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Electron transport chain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144994/gene-pathways-associated-with-mitochondrial-function-oxidative-stress-and-telomere-length-are-differentially-expressed-in-the-liver-of-rats-fed-lifelong-on-virgin-olive-sunflower-or-fish-oils
#1
Alfonso Varela-Lopez, María Patricia Pérez-López, César Luis Ramirez-Tortosa, Maurizio Battino, Sergio Granados-Principal, María Del Carmen Ramirez-Tortosa, Julio José Ochoa, Laura Vera-Ramirez, Francesca Giampieri, José Luis Quiles
This study investigates the effect of lifelong intake of different fat sources rich in monounsaturated (virgin olive oil), n6 polyunsaturated (sunflower oil) or n3 polyunsaturated (fish oil) fatty acids in the aged liver. Male Wistar rats fed lifelong on diets differing in the fat source were killed at 6 and at 24 months of age. Liver histopathology, mitochondrial ultrastructure, biogenesis, oxidative stress, mitochondrial electron transport chain, relative telomere length and gene expression profiles were studied...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142990/the-chemical-chaperone-pba-reduces-er-stress-and-autophagy-and-increases-collagen-iv-%C3%AE-5-expression-in-cultured-fibroblasts-from-men-with-x-linked-alport-syndrome-and-missense-mutations
#2
Dongmao Wang, Mardhiah Mohammad, Yanyan Wang, Rachel Tan, Lydia S Murray, Sharon Ricardo, Hayat Dagher, Tom van Agtmael, Judy Savige
Introduction: X-linked Alport syndrome (OMIM 301050) is caused by COL4A5 missense variants in 40% of families. This study examined the effects of chemical chaperone treatment (sodium 4-phenylbutyrate) on fibroblast cell lines derived from men with missense mutations. Methods: Dermal fibroblast cultures were established from 2 affected men and 3 normals. Proliferation rates were examined, the collagen IV α5 chain localized with immunostaining, and levels of the intra- and extracellular chains quantitated with an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
July 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142021/inf2-mediated-actin-polymerization-at-the-er-stimulates-mitochondrial-calcium-uptake-inner-membrane-constriction-and-division
#3
Rajarshi Chakrabarti, Wei-Ke Ji, Radu V Stan, Jaime de Juan Sanz, Timothy A Ryan, Henry N Higgs
Mitochondrial division requires division of both the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes (IMM and OMM, respectively). Interaction with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) promotes OMM division by recruitment of the dynamin Drp1, but effects on IMM division are not well characterized. We previously showed that actin polymerization through ER-bound inverted formin 2 (INF2) stimulates Drp1 recruitment in mammalian cells. Here, we show that INF2-mediated actin polymerization stimulates a second mitochondrial response independent of Drp1: a rise in mitochondrial matrix calcium through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141419/development-and-application-of-a-2-electron-reduced-density-matrix-approach-to-electron-transport-via-molecular-junctions
#4
Erik P Hoy, David A Mazziotti, Tamar Seideman
Can an electronic device be constructed using only a single molecule? Since this question was first asked by Aviram and Ratner in the 1970s [Chem. Phys. Lett. 29, 277 (1974)], the field of molecular electronics has exploded with significant experimental advancements in the understanding of the charge transport properties of single molecule devices. Efforts to explain the results of these experiments and identify promising new candidate molecules for molecular devices have led to the development of numerous new theoretical methods including the current standard theoretical approach for studying single molecule charge transport, i...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137117/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-proteomics-literature-on-the-response-of-human-skeletal-muscle-to-obesity-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-t2dm-versus-exercise-training
#5
REVIEW
Kanchana Srisawat, Sam O Shepherd, Paulo J Lisboa, Jatin G Burniston
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of proteomics literature that reports human skeletal muscle responses in the context of either pathological decline associated with obesity/T2DM and physiological adaptations to exercise training. Literature was collected from PubMed and DOAJ databases following PRISMA guidelines using the search terms 'proteom*', and 'skeletal muscle' combined with either 'obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance' or 'exercise, training'. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review, and meta-analysis was performed on a sub-set (four studies) of the reviewed literature that reported the necessary primary data...
