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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212523/redox-regulation-in-metabolic-programming-and-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Helen R Griffiths, Dan Gao, Chathyan Pararasa
Energy metabolism and redox state are intrinsically linked. In order to mount an adequate immune response, cells must have an adequate and rapidly available energy resource to migrate to the inflammatory site, to generate reactive oxygen species using NADPH as a cofactor and to engulf bacteria or damaged tissue. The first responder cells of the innate immune response, neutrophils, are largely dependent on glycolysis. Neutrophils are relatively short-lived, dying via apoptosis in the process of bacterial killing through production of hypochlorous acid and release of extracellular NETs...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209797/roles-of-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-nitric-oxide-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Ulrich Förstermann, Ning Xia, Huige Li
Major reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing systems in vascular wall include NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase, xanthine oxidase, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase. ROS at moderate concentrations have important signaling roles under physiological conditions. Excessive or sustained ROS production, however, when exceeding the available antioxidant defense systems, leads to oxidative stress. Animal studies have provided compelling evidence demonstrating the roles of vascular oxidative stress and NO in atherosclerosis...
February 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207937/mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-involved-in-the-aggravation-of-periodontitis-by-diabetes
#3
Xiaoyu Sun, Yixin Mao, Panpan Dai, Xumin Li, Weiyan Gu, Huining Wang, Gang Wu, Jianfeng Ma, Shengbin Huang
AIM: To elucidate whether mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to aggravated periodontitis in diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 64 wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control, periodontitis, diabetes, and diabetic periodontitis. Two weeks after induction of diabetes, periodontitis was induced by silk ligation for 2 weeks and thereafter evaluated by assessing alveolar bone loss and apoptosis of periodontium cells. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was detected by MitoSOX staining...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206987/id2-promotes-survival-of-glioblastoma-cells-during-metabolic-stress-by-regulating-mitochondrial-function
#4
Zhonghua Zhang, Gilbert J Rahme, Pranam D Chatterjee, Matthew C Havrda, Mark A Israel
Tumor cells proliferate in cellular environments characterized by a lack of optimal tissue organization resulting oftentimes in compromised cellular metabolism affecting nutrition, respiration, and energetics. The response of tumor cells to adverse environmental conditions is a key feature affecting their pathogenicity. We found that inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) expression levels significantly correlate with the ability of glioblastoma (GBM)-derived cell lines to survive glucose deprivation. ID2 suppressed mitochondrial oxidative respiration and mitochondrial ATP production by regulating the function of mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) complexes, resulting in reduced superoxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from mitochondria...
February 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206753/charge-density-wave-in-the-new-polymorphs-of-re2ru3ge5-re-pr-sm-dy
#5
Daniel E Bugaris, Christos D Malliakas, Fei Han, Nicholas P Calta, Mihai Sturza, Matthew Krogstad, Raymond Osborn, Stephan Rosenkranz, Jacob P C Ruff, Giancarlo Trimarchi, Sergey L Bud'ko, Mahalingam Balasubramanian, Duck Young Chung, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
A new polymorph of the RE2Ru3Ge5 (RE = Pr, Sm, Dy) compounds has been grown as single crystals via an indium flux. These compounds crystallize in tetragonal space group P4/mnc with the Sc2Fe3Si5-type structure, having lattice parameters a = 11.020(2) Å and c = 5.853(1) Å for RE = Pr, a = 10.982(2) Å and c = 5.777(1) Å for RE = Sm, and a = 10.927(2) Å and c = 5.697(1) Å for RE = Dy. These materials exhibit a structural transition at low temperature that occurs due to the charge density wave (CDW). Both the high-temperature average crystal structure and the low-temperature incommensurately modulated crystal structure (for Sm2Ru3Ge5 as a representative) have been solved...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194920/specific-interaction-between-redox-phospholipid-polymers-and-plastoquinone-in-photosynthetic-electron-transport-chain
#6
Kenya Tanaka, Masahiro Kaneko, Masahito Ishikawa, Souichiro Kato, Hidehiro Ito, Toshiaki Kamachi, Kazuhide Kamiya, Shuji Nakanishi
Redox phospholipid polymers added in culture media are known to be capable of extracting electrons from living photosynthetic cells across bacterial cell membranes with high cytocompatibility. In the present study, we aimed to identify the intracellular redox species that transfers electrons to the polymers. The open-circuit electrochemical potential of an electrolyte containing the redox polymer and extracted thylakoid membranes shifted to positive (or negative) under light irradiation, when an electron transport inhibitor specific for the upstream (or downstream) of plastoquinone in the photosynthetic electron transport chain was added...
