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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742020/symmetry-broken-and-rebroken-during-the-atp-hydrolysis-cycle-of-the-mitochondrial-hsp90-trap1
#1
Daniel Elnatan, Miguel Betegon, Yanxin Liu, Theresa Ramelot, Michael A Kennedy, David A Agard
Hsp90 is a homodimeric ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that remodels its substrate "client" proteins, facilitating their folding and activating them for biological function. Despite decades of research, the mechanism connecting ATP hydrolysis and chaperone function remains elusive. Particularly puzzling has been the apparent lack of cooperativity in hydrolysis of the ATP in each protomer. A crystal structure of the mitochondrial Hsp90, TRAP1, revealed that the catalytically active state is closed in a highly-strained asymmetric conformation...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740359/a-new-lens-for-observing-fundus-with-a-noncontact-wide-angle-viewing-system
#2
Mihori Kita, Yukiko Fujii, Sachiyo Hama
Drying of the cornea during surgery, which causes poor visibility of the fundus, is one of the most serious problems when using a noncontact-type wide-angle viewing system. This study used a newly commercialized lens for observing the fundus with a noncontact wide-angle viewing system. The lens used has a very thin meniscus made of polymethyl methacrylate and a large outer diameter. Following the application of viscoelastic material, the lens can be put on the cornea without using a contact lens fixation ring...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738732/comparative-evaluation-of-physical-characteristics-of-different-inflatable-penile-prostheses
#3
Paholo Barboglio Romo, Harshitha Prakash Chikkatur, Sahana Beldona, Yooni Yi, Tim M Bruns, Bahaa S Malaeb
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate existing inflatable penile prostheses (IPPs) in an independent laboratory setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: New IPPs were obtained from two manufacturers: American Medical Systems (AMS) and Coloplast. The AMS 700™ LGX (18 cm), CX (18 cm) and CXR (14 cm), and the Coloplast Titan(®) Touch (18 cm) and Titan Narrow (14 cm) were investigated. Internal pressure, length and girth of the cylinders were measured at 2 ml increments...
July 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734257/comparison-of-femoropopliteal-artery-stents-under-axial-and-radial-compression-axial-tension-bending-and-torsion-deformations
#4
Kaspars Maleckis, Paul Deegan, William Poulson, Cole Sievers, Anastasia Desyatova, Jason MacTaggart, Alexey Kamenskiy
High failure rates of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) stenting appear to be associated with the inability of certain stent designs to accommodate severe biomechanical environment of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA) that bends, twists, and axially compresses during limb flexion. Twelve Nitinol stents (Absolute Pro, Supera, Lifestent, Innova, Zilver, Smart Control, Smart Flex, EverFlex, Viabahn, Tigris, Misago, and Complete SE) were quasi-statically tested under bench-top axial and radial compression, axial tension, bending, and torsional deformations...
July 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731771/colloidal-spherocylinders-at-an-interface-flipper-dynamics-and-bilayer-formation
#5
T Li, G Brandani, D Marenduzzo, P S Clegg
We study the response of a film of colloidal spherocylinders to compression by combining pressure-area isotherm measurements, microscopy, and computer simulations. We find that the behavior of the film depends strongly on the geometry of the particles. For a small aspect ratio, a uniform monolayer forms and then buckles. For a higher aspect ratio, particles flip to orient perpendicular to the interface; we show that flipping occurs in locations where the nematic ordering is low. Our experiments and simulations further demonstrate that the longest particles rearrange to self-assemble a colloidal bilayer, which is stable due to the unique geometry of spherocylinders at an interface...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729551/change-in-choroidal-blood-flow-and-choroidal-morphology-due-to-segmental-scleral-buckling-in-eyes-with-rhegmatogenous-retinal-detachment
#6
Takeshi Iwase, Misato Kobayashi, Kentaro Yamamoto, Kosei Yanagida, Eimei Ra, Hiroko Terasaki
Although scleral buckling is a well-established surgical treatment for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), the procedure can reportedly cause problems in the ocular circulation. Segmental scleral bucking without a concomitant encircling procedure was performed on 46 eyes with successfully reattached macula-on RRD. Choroidal blood flow was assessed using laser speckle flowgraphy. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was used to image macular regions, to measure the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), and to calculate the luminal and the stromal areas by the binarization method preoperatively and 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721307/multispectral-fluorescence-guided-surgery-a-feasibility-study-in-a-phantom-using-a-clinical-grade-laparoscopic-camera-system
#7
Danny M van Willigen, Nynke S van den Berg, Tessa Buckle, Gijs H KleinJan, James C Hardwick, Henk G van der Poel, Fijs Wb van Leeuwen
Although the possibilities in image guided surgery are advancing rapidly, complex surgical procedures such as nerve sparing prostatectomy still lack precision regarding differentiation between diseased and delicate anatomical structures. Here, the use of complementary fluorescent tracers in combination with a dedicated multispectral fluorescence camera system could support differentiation between healthy and diseased tissue. In this study, we provide proof of concept data indicating how a modified clinical-grade fluorescence laparoscope can be used to sensitively detect white light and three fluorescent dyes (fluorescein, Cy5, and ICG) in a sequential fashion...
