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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416445/%C3%AE-o-conotoxin-gexiva-disulfide-bond-isomers-exhibit-differential-sensitivity-for-various-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-but-retain-potency-and-selectivity-for-the-human-%C3%AE-9%C3%AE-10-subtype
#1
Dongting Zhangsun, Xiaopeng Zhu, Quentin Kaas, Yong Wu, David J Craik, J Michael McIntosh, Sulan Luo
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes exhibit distinct neuropharmacological properties that are involved in a range of neuropathological conditions, including pain, addiction, epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as many types of cancer. The α9α10 nAChR is a potential target in chronic pain, wound healing, the pathophysiology of the auditory system, and breast and lung cancers. αO-conotoxin GeXIVA is a potent antagonist of rat α9α10 nAChRs, with the 'bead' disulfide bond isomer displaying the lowest IC50 of the three possible isomers...
April 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406856/treating-women-who-are-pregnant-and-parenting-for-opioid-use-disorder-and-the-concurrent-care-of-their-infants-and-children-literature-review-to-support-national-guidance
#2
Stacey L Klaman, Krystyna Isaacs, Anne Leopold, Joseph Perpich, Susan Hayashi, Jeff Vender, Melinda Campopiano, Hendrée E Jones
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of opioid use disorder (OUD) during pregnancy is increasing. Practical recommendations will help providers treat pregnant women with OUD and reduce potentially negative health consequences for mother, fetus, and child. This article summarizes the literature review conducted using the RAND/University of California, Los Angeles Appropriateness Method project completed by the US Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration to obtain current evidence on treatment approaches for pregnant and parenting women with OUD and their infants and children...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406855/beyond-the-treatment-box-perspectives-on-the-federal-response-to-opioid-use-pregnancy-and-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#3
Mishka Terplan
There has been much activity within Federal agencies in response to the opioid epidemic particularly in regards to pregnant women and their infants. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's recently released document, Advancing the Care of Pregnant and Parenting Women With Opioid Use Disorder and Their Infants: A Foundation for Clinical Guidance, provides an important and timely guidance. Uptake of the guide should improve quality of care and hopefully help lessen the discrimination experienced by pregnant women with opioid use disorder...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394145/increased-startle-potentiation-to-unpredictable-stressors-in-alcohol-dependence-possible-stress-neuroadaptation-in-humans
#4
Christine A Moberg, Daniel E Bradford, Jesse T Kaye, John J Curtin
Stress plays a key role in addiction etiology and relapse. Rodent models posit that following repeated periods of alcohol and other drug intoxication, compensatory allostatic changes occur in the central nervous system (CNS) circuits involved in behavioral and emotional response to stressors. We examine a predicted manifestation of this neuroadaptation in recently abstinent alcohol-dependent humans. Participants completed a translational laboratory task that uses startle potentiation to unpredictable (vs. predictable) stressors implicated in the putative CNS mechanisms that mediate this neuroadaptation...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387093/-diagnosis-of-cannabinoid-hyperemesis-update-on-the-cannabis-shower-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
B Cuppens, M Gensburger, M Tonglet, L Marissiaux, E Brasseur, V d'Orio, A Ghuysen
Sometimes, the emergency department is confronted with cases of repetitive vomiting and abdominal pain without organic causes. These patients come back again and again for this problem. All diagnostic tests are systematically negative. A well conducted history taking reveals a chronic cannabis addiction and the disappearance of symptomatology by taking hot showers. This presentation is pathognomonic of the cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome.
December 2016: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380045/haste-makes-waste-decision-making-in-patients-with-restless-legs-syndrome-with-and-without-augmentation
#6
Beatrice Heim, Marie-Theres Pertl, Ambra Stefani, Margarete Delazer, Anna Heidbreder, Laura Zamarian, Elisabeth Brandauer, Klaus Seppi, Birgit Högl, Werner Poewe, Atbin Djamshidian
OBJECTIVES: To investigate decision making in patients with primary restless legs syndrome (RLS) with and without augmentation treated with dopaminergic medication. METHODS: A total of 64 non-demented RLS patients treated with dopaminergic medication with and without augmentation were included in this study. We used an information sampling task to assess how much evidence participants gather before making a decision. Performance was compared to the results of 21 healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352631/guidance-on-opioids-prescribing-for-the-management-of-persistent-non-cancer-pain-in-older-adults
#7
REVIEW
Fabio Guerriero
Many older adults suffer from persistent pain but prevalence studies consistently showed high levels of untreated or under-treated pain in old population. Both persistent pain and pain under-treatment adversely affect independence and quality of life in geriatric patients. Pain management is challenging in this age-group because of the declining organ function, the presence of concurrent diseases and polypharmacy. For all the above reasons, persistent pain in the elderly should be considered a geriatric syndrome per se and effective approaches are warranted...