February 13, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193863/modular-electron-transport-chains-from-eukaryotic-organelles-function-to-support-nitrogenase-activity
#7
Jianguo Yang, Xiaqing Xie, Mingxuan Yang, Ray Dixon, Yi-Ping Wang
A large number of genes are necessary for the biosynthesis and activity of the enzyme nitrogenase to carry out the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. The multiplicity of the genes involved, the oxygen sensitivity of nitrogenase, plus the demand for energy and reducing power, are thought to be major obstacles to engineering BNF into cereal crops. Genes required for nitrogen fixation can be considered as three functional modules encoding electron-transport components (ETCs), proteins required for metal cluster biosynthesis, and the "core" nitrogenase apoenzyme, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184304/the-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complex-in-cancer-metabolic-plasticity
#8
REVIEW
Renaud Vatrinet, Giulia Leone, Monica De Luise, Giulia Girolimetti, Michele Vidone, Giuseppe Gasparre, Anna Maria Porcelli
Deregulated metabolism is a well-established hallmark of cancer. At the hub of various metabolic pathways deeply integrated within mitochondrial functions, the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex represents a major modulator of electron transport chain activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) flux, and is a pivotal enzyme in the metabolic reprogramming following a cancer cell's change in bioenergetic requirements. By contributing to the control of α-ketoglutarate levels, dynamics, and oxidation state, the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase is also essential in modulating the epigenetic landscape of cancer cells...
2017: Cancer & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181110/electron-transport-chain-in-a-thermotolerant-yeast
#9
Jorge A Mejía-Barajas, José A Martínez-Mora, Rafael Salgado-Garciglia, Ruth Noriega-Cisneros, Omar Ortiz-Avila, Christian Cortés-Rojo, Alfredo Saavedra-Molina
Yeasts capable of growing and surviving at high temperatures are regarded as thermotolerant. For appropriate functioning of cellular processes and cell survival, the maintenance of an optimal redox state is critical of reducing and oxidizing species. We studied mitochondrial functions of the thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus SLP1 and the mesophilic OFF1 yeasts, through the evaluation of its mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), ATPase activity, electron transport chain (ETC) activities, alternative oxidase activity, lipid peroxidation...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178891/up-regulation-of-cerebral-cytochrome-c-oxidase-and-hemodynamics-by-transcranial-infrared-laser-stimulation-a-broadband-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#10
Xinlong Wang, Fenghua Tian, Divya D Reddy, Sahil S Nalawade, Douglas W Barrett, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Hanli Liu
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) is a noninvasive form of brain photobiomulation. Cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is hypothesized to be the primary intracellular photoacceptor. We hypothesized that TILS up-regulates cerebral CCO and causes hemodynamic changes. We delivered 1064-nm laser stimulation to the forehead of healthy participants ( n = 11), while broadband near-infrared spectroscopy was utilized to acquire light reflectance from the TILS-treated cortical region before, during, and after TILS...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177769/a-deletion-variant-partially-complements-a-porin-less-strain-of-i-neurospora-crassa-i
#11
Fraser G Ferens, Victor Spicer, Oleg V Krokhin, Anna Motnenko, William A T Summers, Deborah A Court
Mitochondrial porin, the voltage-dependent anion channel, plays an important role in metabolism and other cellular functions within eukaryotic cells. To further the understanding of porin structure and function, <i>Neurospora crassa</i> wild-type porin was replaced with a deletion variant lacking residues 238-242 (238porin). 238porin was assembled in the mitochondrial outer membrane, but the steady state levels were only about 3% of those of the wild-type protein. The strain harbouring 238porin displayed cytochrome deficiencies and expressed alternative oxidase...
November 2, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176043/role-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-activation-of-cellular-signals-molecules-and-function
#12
Hiroko P Indo, Clare L Hawkins, Ikuo Nakanishi, Ken-Ichiro Matsumoto, Hirofumi Matsui, Shigeaki Suenaga, Michael J Davies, Daret K St Clair, Toshihiko Ozawa, Hideyuki J Majima
Mitochondria are a major source of intracellular energy and reactive oxygen species in cells, but are also increasingly being recognized as a controller of cell death. Here, we review evidence of signal transduction control by mitochondrial superoxide generation via the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and GATA signaling pathways. We have also reviewed the effects of ROS on the activation of MMP and HIF. There is significant evidence to support the hypothesis that mitochondrial superoxide can initiate signaling pathways following transport into the cytosol...
February 8, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176017/hypoxia-and-aerobic-metabolism-adaptations-of-human-endothelial-cells
#13
Agnieszka Koziel, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
The goal of our study was to assess the influence of chronic exposure to hypoxia on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 line) cultured for 6 days at 1% O2 tension. The hypoxia-induced effects were elucidated at the cellular and isolated mitochondria levels. Hypoxia elevated fermentation but did not change mitochondrial biogenesis or the aerobic respiratory capacity of endothelial cells. In endothelial cells, hypoxia caused a general decrease in mitochondrial respiration during carbohydrate, fatty acid, and amino acid oxidation but increased exclusively ketogenic amino acid oxidation...
