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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101869/fibrin-formation-structure-and-properties
#1
John W Weisel, Rustem I Litvinov
Fibrinogen and fibrin are essential for hemostasis and are major factors in thrombosis, wound healing, and several other biological functions and pathological conditions. The X-ray crystallographic structure of major parts of fibrin(ogen), together with computational reconstructions of missing portions and numerous biochemical and biophysical studies, have provided a wealth of data to interpret molecular mechanisms of fibrin formation, its organization, and properties. On cleavage of fibrinopeptides by thrombin, fibrinogen is converted to fibrin monomers, which interact via knobs exposed by fibrinopeptide removal in the central region, with holes always exposed at the ends of the molecules...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094327/rapid-adaptation-drives-invasion-of-airway-donor-microbiota-by-pseudomonas-after-lung-transplantation
#2
M Beaume, T Köhler, G Greub, O Manuel, J-D Aubert, L Baerlocher, L Farinelli, A Buckling, C van Delden
In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, chronic airway infection by Pseudomonas leads to progressive lung destruction ultimately requiring lung transplantation (LT). Following LT, CF-adapted Pseudomonas strains, potentially originating from the sinuses, may seed the allograft leading to infections and reduced allograft survival. We investigated whether CF-adapted Pseudomonas populations invade the donor microbiota and adapt to the non-CF allograft. We collected sequential Pseudomonas isolates and airway samples from a CF-lung transplant recipient during two years, and followed the dynamics of the microbiota and Pseudomonas populations...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092688/buckled-two-dimensional-xene-sheets
#3
Alessandro Molle, Joshua Goldberger, Michel Houssa, Yong Xu, Shou-Cheng Zhang, Deji Akinwande
Silicene, germanene and stanene are part of a monoelemental class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals termed 2D-Xenes (X = Si, Ge, Sn and so on) which, together with their ligand-functionalized derivatives referred to as Xanes, are comprised of group IVA atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice - similar to graphene but with varying degrees of buckling. Their electronic structure ranges from trivial insulators, to semiconductors with tunable gaps, to semi-metallic, depending on the substrate, chemical functionalization and strain...
January 16, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092314/novel-technique-for-subretinal-fluid-drainage-with-chandelier-assisted-scleral-buckle-surgery-cannula-controlled-drainage
#4
Abdulelah A Al-Abdullah
PURPOSE: To report a novel technique for subretinal fluid drainage in scleral buckle surgery. METHODS: A 26-gauge intravenous cannula with its needle was used to puncture the sclera; then, the needle (metallic part) was withdrawn to further introduce the cannula into the subretinal space. In addition, we describe using the 25-gauge microcannula of the chandelier light to inject the balanced salt solution to help restore the intraocular pressure and push the subretinal fluid through the intravenous cannula under direct visualization...
January 13, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091555/coulomb-excitations-of-monolayer-germanene
#5
Po-Hsin Shih, Yu-Huang Chiu, Jhao-Ying Wu, Feng-Lin Shyu, Ming-Fa Lin
The feature-rich electronic excitations of monolayer germanene lie in the significant spin-orbit coupling and the buckled structure. The collective and single-particle excitations are diversified by the magnitude and direction of transferred momentum, the Fermi energy and the gate voltage. There are four kinds of plasmon modes, according to the unique frequency- and momentum-dependent phase diagrams. They behave as two-dimensional acoustic modes at long wavelength. However, for the larger momenta, they might change into another kind of undamped plasmons, become the seriously suppressed modes in the heavy intraband e-h excitations, keep the same undamped plasmons, or decline and then vanish in the strong interband e-h excitations...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086913/correction-of-irregular-and-induced-regular-corneal-astigmatism-with-toric-iol-after-posterior-segment-surgery-a-case-series
#6
Bence L Kolozsvári, Gergely Losonczy, Dorottya Pásztor, Mariann Fodor
BACKGROUND: Toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation can be an effective method for correcting corneal astigmatism in patients with vitreoretinal diseases and cataract. Our purpose is to report the outcome of toric IOL implantation in two cases - a patient with scleral-buckle-induced regular corneal astigmatism and a patient with keratoconus following pars plana vitrectomy. As far as we are aware, there are no reported cases of toric IOL implantation in a vitrectomized eye with keratoconus nor of toric IOL implantation in patients with scleral-buckle-induced regular corneal astigmatism...
January 13, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079983/stretchable-fiber-supercapacitors-with-high-volumetric-performance-based-on-buckled-mno2-oxidized-carbon-nanotube-fiber-electrodes
#7
Mingyang Li, Mei Zu, Jinshan Yu, Haifeng Cheng, Qingwen Li
A stretchable fiber supercapacitor (SC) based on buckled MnO2 /oxidized carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber electrode is fabricated by a simple prestraining-then-buckling method. The prepared stretchable fiber SC has a specific volumetric capacitance up to 409.4 F cm(-3) , which is 33 times of the pristine CNT fiber based SC, and shows the outstanding stability and repeatability in performance as stretchable SC.
