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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345195/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-pulmonary-hypertension-cause-effect-or-both
#1
Jeffrey D Marshall, Isabel Bazan, Yi Zhang, Wassim H Fares, Patty J Lee
Pulmonary hypertension describes a heterogeneous disease defined by increased pulmonary artery pressures, and progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance due to pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature involving pulmonary endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells.  This process occurs under various conditions, and though these populations vary, the clinical manifestations are the same: progressive dyspnea, increases in right ventricular (RV) afterload and dysfunction, RV-pulmonary artery uncoupling, and right-sided heart failure with systemic circulatory collapse...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343425/iba57p-participates-in-maturation-of-a-2fe-2s-cluster-rieske-protein-and-in-formation-of-supercomplexes-iii-iv-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-electron-transport-chain
#2
Luis A Sánchez, Mauricio Gomez-Gallardo, Alma L Díaz-Pérez, Christian Cortes-Rojo, Jesús Campos-García
The [Fe-S] late-acting subsystem comprised of Isa1p/Isa2p, Grx5p, and Iba57p proteins (Fe-S-IBG subsystem) is involved in [4Fe-4S]-cluster protein assembly. The effect of deleting IBA57 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae on mitochondrial respiratory complex integration and functionality associated with Rieske protein maturation was evaluated. The iba57Δ mutant showed decreased expression and maturation of the Rieske protein. The loss of Rieske protein caused by IBA57 deletion affected the structure of supercomplexes III2IV2 and III2IV1 and their integration into the mitochondria, causing dysfunction in the electron transport chain...
January 14, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341928/a-novel-brown-adipocyte-enriched-long-non-coding-rna-that-is-required-for-brown-adipocyte-differentiation-and-sufficient-to-drive-thermogenic-gene-program-in-white-adipocytes
#3
Yan Xiong, Feng Yue, Zhihao Jia, Yun Gao, Wen Jin, Keping Hu, Yong Zhang, Dahai Zhu, Gongshe Yang, Shihuan Kuang
The thermogenic activities of brown and beige adipocytes can be exploited to reduce energy surplus and counteract obesity. Recent RNA sequencing studies have uncovered a number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) uniquely expressed in white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT), but whether and how these lncRNAs function in adipogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of a novel brown adipocyte-enriched LncRNA (AK079912), and its nuclear localization, function and regulation. The expression of AK079912 increases during brown preadipocyte differentiation and in response to cold-stimulated browning of white adipocytes...
January 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339557/chronic-dietary-creatine-enhances-hippocampal-dependent-spatial-memory-bioenergetics-and-levels-of-plasticity-related-proteins-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#4
Wanda M Snow, Chris Cadonic, Claudia Cortes-Perez, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Michael J Bernstein, Miyoung Suh, Paul Fernyhough, Benedict C Albensi
The brain has a high demand for energy, of which creatine (Cr) is an important regulator. Studies document neurocognitive benefits of oral Cr in mammals, yet little is known regarding their physiological basis. This study investigated the effects of Cr supplementation (3%, w/w) on hippocampal function in male C57BL/6 mice, including spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and oxygen consumption rates from isolated mitochondria in real time. Levels of transcription factors and related proteins (CREB, Egr1, and IκB to indicate NF-κB activity), proteins implicated in cognition (CaMKII, PSD-95, and Egr2), and mitochondrial proteins (electron transport chain Complex I, mitochondrial fission protein Drp1) were probed with Western blotting...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338181/attaining-melt-processing-of-complementary-semiconducting-polymer-blends-at-130-%C3%A2-c-via-sidechain-engineering
#5
Aristide Gumyusenge, Xikang Zhao, Yan Zhao, Jianguo Mei
