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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772560/impact-of-sugar-on-the-body-brain-and-behavior
#1
Clara R Freeman, Amna Zehra, Veronica Ramirez, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Sugar is highly palatable and rewarding, both in its taste and nutritive input. Excessive sugar consumption, however, may trigger neuroadaptations in the reward system that decouple eating behavior from caloric needs and leads to compulsive overeating. Excessive sugar intake is in turn associated with adverse health conditions, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory diseases. This review aims to use recent evidence to connect sugar's impact on the body, brain, and behavior to elucidate how and why sugar consumption has been implicated in addictive behaviors and poor health outcomes...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770251/review-of-the-neurological-benefits-of-phytocannabinoids
#2
REVIEW
Joseph Maroon, Jeff Bost
Background: Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from cannabis sativa subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760674/validation-of-a-spanish-questionnaire-on-mobile-phone-abuse
#3
María A Olivencia-Carrión, Isabel Ramírez-Uclés, Pablo Holgado-Tello, Francisca López-Torrecillas
Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo) to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752906/tramadol-understanding-the-risk-of-serotonin-syndrome-and-seizures
#4
REVIEW
Sameer Hassamal, Karen Miotto, William Dale, Itai Danovitch
Tramadol is commonly prescribed for pain control because it presents a lower risk for addiction and respiratory depression compared to other opioids. However, tramadol's serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitory effects result in a unique adverse effect profile. Two such adverse events are serotonin syndrome and seizures. The prevalence of tramadol-induced serotonin syndrome and seizures is modest in the general population but if left untreated, the morbidity and mortality can be high, and therefore prompt recognition and management is essential...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746453/access-to-syringe-services-programs-kentucky-north-carolina-and-west-virginia-2013-2017
#5
Danae Bixler, Greg Corby-Lee, Scott Proescholdbell, Tina Ramirez, Michael E Kilkenny, Matt LaRocco, Robert Childs, Michael R Brumage, Angela D Settle, Eyasu H Teshale, Alice Asher
The Appalachian region of the United States is experiencing a large increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections related to injection drug use (IDU) (1). Syringe services programs (SSPs) providing sufficient access to safe injection equipment can reduce hepatitis C transmission by 56%; combined SSPs and medication-assisted treatment can reduce transmission by 74% (2). However, access to SSPs has been limited in the United States, especially in rural areas and southern and midwestern states (3). This report describes the expansion of SSPs in Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia during 2013-August 1, 2017...
May 11, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739543/special-indications-for-opioid-free-anaesthesia-and-analgesia-patient-and-procedure-related-including-obesity-sleep-apnoea-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-complex-regional-pain-syndromes-opioid-addiction-and-cancer-surgery
#6
REVIEW
Adrian Sultana, David Torres, Roman Schumann
Opioid-free anaesthesia (OFA) is a technique where no intraoperative systemic, neuraxial or intracavitary opioid is administered with the anaesthetic. Opioid-free analgesia similarly avoids opioids in the perioperative period. There are many compelling reasons to avoid opioids in the surgical population. A number of case reports and, increasingly, prospective studies from all over the world support its benefits, especially in the morbidly obese population with or without sleep apnoea. A derivative technique is opioid sparing, where the same techniques are used but some opioid use is allowed...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736066/prevalence-and-correlates-of-sexual-dysfunction-in-male-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-syndrome-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Deepak Koyilerian Prabhakaran, A Nisha, P Joseph Varghese
Background: Contrary to the popular belief concerning the aphrodisiac effects of alcohol, there exists scientific evidence which conclude on sexual dysfunction caused by chronic alcohol use. There is a dearth of studies from India. Aim: The aim is to estimate the prevalence and correlates of sexual dysfunction in alcohol-dependent patients and to explore the association between sexual dysfunction and various alcohol-related variables. Materials and Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional descriptive design and recruited 84 male patients admitted for de-addiction in a tertiary care center...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730883/smartphone-video-games-and-other-new-technologies-on-hand-joints-in-patients-with-psoriasis
#8
Nicolas Kluger
I read with great interest the article by Megna et al regarding the potential effects of smartphone addiction on the hand joints of individuals and patients with psoriasis [1]. The working hypothesis of the authors is appealing, but could fit in the broader scope of new technologies. Overuse syndrome is one of the known side effects of mobile phone and smartphone overuse, as well as video games joysticks and controllers [2,3]. Besides, the keyboard style of patients with rheumatoid arthritis may have the potential to put stress on joints that are already affected by the disease [4]...
