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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350922/computing-curvature-sensitivity-of-biomolecules-in-membranes-by-simulated-buckling
#1
Federico Elias-Wolff, Martin Lindén, Alexander P Lyubartsev, Erik G Brandt
Membrane curvature sensing, where the binding free energies of membrane-associated molecules depend on the local membrane curvature, is a key factor to modulate and maintain the shape and organization of cell membranes. However, the microscopic mechanisms are not well understood, partly due to absence of efficient simulation methods. Here, we describe a method to compute the curvature dependence of the binding free energy of a membrane-associated probe molecule that interacts with a buckled membrane, which has been created by lateral compression of a flat bilayer patch...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350687/intraocular-currents-bernoulli-s-principle-and-non-drainage-scleral-buckling-for-rhegmatogenous-retinal-detachment
#2
D Wong, Y K Chan, T Bek, I Wilson, E Stefánsson
For many years, it is not fully understood how non-drainage scleral buckling surgery brings about spontaneous reattachment of the detached retina when retinal breaks remain open at the end of surgery. Various explanations have been put forward, but none more interesting than the effect of fluid currents associated with eye movements. One such explanation involved the physics of the Bernoulli's principle. Daniel Bernoulli was an eighteenth century Swiss mathematician and he described an equation based on the conservation of energy...
January 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347431/bending-energy-of-buckled-edge-dislocations
#3
Raz Kupferman
The study of elastic membranes carrying topological defects has a longstanding history, going back at least to the 1950s. When allowed to buckle in three-dimensional space, membranes with defects can totally relieve their in-plane strain, remaining with a bending energy, whose rigidity modulus is small compared to the stretching modulus. In this paper we study membranes with a single edge dislocation. We prove that the minimum bending energy associated with strain-free configurations diverges logarithmically with the size of the system...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347384/bifurcation-analysis-and-phase-diagram-of-a-spin-string-model-with-buckled-states
#4
M Ruiz-Garcia, L L Bonilla, A Prados
We analyze a one-dimensional spin-string model, in which string oscillators are linearly coupled to their two nearest neighbors and to Ising spins representing internal degrees of freedom. String-spin coupling induces a long-range ferromagnetic interaction among spins that competes with a spin-spin antiferromagnetic coupling. As a consequence, the complex phase diagram of the system exhibits different flat rippled and buckled states, with first or second order transition lines between states. This complexity translates to the two-dimensional version of the model, whose numerical solution has been recently used to explain qualitatively the rippled to buckled transition observed in scanning tunneling microscopy experiments with suspended graphene sheets...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346997/deformation-and-buckling-of-microcapsules-in-a-viscoelastic-matrix
#5
Amir Hossein Raffiee, Sadegh Dabiri, Arezoo M Ardekani
In this paper, we numerically study the dynamics of (1) a Newtonian liquid-filled capsule in a viscoelastic matrix and that of (2) a viscoelastic capsule in a Newtonian matrix in a linear shear flow using a front-tracking method. The numerical results for case (1) indicate that the polymeric fluid reduces the capsule deformation and aligns the deformed capsule with the flow direction. It also narrows the range of tension experienced by the deformed capsule for case (1), while the tank-treading period significantly increases...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343634/fluttering-of-growing-leaves-as-a-way-to-reach-flatness-experimental-evidence-on-persea-americana
#6
Julien Derr, Renaud Bastien, Étienne Couturier, Stéphane Douady
Simple leaves show unexpected growth motions: the midrib of the leaves swings periodically in association with buckling events of the leaf blade, giving the impression that the leaves are fluttering. The quantitative kinematic analysis of this motion provides information about the respective growth between the main vein and the lamina. Our three-dimensional reconstruction of an avocado tree leaf shows that the conductor of the motion is the midrib, presenting continuous oscillations and inducing buckling events on the blade...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326858/improving-management-of-paediatric-buckle-fracture-in-orthopaedic-outpatients-a-completed-audit-loop
#7
M N Baig, C Egan
Introduction Paediatric patient bone fractures are the source of a large number of orthopaedic outpatient visits, especially for fracture clinics. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline NG38 provides guidance on assessing and managing non-complex fractures, such as buckle (i.e., torus) fractures in paediatric patients. Objective We retrospectively audited outpatient records of children younger than 12 years presenting with distal radius buckle fractures for May and June 2017...