January 12, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078333/topography-guided-buckling-of-swollen-polymer-bilayer-films-into-three-dimensional-structures
#8
Joonwoo Jeong, Yigil Cho, Su Yeon Lee, Xingting Gong, Randall D Kamien, Shu Yang, A G Yodh
Thin films that exhibit spatially heterogeneous swelling often buckle into the third dimension to minimize stress. These effects, in turn, offer a promising strategy to fabricate complex three-dimensional structures from two-dimensional sheets. Here we employ surface topography as a new means to guide buckling of swollen polymer bilayer films and thereby control the morphology of resulting three-dimensional objects. Topographic patterns are created on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films selectively coated with a thin layer of non-swelling parylene on different sides of the patterned films...
January 12, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068654/primary-retinal-detachment-surgery-changes-in-treatment-and-outcome-in-an-austrian-tertiary-eye-center
#9
Eva Smretschnig, Christiane Isolde Falkner-Radler, Jessica Spörl, Danijel Kivaranovic, Susanne Binder, Katharina Krepler
PURPOSE: The surgery of choice for primary retinal detachment (RD) has shifted towards primary vitrectomy (PPV) in recent years. In this study, 2 cohorts of consecutive patients, treated by 8 retinal surgeons within a 7-year time span were compared. METHODS: Baseline demographic data, surgical procedure, and outcome of patients with primary RD surgery between January 2007 and December 2008 (group 1, G1) and January 2012 and December 2013 (group 2, G2) were compared...
January 10, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067636/edge-states-of-hydrogen-terminated-monolayer-materials-silicene-germanene-and-stanene-ribbons
#10
Ayami Hattori, Sho Tanaya, Keiji Yada, Masaaki Araidai, Masatoshi Sato, Yasuhiro Hatsugai, Kenji Shiraishi, Yukio Tanaka
We investigate the energy dispersion of the edge states in zigzag silicene, germanene and stanene nanoribbons with and without hydrogen termination based on a multi-orbital tight-binding model. Since the low buckled structures are crucial for these materials, both the �� and �� orbitals have a strong influence on the edge states, different from the case for graphene nanoribbons. The obtained dispersion of helical edge states is nonlinear, similar to that obtained by first-principles calculations. On the other hand, the dispersion derived from the single-orbital tight-binding model is always linear...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067208/electronic-properties-of-laalo3-srtio3-n-type-interfaces-a-gga-u-study
#11
Irina Piyanzina, Thilo Kopp, Yury Lysogorskiy, Dmitrii Tayurskii, Volker Eyert
The role of electronic correlation effects for a realistic description of the electronic properties of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures as covered by the on-site Coulomb repulsion within the GGA+U approach is investigated. Performing a systematic variation of the values of the Coulomb parameters applied to the Ti 3d and La 4f orbitals we put previous suggestions to include a large value for the La 4f states into perspective. Furthermore, our calculations provide deeper insight into the band gap landscape in the space spanned by these Coulomb parameters and the resulting complex interference effects...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064482/temperature-tuned-faceting-and-shape-changes-in-liquid-alkane-droplets
#12
Shani Guttman, Zvi Sapir, Benjamin M Ocko, Moshe Deutsch, Eli Sloutskin
Recent extensive studies reveal that surfactant-stabilized spherical alkane emulsion droplets spontaneously adopt polyhedral shapes upon cooling below a temperature Td, while still remaining liquid. Further cooling induces growth of tails and spontaneous droplet splitting. Two mechanisms were offered to account for these intriguing effects. One assigns the effects to the formation of an intra-droplet frame of tubules, consisting of crystalline rotator phases with cylindrically curved lattice planes. The second assigns the sphere-to-polyhedron transition to the buckling of defects in a crystalline interfacial monolayer, known to form in these systems at some Ts > Td...
January 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064363/morphometric-and-mechanical-characteristics-of-equisetum-hyemale-stem-enhance-its-vibration
#13
Urszula Zajączkowska, Stanisław Kucharski, Zdzisław Nowak, Kamila Grabowska
The order of the internodes, and their geometry and mechanical characteristics influence the capability of the Equisetum stem to vibrate, potentially stimulating spore liberation at the optimum stress setting along the stem. Equisetum hyemale L. plants represent a special example of cellular solid construction with mechanical stability achieved by a high second moment of area and relatively high resistance against local buckling. We proposed the hypothesis that the order of E. hyemale L. stem internodes, their geometry and mechanical characteristics influence the capability of the stem to vibrate, stimulating spore liberation at the minimum stress setting value along the stem...