2017: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720137/cortical-thickness-in-the-intertrochanteric-region-may-be-relevant-to-hip-fracture-type
#8
Huafeng Zhuang, Yizhong Li, Jinkuang Lin, Donglu Cai, Siqing Cai, Lisheng Yan, Xuedong Yao
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the differences in femoral geometry and bone mineral density between femoral neck fragility fractures and trochanteric fractures. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen patients were divided into femoral neck and trochanteric fracture groups. There were 69 patients with femoral neck fractures, 20 men and 49 women with an average age of 75.1 ± 9.6 years and an average body mass index (BMI) value of 21.6 ± 4.1 kg/m(2). The trochanteric group consisted of 48 patients, 16 men and 32 women with an average age of 78...
July 18, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709975/buckling-analysis-of-orthotropic-protein-microtubules-under-axial-and-radial-compression-based-on-couple-stress-theory
#9
Yaghoub Tadi Beni, M Karimi Zeverdejani, Fahimeh Mehralian
Protein microtubules (MTs) are one of the important intercellular components and have a vital role in the stability and strength of the cells. Due to applied external loads, protein microtubules may be involved buckling phenomenon. Due to impact of protein microtubules in cell reactions, it is important to determine their critical buckling load. Considering nature of protein microtubules, various parameters are effective on microtubules buckling. The small size of microtubules and also lack of uniformity of MTs properties in different directions caused the necessity of accuracy in the analysis of these bio-structure...
July 11, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707336/mechanical-role-of-the-spatial-patterns-of-contractile-cells-in-invagination-of-growing-epithelial-tissue
#10
Yasuhiro Inoue, Tadashi Watanabe, Satoru Okuda, Taiji Adachi
Epithelial invagination is one of the fundamental deformation modes during morphogenesis, and is essential for deriving the three-dimensional shapes of organs from a flat epithelial sheet. Invagination occurs in an orderly manner according to the spatial pattern of the contractile cells; however, it remains elusive how tissue deformation can be caused by cellular activity in the patterned region. In this study, we investigated the mechanical role of the spatial patterns of the contractile cells in invagination of growing tissue using multicellular dynamics simulations...
July 13, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700420/comparison-of-2d-and-3d-video-displays-for-teaching-vitreoretinal-surgery
#11
Nisarg Chhaya, Omar Helmy, Niloofar Piri, Agustina Palacio, Shlomit Schaal
PURPOSE: To compare medical students' learning uptake and understanding of vitreoretinal surgeries by watching either 2D or 3D video recordings. METHODS: Three vitreoretinal procedures (tractional retinal detachment, exposed scleral buckle removal, and four-point scleral fixation of an intraocular lens [TSS]) were recorded simultaneously with a conventional recorder for two-dimensional viewing and a VERION 3D HD system using Sony HVO-1000MD for three-dimensional viewing...
July 11, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699920/systematic-periodicity-in-waviness-of-vertically-aligned-carbon-nanotubes-explained-by-helical-buckling
#12
Mehdi Jahangiri
A hypothesis is proposed in this work to account for the geometry of individual vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) that not only justifies the directionality of their growth, but also explains the origin of the waviness frequently reported for these nanotube forests. Such waviness has fundamental effects on the transport/conduction properties of VACNTs, either through or along them, regarding phenomena such as mass, stress, heat and electricity. Despite the general opinion about randomness of CNTs tortuosity, we demonstrate here that rules of helical buckling of tubular strings is applicable to VACNTs, based on which a regular 3D helical geometry is proposed for VACNTs, with a 2D sine wave shape side-profile...
July 12, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696662/edge-delamination-of-monolayer-transition-metal-dichalcogenides
#13
Thuc Hue Ly, Seok Joon Yun, Quoc Huy Thi, Jiong Zhao
Delamination of thin films from the supportive substrates is a critical issue within the thin film industry. The emergent two-dimensional, atomic layered materials, including transition metal dichalcogenides, are highly flexible; thus buckles and wrinkles can be easily generated and play vital roles in the corresponding physical properties. Here we introduce one kind of patterned buckling behavior caused by the delamination from a substrate initiated at the edges of the chemical vapor deposition synthesized monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, led by thermal expansion mismatch...
July 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693786/skeletal-involvement-in-type-1-gaucher-disease-not-just-bone-mineral-density
#14
M Baldini, G Casirati, F M Ulivieri, E Cassinerio, K Khouri Chalouhi, E Poggiali, L Borin, V Burghignoli, B M Cesana, M D Cappellini
Gaucher disease is characterized by multi-organ infiltration of phospholipid-laden macrophages. Bone involvement is characterized by typical deformities, osteopenia/osteoporosis, pathological fractures, and bone marrow infiltration (avascular osteonecrosis, infarction). Estimation of skeletal disease includes bone quality that contributes substantially to bone strength. We studied 23 type 1 Gaucher patients (median age 22years, range 3-73) on Enzyme Replacement Therapy from 2months to 26years (median 7years); 4 patients had pathological fractures, 10 bone infarctions, 6 avascular osteonecrosis...