February 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168164/vdac-tubulin-an-anti-warburg-pro-oxidant-switch
#14
REVIEW
Eduardo N Maldonado
Aerobic enhanced glycolysis characterizes the Warburg phenotype. In cancer cells, suppression of mitochondrial metabolism contributes to maintain a low ATP/ADP ratio that favors glycolysis. We propose that the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane is a metabolic link between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in the Warburg phenotype. Most metabolites including respiratory substrates, ADP, and Pi enter mitochondria only through VDAC. Oxidation of respiratory substrates in the Krebs cycle generates NADH that enters the electron transport chain (ETC) to generate a proton motive force utilized to generate ATP and to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ)...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165702/octadecyl-chains-immobilized-onto-hyaluronic-acid-coatings-by-thiol-ene-click-chemistry-increase-the-surface-antimicrobial-properties-and-prevent-platelet-adhesion-and-activation-to-polyurethane
#15
Helena P Prado Felgueiras, Li-Mei Wang, Ke-Feng Ren, Micaela M Querido, Qiao Jin, Mário Barbosa, Jian Ji, M Cristina L Martins
Infection and thrombus formation are still the biggest challenges for the success of blood contact medical devices. This work aims the development of an antimicrobial and hemocompatible biomaterial coating through which selective binding of albumin (passivant protein) from the blood stream is promoted and, thus, adsorption of other proteins responsible for bacterial adhesion and thrombus formation can be prevented. Polyurethane (PU) films were coated with hyaluronic acid, an antifouling agent, that was previously modified with thiol groups (HA-SH), using polydopamine as the binding agent...
February 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164465/solar-cells-materials-by-design-hybrid-pyroxene-corner-sharing-vo4-tetrahedral-chains
#16
Fedwa El-Mellouhi, Akinlolu Akande, Carlo Motta, Sergey Rashkeev, Golibjon Berdiyorov, Mohamed El-Amine El Amine Madjet, Asma Marzouk, El Tayeb Bentria, Stefano Sanvito, Sabre Kais, Fahhad Hussain Al Harbi
Hybrid organic-inorganic frameworks provide numerous combinations of materials with a wide range of structural and electronic properties, which enable their use in various applications. In recent years, some of these hybrid materials (especially lead-based halide perovskites) have been successfully used for the development of highly ecient solar cells. The large variety of possible hybrid materials inspired us into the search of other organic-inorganic frameworks, which may exhibit enhanced performance when compared to conventional lead-halide perovskites...
February 5, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164386/a-class-c-radical-s-adenosylmethionine-methyltransferase-synthesizes-8-methylmenaquinone
#17
Sascha Hein, Oliver Klimmek, Markus Polly, Melanie Kern, Jörg Simon
The membranous quinone/quinol pool is essential to the majority of life forms and has been widely used as an important biomarker in microbial taxonomy. In the anaerobic world, the most important quinones are menaquinone (MK) and a methylated form of MK, designated methylmenaquinone (MMK), which is anticipated to serve specifically in low-potential electron transport chains involved in anaerobic respiration. However, it has remained unclear how MMK is generated. Here we show that a novel enzyme homologous to class C radical SAM methyltransferases (RSMTs) synthesizes MMK using MK as substrate...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164134/diabetes-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-mechanism-of-their-generation-and-role-in-renal-injury
#18
REVIEW
Selim Fakhruddin, Wael Alanazi, Keith E Jackson
Diabetes induces the onset and progression of renal injury through causing hemodynamic dysregulation along with abnormal morphological and functional nephron changes. The most important event that precedes renal injury is an increase in permeability of plasma proteins such as albumin through a damaged glomerular filtration barrier resulting in excessive urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Moreover, once enhanced UAE begins, it may advance renal injury from progression of abnormal renal hemodynamics, increased glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickness, mesangial expansion, extracellular matrix accumulation, and glomerulosclerosis to eventual end-stage renal damage...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159809/cardiac-med1-deletion-promotes-early-lethality-cardiac-remodeling-and-transcriptional-reprogramming
#19
Kathryn M Spitler, Jessica M Ponce, Gavin Y Oudit, Duane D Hall, Chad E Grueter
The Mediator complex, a multisubunit nuclear complex, plays an integral role in regulating gene expression by acting as a bridge between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. Genetic deletion of mediator subunit 1 (Med1) results in embryonic lethality, due in large part to impaired cardiac development. We first established that Med1 is dynamically expressed in cardiac development and disease, with marked upregulation of Med1 in both human and murine failing hearts. To determine if Med1 deficiency protects against cardiac stress, we generated two cardiac-specific Med1 knockout mouse models in which Med1 is conditionally deleted (Med1cKO mice) or inducibly deleted in adult mice (Med1cKO-MCM mice)...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157187/soil-microorganisms-can-overcome-respiration-inhibition-by-coupling-intra-and-extracellular-metabolism-13-c-metabolic-tracing-reveals-the-mechanisms
#20
Ezekiel K Bore, Carolin Apostel, Sara Halicki, Yakov Kuzyakov, Michaela A Dippold
CO2 release from soil is commonly used to estimate toxicity of various substances on microorganisms. However, the mechanisms underlying persistent CO2 release from soil exposed to toxicants inhibiting microbial respiration, for example, sodium azide (NaN3) or heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Cu), remain unclear. To unravel these mechanisms, NaN3-amended soil was incubated with position-specifically (13)C-labeled glucose and (13)C was quantified in CO2, bulk soil, microbial biomass and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs)...
February 3, 2017: ISME Journal
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