May 6, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722437/the-opioid-oxycodone-use-dependently-inhibits-the-cardiac-sodium-channel-nav1-5
#9
Jannis E Meents, Krisztina Juhasz, Sonja Stölzle-Feix, Vera Peuckmann-Post, Roman Rolke, Angelika Lampert
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oxycodone is a potent semi-synthetic opioid that is commonly used for the treatment of severe acute and chronic pain. However, treatment with oxycodone can lead to cardiac electrical changes, such as long-QT syndrome, potentially inducing sudden cardiac arrest. Here, we investigate whether the cardiac side effects of oxycodone can be explained by modulation of the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Heterologously expressed Nav1...
May 3, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690558/abuse-of-prescription-drugs-in-the-context-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini, John M Corkery, Amira Guirguis
Recently, a range of prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been reportedly used as Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), due to their potential for abuse resulting from their high dosage/idiosyncratic methods of self-administration. This paper provides a systematic review of the topic, focusing on a range of medications which have emerged as being used recreationally, either on their own or in combination with NPS. Among gabapentinoids, pregabalin may present with higher addictive liability levels than gabapentin, with pregabalin being mostly identified in the context of opioid, polydrug intake...
April 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681499/allosteric-activation-dictates-prc2-activity-independent-of-its-recruitment-to-chromatin
#11
Chul-Hwan Lee, Jia-Ray Yu, Sunil Kumar, Ying Jin, Gary LeRoy, Natarajan Bhanu, Syuzo Kaneko, Benjamin A Garcia, Andrew D Hamilton, Danny Reinberg
PRC2 is a therapeutic target for several types of cancers currently undergoing clinical trials. Its activity is regulated by a positive feedback loop whereby its terminal enzymatic product, H3K27me3, is specifically recognized and bound by an aromatic cage present in its EED subunit. The ensuing allosteric activation of the complex stimulates H3K27me3 deposition on chromatin. Here we report a stepwise feedback mechanism entailing key residues within distinctive interfacing motifs of EZH2 or EED that are found to be mutated in cancers and/or Weaver syndrome...
April 13, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680426/willis-ekbom-disease-restless-legs-syndrome-in-patients-with-opioid-withdrawal
#12
Ravi Gupta, Ramjan Ali, Rajat Ray
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with opioid use disorder report symptoms similar to restless legs syndrome (RLS) during withdrawal. However, whether these symptoms are true RLS, their predictors and effect of treatment with pregabalin are still unknown. METHOD: A total of 19 consecutive patients with opioid use disorder who were admitted for detoxification were included in this study after obtaining informed consent. Information regarding addiction was noted, and they were screened for RLS every morning and evening...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676713/-deep-brain-stimulation-for-psychiatric-disorders
#13
M Figee, P R Schuurman, D Denys
- Deep brain stimulation (DBS) corrects pathological activity of neuropsychiatric brain networks with high frequency current via implanted brain electrodes.- DBS is an effective and safe treatment for therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and potentially also for therapy-refractory major depressive disorder.- Experimental psychiatric indications for DBS are Tourette syndrome, addiction, anorexia nervosa, post-traumatic stress disorder, autism and schizophrenia.- DBS influences brain networks that are relevant for a variety of psychiatric symptoms...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671582/dark-side-of-amphetamine-and-analogues-pharmacology-syndromic-manifestation-and-management-of-amphetamine-addiction
#14
Abdul Mannan Baig
The threat imposed by the use of psychoactive, illicit drugs on human health and the cost of rehabilitation of the affected individuals is nothing less than billions of dollars per year. Of the psychoactive substance abuse drugs are amphetamine and its analogues like methamphetamine. This Viewpoint intends to draw the attention of readers toward the neurological basis of "falling a prey" to methamphetamine. Attention has been paid toward a rapid desensitizing attribute that develops shortly after the repetitive use of drugs belonging to sympathomimetic agents of this group...