January 7, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063987/a-mathematical-model-for-the-determination-of-forming-tissue-moduli-in-needled-nonwoven-scaffolds
#14
Joao S Soares, Will Zhang, Michael S Sacks
Formation of engineering tissues (ET) remains an important scientific area of investigation for both clinical translational and mechanobiological studies. Needled-nonwoven (NNW) scaffolds represent one of the most ubiquitous biomaterials based on their well-documented capacity to sustain tissue formation and the unique property of substantial construct stiffness amplification, the latter allowing for very sensitive determination of forming tissue modulus. Yet, their use in more fundamental studies is hampered by the lack of (1) substantial understanding of the mechanics of the NNW scaffold itself under finite deformations and means to model the complex mechanical interactions between scaffold fibers, cells, and de novo tissue; and (2) rational models with reliable predictive capabilities describing their evolving mechanical properties and their response to mechanical stimulation...
January 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062647/on-the-effect-of-alkaline-ph-and-cofactor-availability-in-the-conformational-and-oligomeric-state-of-escherichia-coli-glutamate-decarboxylase
#15
F Giovannercole, C Mérigoux, C Zamparelli, D Verzili, G Grassini, M Buckle, P Vachette, D De Biase
Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (EcGad) is a homohexameric pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme. It is the structural component of the major acid resistance system that protects E. coli from strong acid stress (pH < 3), typically encountered in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. In fact EcGad consumes one proton/catalytic cycle while yielding γ-aminobutyrate and carbon dioxide from the decarboxylation of l-glutamate. Two isoforms of Gad occur in E. coli (GadA and GadB) that are 99% identical in sequence...
January 5, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060177/influence-of-insurance-type-on-the-access-to-pediatric-care-for-children-with-distal-radius-torus-fractures
#16
Harrison Potak, Christopher A Iobst
BACKGROUND: Previous literature has demonstrated that pediatric orthopaedic patients with private insurance have less difficulty obtaining appointments than those with Medicaid. Not all injuries of an orthopaedic nature, however, require specialist care. This study evaluated the willingness of pediatricians to provide care for minor orthopaedic injuries and whether or not the patient's insurance status influenced the decision to provide care. METHODS: Ninety-nine pediatric primary care offices were randomly selected from 2 regions in Florida...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057918/obtaining-control-of-cell-surface-functionalizations-via-pre-targeting-and-supramolecular-host-guest-interactions
#17
Mark T M Rood, Silvia J Spa, Mick M Welling, Jan Bart Ten Hove, Danny M van Willigen, Tessa Buckle, Aldrik H Velders, Fijs W B van Leeuwen
The use of mammalian cells for therapeutic applications is finding its way into modern medicine. However, modification or "training" of cells to make them suitable for a specific application remains complex. By envisioning a chemical toolbox that enables specific, but straight-forward and generic cellular functionalization, we investigated how membrane-receptor (pre)targeting could be combined with supramolecular host-guest interactions based on β-cyclodextrin (CD) and adamantane (Ad). The feasibility of this approach was studied in cells with membranous overexpression of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057646/incidence-mechanism-and-outcomes-of-schisis-retinal-detachments-revealed-through-a-prospective-population-based-study
#18
Kanmin Xue, Mahiul M K Muqit, Eric Ezra, Stephen J Charles, David Yorston, Arijit Mitra, Chetan K Patel
AIM: To determine the incidence, presentation and outcomes of progressive sight-threatening retinal detachment (RD) complicating degenerative retinoschisis. METHODS: We conducted the first prospective population-based epidemiological study of progressive schisis detachment over a 1-year period (2014-2015) in the UK. Case ascertainment was via monthly British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit reporting cards sent to all ophthalmologists in the UK. For each reported case, data were collected using incident and 6 months follow-up questionnaires gathering information including demographic, presenting symptoms, retinal findings, primary management, primary outcome, secondary management and secondary outcome...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054062/stretching-induced-wrinkling-in-plastic-rubber-composites
#19
Junyu Yang, Sameer Damle, Spandan Maiti, Sachin S Velankar
We examine the mechanics of three-layer composite films composed of an elastomeric layer sandwiched between two thin surface layers of plastic. Upon stretching and releasing such composite films, they develop a highly wrinkled surface texture. The mechanism for this texturing is that during stretching, the plastic layers yield and stretch irreversibly whereas the elastomer stretches reversibly. Thus upon releasing, the plastic layers buckle due to compressive stress imposed by the elastomer. Experiments are conducted using SEPS elastomer and 50 micron thick LLDPE plastic films...
January 5, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053824/low-normal-tsh-levels-are-associated-with-impaired-bmd-and-hip-geometry-in-the-elderly
#20
Su Jin Lee, Kyoung Min Kim, Eun Young Lee, Mi Kyung Song, Dae Ryong Kang, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yoosik Youm, Young Mi Yun, Hyun-Young Park, Chang Oh Kim, Yumie Rhee
Subclinical hyperthyroidism is known to be associated with the risk of fractures in elderly people. However, there are few studies assessing whether low normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels affect bone density and geometry. Here, we aimed to assess the influence of the TSH level on bone mineral density (BMD) and geometry in elderly euthyroid subjects. This was a cross-sectional cohort study. A total of 343 men and 674 women with euthyroidism were included and analyzed separately. The subjects were divided into tertiles based on the serum TSH level...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
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