November 8, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326854/macular-buckling-surgery-for-retinal-detachment-associated-with-macular-hole-in-high-myopia-eye
#8
Kenan Sönmez, Ali Keleş
A 68-year-old woman presented to our clinic with a 1-month history of central scotoma and visual loss in her right eye. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was hand motion in her right eye. Fundus examination showed myopic chorioretinal degeneration in association with posterior staphyloma and the retina was slightly elevated throughout the macula. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed retinal detachment involving the posterior pole with a macular hole and staphyloma. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling, macular buckling, and perfluoropropane gas tamponade...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324529/inappropriately-timed-pediatric-orthopaedic-referrals-from-the-emergency-department-result-in-unnecessary-appointments-and-financial-burden-for-patients
#9
Taylor J Jackson, Todd J Blumberg, Apurva S Shah, Wudbhav N Sankar
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries are among the most common reasons for emergency department (ED) visits in the pediatric population. Many such injuries can be managed with a single follow-up outpatient visit. However, untimely (ie, premature) referrals by emergency physicians to orthopaedic surgeons are common and may inadvertently create need for a second visit, generating unnecessary expenditures. We sought to elucidate the cost of premature musculoskeletal follow-up visits to the patients, families, and the health care system...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321677/recognition-by-host-nuclear-transport-proteins-drives-disorder-to-order-transition-in-hendra-virus-v
#10
Sarah C Atkinson, Michelle D Audsley, Kim G Lieu, Glenn A Marsh, David R Thomas, Steven M Heaton, Jason J Paxman, Kylie M Wagstaff, Ashley M Buckle, Gregory W Moseley, David A Jans, Natalie A Borg
Hendra virus (HeV) is a paramyxovirus that causes lethal disease in humans, for which no vaccine or antiviral agent is available. HeV V protein is central to pathogenesis through its ability to interact with cytoplasmic host proteins, playing key antiviral roles. Here we use immunoprecipitation, siRNA knockdown and confocal laser scanning microscopy to show that HeV V shuttles to and from the nucleus through specific host nuclear transporters. Spectroscopic and small angle X-ray scattering studies reveal HeV V undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon binding to either importin α/β1 or exportin-1/Ran-GTP, dependent on the V N-terminus...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320629/the-structural-asymmetry-of-mitochondrial-hsp90-trap1-determines-fine-tuning-of-functional-dynamics
#11
Elisabetta Moroni, David A Agard, Giorgio Colombo
The Hsp90 family of molecular chaperones oversees the folding of a wide range of client proteins. Hsp90 is a homodimer, whose conformational states and functions are regulated by ATP-binding and hydrolysis. The crystal structure of mitochondrial Hsp90 (Trap1) showed that one of the two protomers in the active state is buckled, resulting in an asymmetric conformation. The asymmetry between the two protomers corresponds to the broadly conserved region responsible for client binding. Moreover, asymmetry determines differential hydrolysis for each protomer, with the buckled conformation favoring ATP processing...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317748/a-mosquito-inspired-strategy-to-implant-microprobes-into-the-brain
#12
Andrew J Shoffstall, Suraj Srinivasan, Mitchell Willis, Allison M Stiller, Melanie Ecker, Walter E Voit, Joseph J Pancrazio, Jeffrey R Capadona
Mosquitos are among the deadliest insects on the planet due to their ability to transmit diseases like malaria through their bite. In order to bite, a mosquito must insert a set of micro-sized needles through the skin to reach vascular structures. The mosquito uses a combination of mechanisms including an insertion guide to enable it to bite and feed off of larger animals. Here, we report on a biomimetic strategy inspired by the mosquito insertion guide to enable the implantation of intracortical microelectrodes into the brain...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313824/theoretical-prediction-of-sandwiched-two-dimensional-phosphide-binary-compounds-sheets-with-tunable-bandgaps-and-anisotropic-physical-properties
#13
Congyan Zhang, Ming Yu
Atomic layers of GaP and InP binary compounds with unique anisotropic structural, electronic, and mechanical properties have been predicted from the first principle molecular dynamics simulations. These new members of phosphide binary compounds family stabilize to a sandwiched two-dimensional (2D) crystalline structure with orthorhombic lattices symmetry and high buckling of 2.14 Å-2.46 Å. Their vibration modes are similar to those of phosphorene with six Raman active modes ranging from ~80 cm-1 to 400 cm-1...
