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Electron transport chain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345881/silane-and-germane-molecular-electronics
#1
Timothy A Su, Haixing Li, Rebekka S Klausen, Nathaniel T Kim, Madhav Neupane, James L Leighton, Michael L Steigerwald, Latha Venkataraman, Colin Nuckolls
This Account provides an overview of our recent efforts to uncover the fundamental charge transport properties of Si-Si and Ge-Ge single bonds and introduce useful functions into group 14 molecular wires. We utilize the tools of chemical synthesis and a scanning tunneling microscopy-based break-junction technique to study the mechanism of charge transport in these molecular systems. We evaluated the fundamental ability of silicon, germanium, and carbon molecular wires to transport charge by comparing conductances within families of well-defined structures, the members of which differ only in the number of Si (or Ge or C) atoms in the wire...
March 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345009/optically-induced-lattice-deformations-electronic-structure-changes-and-enhanced-superconductivity-in-yba2cu3o6-48
#2
R Mankowsky, M Fechner, M Först, A von Hoegen, J Porras, T Loew, G L Dakovski, M Seaberg, S Möller, G Coslovich, B Keimer, S S Dhesi, A Cavalleri
Resonant optical excitation of apical oxygen vibrational modes in the normal state of underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x induces a transient state with optical properties similar to those of the equilibrium superconducting state. Amongst these, a divergent imaginary conductivity and a plasma edge are transiently observed in the photo-stimulated state. Femtosecond hard x-ray diffraction experiments have been used in the past to identify the transient crystal structure in this non-equilibrium state. Here, we start from these crystallographic features and theoretically predict the corresponding electronic rearrangements that accompany these structural deformations...
July 2017: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336315/cardiolipin-and-mitochondrial-cristae-organization
#3
REVIEW
Nikita Ikon, Robert O Ryan
A fundamental question in cell biology, under investigation for over six decades, is the structural organization of mitochondrial cristae. Long known to harbor electron transport chain proteins, crista membrane integrity is key to establishment of the proton gradient that drives oxidative phosphorylation. Visualization of cristae morphology by electron microscopy / tomography has provided evidence that cristae are tube-like extensions of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) that project into the matrix space...
March 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335548/study-of-different-variants-of-mo-enzyme-crarc-and-the-interaction-with-its-partners-crcytb5-r-and-crcytb5-1
#4
Alejandro Chamizo-Ampudia, Aurora Galvan, Emilio Fernandez, Angel Llamas
The mARC (mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component) proteins are recently discovered molybdenum (Mo) Cofactor containing enzymes. They are involved in the reduction of several N-hydroxylated compounds (NHC) and nitrite. Some NHC are prodrugs containing an amidoxime structure or mutagens such as 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP). We have studied this protein in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (crARC). Interestingly, all the ARC proteins need the reducing power supplied by other proteins. It is known that crARC requires a cytochrome b₅ (crCytb5-1) and a cytochrome b₅ reductase (crCytb5-R) that form an electron transport chain from NADH to the substrates...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#5
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329820/hepatocellular-toxicity-of-imidazole-and-triazole-antimycotic-agents
#6
Patrizia Haegler, Lorenz Joerin, Stephan Krähenbühl, Jamal Bouitbir
Hepatotoxicity has been described for all antimycotic azoles currently marketed. A possible mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction has been postulated for ketoconazole, but not for the other azoles. The aim of the current investigations was to study the toxicity of different azoles in human cell models and to find out mechanisms of their toxicity. In HepG2 cells, posaconazole and ketoconazole were cytotoxic starting at 20 and 50 µM and decreased the cellular ATP content starting at 5 and 10 µM, respectively...
January 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329220/prolonged-exposures-to-intermittent-hypoxia-promote-visceral-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-severe-sleep-apnea-effect-of-normoxic-recovery
#7
Alex Gileles-Hillel, Isaac Almendros, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Recep Nigdelioglu, Zhuanhong Qiao, Robert B Hamanaka, Gökhan M Mutlu, Mahzad Akbarpour, David Gozal
Study Objectives: Increased visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) mass results in infiltration of inflammatory macrophages that drive inflammation and insulin resistance. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) suffer from increased prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Murine models of intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking moderate-severe OSA manifest insulin resistance following short-term IH. We examined in mice the effect of long-term IH on the inflammatory cellular changes within vWAT, and the potential effect of normoxic recovery (IH-R)...
