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Electron transport chain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551798/mitochondrial-proton-leak-plays-a-critical-role-in-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#1
Jiali Cheng, Gayani Nanayakkara, Ying Shao, Ramon Cueto, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Ye Tian, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Mitochondrial proton leak is the principal mechanism that incompletely couples substrate oxygen to ATP generation. This chapter briefly addresses the recent progress made in understanding the role of proton leak in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Majority of the proton conductance is mediated by uncoupling proteins (UCPs) located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. It is evident that the proton leak and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from electron transport chain (ETC) in mitochondria are linked to each other...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551782/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-dysfunction-in-failing-heart
#2
Freya L Sheeran, Salvatore Pepe
Energy insufficiency has been recognized as a key feature of systolic heart failure. Although mitochondria have long been known to sustain myocardial work energy supply, the capacity to therapeutically target mitochondrial bioenergetics dysfunction is hampered by a complex interplay of multiple perturbations that progressively compound causing myocardial failure and collapse. Compared to non-failing human donor hearts, activity rates of complexes I and IV, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NADPH-transhydrogenase, Nnt) and the Krebs cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and aconitase are markedly decreased in end-stage heart failure...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546431/disruption-of-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-function-potentiates-the-pro-apoptotic-effects-of-mapk-inhibition
#3
Andrew P Trotta, Jesse D Gelles, Madhavika N Serasinghe, Patrick Loi, Jack L Arbiser, Jerry E Chipuk
The mitochondrial network is a major site of ATP production through the coupled integration of the electron transport chain (ETC) with oxidative phosphorylation. In melanoma, arising from the Val600Glu mutation in the kinase v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAFV600E), oncogenic signaling enhances glucose-dependent metabolism, while reducing mitochondrial ATP production. Likewise, when BRAFV600E is pharmacologically inhibited by targeted therapies (e.g. PLX-4032/Vemurafenib), glucose metabolism is reduced and cells increase mitochondrial ATP production to sustain survival...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545499/pre-silencing-of-genes-involved-in-the-electron-transport-chain-etc-pathway-is-associated-with-responsiveness-to-abatacept-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
C Derambure, G Dzangue-Tchoupou, C Berard, N Vergne, M Hiron, M A D'Agostino, P Musette, O Vittecoq, T Lequerré
BACKGROUND: In the current context of personalized medicine, one of the major challenges in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is to identify biomarkers that predict drug responsiveness. From the European APPRAISE trial, our main objective was to identify a gene expression profile associated with responsiveness to abatacept (ABA) + methotrexate (MTX) and to understand the involvement of this signature in the pathophysiology of RA. METHODS: Whole human genome microarrays (4 × 44 K) were performed from a first subset of 36 patients with RA...
May 25, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544763/hp30-2-a-mitochondrial-prat-protein-for-import-of-signal-sequence-less-precursor-proteins-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#5
Claudia Rossig, John Gray, Oscar Valdes, Sachin Rustgi, Diter von Wettstein, Christiane Reinbothe, Steffen Reinbothe
Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain a family of putative preprotein and amino acid transporters designated PRAT. Here, we analyzed the role of two previously characterized PRAT protein family member, encoded by At3g49560 (HP30) and At5g24650 (HP30-2), in planta using a combination of genetic, cell biological and biochemical approaches. Expression studies and GFP tagging identified HP30-2 both in chloroplasts and mitochondria, whereas HP30 was located exclusively in chloroplasts. Biochemical evidence was obtained for an association of mitochondrial HP30-2 with two distinct protein complexes, one containing the inner membrane translocase TIM22 and the other containing an alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenase subunit (NDC1) implicated in a respiratory complex 1-like electron transport chain...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544760/a-novel-pattern-of-yolk-processing-in-developing-snake-eggs-colubridae-lampropeltini-and-its-functional-and-evolutionary-implications
#6
Kathryn G Powers, Daniel G Blackburn
Early amniotic vertebrates evolved large-yolked eggs that permitted production of well-developed, terrestrial hatchlings. This reproductive pattern required new mechanisms for cellularizing the yolk and mobilizing it for embryonic use. In birds, cells that line the yolk sac cavity phagocytose and digest the yolk material, a pattern that is commonly assumed to be universal among oviparous amniotes. However, recent evidence challenges the assumption that all squamate reptiles conform to the avian developmental pattern...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544262/synthesis-theoretical-studies-and-effect-on-the-photosynthetic-electron-transport-of-trifluoromethyl-arylamides
#7
Róbson Ricardo Teixeira, Marcus Vinícius de Andrade Barros, Gustavo Costa Bressan, Raoni Pais Siqueira, Fabíola Suelen Dos Santos, Michele Bertazzini, Rudolf Kiralj, Márcia Miguel Castro Ferreira, Giuseppe Forlani
BACKGROUND: The photosynthetic apparatus is targeted by various herbicides, including several amides such as diuron and linuron. Considering the need for the discovery of new active ingredients to cope with weed resistance, the synthesis of a series of trifluoromethyl aryl amides is herein described whose inhibitory properties were assessed in vitro on the photosynthetic electron transport chain, and in vivo on the growth of a model cyanobacterial strain. Theoretical studies were also carried out...
