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Addiction syndrome

Karen E van den Hondel, Anne Linde Saaltink, Peter Paul M Bender
BACKGROUND: Forensic physicians are responsible for first-line medical care of detainees (individuals held in custody) in the police station. The Dutch police law contains a 'duty of care', which gives the police responsibility for the apparent mentally ill and/or confused people they encounter during their work. The police can ask a forensic physician to do a primary psychiatric assessment of any apparent mentally ill detainee. The forensic physician determines if the apparent mentally ill behavior of the detainee is due to a somatic illness, or has a psychiatric cause for which the detainee needs admission to a psychiatric hospital...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Bartłomiej Kuszczak, Natalia Olszak
Ibogaine is a natural chemical compound, which belongs to the indole alkaloid family. It can be naturally found within the root bark of african plant Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions. Other effects include reduction or complete disappearance of absitnence symptoms visible in people addicted to the nicotine, alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine or opioids, what has been scientifically proven after the tests on animals and small groups of people...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
S Mücke, M Nagel, J P Siedentopf, C Bührer, D Hüseman
Background: Infants exposed to opiates antenatally display withdrawal symptoms after birth referred to as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Patients: A total of 366 newborns (166 females, 10 twins) from 361 mothers were diagnosed with NAS from 2000 to 2011 at a single large metropolitan referral center. Methods: Retrospective chart review of all newborn infants exposed to opiates in utero. Results: 20% were premature (gestational age<37 weeks), 32% were small-for-gestational-age (<10(th) percentile)...
October 10, 2016: Klinische Pädiatrie
Giordano de Guglielmo, Marsida Kallupi, Giulia Scuppa, Gregory Demopulos, George Gaitanaris, Roberto Ciccocioppo
RATIONALE: Relapse to opioids is often driven by the avoidance of the aversive states of opioid withdrawal. We recently demonstrated that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) by pioglitazone reduces the motivation for heroin and attenuates its rewarding properties. However, the role of PPARγ in withdrawal and other forms of relapse to heroin is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To further address this issue, we investigated the role of PPARγ on the development and expression of morphine withdrawal in mice and the effect of pioglitazone on several forms of heroin relapse in rats...
October 6, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Paul J Cocker, M Tremblay, S Kaur, Catharine A Winstanley
RATIONALE: Whilst dopamine agonist therapies can successfully manage the symptoms of diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), fibromyalgia and restless leg syndrome, they can also cause impulse control and addiction disorders such as gambling disorder (GD). These compulsive behaviours seriously undermine the utility of such treatments. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to model this phenomenon using a rodent slot machine task (rSMT) in order to investigate the neurobiological basis underlying such behavioural changes...
October 6, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Emily C Atwood, Grace Sollender, Erica Hsu, Christine Arsnow, Victoria Flanagan, Joanna Celenza, Bonny Whalen, Alison V Holmes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in the United States quintupled between 2000 and 2012, little is known about the family perspective of the hospital stay. We interviewed families to understand their experiences during the newborn hospitalization for NAS and to improve family-centered care. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team from 3 hospital units composed open-ended interview questions based on a literature review, clinical experience, and an internal iterative process...
October 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
T C Hain, M Cherchi
Mal de débarquement syndrome (MdDS) is typified by a prolonged rocking sensation - for a month or longer - that begins immediately following a lengthy exposure to motion. The provoking motion is usually a sea voyage. About 80% of MdDS sufferers are women, and most of them are middle-aged. MdDS patients are troubled by more migraine headaches than controls. Unlike dizziness caused by vestibular disorders or motion sickness, the symptoms of MdDS usually improve with re-exposure to motion. The long duration of symptoms - a month or more - distinguishes MdDS from land-sickness...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ali Heidarianpour, Majid Vahidian Rezazadeh, Alireza Zamani
BACKGROUND: Drug addiction triggers the infliction of a variety of diseases. Various subjects have indicated that during the withdrawal syndrome period, the immune system is weakened. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the changes in serum levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) during the morphine withdrawal syndrome induced by 8 weeks of moderate exercise and their effects on the immune system function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats (220 ± 10 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6): healthy control (HC), addicted control (AC), healthy trained (HT), and addicted trained (AT) groups...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
N Elenga, M T Ggeorger-Sow, T Messiaen, I Lamaury, I Favre, M Nacher, G Beaucaire
The aim of this study was to investigate the mortality rate, risk factors and causes of death among HIV-infected patients in Guadeloupe from 1988 to 2009. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to describe the survival trends and the Cox proportional hazard model to identify predictors of deaths in HIV-infected patients. Mortality rate and causes of death were compared among patients whose HIV diagnosis was made in two different study periods. There were 672 deaths recorded. The exact cause of death was clearly identified for 202 patients (35%)...
September 18, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Gregorio González-Alcaide, Amador Calafat, Elisardo Becoña, Bart Thijs, Wolfgang Glänzel
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to introduce a new methodology in the field of substance abuse, namely, co-citation analysis, which uses the bibliographic references of publications to establish the main thematic areas being researched and to identify the seminal documents that have contributed to establishing the intellectual foundation of the discipline at the present time. METHOD: We identified all bibliographic references that were cited in documents published in the substance abuse journals included in the Journal Citation Reports in the 2001-2012 period, generating a co-citation matrix...