December 22, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328149/comparative-genomic-analyses-of-transport-proteins-encoded-within-the-red-algae-chondrus-crispus-galdieria-sulphuraria-and-cyanidioschyzon-merolae
#8
Justin Lee, Shounak Ghosh, Milton H Saier
Galdieria sulphuraria and Cyanidioschyzon merolae are thermo-acidophilic unicellular red algal cousins capable of living in volcanic environments, although the former can additionally thrive in the presence of toxic heavy metals. Bioinformatic analyses of transport systems were carried out on their genomes, as well as that of the mesophilic multicellular red alga Chondrus crispus (Irish moss). We identified transport proteins related to the metabolic capabilities, physiological properties, and environmental adaptations of these organisms...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325762/a-genetic-screen-reveals-that-synthesis-of-1-4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate-dhna-but-not-full-length-menaquinone-is-required-for-listeria-monocytogenes-cytosolic-survival
#9
Grischa Y Chen, Courtney E McDougal, Marc A D'Antonio, Jonathan L Portman, John-Demian Sauer
Through unknown mechanisms, the host cytosol restricts bacterial colonization; therefore, only professional cytosolic pathogens are adapted to colonize this host environment. Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive intracellular pathogen that is highly adapted to colonize the cytosol of both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. To identify L. monocytogenes determinants of cytosolic survival, we designed and executed a novel screen to isolate L. monocytogenes mutants with cytosolic survival defects. Multiple mutants identified in the screen were defective for synthesis of menaquinone (MK), an essential molecule in the electron transport chain...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323554/selective-nitration-of-psbo1-inhibits-oxygen-evolution-from-isolated-arabidopsis-thylakoid-membranes
#10
Misa Takahashi, Jun Shigeto, Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiromichi Morikawa
Treatment of isolated Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membranes with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) induces selective nitration of the tyrosine residue at the ninth amino acid ((9)Tyr) of PsbO1. This selective nitration is triggered by light and is inhibited by photosynthetic electron transport inhibitors. Therefore, we postulated that, similar to (161)Tyr of D1 (Yz), (9)Tyr of PsbO1 is redox active and is selectively oxidized by photosynthetic electron transport in response to illumination to a tyrosyl radical that is highly susceptible to nitration...
March 21, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316974/exploration-of-nitrate-reductase-metabolic-pathway-in-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis
#11
Sintia Almeida, Cassiana Sousa, Vinícius Abreu, Carlos Diniz, Elaine M S Dorneles, Andrey P Lage, Debmalya Barh, Vasco Azevedo
Based on the ability of nitrate reductase synthesis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is classified into two biovars: Ovis and Equi. Due to the presence of nitrate reductase, the Equi biovar can survive in absence of oxygen. On the other hand, Ovis biovar that does not have nitrate reductase is able to adapt to various ecological niches and can grow on certain carbon sources. Apart from these two biovars, some other strains are also able to carry out the reduction of nitrate. The enzymes that are involved in electron transport chain are also identified by in silico methods...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315685/abcb10-depletion-reduces-unfolded-protein-response-in-mitochondria
#12
Masato Yano
Mitochondria have many functions, including ATP generation. The electron transport chain (ETC) and the coupled ATP synthase generate ATP by consuming oxygen. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also produced by ETC, and ROS damage deoxyribonucleic acids, membrane lipids and proteins. Recent analysis indicate that mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), which enhances expression of mitochondrial chaperones and proteases to remove damaged proteins, is activated when damaged proteins accumulate in the mitochondria...
March 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314726/global-distribution-patterns-and-pangenomic-diversity-of-the-candidate-phylum-latescibacteria-ws3
#13
Ibrahim F Farag, Noha H Youssef, Mostafa S Elshahed
We investigated the global distribution patterns and pangenomic diversity of the candidate phylum "Latescibacteria" (WS3) in 16S rRNA gene as well as metagenomic datasets. We document distinct distribution patterns for various "Latescibacteria" orders in 16S rRNA gene datasets, with prevalence of orders sediment_1 in terrestrial, PBSIII_9 in groundwater and temperate freshwater, and GN03 in pelagic marine, saline-hypersaline, and wastewater habitats. Using a fragment recruitment approach, we identified 68.9 Mb of "Latescibacteria"-affiliated contigs in publicly available metagenomic datasets comprising 73,079 proteins...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304077/alternative-electron-transport-mediated-by-flavodiiron-proteins-is-operational-in-organisms-from-cyanobacteria-up-to-gymnosperms
#14
Petr Ilík, Andrej Pavlovič, Roman Kouřil, Alessandro Alboresi, Tomas Morosinotto, Yagut Allahverdiyeva, Eva-Mari Aro, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Toshiharu Shikanai
Photo-reduction of O2 to water mediated by flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) represents a safety valve for the photosynthetic electron transport chain in fluctuating light. So far, the FDP-mediated O2 photo-reduction has been evidenced only in cyanobacteria and the moss Physcomitrella; however, a recent phylogenetic analysis of transcriptomes of photosynthetic organisms has also revealed the presence of FDP genes in several nonflowering plant groups. What remains to be clarified is whether the FDP-dependent O2 photo-reduction is actually operational in these organisms...
