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Electron transport chain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914013/inhibitory-effect-of-homocysteine-on-rat-neural-stem-cell-growth-in-vitro-is-associated-with-reduced-protein-levels-and-enzymatic-activities-of-aconitase-and-respiratory-complex-iii
#1
Xu-Mei Zhang, Ya-Qian Zhao, Hai Yan, Huan Liu, Guo-Wei Huang
Increased blood plasma concentration of the sulphur amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) is considered as an independent risk factor of the neurodegenerative diseases. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which Hcy leads to neurotoxicity have yet to be clarified. Recent research has suggested that neurotoxicity of Hcy may involve negative regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation. In the current study, primary NSCs were isolated from neonatal rat brain hippocampus and the inhibition in cell growth was observed after exposure to l50 μM and 500 μM L-Hcy...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913766/myocardial-cytochrome-oxidase-activity-increases-with-age-and-hypoxemia-in-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#2
Michael Onwugbufor, Richard J Levy, David Zurakowski, Richard A Jonas, Pranava Sinha
BACKGROUND: Myocardial tolerance to ischemia is influenced by age and preoperative cyanosis through unknown mechanisms and significantly affects postoperative outcomes. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcOx), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, may play a role in the susceptibility to ischemic-reperfusion (IR) injury. Our study aimed at investigating changes in human myocardial CcOx activity based on age and preoperative oxygen saturation to understand its role in transition from neonatal to mature myocardium and hypoxic conditions...
December 1, 2016: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913098/succinyl-coa-synthetase-sucla2-deficiency-in-two-siblings-with-impaired-activity-of-other-mitochondrial-oxidative-enzymes-in-skeletal-muscle-without-mitochondrial-dna-depletion
#3
Xiaoping Huang, Jirair K Bedoyan, Didem Demirbas, David J Harris, Alexander Miron, Simone Edelheit, George Grahame, Suzanne D DeBrosse, Lee-Jun Wong, Charles L Hoppel, Douglas S Kerr, Irina Anselm, Gerard T Berry
Mutations in SUCLA2 result in succinyl-CoA ligase (ATP-forming) or succinyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) (A-SCS) deficiency, a mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle disorder. The phenotype associated with this gene defect is largely encephalomyopathy. We describe two siblings compound heterozygous for SUCLA2 mutations, c.985A>G (p.M329V) and c.920C>T (p.A307V), with parents confirmed as carriers of each mutation. We developed a new LC-MS/MS based enzyme assay to demonstrate the decreased SCS activity in the siblings with this unique genotype...
November 12, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911731/insights-into-the-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain
#4
REVIEW
Tamara M Sirey, Chris P Ponting
The regulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is central to the control of cellular homeostasis. There are significant gaps in our understanding of how the expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genome-encoded components of the electron transport chain are co-ordinated, and how the assembly of the protein complexes that constitute the electron transport chain are regulated. Furthermore, the role post-transcriptional gene regulation may play in modulating these processes needs to be clarified...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910921/bipolar-and-unipolar-silylene-diphenylene-%C3%AF-%C3%AF-conjugated-polymer-route-for-highly-efficient-electrophosphorescence
#5
Yao-Tang Chang, Sunil Sharma, Miao-Ken Hung, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Show-An Chen
σ-π conjugated polymer strategy is proposed for designing electroluminescent host polymers with silylene-diphenylene as the backbone repeat unit giving a high triplet energy (ET = 2.67 eV). By incorporation of high ET (3.0 eV) electron (oxadiazole, OXD) and hole (triphenyl amine, TPA) transport moieties, or TPA alone (in this case, the main chain acts as electron transport channel) as side arms on the silylene, the high ET bipolar and unipolar polymers are formed, allowing a use of iridium green phosphor (Ir(ppy)2(acac), Ir-G) (ET = 2...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904687/high-fructose-causes-cardiac-hypertrophy-via-mitochondrial-signaling-pathway
#6
Yan-Bo Zhang, Yan-Hai Meng, Shuo Chang, Rong-Yuan Zhang, Chen Shi
High fructose diet can cause cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress is a key mediator for myocardial hypertrophy. Disruption of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to oxidative stress. This study aims to reveal mitochondrial oxidative stress-related signaling pathway in high fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Mice were fed high fructose to develop cardiac hypertrophy. Fructose and H2O2 were used to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 was applied to investigate the possible role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902441/biosynthesis-of-selenate-reductase-in-salmonella-enterica-critical-roles-for-the-signal-peptide-and-dmsd
#7
Katherine Connelly, Calum Stevenson, Holger Kneuper, Frank Sargent
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram negative bacterium with a flexible respiratory capability. Under anaerobic conditions, S. enterica can utilise a range of terminal electron acceptors to sustain respiratory electron transport chains, including the potentially toxic compound selenate. The S. enterica selenate reductase is a membrane-bound enzyme encoded by the ynfEFGH-dmsD operon. The active enzyme is predicted to comprise at least three subunits where YnfE is a molybdenum-containing catalytic subunit...
