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P L Foglio-Bonda, E Laguini, C Davoli, F Pattarino, A Foglio-Bonda
OBJECTIVE: To determine salivary pH, flow rate (FR) and surface tension (γs) in a cohort of 30 healthy young adults. To acquire cohort biological independent variables (age, gender, weight, height, medications, smoking, pathologies, and allergies) and to correlate them with pH, FR and γs obtained values. Evaluate the possible variation of the γs values during the time after the withdrawal and the influence of the operational abilities of the experimenting operators. Evaluate the relationship between γs, pH and FR  and the dependence between pH and FR...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Fabio Girardi, Daniel R Barnes, Daniel Barrowdale, Debra Frost, Angela F Brady, Claire Miller, Alex Henderson, Alan Donaldson, Alex Murray, Carole Brewer, Caroline Pottinger, D Gareth Evans, Diana Eccles, Fiona Lalloo, Helen Gregory, Jackie Cook, Jacqueline Eason, Julian Adlard, Julian Barwell, Kai Ren Ong, Lisa Walker, Louise Izatt, Lucy E Side, M John Kennedy, Marc Tischkowitz, Mark T Rogers, Mary E Porteous, Patrick J Morrison, Ros Eeles, Rosemarie Davidson, Katie Snape, Douglas F Easton, Antonis C Antoniou
PurposeBRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives are proven noncarriers of a BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation that is carried by their relatives. The risk of developing breast cancer (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in these women is uncertain. The study aimed to estimate risks of invasive BC and EOC in a large cohort of BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives.MethodsWe used cohort analysis to estimate incidences, cumulative risks, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).ResultsA total of 1,895 unaffected women were eligible for inclusion in the BC risk analysis and 1,736 in the EOC risk analysis...
March 22, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Ahmed Alfares, Taghrid Aloraini, Lamia Al Subaie, Abdulelah Alissa, Ahmed Al Qudsi, Ahmed Alahmad, Fuad Al Mutairi, Abdulrahman Alswaid, Ali Alothaim, Wafaa Eyaid, Mohammed Albalwi, Saeed Alturki, Majid Alfadhel
PurposeWhole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) are used to diagnose genetic and inherited disorders. However, few studies comparing the detection rates of WES and WGS in clinical settings have been performed.MethodsVariant call format files were generated and raw data analysis was performed in cases in which the final molecular results showed discrepancies. We classified the possible explanations for the discrepancies into three categories: the time interval between the two tests, the technical limitations of WES, and the impact of the sequencing system type...
March 22, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Frits H M van Osch, Sylvia H J Jochems, Anke Wesselius, Frederik J van Schooten, Richard T Bryan, Maurice P Zeegers
Background : Active smoking is a major risk factor for urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). However, the evidence that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) either in childhood or adult life is also associated with UBC risk is ambiguous. With this meta-analysis, we aim to summarise how exposure to ETS is associated with UBC risk. Methods : In total, 11 studies (3 cohort studies, 8 case-control studies) were included in this meta-analysis and summary odds ratios (SORs) for UBC risk were calculated for never smokers who were exposed to ETS during childhood at home, during adulthood at home, or during adulthood in a work environment compared to never smokers who were never exposed to ETS...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
L Jonker, F Memon
Since recent research indicates that other modalities are at a minimum non-inferior to the NICE-recommended hormonal agent prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), a retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1971 consecutively induced singleton pregnancies. Multinominal regression analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) for vaginal delivery with balloon-mediated labour induction (84% vaginal deliveries; OR 1.6; 95% CI 0.7-3.5) is similar to the PGE2 agents propess (81%; OR 1.2; 95% CI 0.68-1.98) and prostin (79%; OR 0...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Lauren E Giugale, Sara Sakamoto, Jonathan Yabes, Shannon L Dunn, Elizabeth E Krans
We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study to evaluate the risk factors and the maternal morbidity associated with unintended extensions of the hysterotomy during caesarean delivery. We evaluated 2707 women who underwent low-transverse caesarean deliveries in 2011 at an academic, tertiary-care hospital. Hysterotomy extensions were identified through operative reports. Of the 2707 caesarean deliveries, 392 (14.5%) had an unintended hysterotomy extension. On the multivariable regression modelling, neonatal weight (OR 1...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Zenaida Vazquez-Ruiz, Carmen De la Fuente-Arrillaga, Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Itziar Zazpe, Susana Santiago, Cristina Razquin, Estefanía Toledo, Miguel Ángel Martinez-Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the association between egg consumption and dyslipidemia in a Mediterranean cohort. METHODS: We followed-up 13,104 Spanish university graduates for a mean period of 8 years. Dietary habits at baseline were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Self-reported blood concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-c) and triglycerides were evaluated according to categories of egg consumption after 6 and 8 years of follow-up...
