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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715290/trainees-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-towards-caring-for-the-substance-exposed-mother-infant-dyad
#1
Davida M Schiff, Barry Zuckerman, Elisha M Wachman, Megan Bair-Merritt
BACKGROUND: As rates of substance use disorder during pregnancy rise, pediatric trainees are increasingly caring for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of trainees caring for substance-exposed newborns and their families, comparing differences by level and type of training, and personal experience with addiction or trauma. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of medical students, pediatric, medicine/pediatrics and family medicine residents in 2015-2106...
July 17, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689498/the-slow-death-of-the-concept-of-schizophrenia-and-the-painful-birth-of-the-psychosis-spectrum
#2
S Guloksuz, J van Os
The concept of schizophrenia only covers the 30% poor outcome fraction of a much broader multidimensional psychotic syndrome, yet paradoxically has become the dominant prism through which everything 'psychotic' is observed, even affective states with mild psychosis labelled 'ultra-high risk' (for schizophrenia). The inability of psychiatry to frame psychosis as multidimensional syndromal variation of largely unpredictable course and outcome - within and between individuals - hampers research and recovery-oriented practice...
July 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686562/-impulsivity-as-an-immediate-factor-between-addictive-disorders-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
H Lazaratou, A Palaiologou, D Anagnostopoulos
Impulsivity is a behavior in everyday life of mentally healthy individuals. But in some cases the degree of impulsivity begins to create negative effects on one's life and acquires pathological connotation. Two clinical entities in which can be observed a high degree of impulsivity is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Addictive disorders. In these disorders, both impulsive act and impulsive choice are observed. According to some researchers, genetic factors are involved in the control of impulsivity...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678400/nicotine-vapor-method-to-induce-nicotine-dependence-in-rodents
#4
Marsida Kallupi, Olivier George
Nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, induces potentiation of brain stimulation reward, increases locomotor activity, and induces conditioned place preference. Nicotine cessation produces a withdrawal syndrome that can be relieved by nicotine replacement therapy. In the last decade, the market for electronic cigarettes has flourished, especially among adolescents. The nicotine vaporizer or electronic nicotine delivery system is a battery-operated device that allows the user to simulate the experience of tobacco smoking without inhaling smoke...
July 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663570/brain-stimulation-in-obesity
#5
REVIEW
C H Göbel, V M Tronnier, T F Münte
Obesity is taking up epidemic proportions worldwide with significant impacts on the health of both the affected individual and on society as a whole. Treatment approaches consist of behavioural and pharmacological approaches, however these are often found to be ineffective. In severe obesity, bariatric surgery is frequently performed. Unfortunately, 40% of patients show substantial weight gain over the long-term or display the associated metabolic syndrome, making the development of novel therapies necessary...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662295/%C3%AE-9-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-the-modulation-of-pain
#6
REVIEW
Arik J Hone, Denis Servent, J Michael McIntosh
Neuropathic pain is a complex and debilitating syndrome for which there are few effective pharmacological treatments. Opioid-based medications are initially effective for acute pain but tolerance to their analgesic effects quickly develops and long-term use often leads to physical dependence and addiction. Furthermore, neuropathic pain is generally resistant to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Other classes of medications including antidepressants, antiepileptics, and voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) inhibitors are only partially effective in most patients, may be associated with significant side effects, and have few disease modifying effects on the underlying pathology...
June 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649663/addictive-neurons
#7
Sodikdjon A Kodirov
Since the reward center is considered to be the area tegmentalis ventralis of the hypothalamus, logically its neurons could mainly be responsible for addiction. However, the literature asserts that almost any neurons of CNS can respond to one or another addictive compound. Obviously not only addictive nicotine, but also alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, heroin and morphine may influence dopaminergic cells alone in VTA. Moreover, paradoxically some of these drugs ameliorate symptoms, counterbalance syndromes, cure diseases and improve health, not only those related to the CNS and in adults, but also almost all other organs and in children, e...
2017: Therapeutic Targets for Neurological Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645694/-comparative-analysis-effectiveness-of-nicotine-addiction-treatment-in-people-with-psychiatric-comorbidity
#8
R Godoy, F J Callejas, J Cruz, A I Tornero, P J Tárraga, J A Rodríguez-Montes
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether or not nicotine addiction treatment was less effective in psychiatric than in the healthy population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive and comparative cohort study was conducted in Albacete University Hospital during years 2008-2012 on all patients that attended the Tobacco Cessation Unit. The statistical tests used were Chi-squared, likelihood ratio, and the Student t test. Statistical significance P≤.05. RESULTS: The study included a total of 1,484 patients, of which 48...
