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Addiction syndrome

Joe Dooley, Gareth Ryan, Lianne Gerber Finn, Megan Bollinger, Cai-Lei Matsumoto, Wilma M Hopman, Len Kelly
INTRODUCTION: Opioid use in pregnancy is increasing globally. In northwest Ontario, rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) are alarmingly high. We sought to document the increasing rates of opioid exposure during pregnancy and associated cases of NAS over a 7-year period in northwest Ontario. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review at the Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre catchment area (population 29 000) maternity program in northwest Ontario of mother-infant dyads of live births from Jan...
2018: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
Janusz Springer, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant approved in 25 countries for the treatment of depressive syndromes. Tianeptine abuse among psychiatric patients in the community and at inpatient wards has been increasingly reported in recent years. The purpose of this article is to alert clinicians to tianeptine abuse potential and identify any patterns in the literature. We searched the Academic Search Complete, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, Scopus, and the Social Sciences Citation Index for articles published between 1960-2017 in any language containing the keywords: "tianeptine abuse," "tianeptine misuse," "tianeptine dependence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Deena M Walker, Eric J Nestler
Drug addiction involves long-term behavioral abnormalities that arise in response to repeated exposure to drugs of abuse in vulnerable individuals. It is a multifactorial syndrome involving a complex interplay between genes and the environment. Evidence suggests that the underlying mechanisms regulating these persistent behavioral abnormalities involve changes in gene expression throughout the brain's reward circuitry, in particular, in the mesolimbic dopamine system. In the past decade, investigations have begun to reveal potential genes involved in the risk for addiction through genomewide association studies...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
R Remesh Kumar, P R Jayakumar, R Krishna Mohan
Tobacco smoke, active or passive exposure was the major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world during twentieth century and will continue to be the same in the twenty-first century also if the current trends continue. Both active and passive smoking are having significance in relation to child health. Exposure starts antenatally from placenta to the fetus and later phases through passive exposure to experimental and regular smoking and ultimately addiction and habitual smoking. Evidences are in favour of causal relationship with intrauterine growth restriction, sudden infant death syndrome, decreased pulmonary function, increased risk for respiratory tract infection, otitis media, wheeze, asthma, neurobehavioral disorders, cleft palate and triggering pathogenesis of fetal and childhood onset of adult diseases, especially pulmonary and cardio vascular diseases...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Shiv Shankar Singh, Swapan Kumar Paul, Ranabir Pal, Pandurang Vithal Thatkar
Background: India has a growing trend of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to shifting lifestyle. Objective: To study the profile of patients died due to AMI and to find its risk correlates. Methods: A study was conducted on consecutive AMI cases admitted in the teaching hospital at Port Blair from April 2011 to March 2016. During inpatients management, outcomes were followed up from admission till discharge or expiry. Results: Of the total 491 cases, majority (75...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Alicia Pons-Bonals, Leticia Pons-Bonals, Sandra Margarita Hidalgo-Martínez, Carlos Francisco Sosa-Ferreyra
BACKGROUND: One of the most common congenital disorders that affects the facial structures is the cleft lip palate (CLP). The aim of this study was to generate the clinical-epidemiological profile of CLP patients from Hospital de Especialidades del Niño y la Mujer (HENM) Dr. Felipe Nuñez Lara, from the Ministry of Health, Queretaro, Mexico, from 2011 to 2014, who received treatment from the Cleft Lip Palate Clinic in order to provide interdisciplinary treatments for CLP patients based on the information from the pediatric records...
March 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Jose I Juncosa, Kenji Takaya, Hoang V Le, Matthew J Moschitto, Pathum M Weerawarna, Romila Mascarenhas, Dali Liu, Stephen L Dewey, Richard B Silverman
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Inhibition of GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that degrades GABA, has been established as a possible strategy for the treatment of substance abuse. The raised GABA levels that occur as a consequence of this inhibition have been found to antagonize the rapid release of dopamine in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) that follows an acute challenge by an addictive substance...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tzu-Hsien Lai, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a secondary headache syndrome defined as the deterioration of the headache associated with the overuse of analgesics. The prevalence of MOH is 1-2% in the general population and even up to 50% in special clinics. Overuse of abortive medications is highly associated with chronic daily headaches and also a known risk factor for headache evolution. Possible mechanisms include neural plasticity changes such as sensitization and defective endogenous pain inhibition. Psychological studies have suggested dependence, even addiction, in patients with MOH...
January 16, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Roger Lee Mendoza
Purpose: While the individual and social costs of alcoholism or alcohol use disorder are well established, few are aware that medical problems can arise during detoxification, some of which can be life-threatening. This study determines if sustained treatment for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) might be based on the strategic choices and expectations of patients and health care providers alike, as well as the risk mitigation options available to them. Design/approach: AWS was modeled as a Stag Hunt to explain both risk and decision-making in medical treatments for detoxification, since it can deduce a set of equilibrium strategies available to both patient and provider...
2018: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Rosanne Marie Radziewicz, Sandra Wright-Esber, Julie Zupancic, Deb Gargiulo, Patricia Woodall
The incidence of opioid abuse and subsequent drug withdrawal is exponentially on the rise in the United States for many populations including newborns who are born to drug-addicted mothers. These newborns often exhibit symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) within 24 to 72 hours of birth. Treatment of NAS includes monitoring of withdrawal symptoms, managing physiological parameters, and the use of supportive and pharmacologic treatments. Although a few randomized controlled trials exist, studies on supportive intervention are generally limited by small sample sizes, case study reports, expert opinions, and descriptive design...
