and acclimation during PCP transformation, coupling with the changes of soil biogeochemical redox dynamics...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429317/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-euglena
#10
Takahiro Ishikawa, Shun Tamaki, Takanori Maruta, Shigeru Shigeoka
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are by-products of various metabolic processes in aerobic organisms including Euglena. Chloroplasts and mitochondria are the main sites of ROS generation by photosynthesis and respiration, respectively, through the active electron transport chain. An efficient antioxidant network is required to maintain intracellular ROS pools at optimal conditions for redox homeostasis. A comparison with the networks of plants and animals revealed that Euglena has acquired some aspects of ROS metabolic process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428331/a-personalized-model-of-coq2-nephropathy-rescued-by-the-wild-type-coq2-allele-or-dietary-coenzyme-q10-supplementation
#11
Jun-Yi Zhu, Yulong Fu, Adam Richman, Zhanzheng Zhao, Patricio E Ray, Zhe Han
Clinical studies have identified patients with nephrotic syndrome caused by mutations in genes involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a lipid component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and an important antioxidant. However, the cellular mechanisms through which these mutations induce podocyte injury remain obscure. Here, we exploited the striking similarities between Drosophila nephrocytes and human podocytes to develop a Drosophila model of these renal diseases, and performed a systematic in vivo analysis assessing the role of CoQ10 pathway genes in renal function...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428045/sco2-deficient-mice-develop-increased-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#12
Shauna Hill, Sathyaseelan S Deepa, Kavithalakshmi Sataranatarajan, Pavithra Premkumar, Daniel Pulliam, Yuhong Liu, Vanessa Y Soto, Kathleen E Fischer, Holly Van Remmen
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is an essential transmembrane protein complex (Complex IV) in the mitochondrial respiratory electron chain. Mutations in genes responsible for the assembly of COX are associated with Leigh syndrome, cardiomyopathy, spinal muscular atrophy and other fatal metabolic disorders in humans. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the COX assembly protein Surf1 (Surf1(-/-) mice) paradoxically show a number of beneficial metabolic phenotypes including increased insulin sensitivity, upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, induction of stress response pathways and increased lifespan...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427248/caloric-restriction-induced-extension-of-chronological-lifespan-requires-intact-respiration-in-budding-yeast
#13
Young-Yon Kwon, Sung-Keun Lee, Cheol-Koo Lee
Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to extend lifespan and prevent cellular senescence in various species ranging from yeast to humans. Many effects of CR may contribute to extend lifespan. Specifically, CR prevents oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) by enhancing mitochondrial function. In this study, we characterized 33 single electron transport chain (ETC) gene-deletion strains to identify CR-induced chronological lifespan (CLS) extension mechanisms. Interestingly, defects in 17 of these 33 ETC genedeleted strains showed loss of both respiratory function and CR-induced CLS extension...
April 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426976/alternative-electron-transport-pathways-in-photosynthesis-a-confluence-of-regulation
#14
REVIEW
Jean Alric, Xenie Johnson
Photosynthetic reactions proceed along a linear electron transfer chain linking water oxidation at photosystem II (PSII) to CO2 reduction in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Alternative pathways poise the electron carriers along the chain in response to changing light, temperature and CO2 inputs, under prolonged hydration stress and during development. We describe recent literature that reports the physiological functions of new molecular players. Such highlights include the flavodiiron proteins and their important role in the green lineage...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424210/ucp2-attenuates-apoptosis-of-tubular-epithelial-cells-in-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#15
Yang Zhou, Ting Cai, Jing Xu, Lei Jiang, Jining Wu, Qi Sun, Ke Zen, Junwei Yang