March 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346804/hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-people-who-inject-drugs-in-lahore-pakistan
#8
Sana Mansha, Muhammad Imran, Amir Miraj Ul Hussain Shah, Muhsin Jamal, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Muhammmad Saleem, Sher Zaman Safi, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the major cause of the global burden of hepatitis. One of the main routes of transmission for both viruses is through exposure to infected blood, which includes sharing blood-contaminated syringes and needles. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system and results in acquired immune deficiency syndrome and opportunistic infections. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID)...
March 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335873/parental-psychopathology-and-tourette-syndrome-chronic-tic-disorder-in-offspring-a-nationwide-case-control-study
#9
Susanna Leivonen, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews, Roshan Chudal, David Gyllenberg, Dan Sucksdorff, Auli Suominen, Arja Voutilainen, Alan S Brown, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between maternal and paternal psychiatric diagnoses and Tourette syndrome (TS)/chronic tic disorder (CT) in a nationwide study. METHOD: This nested case-control study linked data derived from three national registers. All singletons born and diagnosed with TS/CT in Finland between January 1991 and December 2010 were identified (n = 1,120) and matched to four controls (n = 4,299). Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the associations between parental psychopathology and TS/CT...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317502/no-reliable-evidence-that-emotional-disorders-are-proximal-antecedents-concomitants-or-short-term-consequences-of-first-episode-alcohol-use-disorders-in-a-representative-community-sample
#10
Richard F Farmer, John R Seeley, Derek B Kosty, Jeff M Gau, Susan C Duncan, Kenneth J Sher, Peter M Lewinsohn
OBJECTIVE: Emotional disorders and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently demonstrate significant 12-month and lifetime comorbid associations. This comorbidity has been incorporated into influential theories of addiction processes that posit direct or indirect causal associations between these disorder categories. There is currently no consensus, however, about the sequencing of these disorders. In this research, longitudinal data from a regionally representative community sample were used to evaluate whether emotional disorders constitute a proximal antecedent, concomitant, or short-term consequence of first episode (or index) AUDs...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264500/geneanalytics-pathway-analysis-and-genetic-overlap-among-autism-spectrum-disorder-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#11
Naveen S Khanzada, Merlin G Butler, Ann M Manzardo
Bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCH) show similar neuropsychiatric behavioral disturbances, including impaired social interaction and communication, seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with multiple overlapping genetic and environmental influences implicated in risk and course of illness. GeneAnalytics software was used for pathway analysis and genetic profiling to characterize common susceptibility genes obtained from published lists for ASD (792 genes), BPD (290 genes) and SCH (560 genes). Rank scores were derived from the number and nature of overlapping genes, gene-disease association, tissue specificity and gene functions subdivided into categories (e...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254428/the-behavioural-cognitive-and-neural-corollaries-of-blunted-cardiovascular-and-cortisol-reactions-to-acute-psychological-stress
#12
REVIEW
Douglas Carroll, Annie T Ginty, Anna C Whittaker, William R Lovallo, Susanne R de Rooij
Recent research shows that blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress are associated with adverse behavioural and health outcomes: depression, obesity, bulimia, and addictions. These outcomes may reflect suboptimal functioning of the brain's fronto-limbic systems that are needed to regulate motivated behaviour in the face of challenge. In support of this, brain imaging data demonstrate fronto-limbic hypoactivation during acute stress exposure. Those demonstrating blunted reactions also show impairments of motivation, including lower cognitive ability, more rapid cognitive decline, and poorer performance on motivation-dependent tests of lung function...
February 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237362/intravenous-buprenorphine-a-substitute-for-naloxone-in-methadone-overdosed-patients
#13
Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam
Administration of naloxone is a common treatment for opioid-dependent patients who present with respiratory depression. Although safe in opioid-naive patients, naloxone may cause severe and even life-threatening complications in opioid-dependent patients, including acute respiratory distress syndrome and myocardial infarction. It has been suggested that administration of buprenorphine, a partial μ-opioid receptor agonist, to an opioid-intoxicated patient may result in reversal of respiratory depression with less severe withdrawal signs and symptoms...