October 20, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892899/endogenous-mechanisms-of-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-generation
#8
Agata Sarniak, Joanna Lipińska, Karol Tytman, Stanisława Lipińska
The main cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is mitochondrial respiratory chain and active NADPH responsible for "respiratory burst" of phagocytes. Whatsmore ROS are produced in endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, with the participation of xanthine and endothelial oxidase and during autoxidation process of small molecules. Mitochondrial respiratory chain is the main cellular source of ROS. It is considered that in aerobic organisms ROS are mainly formed during normal oxygen metabolism, as byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation, during the synthesis of ATP...
November 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892592/mechanical-properties-and-current-carrying-capacity-of-al-reinforced-with-graphene-bn-nanoribbons-a-computational-study
#9
D G Kvashnin, M Ghorbani-Asl, D V Shtansky, D Golberg, A V Krasheninnikov, P B Sorokin
Record high values of Young's modulus and tensile strength of graphene and BN nanoribbons as well as their chemically active edges make them promising candidates for serving as fillers in metal-based composite materials. Herein, using ab initio and analytical potential calculations we carry out a systematic study of the mechanical properties of nanocomposites constructed by reinforcing an Al matrix with BN and graphene nanoribbons. We consider a simple case of uniform distribution of nanoribbons in an Al matrix under the assumption that such configuration will lead to the maximum enhancement of mechanical characteristics...
November 28, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888691/redox-imbalance-and-mitochondrial-abnormalities-in-the-diabetic-lung
#10
Jinzi Wu, Zhen Jin, Liang-Jun Yan
Although the lung is one of the least studied organs in diabetes, increasing evidence indicates that it is an inevitable target of diabetic complications. Nevertheless, the underlying biochemical mechanisms of lung injury in diabetes remain largely unexplored. Given that redox imbalance, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in diabetic tissue injury, we set out to investigate mechanisms of lung injury in diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate NADH/NAD(+) redox status, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial abnormalities in the diabetic lung...
November 17, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886534/differences-in-the-response-of-soil-dehydrogenase-activity-to-cd-contamination-are-determined-by-the-different-substrates-used-for-its-determination
#11
Xiangping Tan, Yanju Liu, Kaihong Yan, Ziquan Wang, Guannan Lu, Yike He, Wenxiang He
Dehydrogenase activity (DHA) is an important indicator of heavy metal toxicity in contaminated soils. Different instances of DHA were determined using various substrates and which could affect the description of heavy metal toxicity. Currently, too few investigations have been done on selecting appropriate substrates. This study employed indoor simulation to determine soil DHA and its response to external cadmium (Cd) using two substrates (TTC and INT). Hormesis for DHA obtained using the TTC method (DHA-TTC) in low Cd concentration was observed which was quickly inhibited in high Cd concentration...
November 22, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886462/loss-of-ppr3-ppr4-ppr6-or-ppr10-perturbs-iron-homeostasis-and-leads-to-apoptotic-cell-death-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#12
Yang Su, Yanmei Yang, Ying Huang
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins characterized by tandem arrays of a degenerate 35-amino-acid repeat belong to a large family of RNA-binding proteins that are involved in posttranscriptional control of organelle gene expression. PPR proteins are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, and particularly prevalent in higher plants. Schizosaccharomyces pombe has ten PPR proteins. Among them, ppr3, ppr4, ppr6 and ppr10 participate in mitochondrial posttranscriptional processes and are required for mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function...
November 25, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886402/analysis-of-paracoccidioides-lutzii-mitochondria-a-proteomic-approach
#13
L Casaletti, P S Lima, L N Lima, C L Borges, S N Báo, A M Bailão, C M A Bailão
The genus Paracoccidioides is composed of thermal dimorphic fungi, causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most frequent systemic mycoses in Latin America. Mitochondria have sophisticated machinery for ATP production, which involves metabolic pathways such as citric acid and glyoxylate cycles, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, this organelle performs a variety of functions in the cell, working as an exceptional metabolic signaling center that contributes to cellular stress responses, as autophagy and apoptosis in eukaryotic organisms...