June 20, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600000/sex-specific-effects-of-developmental-alcohol-exposure-on-cocaine-induced-place-preference-in-adulthood
#9
Victoria A Macht, Sandra J Kelly, Justin T Gass
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is associated with high rates of drug addiction in adulthood. One possible basis for increased drug use in this population is altered sensitivity to drug-associated contexts. This experiment utilized a rat model of FASD to examine behavioral and neural changes in the processing of drug cues in adulthood. Alcohol was given by intragastric intubation to pregnant rats throughout gestation and to rat pups during the early postnatal period (ET group). Controls consisted of a non-treated group (NC) and a pair-fed group given the intubation procedure without alcohol (IC)...
June 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581535/differential-criteria-for-binge-eating-disorder-and-food-addiction-in-the-context-of-causes-and-treatment-of-obesity
#10
REVIEW
Monika Bąk-Sosnowska
OBJECTIVES: To establish the differential criteria for Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Food Addiction (FA). METHODS: We performed a detailed analysis of comparative diagnostic criteria for BED and Substance use disorder contained in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-V. We applied the diagnostic criteria for both disorders to scientific publications on the issue of excessive eating in obese people, during the years 2005-2016, available on PubMed...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568647/standardized-passiflora-incarnata-l-extract-reverts-the-analgesia-induced-by-alcohol-withdrawal-in-rats
#11
Rebeca Vargas Antunes Schunck, Isabel Cristina Macedo, Gabriela Laste, Andressa de Souza, Marina Tuerlinckx Costa Valle, Janaína L O Salomón, Ellen Almeida Nunes, Andreia Cristina Wildner Campos, Simone Cristina Baggio Gnoatto, Ana Maria Bergold, Eduardo L Konrath, Eliane Dallegrave, Marcelo Dutra Arbo, Iraci L S Torres, Mirna Bainy Leal
Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) has been traditionally used for treatment of anxiety, insomnia, drug addiction, mild infections, and pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial extract of P. incarnata in the analgesia induced by alcohol withdrawal syndrome in rats. In addition, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and interleukin-10 levels were evaluated in prefrontal cortex, brainstem, and hippocampus. Male adult rats received by oral gavage: (1: water group) water for 19 days, 1 day interval and water (8 days); (2: P...
June 1, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558902/the-prevalence-of-phantom-vibration-ringing-syndromes-and-their-related-factors-in-iranian-students-of-medical-sciences
#12
Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi, Narges Mohammadsalehi, Esmail Moshiri, Zohreh Anbari, Ali Ahmadi, Hossein Ansari
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mobile phone abuse can cause pathologic stress that may lead to addictive behavior such as Phantom Vibration Syndrome (PVS) and Phantom Ringing Syndrome (PRS). The current study aimed to determine the PVS and PRS due to mobile phone use in students of Qom University of medical Sciences in Iran. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 380 students selected by proportional stratified random sampling method in each stratum...
June 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523977/the-application-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders
#13
Ilse Graat, Martijn Figee, Damiaan Denys
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a last-resort treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders that are refractory to standard treatment. Over the last decades, the progress of DBS in psychiatry has been slower than in neurology, in part owing to the heterogenic symptomatology and complex neuroanatomy of psychiatric disorders. However, for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) DBS is now an accepted treatment. This study first reviews clinical outcomes and mechanisms of DBS for OCD, and then discusses these results in an overview of current and future psychiatric applications, including DBS for mood disorders, Tourette's syndrome, addiction, anorexia nervosa, autism, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523558/epigenome-editing-in-the-brain
#14
Pavel Bashtrykov, Albert Jeltsch
Epigenome editing aims for an introduction or removal of chromatin marks at a defined genomic region using artificial EpiEffectors resulting in a modulation of the activity of the targeted functional DNA elements. Rationally designed EpiEffectors consist of a targeting DNA-binding module (such as a zinc finger protein, TAL effector, or CRISPR/Cas complex) and usually, but not exclusively, a catalytic domain of a chromatin-modifying enzyme. Epigenome editing opens a completely new strategy for basic research of the central nervous system and causal treatment of psychiatric and neurological diseases, because rewriting of epigenetic information can lead to the direct and durable control of the expression of disease-associated genes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498560/deletion-of-%C3%AE-5-nicotine-receptor-subunits-abolishes-nicotinic-aversive-motivational-effects-in-a-manner-that-phenocopies-dopamine-receptor-antagonism