January 12, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Konstantinos Papoutsis, Alkistis Kapelouzou, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Nikolaos Patelis, Georgios Kouvelos, Dimitrios Schizas, Ioannis Karavokyros, Sotirios Georgopoulos
Serum relaxin 2 (RL2) is a pleiotropic hormone that acts on various organs and systems, particularly the cardiovascular system. Although RL2 seems to upregulate the synthesis of nitric monoxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, current literature on its role in atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of serum RL2 in patients with an arterial aneurysm as well as in atherosclerotic patients, and correlate them with the severity of their related vascular disease...
March 22, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Yibo Li, Jenelle L Pederson, Thomas A Churchill, Adrian S Wagg, Jayna M Holroyd-Leduc, Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan, Raj S Padwal, Rachel G Khadaroo
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a state of vulnerability to diverse stressors. We assessed the impact of frailty on outcomes after discharge in older surgical patients. METHODS: We prospectively followed patients 65 years of age or older who underwent emergency abdominal surgery at either of 2 tertiary care centres and who needed assistance with fewer than 3 activities of daily living. Preadmission frailty was defined according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale as "well" (score 1 or 2), "vulnerable" (score 3 or 4) or "frail" (score 5 or 6)...
February 20, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
J F Gruber, S Becker-Dreps, M G Hudgens, M A Brookhart, J C Thomas, M Jonsson Funk
Delays in rotavirus vaccine schedule could improve performance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, delaying the first dose could be detrimental if infants experience severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) early in life. Our objective was to describe the timing and predictors of severe RVGE in unvaccinated children in LMICs. We analysed the placebo arms from two clinical trials (cohort 1: NCT00241644; cohort 2: NCT00362648). We estimated the rate, cumulative incidence (per 1000 infants) and age distribution of severe RVGE episodes...
March 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Kirolos, C Waugh, K Templeton, D McCormick, R Othieno, L J Willocks, J Stevenson
In September 2016, an imported case of measles in Edinburgh in a university student resulted in a further 17 confirmed cases during October and November 2016. All cases were genotype D8 and were associated with a virus strain most commonly seen in South East Asia. Twelve of the 18 cases were staff or students at a university in Edinburgh and 17 cases had incomplete or unknown measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccination status. The public health response included mass follow-up of all identified contacts, widespread communications throughout universities in Edinburgh and prompt vaccination clinics at affected campuses...
March 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Osvaldo P Almeida, Andrew H Ford, Graeme J Hankey, Bu B Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Leon Flicker
BACKGROUND: Recent research has identified several potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia, including mental disorders. Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder, have also been associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, but currently available data difficult to generalise because of bias and confounding. We designed the present study to investigate if the presence of a psychotic disorder increased the risk of incident dementia in later life...
March 22, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Gill Datta, Pádraig T Kitterick, Jayne Ramirez-Inscoe
OBJECTIVES: Clinicians face considerable challenges in setting appropriate auditory goals for babies and young children who receive cochlear implants. This paper describes the rationale, organization, implementation, and validation of the Nottingham Auditory Milestones profile that was developed to address these challenges. METHODS: The use of the profile has been fully integrated into the postoperative pathway at the Nottingham Auditory Implant Programme since 2009...