May 25, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543099/evidence-of-altered-mitochondrial-protein-expression-after-chronic-ethanol-consumption-in-the-aged-estrogen-deficient-female-rat-heart
#8
Alexandra M Garvin, J L Miller-Lee, D R Sharda, G M Kanski, J C Hunter, Donna H Korzick
BACKGROUND: Estrogen loss has been implicated to increase the risk of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in post-menopausal women. The purpose of this study was to identify novel mitochondrial protein targets for the treatment of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in aged women using a state-of-the-art proteomics approach. We hypothesized that chronic ethanol (EtOH) ingestion exacerbates maladaptive mitochondrial protein expression in the aged female heart METHODS: Adult (3 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 ovary-intact or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were randomly assigned an EtOH or control Lieber-DeCarli 'all liquid' diet for 20 wks...
May 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541538/coordinated-modifications-in-mesophyll-conductance-photosynthetic-potentials-and-leaf-nitrogen-contribute-to-explain-the-large-variation-in-foliage-net-assimilation-rates-across-quercus-ilex-provenances
#9
José Javier Peguero-Pina, Sergio Sisó, Jaume Flexas, Jeroni Galmés, Ülo Niinemets, Domingo Sancho-Knapik, Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín
Leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA) has been suggested to negatively affect the mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm), the most limiting factor for photosynthesis per unit leaf area (AN) in many evergreens. Several anatomical traits (i.e., greater leaf thickness and thicker cell walls) constraining gm could explain the negative scaling of gm and AN with LMA across species. However, the Mediterranean sclerophyll Quercus ilex L. shows a major within-species variation in functional traits (greater LMA associated with higher nitrogen content and AN) that might contrast the worldwide trends...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539870/a-select-subset-of-electron-transport-chain-genes-associated-with-optic-atrophy-link-mitochondria-to-axon-regeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Wendy M Knowlton, Thomas Hubert, Zilu Wu, Andrew D Chisholm, Yishi Jin
The role of mitochondria within injured neurons is an area of active interest since these organelles are vital for the production of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Using mechanosensory neurons of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to test regeneration after neuronal injury in vivo, we surveyed genes related to mitochondrial function for effects on axon regrowth after laser axotomy. Genes involved in mitochondrial transport, calcium uptake, mitophagy, or fission and fusion were largely dispensable for axon regrowth, with the exception of eat-3/Opa1...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536862/mechanisms-of-hepatotoxicity-associated-with-the-monocyclic-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotic-bal30072
#11
Franziska Paech, Simon Messner, Jochen Spickermann, Mathias Wind, Anne-Hortense Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne Therese Witschi, Brett A Howell, Rachel J Church, Jeff Woodhead, Marc Engelhardt, Stephan Krähenbühl, Martina Maurer
BAL30072 is a new monocyclic β-lactam antibiotic under development which provides a therapeutic option for the treatment of severe infections caused by multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the absence of liver toxicity in preclinical studies in rats and marmosets and in single dose clinical studies in humans, increased transaminase activities were observed in healthy subjects in multiple-dose clinical studies. We, therefore, initiated a comprehensive program to find out the mechanisms leading to hepatocellular injury using HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line), HepaRG cells (inducible hepatocytes derived from a human hepatic progenitor cell line), and human liver microtissue preparations...
May 23, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535032/applying-thienyl-side-chains-and-different-%C3%AF-bridge-to-aromatic-side-chain-substituted-indacenodithiophene-based-small-molecule-donors-for-high-performance-organic-solar-cells
#12
Jin-Liang Wang, Kai-Kai Liu, Sha Liu, Feng Liu, Hongbin Wu, Yong Cao, Thomas P Russell
A pair of linear tetrafluorinated small molecular donors, named as ThIDTTh4F and ThIDTSe4F, which are with tetrathienyl-substituted IDT as electron-rich central core, electron-deficient difluorobenzothiadiazole as acceptor units, and donor end-capping groups, but having differences in the π-bridge (thiophene and selenophene), were successfully synthesized and evaluated as donor materials in organic solar cells. Such π-bridge and core units in these small molecules play a decisive role in the formation of the nanoscale separation of the blend films, which were systematically investigated through absorption spectra, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction pattern, transmission electron microscopy images, resonant soft X-ray scattering profiles, and charge mobility measurement...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534391/understanding-electron-transport-in-disk-shaped-triphenylene-tris-naphthaleneimidazole-s-through-structural-modification-and-theoretical-investigation
#13
Yue Zhang, David A Hanifi, M Paz Fernandez-Liencres, Liana M Klivansky, Biwu Ma, Amparo Navarro, Yi Liu
Disk-shaped molecules with large aromatic π-surface are a class of organic semiconductors of which the charge carrier transport properties could be greatly facilitated by preferred intermolecular stacking of the π-surfaces. The optical and electronic properties are not only determined by the core aromatic structure of these disk-shaped molecules, but also strongly dependent on the sidechains, which directly impact the molecular self-assembly behavior in condensed phases. Triphenylene-tris(naphthaleneimidazole) (TP-TNI) is a recently reported n-type semiconductor featuring a large π-core and branched sidechains with an electron transporting mobility reaching 10-4 cm2V-1s-1...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533780/innate-immune-function-of-mitochondrial-metabolism