February 23, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212499/validation-of-the-french-version-of-the-dsm-5-yale-food-addiction-scale-in-a-nonclinical-sample
#14
Paul Brunault, Robert Courtois, Ashley N Gearhardt, Philippe Gaillard, Kevin Journiac, Sarah Cathelain, Christian Réveillère, Nicolas Ballon
OBJECTIVE: The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is the only questionnaire that assesses food addiction (FA) based on substance dependence criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Following recent updating of addiction criteria, a new DSM-5 version (YFAS 2.0) has been developed. Our study tested the psychometric properties of the French YFAS 2.0 in a nonclinical population. METHOD: We assessed 330 nonclinical participants for FA (French YFAS 2...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199203/neurogenetics-of-acute-and-chronic-opiate-opioid-abstinence-treating-symptoms-and-the-cause
#15
Kenneth Blum, Mark S Gold, William Jacobs, William Vaughn McCall, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Kristina Dushaj, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This review begins with a comprehensive history of opioid dependence and treatment in the United States. The focus is an evidence-based treatment model for opioid/opiate dependent individuals. The role of reward genetic polymorphisms and the epigenetic modifications that lead to vulnerability to use and misuse of opiates/opioid to treat pain are reviewed. The neurochemical mechanisms of acute opiate withdrawal and opiate/opioid reward mechanisms are explored with a goal of identifying specific treatment targets...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178739/methamphetamine-consumption-during-pregnancy-effects-on-child-health
#16
Jürgen Dinger, Patricia Hinner, Jörg Reichert, Mario Rüdiger
Methamphetamine abuse during pregnancy represents an emerging health care problem. The consequences are not only of relevance to the pregnant women, but also their unborn child. It is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia and hypertension, fetal demise, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction. The deleterious effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on the developing fetal brain may lead to long-term neuro-developmental and behavioral problems.Given the current evidence, abuse of methamphetamine during pregnancy must be of utmost concern to health care professionals and to policy-makers...
February 8, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170058/evaluating-nicotine-dependence-levels-in-e-cigarette-users
#17
Alba González Roz, Roberto Secades Villa, Sara Weidberg
Despite the fact that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly growing in popularity and use worldwide, there is scarce scientific data on abuse liability among e-cigarette users, and about whether e-cigarette use is related to nicotine dependence or not. The aim of this study is to explore nicotine dependence levels in a sample of experienced e-cigarette users (n= 39) and to compare them with current tobacco cigarette smokers (n=42). We conducted several face-to-face interviews in order to assess sociodemographic and dependence related characteristics in both e-cigarette users and in smokers...
January 11, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152236/gender-differences-among-treatment-seeking-adults-with-cannabis-use-disorder-clinical-profiles-of-women-and-men-enrolled-in-the-achieving-cannabis-cessation-evaluating-n-acetylcysteine-treatment-accent-study
#18
Brian J Sherman, Aimee L McRae-Clark, Nathaniel L Baker, Susan C Sonne, Therese K Killeen, Kasie Cloud, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence suggests that women may fare worse than men in cannabis trials with pharmacologic interventions. Identifying baseline clinical profiles of treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults could inform gender-specific treatment planning and development. METHODS: The current study compared baseline demographic, cannabis use, and psychiatric factors between women (n = 86) and men (n = 216) entering the Achieving Cannabis Cessation-Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment (ACCENT) study, a multi-site, randomized controlled trial conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network...
March 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144092/metabolic-toxicities-in-patients-undergoing-treatment-for-nonhematological-malignancy-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Subhash Gupta, Kunhi Parambath Haresh, Soumyajit Roy, Lakhan Kashyap, Narayan Adhikari, Rambha Pandey, Dayanand Sharma, Pramod Kumar Julka, Goura Kishor Rath
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic toxicities in patients with different nonhematological malignancies admitted in oncology ward of a tertiary cancer care center while on treatment. METHODS: We did this cross-sectional study over a period of 7 months (January-July 2013) for all adult patients (n = 280) who, while undergoing anti-cancer therapy at our center, got admitted to our oncology inpatient ward with metabolic toxicity...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125446/inpatient-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-detoxification-a-case-report-describing-day-to-day-therapeutic-management
#20
Louis von Theobald, Morgane Rousselet, Jennyfer Cholet, Hélène Debar, David Boels, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Marie Grall-Bronnec
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a synthetic drug increasingly used by consumers of psychoactive substances. The sought after psychoactive effects of GHB have resulted in an increase in recreational use in Europe. GHB is considered to have a high dependence potential, and abrupt discontinuation after long-term use can result in a severe withdrawal syndrome. Despite a large number of publications related to GHB withdrawal and detoxification, to date, no evidence-based protocol or consensual international therapeutic guidelines are available (over and above the administration of benzodiazepines)...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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