Complementary semiconducting polymer blends (c-SPBs) have been proposed and tested to achieve melt-processed high performance organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Prior to this study, melt-processing requires temperatures as high as 180 °C. To implement this technique into low-cost and large-area thin film manufacturing for flexible organic electronics, semiconducting materials meltable at temperatures tolerable by ubiquitous plastic substrates are still needed. We report here the design and melt-processing of a c-SPB consisting of a matrix polymer (DPP-C5) and its fully conjugated analogue...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338024/quantitative-in-vivo-mapping-of-myocardial-mitochondrial-membrane-potential
#6
Nathaniel M Alpert, Nicolas Guehl, Leon Ptaszek, Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau, Jeremy Ruskin, Moussa C Mansour, Dustin Wooten, Chao Ma, Kazue Takahashi, Yun Zhou, Timothy M Shoup, Marc D Normandin, Georges El Fakhri
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) arises from normal function of the electron transport chain. Maintenance of ΔΨm within a narrow range is essential for mitochondrial function. Methods for in vivo measurement of ΔΨm do not exist. We use 18F-labeled tetraphenylphosphonium (18F-TPP+) to measure and map the total membrane potential, ΔΨT, as the sum of ΔΨm and cellular (ΔΨc) electrical potentials. METHODS: Eight pigs, five controls and three with a scar-like injury, were studied...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337889/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-the-yin-and-yang-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cancer-progression
#7
REVIEW
Jan Ježek, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich
Mitochondria are organelles with a highly dynamic ultrastructure maintained by a delicate equilibrium between its fission and fusion rates. Understanding the factors influencing this balance is important as perturbations to mitochondrial dynamics can result in pathological states. As a terminal site of nutrient oxidation for the cell, mitochondrial powerhouses harness energy in the form of ATP in a process driven by the electron transport chain. Contemporaneously, electrons translocated within the electron transport chain undergo spontaneous side reactions with oxygen, giving rise to superoxide and a variety of other downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 16, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337526/carbon-nanotube-web-with-carboxylated-polythiophene-assist-for-high-performance-battery-electrodes
#8
Yo-Han Kwon, Jung Jin Park, Lisa M Housel, Krysten Minnici, Guoyan Zhang, Sujin R Lee, Seung Woo Lee, Zhongming Chen, Suguru Noda, Esther S Takeuchi, Kenneth J Takeuchi, Amy C Marschilok, Elsa Reichmanis
A carbon nanotube (CNT) web electrode comprising magnetite spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs) linked by the carboxylated conjugated polymer, poly[3-(potassium-4-butanoate) thiophene] (PPBT), was designed to demonstrate benefits derived from the rational consideration of electron/ion transport coupled with the surface chemistry of the electrode materials components. To maximize transport properties, the approach introduces monodispersed spherical Fe3O4 (sFe3O4) for uniform Li+ diffusion and a FWNT web electrode frame that affords characteristics of long-ranged electronic pathways and porous networks...
January 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334756/thioredoxin-1-negatively-modulates-adam17-activity-through-direct-binding-and-indirect-reductive-activity
#9
Daniela Granato, Rute A P Costa, Rebeca Kawahara, Sami Yokoo, Annelize Aragao, Romenia Domingues, Bianca Pauletti, Rodrigo Honorato, Juliana Fattori, Ana Figueira, Paulo Oliveira, Silvio Consonni, Denise Castro Fernandes, Francisco Rafael Martins Laurindo, Hinrich Hansen, Adriana F Paes Leme
A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) modulates signaling events by releasing surface protein ectodomains such as TNFα and the EGFR-ligands. We have previously characterized cytoplasmic thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) as a partner of ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain. Combining discovery and targeted proteomic approaches, we uncovered that Trx-1 negatively regulates ADAM17 by direct and indirect effect. We performed cell-based assays with synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenesis and we demonstrated that the interaction interface of Trx-1 and ADAM17 is important for the negative regulation of ADAM17 activity...