November 11, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135232/confocal-raman-microscopy-for-the-determination-of-protein-and-quaternary-ammonium-ion-loadings-in-biocatalytic-membranes-for-electrochemical-energy-conversion-and-storage
#6
Rong Cai, Sofiene Abdellaoui, Jay P Kitt, Cullen Irvine, Joel Harris, Shelley D Minteer, Carol Korzeniewski
The need to immobilize active enzyme, while ensuring high rates of substrate turnover and electronic charge transfer with an electrode, is a centrally important challenge in the field of bioelectrocatalysis. In this work, we demonstrate the use of confocal Raman microscopy as a tool for quantitation and molecular-scale structural characterization of ionomers and proteins within biocatalytic membranes to aid in the development of energy efficient biofuel cells. A set of recently available short side chain Aquivion ionomers spanning a range of equivalent weight (EW) suitable for enzyme immobilization was investigated...
November 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134996/photo-cross-linked-perylene-diimide-derivative-materials-as-efficient-electron-transporting-layers-in-inverted-polymer-solar-cells
#7
Yong-Jin Noh, Yu-Jin Choi, Ji-Ho Jeong, Seok-Soon Kim, Kwang-Un Jeong, Seok-In Na
We present an efficient and stable interfacial material based on a water-soluble perylene diimide derivative functionalized with ionic and methacrylate groups (abbreviated as PDIM), which can be stabilized by the photo-polymerization of diacrylate groups at both ends of the side chain in the PDIM. The characteristics of the photo-cross-linked PDIM films were examined using absorption spectra, cyclic voltammetry, work function, and surface morphology. The feasibility of the photo-cross-linked PDIM films as a novel electron transporting layer (ETL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs) was also investigated...
November 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134442/endothelial-tnf-%C3%AE-induction-by-hsp60-secreted-from-thp-1-monocytes-exposed-to-hyperglycaemic-conditions
#8
Ryan Dennis Martinus, Julie Goldsbury
A non-resolving inflammation of the endothelium is recognised to be an important process leading to atherosclerosis. In diabetes, this process is thought to account for a significant number of cardiovascular disease-associated death and disability. However, the molecular mechanisms by which diabetes contributes to endothelial inflammation remain to be established. Whilst there is some evidence linking hyperglycaemia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by the mitochondrial electron-transport chain to oxidative stress, cellular injury and apoptosis in the endothelium, a clear link to endothelium inflammation has not yet been established...
November 13, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133896/the-food-borne-pathogen-campylobacter-jejuni-responds-to-the-bile-salt-deoxycholate-with-countermeasures-to-reactive-oxygen-species
#9
Nicholas M Negretti, Christopher R Gourley, Geremy Clair, Joshua N Adkins, Michael E Konkel
Bile plays an important role in digestion, absorption of fats, and the excretion of waste products, while concurrently providing a critical barrier against colonization by harmful bacteria. Previous studies have demonstrated that gut pathogens react to bile by adapting their protein synthesis. The ability of pathogens to respond to bile is remarkably complex and still incompletely understood. Here we show that Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human diarrheal illness worldwide, responds to deoxycholate, a component of bile, by altering global gene transcription in a manner consistent with a strategy to mitigate exposure to reactive oxygen stress...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131623/iodide-binding-in-sodium-coupled-cotransporters
#10
Ariela Vergara-Jaque, Peying Fong, Jeffrey Comer
Several apical iodide translocation pathways have been proposed for iodide efflux out of thyroid follicular cells, including a pathway mediated by the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SMCT1), which remains controversial. Herein, we evaluate structural and functional similarities between SMCT1 and the well-studied sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) that mediates the first step of iodide entry into the thyroid. Free-energy calculations using a force field with electronic polarizability verify the presence of a conserved iodide-binding pocket between the TM2, TM3, and TM7 segments in hNIS, where iodide is coordinated by Phe67, Gln72, Cys91, and Gln94...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130078/hepatic-adaptations-to-a-high-fat-diet-in-the-mrl-mouse-strain-are-associated-with-an-inefficient-oxidative-phosphorylation-system
#11
Ahlke Heydemann, Magdalis González-Vega, Tirsit K Berhanu, Aaron J Mull, Ragav Sharma, Jenan Holley-Cuthrell
The MRL mice are resistant to a 12-week high fat diet (HFD) feeding protocol, with the proximal cause being an increased basal pAMPK(T172) expression in the skeletal muscle. Here, we test if this lack of pathology extends to the liver at both the tissue and cellular levels and its correlation to pAMPK(T172) levels. MRL and B6 mice were subjected to 12 weeks of diet intervention and tissues were either fixed for histology or snap-frozen for further processing (n= 3-6, per group). The HFD MRL mice remain insulin and glucose sensitive after 12 weeks of HFD...