March 22, 2018: Cochlear Implants International
David L Tirschwell, Mark Turner, David Thaler, James Choulerton, David Marks, John Carroll, Lee MacDonald, Richard W Smalling, Maria Koullick, Ning Yan Gu, Jeffrey L Saver
OBJECTIVE: Compared to medical therapy alone, percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) further reduces risk of recurrent ischemic strokes in carefully selected young to middle-aged patients with a recent cryptogenic ischemic stroke. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this therapy in the context of the United Kingdom (UK) healthcare system. METHODS: A Markov cohort model consisting of 4 health states (Stable after index stroke, Post-Minor Recurrent Stroke, Post-Moderate Recurrent Stroke, and Death) was developed to simulate the economic outcomes of device-based PFO closure compared to medical therapy...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
M Fernández-Prada, O D Rodríguez-Fonseca, A M Brandy-García, P Alonso-Penanes, I Huerta-González, F Fernández-Noval
OBJECTIVE: Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases associated morbidity and mortality. Vaccination against HBV has been shown to be the most effective method to prevent this situation. Standard vaccination schemes used in this population do not appear to be effective enough. The objective is to identify the response rate following the use of AS04C-adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine in HIV patients as well as the possible associated adverse reactions...
March 19, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Chia-Yin Hsieh, Yi-Yin Lai, Yen-Chin Chen, Chia-Chun Lin, Li-Fang Liu, Nai-Ying Ko
BACKGROUND: There has been a global consensus since 2016 that antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated following HIV diagnosis regardless of CD4-count test results. Identifying an instrument that is able to accurately assess the readiness of HIV-infected persons for treatment initiation is thus critical. PURPOSE: (1) To evaluate the comparative readiness of patients receiving ART and those who are not yet on ART; (2) to evaluate the respective readiness variation within these 2 groups over a one-year period; and (3) to identify the cutoff value for medication readiness that indicates the ideal time to initiate ART...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Rodney C Wade, Robert M Lester, Ashraf S Gorgey
The purposes of this study were to cross-validate a previously derived anthropometric estimation equation specific to the spinal cord injury population and determine the ratios of absolute skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) for the quadriceps, hamstrings, and adductor muscle groups based on magnetic resonance imaging. The validation cohort consisted of eleven men with chronic (>1 yr. post injury) spinal cord injury (SCI). Ten individuals were classified as AIS A or B and one participant was classified as an AIS C...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Sam Schulman, Peter L Gross, Bruce Ritchie, Susan Nahirniak, Yulia Lin, Lani Lieberman, Marc Carrier, Mark A Crowther, Indy Ghosh, Alejandro Lazo-Langner, Michelle Zondag
Oral factor Xa inhibitors are increasingly used for anticoagulation, but there is no approved reversal agent. Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) for the management of Xa-inhibitor-associated bleeding has been described in small case series and one cohort study. Patients on apixaban or rivaroxaban, suffering a major bleed, were treated at nine Canadian hospitals as per existing hospital protocol with a fixed dose of PCC 2,000 units and subsequently recruited for a 30-day follow-up. The treating physician evaluated the haemostatic effectiveness as observed during the first day as good, moderate or poor/none, using an assessment guide...
March 21, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Jiro Abe, Toshimasa Okazaki, Naohiko Kikuchi, Satomi Takahashi, Akira Sakurada, Yoshinori Okada
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the risk of recurrence possibly caused by preoperative bronchoscopic cancer confirmation in stage1A non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-nine cases of peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (including 151 adenocarcinoma) with no more than 3 cm in their tumor longer diameter were selected. All patients underwent preoperative diagnostic bronchoscopy followed by lobectomy, and were demonstrated to have pathologically free of lymph node involvement and pleural involvement...
March 21, 2018: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Teresa S Henriques, Madalena D Costa, Pooja Mathur, Priyam Mathur, Roger B Davis, Murray A Mittleman, Kamal R Khabbaz, Ary L Goldberger, Balachundhar Subramaniam
Complexity measures are intended to assess the cardiovascular system's capacity to respond to stressors. We sought to determine if decreased BP complexity is associated with increased estimated risk as obtained from two standard instruments: the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' (STS) Risk of Mortality and Morbidity Index and the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation Score (EuroSCORE II). In this observational cohort study, preoperative systolic, diastolic, mean (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) time series were derived in 147 patients undergoing cardiac surgery...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
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