April 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652821/who-are-the-subjects-with-gambling-related-problems-requiring-treatment-a-study-in-northern-italy
#15
Raimondo Maria Pavarin, Angelo Fioritti, Silvia Marani, Daniele Gambini, Elsa Turino, Antonella Piazza
BACKGROUND: This study analyzes data related to Hospital (HOS), Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts (SERD), or Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) clients with a first diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG) in the period 2000/2016 in Northern Italy. The aims were to describe trends and characteristics of pathological gamblers (PGs) and to estimate the prevalence of other diagnoses before or after the diagnosis of PG. METHODS: Participants aged over 17 years with an ICD-9 or ICD-10 PG diagnosis were selected...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649106/mosh-syndrome-male-obesity-secondary-hypogonadism-clinical-assessment-and-possible-therapeutic-approaches
#16
Antonino De Lorenzo, Annalisa Noce, Eleonora Moriconi, Tiziana Rampello, Giulia Marrone, Nicola Di Daniele, Valentina Rovella
Male obesity secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) impairs fertility, sexual function, bone mineralization, fat metabolism, cognitive function, deteriorates muscle mass and alters body composition. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of dietary intervention and physical activity on the MOSH patient's hormonal profile after a 10% weight loss compared to baseline. Fourteen male patients were enrolled. Hormonal, lipid, glycemic profiles and body composition were determined at baseline and after a 10% weight loss...
April 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648844/acceptability-of-nonabstinent-treatment-outcome-goals-among-addiction-treatment-providers-in-ukraine
#17
Alan K Davis, Tetiana Nickelsen, Robert A Zucker, Erin E Bonar, Maureen A Walton
We examined whether acceptability of nonabstinence treatment outcome goals varied as a function of a patient's severity of diagnosis (ICD-10 harmful use vs. dependence syndrome; World Health Organization, 1992), finality of outcome goal (intermediate vs. final), and type of substance (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, cannabis), among addiction treatment providers in Ukraine. We surveyed 44% of Ukrainian treatment providers (n = 446/1023; Mage = 40.4, SD = 8.6; Male = 67%; MYears Of Experience = 10.2, SD = 7.2). For tobacco use, most respondents (78%-93%) rated nonabstinence as acceptable, regardless of diagnostic severity or finality of outcome goal (i...
April 12, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627310/understanding-antidepressant-discontinuation-syndrome-ads-through-preclinical-experimental-models
#18
REVIEW
Konstantin N Zabegalov, Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Polina A Alekseeva, Darya A Meshalkina, Ashton J Friend, Wandong Bao, Konstantin A Demin, Raul R Gainetdinov, Allan V Kalueff
Antidepressant drugs are currently one of the most prescribed medications. In addition to treatment resistance and side effects of antidepressants, their clinical use is further complicated by antidepressant discontinuation syndrome (ADS). ADS is a common problem in patients following the interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation of antidepressant drugs. Clinically, ADS resembles a classical drug withdrawal syndrome, albeit differing from it because antidepressants generally do not induce addiction. The growing clinical importance and prevalence of ADS necessitate novel experimental (animal) models of this disorder...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616150/methadone-treatment-of-opiate-addiction-a-systematic-review-of-comparative-studies
#19
REVIEW
Shahid Ali, Barira Tahir, Shagufta Jabeen, Madeeha Malik
Opiate misuse is a chronic relapsing disease that has become an epidemic in the United States. Methadone is the mainstay of treatment for opiate addiction and has been researched widely. Recently, new avenues of treatment have been researched and developed. The objective of this review is to study methadone in comparison to other pharmacological options available or being considered for opiate addiction treatment through a methodical search and review of evidence provided by recent clinical trials conducted in this regard...
July 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604504/consequences-of-parental-burnout-its-specific-effect-on-child-neglect-and-violence
#20
Moïra Mikolajczak, Maria Elena Brianda, Hervé Avalosse, Isabelle Roskam
Parental burnout is a specific syndrome resulting from enduring exposure to chronic parenting stress. It encompasses three dimensions: an overwhelming exhaustion related to one's parental role, an emotional distancing from one's children and a sense of ineffectiveness in one's parental role. This study aims to facilitate further identification of the consequences of parental burnout for the parents themselves, their spouses and their child(ren). In a sample of 1551 parents, we examined the relationship between parental burnout and seven possible consequences: escapism and suicidal thoughts, addictions, sleep disorders, marital conflicts, a partner estrangement mindset, and neglect and violence towards one's child(ren)...
March 28, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
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