#15
Taryn E Grieder, Olivier George, Mandy Yee, Michael A Bergamini, Michal Chwalek, Geith Maal-Bared, Hector Vargas-Perez, Derek van der Kooy
Nicotine addiction is a worldwide epidemic that claims millions of lives each year. Genetic deletion of α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits has been associated with increased nicotine intake, however, it remains unclear whether acute nicotine is less aversive or more rewarding, and whether mice lacking the α5 nAChR subunit can experience withdrawal from chronic nicotine. We used place conditioning and conditioned taste avoidance paradigms to examine the effect of α5 subunit-containing nAChR deletion (α5 -/-) on conditioned approach and avoidance behaviour in nondependent and nicotine-dependent and -withdrawn mice, and compared these motivational effects with those elicited after dopamine receptor antagonism...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496958/prevalence-of-hiv-aids-among-iranian-prisoners-a-review-article
#16
REVIEW
Morteza Akbari, Maryam Akbari, Ahmad Naghibzadeh-Tahami, Hassan Joulaei, Maryam Nasiriyan, Maryam Hesampour, Kamran Bagheri-Lankarani
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, prisoners are more at risk of being infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as hepatitis C and B in comparison with other risk groups. The combination of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), addiction and prison are factors that threaten the health of our society. Influence of risky behaviors is so common on transmission of AIDS into prisoners' bodies. This study used available information and reports to investigate the prevalence of HIV in Iranian prisons...
July 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493752/problem-gambling-symptomatology-and-alcohol-misuse-among-adolescents-a-parallel-process-latent-growth-curve-model
#17
Seema Mutti-Packer, David C Hodgins, Nady El-Guebaly, David M Casey, Shawn R Currie, Robert J Williams, Garry J Smith, Don P Schopflocher
The objective of the current study was to examine the possible temporal associations between alcohol misuse and problem gambling symptomatology from adolescence through to young adulthood. Parallel-process latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the trajectories of alcohol misuse and symptoms of problem gambling over time. Data were from a sample of adolescents recruited for the Leisure, Lifestyle, and Lifecycle Project in Alberta, Canada (n = 436), which included 4 assessments over 5 years. There was an average decline in problem gambling symptoms followed by an accelerating upward trend as the sample reached the legal age to gamble...
May 11, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467994/making-the-case-for-power-abuse-disorder-as-a-nosologic-entity
#18
Gerald Zernig, Christoph Hiemke
The development of societies and cultures arguably is based on the ability of human primates to form hierarchies in which some individuals acquire and wield power, that is, control resources and influence and control the behavior of their conspecifics. In the following, we focus on the type of human primate power wielding that (a) harms and (b) produces excessive negative emotions in (1) the victim(s) of the power wielder and (2) the power wielder her/himself. If such a harmful behavior of the power wielder is not accompanied by an ethically justifiable benefit for the involved human primate groups, it can be considered "power abuse...
2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464765/functional-chemical-groups-that-may-likely-become-source-for-synthesis-of-novel-central-nervous-system-cns-acting-drugs
#19
Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan
Central nervous system (CNS) disorders are on increase perhaps due to genetic, enviromental, social and dietetic factors. Unfortunately, a large number of CNS drugs have adverse effects such as addiction, tolerance, psychological and physical dependence. In view of this, literature search was carried out with a view to identifying functional chemical groups that may serve as lead molecule for synthesis of compounds that may have CNS activity. The search revealed that heterocycles that have heteroatoms such as nitrogen (N), sulphur (S) and oxygen (O) form the largest class of organic compounds...
May 2, 2017: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461252/cortisol-in-schizophrenia-no-association-with-tobacco-smoking-clinical-symptoms-or-antipsychotic-medication
#20
Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Suzana Uzun, Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Oliver Kozumplik, Dubravka Svob Strac, Ninoslav Mimica, Mika Hirasawa-Fujita, Edward F Domino, Nela Pivac
Cigarette smoking is associated with higher cortisol levels in healthy subjects. In schizophrenia this relationship is not clear. There are divergent results on the association between cortisol with smoking, clinical symptoms and medication in schizophrenia. This study evaluated this association in 196 Caucasian inpatients with schizophrenia (51.30±26.68years old), subdivided into 123 smokers and 73 non-smokers. Basal salivary cortisol levels were measured twice, at 08.00 and 09.00AM, 90-120min after awakening...
April 28, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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