March 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303408/methylene-blue-decreases-mitochondrial-lysine-acetylation-in-the-diabetic-heart
#15
Jessica M Berthiaume, Chia-Heng Hsiung, Alison B Austin, Sean P McBrayer, Mikayla M Depuydt, Margaret P Chandler, Masaru Miyagi, Mariana G Rosca
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is preceded by mitochondrial alterations, and progresses to heart failure. We studied whether treatment with methylene blue (MB), a compound that was reported to serve as an alternate electron carrier within the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), improves mitochondrial metabolism and cardiac function in type 1 diabetes. MB was administered at 10 mg/kg/day to control and diabetic rats. Both echocardiography and hemodynamic studies were performed to assess cardiac function...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303003/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-on-glycaemic-control-and-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-in-db-db-mice
#16
Vivien Chavanelle, Nathalie Boisseau, Yolanda F Otero, Lydie Combaret, Dominique Dardevet, Christophe Montaurier, Geoffrey Delcros, Sébastien L Peltier, Pascal Sirvent
Physical activity is known as an effective strategy for prevention and treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. The aim of this work was to compare the effects of a traditional Moderate Intensity Continuous Training (MICT) with a High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in diabetic mice. Diabetic db/db male mice (N = 25) aged 6 weeks were subdivided into MICT, HIIT or control (CON) group. Animals in the training groups ran on a treadmill 5 days/week during 10 weeks...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295945/parallel-evolution-of-genes-controlling-mitonuclear-balance-in-short-lived-annual-fishes
#17
Arne Sahm, Martin Bens, Matthias Platzer, Alessandro Cellerino
The current molecular understanding of the aging process derives almost exclusively from the study of random or targeted single-gene mutations in highly inbred laboratory species, mostly invertebrates. Little information is available as to the genetic mechanisms responsible for natural lifespan variation and the evolution of lifespan, especially in vertebrates. Here, we investigated the pattern of positive selection in annual (i.e., short-lived) and nonannual (i.e., longer-lived) African killifishes to identify a genomic substrate for evolution of annual life history (and reduced lifespan)...
March 11, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291354/regulation-of-respiratory-pathway-and-electron-transport-chain-in-relation-to-senescence-of-postharvest-white-mushroom-agaricus-bisporus-under-high-o2-co2-controlled-atmospheres
#18
Ling Li, Hiroaki Kitazawa, Xiangyou Wang, Han Sun
In order to study the respiration metabolism mechanism based on the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by the electron transport chain (ETC) of the white mushroom under high O2/CO2 controlled atmospheres (CA), the treatments of 100% O2, 80% O2 + 20% CO2, 60% O2 + 40% CO2 and 40% O2 + 60% CO2 were employed and natural air was used as the control. ATP and energy charge can maintain the membrane integrity and function, life activities and physic-chemical reactions of high plants...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290669/coordination-controlled-one-dimensional-molecular-chains-in-hexapodal-adenine-silver-ultrathin-films
#19
R Kamal Saravanan, Prithwidip Saha, Viruthakasi Venkatesh, Thiruvancheril G Gopakumar, Sandeep Verma
Growth of a silver coordination polymer of a C3-symmetric hexaadenine ligand is studied on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), using high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM). This unusual ligand offers 6-fold multidentate coordination sites, and consequently, a multidimensional growth of coordination polymer is expected. Notably, each discrete hexapodal unit is bridged by two silver ions along one of the crystallographic directions, resulting in high interaction energy along this direction. When the polymer was deposited on an HOPG surface from a dilute solution, we observed abundant one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymer chains, with a minimum width of approximately 4...
March 14, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289721/platelets-from-pulmonary-hypertension-patients-show-increased-mitochondrial-reserve-capacity
#20
Quyen L Nguyen, Catherine Corey, Pamela White, Annie Watson, Mark T Gladwin, Marc A Simon, Sruti Shiva
Accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is systemic in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and central to disease pathogenesis. However, bioenergetic changes in PH patients and their association with disease severity remain unclear. Here, we hypothesize that alteration in bioenergetic function is present in platelets from PH patients and correlates with clinical parameters of PH. Platelets isolated from controls and PH patients (n = 28) were subjected to extracellular flux analysis to determine oxygen consumption and glycolytic rates...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
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