December 2016: Jacobs J Diabetes Endocrinol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127121/pkc-epsilon-is-a-key-regulator-of-mitochondrial-redox-homeostasis-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#12
Daniela Di Marcantonio, Esteban Martinez, Simone Sidoli, Jessica Vadaketh, Margaret Nieborowska-Skorska, Anushk Gupta, Jacob Michael Meadows, Francesca Ferraro, Elena Masselli, Grant A Challen, Michael D Milsom, Claudia Scholl, Stefan Froehling, Siddharth Balachandran, Tomasz Skorski, Benjamin Garcia, Prisco Mirandola, Giuliana Gobbi, Ramiro Garzon, Marco Vitale, Stephen M Sykes
PURPOSE: The intracellular redox environment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells is often highly oxidized compared to healthy hematopoietic progenitors and this is purported to contribute to disease pathogenesis. However, the redox regulators that allow AML cell survival in this oxidized environment remain largely unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESULTS: We show that RNA interference-mediated inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase PKC-epsilon (PKCe) reduces cell survival in a diverse panel of patient-derived AML samples and significantly delays disease onset in a genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) of AML driven by MLL-AF9...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127035/the-high-production-volume-fungicide-pyraclostrobin-induces-triglyceride-accumulation-associated-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-independent-of-ppar%C3%AE-activation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#13
Anthony L Luz, Christopher D Kassotis, Heather M Stapleton, Joel N Meyer
Pyraclostrobin is one of the most heavily used fungicides, and has been detected on a variety of produce, suggesting human exposure occurs regularly. Recently, pyraclostrobin exposure has been linked to a variety of toxic effects, including neurodegeneration and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. As pyraclostrobin inhibits electron transport chain complex III, and as mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic syndrome (cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity), we designed experiments to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies its adipogenic activity...
November 7, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125492/towards-an-understanding-of-energy-impairment-in-huntington-s-disease-brain
#14
Janet M Dubinsky
This review systematically examines the evidence for shifts in flux through energy generating biochemical pathways in Huntington's disease (HD) brains from humans and model systems. Compromise of the electron transport chain (ETC) appears not to be the primary or earliest metabolic change in HD pathogenesis. Rather, compromise of glucose uptake facilitates glucose flux through glycolysis and may possibly decrease flux through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), limiting subsequent NADPH and GSH production needed for antioxidant protection...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124817/why-the-flavin-dinucleotide-cofactor-needs-to-be-covalently-linked-to-complex-ii-of-the-electron-transport-chain-for-conversion-of-fadh2-to-fad
#15
Daniel F A R Dourado, Marcel Swart, Alexandra Teresa Pires Carvalho
A covalently bound flavin cofactor is predominant in the succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR, Complex II), an essential component of the aerobic electron transport, and in the menaquinol:fumarate oxidoreductase (QFR), the anaerobic counterpart, albeit being only present in ~10% of the known flavoenzymes. Here, we investigated the role of this 8α-N(3)-histidyl linkage between the flavin dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor and the respiratory Complex II. After parameterization with DFT we performed classical molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics calculations of Complex II:FAD and Complex II:FADH2, covalently bound and unbound to His-A57...