January 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331122/thermally-induced-charge-current-through-long-molecules
#10
Natalya A Zimbovskaya, Abraham Nitzan
In this work, we theoretically study steady state thermoelectric transport through a single-molecule junction with a long chain-like bridge. Electron transmission through the system is computed using a tight-binding model for the bridge. We analyze dependences of thermocurrent on the bridge length in unbiased and biased systems operating within and beyond the linear response regime. It is shown that the length-dependent thermocurrent is controlled by the lineshape of electron transmission in the interval corresponding to the HOMO/LUMO transport channel...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315517/role-of-respiratory-terminal-oxidases-in-the-extracellular-electron-transfer-ability-of-cyanobacteria
#11
Narendran Sekar, Jian Wang, Yan Zhou, Yi Fang, Yajun Yan, Ramaraja P Ramasamy
Cyanobacteria are used as anode catalysts in photo-bioelectrochemical cells to generate electricity in a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly manner using only water and sunlight. Though cyanobacteria (CB) possess unique advantage for solar energy conversion by virtue of its robust photosynthesis, they cannot efficiently perform extracellular electron transfer (EET). The reasons being, unlike dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (that are usually exploited in microbial fuel cells to generate electricity), (1) CB do not possess any special features on their outer membrane to carry out EET and (2) the electrons generated in photosynthetic electron transport chain are channeled into competing respiratory pathways rather than to the anode...
January 8, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315239/mangiferin-accelerates-glycolysis-and-enhances-mitochondrial-bioenergetics
#12
Zhongbo Liu, Pasha Apontes, Ekaterina V Fomenko, Nan Chi, Victor L Schuster, Irwin J Kurland, Jeffrey E Pessin, Yuling Chi
One of the main causes of hyperglycemia is inefficient or impaired glucose utilization by skeletal muscle, which can be exacerbated by chronic high caloric intake. Previously, we identified a natural compound, mangiferin (MGF) that improved glucose utilization in high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistant mice. To further identify the molecular mechanisms of MGF action on glucose metabolism, we conducted targeted metabolomics and transcriptomics studies of glycolyic and mitochondrial bioenergetics pathways in skeletal muscle...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302508/alpers-huttenlocher-syndrome-first-presented-with-hepatic-failure-can-liver-transplantation-be-considered-as-treatment-option
#13
Sowon Park, Hoon-Chul Kang, Jin-Sung Lee, Young Nyun Park, Seung Kim, Hong Koh
Mitochondria play essential role in eukaryotic cells including in the oxidative phosphorylation and generation of adenosine triphosphate via the electron-transport chain. Therefore, defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can result in mitochondrial dysfunction which leads to various mitochondrial disorders that may present with various neurologic and non-neurologic manifestations. Mutations in the nuclear gene polymerase gamma (POLG) are associated with mtDNA depletions, and Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome is one of the most severe manifestations of POLG mutation characterized by the clinical triad of intractable seizures, psychomotor regression, and liver failure...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301933/oxidation-of-the-fad-cofactor-to-the-8-formyl-derivative-in-human-electron-transferring-flavoprotein
#14
Peter Augustin, Marina Toplak, Katharina Fuchs, Eva Christine Gerstmann, Ruth Prassl, Andreas Winkler, Peter Macheroux
The heterodimeric human electron transferring flavoprotein (hETF) transfers electrons from at least thirteen different flavin dehydrogenases to the mitochondrial respiratory chain through a non-covalently bound FAD cofactor. Here, we describe the discovery of an irreversible and pH-dependent oxidation of the 8α-methyl group to 8-formyl-FAD (8f-FAD), which represents a unique chemical modification of a flavin cofactor in the human flavoproteome. Furthermore, a set of hETF variants revealed that several conserved amino acid residues in the FAD binding pocket of electron transferring flavoproteins are required for the conversion to the formyl group...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300464/promysalin-elicits-species-selective-inhibition-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-targeting-succinate-dehydrogenase
#15
Colleen Keohane, Andrew Steele, Christian Fetzer, Jittasak Khowsathit, Daria Van Tyne, Lucile Moynie, Michael S Gilmore, John Karanicolas, Stephan A Sieber, William M Wuest