January 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311690/strain-control-of-oxygen-kinetics-in-the-ruddlesden-popper-oxide-la1-85sr0-15cuo4
#14
Tricia L Meyer, Ryan Jacobs, Dongkyu Lee, Lu Jiang, John W Freeland, Changhee Sohn, Takeshi Egami, Dane Morgan, Ho Nyung Lee
Oxygen defect control has long been considered an important route to functionalizing complex oxide films. However, the nature of oxygen defects in thin films is often not investigated beyond basic redox chemistry. One of the model examples for oxygen-defect studies is the layered Ruddlesden-Popper phase La2-xSr x CuO4-δ (LSCO), in which the superconducting transition temperature is highly sensitive to epitaxial strain. However, previous observations of strain-superconductivity coupling in LSCO thin films were mainly understood in terms of elastic contributions to mechanical buckling, with minimal consideration of kinetic or thermodynamic factors...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306375/the-impact-of-focused-training-on-abnormality-detection-and-provision-of-accurate-preliminary-clinical-evaluation-in-newly-qualified-radiographers
#15
Barry J Stevens, John D Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Preliminary clinical evaluation (PCE) can be a useful initial assessment of traumatic abnormalities by frontline radiographers; new graduates are expected to have the skills and knowledge required to provide this initial interpretation. This study evaluates the abnormality detection performance and accuracy of PCE commenting in newly qualified radiographers. METHOD: Four newly qualified radiographers completed a fracture/dislocation detection task consisting of 58 cases, including providing a PCE for each suspicious area...
February 2018: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302968/writing-wrinkles-on-polydimethylsiloxane-pdms-by-surface-oxidation-with-a-co2-laser-engraver
#16
Lin Qi, Cody Ruck, Griffin Spychalski, Brian King, Benxin Wu, Yi Zhao
Surface wrinkles formed by the buckling of a strained stiff layer attached to a soft elastomer foundation has been widely used in a variety of applications. Micropatterning of wrinkled topographies is, however, limited by process/system complexities. In this paper, we report an approach to write surface wrinkles with desired pattern geometries on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers using a commercial infrared laser engraver with the spot size of 127 μm. Wrinkled micropatterns with the wavelength from < 50 μm to > 300 μm were obtained in minutes without using special facilities or atmospheres...
January 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290731/buckling-of-a-stiff-thin-film-on-an-elastic-graded-compliant-substrate
#17
Zhou Chen, Weiqiu Chen, Jizhou Song
The buckling of a stiff film on a compliant substrate has attracted much attention due to its wide applications such as thin-film metrology, surface patterning and stretchable electronics. An analytical model is established for the buckling of a stiff thin film on a semi-infinite elastic graded compliant substrate subjected to in-plane compression. The critical compressive strain and buckling wavelength for the sinusoidal mode are obtained analytically for the case with the substrate modulus decaying exponentially...
December 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286808/stability-landscape-of-shell-buckling
#18
Emmanuel Virot, Tobias Kreilos, Tobias M Schneider, Shmuel M Rubinstein
We measure the response of cylindrical shells to poking and identify a stability landscape, which fully characterizes the stability of perfect shells and imperfect ones in the case where a single defect dominates. We show that the landscape of stability is independent of the loading protocol and the poker geometry. Our results suggest that the complex stability of shells reduces to a low dimensional description. Tracking ridges and valleys of this landscape defines a natural phase-space coordinates for describing the stability of shells...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286796/buckling-instability-causes-inertial-thrust-for-spherical-swimmers-at-all-scales
#19
Adel Djellouli, Philippe Marmottant, Henda Djeridi, Catherine Quilliet, Gwennou Coupier
Microswimmers, and among them aspirant microrobots, generally have to cope with flows where viscous forces are dominant, characterized by a low Reynolds number (Re). This implies constraints on the possible sequences of body motion, which have to be nonreciprocal. Furthermore, the presence of a strong drag limits the range of resulting velocities. Here, we propose a swimming mechanism which uses the buckling instability triggered by pressure waves to propel a spherical, hollow shell. With a macroscopic experimental model, we show that a net displacement is produced at all Re regimes...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286253/quantitative-analysis-of-situation-awareness-qasa-modelling-and-measuring-situation-awareness-using-signal-detection-theory
#20
Graham K Edgar, Di Catherwood, Steven Baker, Geoff Sallis, Michael Bertels, Helen E Edgar, Dritan Nikolla, Susanna Buckle, Charlotte Goodwin, Allana Whelan
This paper presents a model of situation awareness (SA) that emphasises that SA is necessarily built using a subset of available information. A technique (Quantitative Analysis of Situation Awareness - QASA), based around signal detection theory, has been developed from this model that provides separate measures of actual SA (ASA) and perceived SA (PSA), together with a feature unique to QASA, a measure of bias (information acceptance). These measures allow the exploration of the relationship between actual SA, perceived SA and information acceptance...
December 29, 2017: Ergonomics
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