#14
REVIEW
David Sancho, Michel Enamorado, Johan Garaude
Sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns or danger signals by innate immune receptors drives a complex exchange of information. Innate receptor signaling not only triggers transcriptional events but also induces profound changes in metabolic fluxes, redox balance, and metabolite abundance thereby influencing immune cell function. Mitochondria are at the core of metabolic adaptation to the changing environment. The close interaction between mitochondrial metabolism and immune signaling has emerged as a central regulator of innate sensing...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531990/safety-protocol-for-the-gold-nanoparticles-administration-in-rats
#15
Alexandre Pastoris Muller, Gabriela Kozuchovski Ferreira, Sabrina da Silva, Renata Tiscoski Nesi, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Carolini Mendes, Ricardo A Pinho, Marcos Marques da Silva Paula, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, toxicity is still a concern; therefore, it is critical to study both the therapeutic and toxic properties of GNPs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the intraperitoneal administration of GNPs (20nm, at a concentration of 2.5mg/L for 21days) every 24 or 48h on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and electron chain transport (ETC) in the brain. Liver histology and blood marker analyses were conducted to establish a time routine of GNP administration...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531964/non-electron-transfer-chain-mitochondrial-defects-differently-regulate-hif-1%C3%AE-degradation-and-transcription
#16
Antonina N Shvetsova, Daniela Mennerich, Juha M Kerätär, J Kalervo Hiltunen, Thomas Kietzmann
Mitochondria are the main consumers of molecular O2 in a cell as well as an abundant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both, molecular oxygen and ROS are powerful regulators of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-subunit (HIF-α). While a number of mechanisms in the oxygen-dependent HIF-α regulation are quite well known, the view with respect to mitochondria is less clear. Several approaches using pharmacological or genetic tools targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) indicated that ROS, mainly formed at the Rieske cluster of complex III of the ETC, are drivers of HIF-1α activation...
May 8, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531280/effects-of-calorie-restriction-and-fiber-type-on-glucose-uptake-and-abundance-of-electron-transport-chain-and-oxidative-phosphorylation-proteins-in-single-fibers-from-old-rats
#17
Haiyan Wang, Edward B Arias, Carmen S Yu, Anthony R P Verkerke, Gregory D Cartee
Calorie restriction (CR; reducing calorie intake by ~40% below ad libitum) can increase glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated muscle. Because skeletal muscle is comprised of multiple, heterogeneous fiber types, our primary aim was to determine in 23-26 months-old rats the effects of CR (initiated at 14 weeks-old) and fiber type on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by single fibers of diverse fiber types. Isolated epitrochlearis muscles from AL and CR rats were incubated with [3H]-2-deoxyglucose ±insulin. Glucose uptake and fiber type were determined for single fibers dissected from the muscles...
May 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527624/understanding-aerobic-anaerobic-metabolism-in-caldibacillus-debilis-through-a-comparison-with-model-organisms
#18
Scott Wushke, Victor Spicer, Xiang Li Zhang, Brian Fristensky, Oleg V Krokhin, David B Levin, Nazim Cicek, Richard Sparling
Caldibacillus debilis GB1 is a facultative anaerobe isolated from a thermophilic aero-tolerant cellulolytic enrichment culture. There is a lack of representative proteomes of facultative anaerobic thermophilic Bacillaceae, exploring aerobic/anaerobic expression. The C. debilis GB1 genome was sequenced and annotated, and the proteome characterized under aerobic and anaerobic conditions while grown on cellobiose. The draft sequence of C. debilis GB1 contains a 3,340,752 bp chromosome and a 5,386 bp plasmid distributed over 49 contigs...
April 13, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525795/the-role-of-secretory-phospholipases-as-therapeutic-targets-for-the-treatment-of-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#19
REVIEW
Sriram Ravindran, Gino A Kurian
Myocardial reperfusion injury is a consequence of restoration of blood flow post ischemia. It is a complex process involving an acute inflammatory response activated by cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and mediated by free radicals, calcium overload leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Secretory phospholipases (sPLA2) are a group of pro-inflammatory molecules associated with diseases such as atherosclerosis, which increase the risk of reperfusion injury. This acute response leads to breakdown of phospholipids such as cardiolipin, found in the mitochondrial inner membrane, leading to disruption of energy producing enzymes of the electron transport chain...
May 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525507/subcellular-energetics-and-metabolism-a-cross-species-framework
#20
Robert H Thiele
Although it is generally believed that oxidative phosphorylation and adequate oxygenation are essential for life, human development occurs in a profoundly hypoxic environment and "normal" levels of oxygen during embryogenesis are even harmful. The ability of embryos not only to survive but also to thrive in such an environment is made possible by adaptations related to metabolic pathways. Similarly, cancerous cells are able not only to survive but also to grow and spread in environments that would typically be fatal for healthy adult cells...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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