June 16, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691725/programmable-reversible-and-repeatable-wrinkling-of-shape-memory-polymer-thin-films-on-elastomeric-substrates-for-smart-adhesion
#15
Yu Wang, Jianliang Xiao
Programmable, reversible and repeatable wrinkling of shape memory polymer (SMP) thin films on elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates is realized, by utilizing the heat responsive shape memory effect of SMPs. The dependencies of wrinkle wavelength and amplitude on program strain and SMP film thickness are shown to agree with the established nonlinear buckling theory. The wrinkling is reversible, as the wrinkled SMP thin film can be recovered to the flat state by heating up the bilayer system. The programming cycle between wrinkle and flat is repeatable, and different program strains can be used in different programming cycles to induce different surface morphologies...
July 10, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690406/the-cutting-of-metals-via-plastic-buckling
#16
Anirudh Udupa, Koushik Viswanathan, Yeung Ho, Srinivasan Chandrasekar
The cutting of metals has long been described as occurring by laminar plastic flow. Here we show that for metals with large strain-hardening capacity, laminar flow mode is unstable and cutting instead occurs by plastic buckling of a thin surface layer. High speed in situ imaging confirms that the buckling results in a small bump on the surface which then evolves into a fold of large amplitude by rotation and stretching. The repeated occurrence of buckling and folding manifests itself at the mesoscopic scale as a new flow mode with significant vortex-like components-sinuous flow...
June 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687667/membrane-tension-controls-adhesion-positioning-at-the-leading-edge-of-cells
#17
Bruno Pontes, Pascale Monzo, Laurent Gole, Anabel-Lise Le Roux, Anita Joanna Kosmalska, Zhi Yang Tam, Weiwei Luo, Sophie Kan, Virgile Viasnoff, Pere Roca-Cusachs, Lisa Tucker-Kellogg, Nils C Gauthier
Cell migration is dependent on adhesion dynamics and actin cytoskeleton remodeling at the leading edge. These events may be physically constrained by the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the mechanical signal produced by an increase in plasma membrane tension triggers the positioning of new rows of adhesions at the leading edge. During protrusion, as membrane tension increases, velocity slows, and the lamellipodium buckles upward in a myosin II-independent manner. The buckling occurs between the front of the lamellipodium, where nascent adhesions are positioned in rows, and the base of the lamellipodium, where a vinculin-dependent clutch couples actin to previously positioned adhesions...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686673/focal-areas-of-increased-lipid-concentration-on-the-coating-of-microbubbles-during-short-tone-burst-ultrasound-insonification
#18
Klazina Kooiman, Tom van Rooij, Bin Qin, Frits Mastik, Hendrik J Vos, Michel Versluis, Alexander L Klibanov, Nico de Jong, Flordeliza S Villanueva, Xucai Chen
Acoustic behavior of lipid-coated microbubbles has been widely studied, which has led to several numerical microbubble dynamics models that incorporate lipid coating behavior, such as buckling and rupture. In this study we investigated the relationship between microbubble acoustic and lipid coating behavior on a nanosecond scale by using fluorescently labeled lipids. It is hypothesized that a local increased concentration of lipids, appearing as a focal area of increased fluorescence intensity (hot spot) in the fluorescence image, is related to buckling and folding of the lipid layer thereby highly influencing the microbubble acoustic behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684868/a-new-landscape-of-multiple-dispersion-kinks-in-a-high-t-c-cuprate-superconductor
#19
H Anzai, M Arita, H Namatame, M Taniguchi, M Ishikado, K Fujita, S Ishida, S Uchida, A Ino
Conventional superconductivity is caused by electron-phonon coupling. The discovery of high-temperature superconductors raised the question of whether such strong electron-phonon coupling is realized in cuprates. Strong coupling with some collective excitation mode has been indicated by a dispersion "kink". However, there is intensive debate regarding whether the relevant coupling mode is a magnetic resonance mode or an oxygen buckling phonon mode. This ambiguity is a consequence of the energy of the main prominent kink...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684047/macular-choroidal-thickness-after-vitreoretinal-surgery-long-term-effect-of-pars-plana-vitrectomy-with-and-without-encircling-scleral-buckling-surgery
#20
I Gama, H Proença, A Gonçalves, M Faria, L Almeida, T Bernardo, R Couceiro, M Monteiro-Grillo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the macular choroidal thickness (CT) of eyes subjected to pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) whether or not combined with encircling scleral buckling (ESB) surgery for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair at 6 months or more after surgery. METHODS: This observational study included: 15 eyes (15 patients) submitted to combined ESB+PPV; 15 eyes submitted to PPV and their respective 30 normal fellow eyes (FE). Two 6mm lineal perpendicular optical coherence tomography B-scans centred on the fovea with enhanced depth imaging were performed on each eye...
July 3, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
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