September 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Stephen Bruehl, Richard Ohrbach, Sonia Sharma, Eva Widerstrom-Noga, Robert H Dworkin, Roger B Fillingim, Dennis C Turk
UNLABELLED: The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) is designed to be an evidence-based multidimensional chronic pain classification system that will facilitate more comprehensive and consistent chronic pain diagnoses, and thereby enhance research, clinical communication, and ultimately patient care. Core diagnostic criteria (dimension 1) for individual chronic pain conditions included in the initial version of AAPT will be the focus of subsequent empirical research to evaluate and provide evidence for their reliability and validity...
September 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Gary A Walco, Elliot J Krane, Kenneth E Schmader, Debra K Weiner
UNLABELLED: An ideal taxonomy of chronic pain would be applicable to people of all ages. Developmental sciences focus on lifespan developmental approaches, and view the trajectory of processes in the life course from birth to death. In this article we provide a review of lifespan developmental models, describe normal developmental processes that affect pain processing, and identify deviations from those processes that lead to stable individual differences of clinical interest, specifically the development of chronic pain syndromes...
September 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Kimberlei A Richardson, Allison K Hester, Gabrielle L McLemore
As more states and countries legalize medical and/or adult recreational marijuana use, the incidences of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure (PCE) will likely increase. While young people increasingly view marijuana as innocuous, marijuana preparations have been growing in potency in recent years, potentially creating global clinical, public health, and workforce concerns. Unlike fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, there is no phenotypic syndrome associated with PCE. There is also no preponderance of evidence that PCE causes lifelong cognitive, behavioral, or functional abnormalities, and/or susceptibility to subsequent addiction...
August 24, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Gustavo Nieto-Alamilla, Ricardo Márquez-Gómez, Ana-Maricela García-Gálvez, Guadalupe-Elide Morales-Figueroa, José-Antonio Arias-Montaño
Among the four G protein-coupled receptors (H1-H4) identified as mediators of the biologic effects of histamine, the H3 receptor (H3R) is distinguished for its almost exclusive expression in the nervous system and the large variety of isoforms generated by alternative splicing of the corresponding mRNA. Additionally, it exhibits dual functionality as autoreceptor and heteroreceptor, and this enables H3Rs to modulate the histaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems. The cloning of the H3R cDNA in 1999 by Lovenberg et al...
November 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
Mickael Vourc'h, Fanny Feuillet, Pierre-Joachim Mahe, Véronique Sebille, Karim Asehnoune
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is the leading psychoactive substance consumed in France, with about 15 million regular consumers. The National institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) considers alcohol abuse to be more than 14 units of alcohol a week for men and 7 units for women. The specific complication of alcoholism is the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Its incidence reaches up to 30 % and its main complications are delirium tremens, restlessness, extended hospital stay, higher morbidity, and psychiatric and cognitive impairment...
August 19, 2016: Trials
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Sangmin You, Zsolt Demetrovics
Willuhn et al. observed that habitual cocaine use was correlated with reductions in D2/D3 receptors linked to decreased cue activation in occipital cortex and cerebellum. Dopamine agonist therapy maintains dopamine function and is relapse prevention tactic focused on psychoactive drug and behavioral addictions. Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT) with emphasis on glutaminergic medications fails in the long-term treatment of Reward Deficiency Syndrome Behaviors (RDS). While the careful use of "dopamine antagonist-therapy" short-term is supported, the research-based concept of "dopamine agonist therapy" in long-term is proposed...
July 19, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
M Dupuy, S Chanraud
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents a major public health issue due to its prevalence and severe health consequences. It may affect several aspects of an individual's life including work and relationships, and it also increases risk for additional problems such as brain injury. The causes and outcomes of AUD are varied; thus, attempting to understand this complex phenomenon requires investigation from multiple perspectives. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful means to investigate brain anatomical and functional alterations related to AUD...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Harriet Beitscher-Campbell, Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Margaret A Madigan, John Giordano, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Mark S Gold
Background The reward deficiency syndrome hypothesis posits that genes are responsible for reward dependence and related behaviors. There is evidence that both bulimia and anorexia nervosa, especially in women, have been linked to a lifetime history of substance use disorder (SUD). There are difficulties in accepting food as an addiction similar to drugs; however, increasingly neuroimaging studies favor such an assertion. Case presentations We are reporting the evidence of comorbidity of eating disorders with SUD found within these case presentations...
September 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Fanny Pélissier, Isabelle Claudet, Peggy Gandia-Mailly, Amine Benyamina, Nicolas Franchitto
BACKGROUND: Chronic cannabis users may experience cyclical episodes of nausea and vomiting and learned behavior of hot bathing. This clinical condition, known as cannabis hyperemesis syndrome, was first reported in 2004. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to promote early recognition of this syndrome in emergency departments (EDs) and to increase referral to addiction specialists. METHODS: Cannabis abusers were admitted to the ED for vomiting or abdominal pain from June 1, 2014 to January 1, 2015 and diagnosed with cannabis hyperemesis syndrome by a specialized addiction team...
July 30, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kiri L Wills, Linda A Parker
Over the years, animal studies have revealed a role for the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of multiple aspects of opiate addiction. The current review provides an overview of this literature in regards to opiate withdrawal. The opiate withdrawal syndrome, hypothesized to act as a negative reinforcer in mediating continued drug use, can be characterized by the emergence of spontaneous or precipitated aversive somatic and affective states following the termination of drug use. The behaviors measured to quantify somatic opiate withdrawal and the paradigms employed to assess affective opiate withdrawal (e...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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