Natural products have served as an inspiration to scientists both for their complex three-dimensional architecture and exquisite biological activity. Promysalin is one such Pseudomonad secondary metabolite that exhibits narrow-spectrum antibacterial activity, originally isolated from the rhizosphere. We herein utilize affinity-based protein profiling (AfBPP) to identify succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) as the biological target of the natural product. The target was further validated in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and through the generation, and sequencing, of a resistant mutant...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299440/host-species-and-pathogenicity-effects-in-the-evolution-of-the-mitochondrial-genomes-of-eimeria-species-apicomplexa-coccidia-eimeriidae
#16
Asma Awadi
Background: Mitochondria are fundamental organelles responsible for cellular metabolism and energy production in eukaryotes via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. Mitochondrial DNA is often used in population and species studies with the assumption of neutral evolution. However, evidence of positive selection in mitochondrial coding genes of various animal species has accumulated suggesting that amino acid changes in mtDNA might be adaptive. The functional and physiological implications of the inferred positively selected sites are usually unknown and are only evaluated based on available structural and functional models...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298131/a-systematic-review-of-p53-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-in-skeletal-muscle
#17
Kaitlyn Beyfuss, David A Hood
BACKGROUND: p53 is a tumor suppressor protein involved in regulating a wide array of signaling pathways. The role of p53 in the cell is determined by the type of imposed oxidative stress, its intensity and duration. The last decade of research has unravelled a dual nature in the function of p53 in mediating the oxidative stress burden. However, this is dependent on the specific properties of the applied stress and thus requires further analysis. METHODS: A systematic review was performed following an electronic search of Pubmed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect databases...
January 3, 2018: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297947/loss-of-function-mutations-in-isca2-disrupt-4fe-4s-cluster-machinery-and-cause-a-fatal-leukodystrophy-with-hyperglycinemia-and-mtdna-depletion
#18
Joseph T Alaimo, Arnaud Besse, Charlotte L Alston, Ki Pang, Vivek Appadurai, Monisha Samanta, Patroula Smpokou, Robert McFarland, Robert W Taylor, Penelope E Bonnen
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential co-factors for proteins that participate in fundamental cellular processes including metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transcriptional regulation, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). ISCA2 plays a role in the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters and a recent report described subjects displaying infantile-onset leukodystrophy due to bi-allelic mutation of ISCA2. We present two additional unrelated cases, and provide a more complete clinical description that includes hyperglycinemia, leukodystrophy of the brainstem with longitudinally extensive spinal cord involvement, and mtDNA deficiency...
January 3, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296890/the-lipid-peroxidation-product-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-induces-tissue-factor-decryption-via-ros-generation-and-the-thioredoxin-system
#19
Shabbir A Ansari, Usha R Pendurthi, L Vijaya Mohan Rao
Many pathophysiologic agents transform cryptic tissue factor (TF) on cells to prothrombotic TF, and one such stimulus is 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), the most abundant aldehyde produced by the oxidation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. HNE was shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p38 MAPK activation, but the link between them and their role in TF decryption are unclear. The present study was carried out to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in HNE-induced TF decryption in monocytic cells...
November 28, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289287/development-of-matrix-solid-phase-dispersion-method-for-the-extraction-of-short-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-in-human-placenta
#20
Ying Wang, Wei Gao, Jing Wu, Huijin Liu, Yingjun Wang, Yawei Wang, Guibin Jiang
Chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are widely used worldwide, and they can be released into the environment during their production, transport, usage and disposal, which pose potential risks for human health. In this work, an efficient, reliable and rapid pretreatment method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was developed for the analysis of short-chain CPs (SCCPs) in human placenta by gas chromatograph-electron capture negative ion low-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-LRMS) and gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF-HRMS)...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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