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) plays critical roles in energy metabolism and cell survival. Previous investigations showed that UCP2 regulated the production of extracellular matrix and renal fibrosis. However, little is known about UCP2 in acute kidney injury. Here, we used UCP2 knockout mice to investigate the role of UCP2 in AKI model generated by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The UCP2 global knockout mice were born and growth normal without kidney histological abnormality or renal dysfunctions. As compared with littermates, deletion of UCP2 exacerbated I/R-induced AKI while increase of UCP2 by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) attenuated I/R injury...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421129/protective-effects-of-dinitrosyl-iron-complexes-under-oxidative-stress-in-the-heart
#16
Valery I Kapelko, Vladimir L Lakomkin, Alexander A Abramov, Elena V Lukoshkova, Nidas A Undrovinas, Asker Y Khapchaev, Vladimir P Shirinsky
Background. Nitric oxide can successfully compete with oxygen for sites of electron-transport chain in conditions of myocardial hypoxia. These features may prevent excessive oxidative stress occurring in cardiomyocytes during sudden hypoxia-reoxygenation. Aim. To study the action of the potent stable NO donor dinitrosyl iron complex with glutathione (Oxacom®) on the recovery of myocardial contractile function and Ca(2+) transients in cardiomyocytes during hypoxia-reoxygenation. Results. The isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min hypoxia followed by 30 min reoxygenation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419595/lipopolysaccharide-lps-binding-to-the-periplasmic-protein-lpta
#17
Kathryn M Schultz, Tanner J Lundquist, Candice S Klug
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the periplasmic protein LptA are two essential components of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS, also known as endotoxin, is found asymmetrically distributed in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and plays a role in the organism's natural defenses in adverse environmental conditions. LptA is a member of the lipopolysaccharide transport protein (Lpt) family, which also includes LptC, LptDE, and LptBFG2 , that functions to transport LPS through the periplasm to the outer leaflet of the outer membrane after MsbA flips LPS across the inner membrane...
April 17, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415582/respiratory-status-determines-the-effect-of-emodin-on-cell-viability
#18
Verónica I Dumit, Ralf M Zerbes, Stephanie Kaeser-Pebernard, Michal Rackiewicz, Mona T Wall, Christine Gretzmeier, Victoria Küttner, Martin van der Laan, Ralf J Braun, Jörn Dengjel
The anthraquinone emodin has been shown to have antineoplastic properties and a wealth of unconnected effects have been linked to its use, most of which are likely secondary outcomes of the drug treatment. The primary activity of emodin on cells has remained unknown. In the present study we demonstrate dramatic and extensive effects of emodin on the redox state of cells and on mitochondrial homeostasis, irrespectively of the cell type and organism, ranging from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to human cell lines and primary cells...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414919/functional-characterization-of-an-n-terminally-truncated-mitochondrial-porin-expressed-in-i-neurospora-crassa-i
#19
Sabbir Rahman Shuvo, Uliana Kovaltchouk, Abdullah Zubaer, Ayush Kumar, William A T Summers, Lynda J Donald, George Hausner, Deborah A Court
Mitochondrial porin, which forms voltage-dependent anion-selective channels (VDAC) in the outer membrane, can be folded into a 19 β-stranded barrel. The N-terminus of the protein is external to the barrel, and contains α-helical structure. Targeted modifications of the N‑terminal region have been assessed in artificial membranes, leading to different models for gating <i>in vitro</i>. However, the i<i>n vivo</i> requirements for gating and the N-terminal segment of porin are less well-understood...
April 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414421/shape-controlled-metal-free-catalysts-facet-sensitive-catalytic-activity-induced-by-the-arrangement-pattern-of-noncovalent-supramolecular-chains
#20
Guangwei Geng, Penglei Chen, Bo Guan, Lang Jiang, Zhongfei Xu, Dawei Di, Zeyi Tu, Weichang Hao, Yuanping Yi, Chuncheng Chen, Minghua Liu, Wenping Hu
Metal-free catalytic materials have recently received broad attention as promising alternatives to metal-involved catalysts. This is owing to their inherent capability to overcome the inevitable limitations of metal-involved catalysts, such as high sensitivity to poisoning, the limited reserves, high cost and scarcity of metals (especially noble metals), etc. However, the lack of shape-controlled metal-free catalysts with well-defined facets is a formidable bottleneck limiting our understandings on the underlying structure-activity relationship at atomic/molecular level, which thereby restrains their rational design...
April 19, 2017: ACS Nano
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