January 8, 2018: Holistic Nursing Practice
Ju Lee Oei
Maternal drug use is not new but over the last few decades, the number of mothers using drugs of addiction has escalated to epidemic levels. These drugs are both legal (e.g. prescription medication) and illegal (e.g. heroin) and all will cross the placental barrier into the developing infant. The most immediate and obvious consequence of intra-uterine drug exposure is newborn withdrawal or the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) which is now, with prompt recognition and treatment, an uncommon cause of neonatal death...
January 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Shivanand Kattimani, Balaji Bharadwaj, Anand Babu Arun
Alcohol addiction is a chronic relapsing syndrome. Benzodiazepines remain as the mainstay for detoxification, taking care of the acute withdrawal syndrome. There is fear of dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines on prolonged use. Here, we selectively interviewed ten cases who were on longer duration of benzodiazepines to elicit their potential perceived benefits, attitudes, and any adverse effect. Three patients experienced adverse effects. None of them had features of benzodiazepine dependence. We opine that in select cases, benzodiazepine use should persist beyond detox period, and its benefits continue beyond the acute withdrawal phase while monitoring their safety/adverse effects...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Valentina Malafoglia, Monica Celi, Carolina Muscoli, Sara Ilari, Filomena Lauro, Luigino Antonio Giancotti, Chiara Morabito, Maurizio Feola, Umberto Tarantino, William Raffaeli
BACKGROUND: The incidence of post-surgical chronic pain ranges between 20% and 40% in Europe. Osteoarthritis pain after prosthesis implantation is one of the most severe secondary syndromes, depending not only on surgery but also on organic changes before and after joints replacement. No data are available about risk factors. An excessive inflammatory response plays a central role but a best therapy is not defined yet. It is not clear whether opioid administration could influence post-surgical pain and lead to tolerance or addiction...
December 19, 2017: Trials
Navid Khosravi, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Ali Ostadi, Mitra Rahimi, Ali Kabir
BACKGROUND: Methadone toxicity is one of the major causes of death in opioid dependent individuals. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare two different protocols for naloxone in terms of reversal of overdose and frequency of complications in opioid-dependent methadone-intoxicated patients. METHODS: One-hundred opioid-dependent patients with signs/symptoms of methadone overdose were included. The patients were consecutively assigned into Tintinalli (group 1) or Goldfrank regimen protocol (group 2) of naloxone administration...
December 11, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Cornelis M van Tilburg, Florian Selt, Felix Sahm, Heidi Bächli, Stefan M Pfister, Olaf Witt, Till Milde
Infants with low-grade glioma (LGG) and diencephalic syndrome have a poor outcome. The patient described here had a desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma harboring a BRAF V600E mutation. After relapse following initial standard chemotherapy treatment, he was successfully treated with the BRAF V600E inhibitor vemurafenib at the age of 3 years 11 months and 5 years 0 months. A rapid response was observed on both occasions. This illustrates the possibility of continuous oncogenic addiction and the therapeutic potential of BRAF V600E inhibitor monotherapy in LGG, even in very young severely compromised children...
March 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Sammy Saab, Cameron Sikavi, Melissa Jimenez, Matthew Viramontes, Ruby Allen, Youssef Challita, Michelle Mai, Negin Esmailzadeh, Jonathan Grotts, Gina Choi, Francisco Durazo, Mohamed El-Kabany, Steven-Huy Han, Elisa Moreno
Background and Aims: Given the increased risk of post-transplant metabolic syndrome (PTMS; defined by hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia), we aimed to identify the potential role of food addiction in the development of metabolic complications in the post-liver transplant population. Methods: Inclusion criteria included adult liver transplant recipients followed at our institution between June 2016 and November 2016. Participants were administered a demographic survey as well as the Yale Food Assessment Scale 2...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Enas Kasem, Taiga Kurihara, Katsuhiko Tabuchi
Neurexins are a family of presynaptic single-pass transmembrane proteins that act as synaptic organizers in mammals. The neurexins consist of three genes (NRXN1, NRXN2, and NRXN3), each of which produces a longer α- and shorter β-form. Genomic alterations in NRXN genes have been identified in a wide variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia, intellectual disability (ID), and addiction. Remarkably, a bi-allelic deficiency of NRXN1 was recently linked to Pitt-Hopkins syndrome...
February 2018: Neuroscience Research
Michael J Cascio, Kuang-Yu Jen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Levamisole was previously used for its immunomodulatory properties to treat rheumatoid arthritis and some cancers. However, because of serious side-effects, it was taken off the market in the United States. Recently, levamisole has reemerged as a popular cocaine adulterant. Some individuals who consume levamisole-adulterated cocaine can develop a life-threatening autoimmune syndrome. In this review, the medical consequences of levamisole exposure and postulated mechanisms by which levamisole induces these adverse effects are discussed...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Marina Šagud, Nenad Jakšić, Bjanka Vuksan-Ćusa, Mladen Lončar, Ivana Lončar, Alma Mihaljević Peleš, Davor Miličić, Miro Jakovljević
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic condition related to severe stress and trauma. There is a mounting evidence about increased prevalence and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients with PTSD. This review summarizes the current data on possible relations between PTSD and increased risks of CVD, including biological, psychological and behavioral factors. Biological factors refer to increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), hypertension, elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and homocysteine levels...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
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