November 10, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124653/salt-stress-effects-on-the-photosynthetic-electron-transport-chain-in-two-chickpea-lines-differing-in-their-salt-stress-tolerance
#16
Nuran Çiçek, Abdallah Oukarroum, Reto J Strasser, Gert Schansker
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salt stress on the photosynthetic electron transport chain using two chickpea lines (Cicer arietinum L.) differing in their salt stress tolerance at the germination stage (AKN 87 and AKN 290). Two weeks after sowing, seedlings were exposed to salt stress for 2 weeks and irrigated with 200 ml of 200 mM NaCl every 2 days. The polyphasic OJIP fluorescence transient and the 820-nm transmission kinetics (photosystem I) were used to evaluate the effects of salt stress on the functionality of the photosynthetic electron transport chain...
November 9, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118452/magnesium-homeostasis-protects-salmonella-against-nitrooxidative-stress
#17
Travis J Bourret, Lin Liu, Jeff A Shaw, Maroof Husain, Andrés Vázquez-Torres
The PhoPQ two-component regulatory system coordinates the response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to diverse environmental challenges encountered during infection of hosts, including changes in Mg(2+) concentrations, pH, and antimicrobial peptides. Moreover, PhoPQ-dependent regulation of gene expression promotes intracellular survival of Salmonella in macrophages, and contributes to the resistance of this pathogen to reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated from the nitric oxide produced by the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase of macrophages...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117555/mitochondrial-stress-restores-the-heat-shock-response-and-prevents-proteostasis-collapse-during-aging
#18
Johnathan Labbadia, Renee M Brielmann, Mario F Neto, Yi-Fan Lin, Cole M Haynes, Richard I Morimoto
In Caenorhabditis elegans, the programmed repression of the heat shock response (HSR) accompanies the transition to reproductive maturity, leaving cells vulnerable to environmental stress and protein aggregation with age. To identify the factors driving this event, we performed an unbiased genetic screen for suppressors of stress resistance and identified the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) as a central regulator of the age-related decline of the HSR and cytosolic proteostasis. Mild downregulation of ETC activity, either by genetic modulation or exposure to mitochondria-targeted xenobiotics, maintained the HSR in adulthood by increasing HSF-1 binding and RNA polymerase II recruitment at HSF-1 target genes...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113909/the-chaperone-dynein-ll1-mediates-cytoplasmic-transport-of-empty-and-mature-hepatitis-b-virus-capsids
#19
Quentin Osseman, Lara Gallucci, Shelly Au, Christian Cazenave, Elodie Berdance, Marie-Lise Blondot, Aurélia Cassany, Dominique Bégu, Jessica Ragues, Cindy Aknin, Irina Sominskaya, Andris Dishlers, Birgit Rabe, Fenja Anderson, Nelly Panté, Michael Kann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a DNA genome but replicates within nucleus by transcription of an RNA pregenome, which is converted to DNA in cytoplasmic capsids. Capsids in this compartment are correlated with inflammation and epitopes of the capsid protein core (Cp) are the main target for T cell-mediated immune response. We investigated the mechanism of cytoplasmic capsid transport, which is important for infection but also for cytosolic capsid removal. METHODS: We used virion-derived capsids with a mature rcDNA (matC), empty capsids (empC), and RNA containing capsids (rnaC) as control...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112140/dual-located-whirly1-interacting-with-lhca1-alters-photochemical-activities-of-photosystem-i-and-is-involved-in-light-adaptation-in-arabidopsis
#20
Dongmei Huang, Wenfang Lin, Ban Deng, Yujun Ren, Ying Miao
Plastid-nucleus-located WHIRLY1 protein plays a role in regulating leaf senescence and is believed to associate with the increase of reactive oxygen species delivered from redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. In order to make sure whether WHIRLY1 plays a role in photosynthesis, in this study, the performances of photosynthesis were detected in Arabidopsis whirly1 knockout (kowhy1) and plastid localized WHIRLY1 overexpression (oepWHY1) plants. Loss of WHIRLY1 leads to a higher photochemical quantum yield of photosystem I Y(I) and electron transport rate (ETR) and a lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) involved in the thermal dissipation of excitation energy of chlorophyll fluorescence than the wild type...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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