November 25, 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883062/genome-wide-transcriptome-analysis-revealed-organelle-specific-responses-to-temperature-variations-in-algae
#14
HyeonSeok Shin, Seong-Joo Hong, Chan Yoo, Mi-Ae Han, Hookeun Lee, Hyung-Kyoon Choi, Suhyung Cho, Choul-Gyun Lee, Byung-Kwan Cho
Temperature is a critical environmental factor that affects microalgal growth. However, microalgal coping mechanisms for temperature variations are unclear. Here, we determined changes in transcriptome, total carbohydrate, total fatty acid methyl ester, and fatty acid composition of Tetraselmis sp. KCTC12432BP, a strain with a broad temperature tolerance range, to elucidate the tolerance mechanisms in response to large temperature variations. Owing to unavailability of genome sequence information, de novo transcriptome assembly coupled with BLAST analysis was performed using strand specific RNA-seq data...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881490/new-micellar-electrokinetic-chromatographic-method-for-analyzing-idebenone-in-pediatric-formulations
#15
Mario Contin, Fabián Buontempo, Cristian García Becerra, Cecilia Dobrecky, Silvia Lucangioli, Valeria Tripodi
A novel, simple and reliable method based on micellar electrokinetic chromatography with ultraviolet detection was developed to analyze idebenone in a pediatric formulation. Idebenone is a synthetic short chain benzoquinone that acts as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial electron transport chain facilitating the production of adenosine triphosphate. It can be found in two different redox states that differ in their physiological properties. Idebenone has been investigated as a treatment in several neurological disorders like Friedreich's ataxia, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and senile dementia...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878107/imaging-the-nadh-nad-homeostasis-for-understanding-the-metabolic-response-of-mycobacterium-to-physiologically-relevant-stresses
#16
Shabir A Bhat, Iram K Iqbal, Ashwani Kumar
The NADH:NAD(+) ratio is the primary indicator of the metabolic state of bacteria. NAD(H) homeostasis is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survival and is thus considered an important drug target, but the spatio-temporal measurements of NAD(H) remain a challenge. Genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors of the NADH:NAD(+) ratios were recently described, paving the way for investigations of the metabolic state of pathogens during infection. Here we have adapted the genetically encoded biosensor Peredox for measurement of the metabolic state of Mtb in vitro and during infection of macrophage cells...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873462/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-biogenesis-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Mojtaba Golpich, Elham Amini, Zahurin Mohamed, Raymond Azman Ali, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Abolhassan Ahmadiani
Neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are incurable and characterized by the progressive degeneration of the function and structure of the central nervous system (CNS) for reasons that are not yet understood. Neurodegeneration is the umbrella term for the progressive death of nerve cells and loss of brain tissue. Because of their high energy requirements, neurons are especially vulnerable to injury and death from dysfunctional mitochondria. Widespread damage to mitochondria causes cells to die because they can no longer produce enough energy...
November 22, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871875/pyruvate-dehydrogenase-has-a-major-role-in-mast-cell-function-and-its-activity-is-regulated-by-mitochondrial-mitf
#18
Israa Sharkia, Tal Hadad Erlich, Nadine Landolina, Miri Assayag, Alex Motzik, Inbal Rachmin, Gillian Kay, Ziv Porat, Sagi Tshori, Neville Berkman, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Ehud Razin
BACKGROUND: We have recently observed that OXPHOS mediated ATP production is essential for mast cell function. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the main regulator of the Krebs cycle and is located upstream to the electron transport chain. However, the role of PDH in mast cell function has not been described. Microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) regulates the development, number and function of mast cells. The localization of MITF to the mitochondria and its interaction with mitochondrial proteins has not been explored...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870850/a-biophysical-systems-approach-to-identifying-the-pathways-of-acute-and-chronic-doxorubicin-mitochondrial-cardiotoxicity
#19
Bernardo L de Oliveira, Steven Niederer
The clinical use of the anthracycline doxorubicin is limited by its cardiotoxicity which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Redox cycling, mitochondrial DNA damage and electron transport chain inhibition have been identified as potential mechanisms of toxicity. However, the relative roles of each of these proposed mechanisms are still not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to identify which of these pathways independently or in combination are responsible for doxorubicin toxicity. A state of the art mathematical model of the mitochondria including the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain and ROS production and scavenging systems was extended by incorporating a novel representation for mitochondrial DNA damage and repair...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869344/the-importance-of-materials-design-to-make-ions-flow-toward-novel-materials-platforms-for-bioelectronics-applications
#20
Celia M Pacheco-Moreno, Murielle Schreck, Alberto D Scaccabarozzi, Philippe Bourgun, Guillaume Wantz, Molly M Stevens, Olivier J Dautel, Natalie Stingelin
Chemical design criteria for materials for bioelectronics applications using a series of copolymer derivatives based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) are established. Directed chemical design via side-chain functionalization with polar groups allows manipulation of ion transport and ion-to-electron transduction. Insights gained will permit increased use of the plethora of materials employed in the organic electronics area for application in the bioelectronics field.
November 21, 2016: Advanced Materials
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