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Megan H M Kuba, Byron H Izuka
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have showed the efficacy of removable brace treatment for distal radius buckle fractures in children, whereas others have independently suggested that these injuries do not require additional radiographic imaging. However, no study has sought to collectively determine whether treating pediatric distal radius buckle fractures with a removable brace and no follow-up visit or imaging after the initial visit is a safe and satisfactory protocol. METHODS: In total, 42 consecutive patients with a distal forearm buckle fracture seen by a single fellowship trained pediatric orthopaedic surgeon were eligible to participate...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Tatsushi Kaga, Sho Yokoyama, Takashi Kojima, Hayato Mitamura, Toshio Mori, Taisuke Matsuda, Hiroyuki Sato, Norihiko Yoshida, Kazuo Ichikawa
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of novel endoscope-assisted vitreous surgery techniques in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated by Grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy. METHODS: Eight consecutive patients who had undergone endoscope-assisted vitreous surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated by Grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy were investigated. The peripheral vitreous was cut under air with the aid of endoscopic view (atmospheric endoscopic technique), and the subretinal proliferation was removed under subretinal endoscopic observation (subretinal endoscopic technique)...
March 8, 2018: Retina
Subramaniyan Ramanathan, Michele Bertolotto, Ahmad Shamsodini, Mahmoud Heidous, Vikram Dogra, Parvati Ramchandani
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our article is to review the role of imaging in the diagnosis of various complications of a penile prosthesis (PP). CONCLUSION: Complications of a PP can be categorized into three groups: first, malpositioning, which includes buckling, floppy glans, erosion, migration, and crossover; second, mechanical failure, which includes fracture, aneurysm, and leakage; and, third, infection. Radiography, sonography, CT, and MRI are useful in the detection of these complications and complement each other, with MRI being the most useful imaging modality among them...
March 12, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Aaron P Schultz, Keith A Johnson, Trey Hedden, Sehily Jaimes, Tammie L S Benzinger, Clifford Jack, Beau M Ances, John M Ringman, Daniel S Marcus, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin R Farlow, Adrian Danek, Johannes Levin, Igor Yakushev, Christoph Laske, Robert A Koeppe, Douglas R Galasko, Chengjie Xiong, Colin L Masters, Peter R Schofield, Kirsi M Kinnunen, Stephen Salloway, Ralph N Martins, Eric McDade, Nigel J Cairns, Virginia D Buckles, John C Morris, Randall Bateman, Reisa A Sperling
Converging evidence from structural, metabolic and functional connectivity MRI suggests that neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, target specific neural networks. However, age-related network changes commonly co-occur with neuropathological cascades, limiting efforts to disentangle disease-specific alterations in network function from those associated with normal ageing. Here we elucidate the differential effects of ageing and Alzheimer's disease pathology through simultaneous analyses of two functional connectivity MRI datasets: (i) young participants harbouring highly-penetrant mutations leading to autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN), an Alzheimer's disease cohort in which age-related comorbidities are minimal and likelihood of progression along an Alzheimer's disease trajectory is extremely high; and (ii) young and elderly participants from the Harvard Aging Brain Study, a cohort in which imaging biomarkers of amyloid burden and neurodegeneration can be used to disambiguate ageing alone from preclinical Alzheimer's disease...
March 7, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Isaac V Pratt, James D Johnston, Ernie Walker, David M L Cooper
Cortical bone porosity and specifically the orientation of vascular canals is an area of growing interest in biomedical research and comparative/paleontological anatomy. The potential to explain microstructural adaptation is of great interest. However, the determinants of the development of canal orientation remain unclear. Previous studies of birds have shown higher proportions of circumferential canals (called laminarity) in flight bones than in hindlimb bones, and interpreted this as a sign that circumferential canals are a feature for resistance to the torsional loading created by flight...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Jason Ivanoff, Nicole E Webb, Harjot Chahal, Virginia P Palango, Raymond M Klein, Steven R Carroll
Identifying the color (e.g., red) of a color word that is incongruent (e.g., "BLUE") can be remarkably difficult. The Stroop effect is a measure of the interference between activity from word and color pathways. The efficacy of these pathways is thought to be highly contingent on the frequency of incongruent trials within a block. A block of trials with mostly incongruent (MI) trials typically results in a smaller Stroop effect than a block with mostly congruent (MC) trials. This reduction of the Stroop effect has been largely attributed to the strategic list-wide control of the word pathway...
March 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Michio Aoki, Jia-Yang Juang
Conventional manufacturing techniques-moulding, machining and casting-exist to produce three-dimensional (3D) shapes. However, these industrial processes are typically geared for mass production and are not directly applicable to residential settings, where inexpensive and versatile tools are desirable. Moreover, those techniques are, in general, not adequate to process soft elastic materials. Here, we introduce a new concept of forming 3D closed hollow shapes from two-dimensional (2D) elastic ribbons by controlled buckling...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Sangmin An, Bongsu Kim, Soyoung Kwon, Geol Moon, Manhee Lee, Wonho Jhe
Buckling, first introduced by Euler in 1744 [Euler L (1744) Opera Omnia I 24:231], a sudden mechanical sideways deflection of a structural member under compressive stress, represents a bifurcation in the solution to the equations of static equilibrium. Although it has been investigated in diverse research areas, such a common nonlinear phenomenon may be useful to devise a unique mechanical sensor that addresses the still-challenging features, such as the enhanced sensitivity and polarization-dependent detection capability...
March 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Daniel Rayneau-Kirkhope, Chengzhao Zhang, Louis Theran, Marcelo A Dias
In recent years, many structural motifs have been designed with the aim of creating auxetic metamaterials. One area of particular interest in this subject is the creation of auxetic material properties through elastic instability. Such metamaterials switch from conventional behaviour to an auxetic response for loads greater than some threshold value. This paper develops a novel methodology in the analysis of auxetic metamaterials which exhibit elastic instability through analogy with rigid link lattice systems...
February 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Wei Guo, Cassandra M Reese, Li Xiong, Phillip K Logan, Brittany J Thompson, Christopher M Stafford, Anton V Ievlev, Bradley S Lokitz, Olga S Ovchinnikova, Derek L Patton
We report a simple route to engineer ultrathin polymer brush surfaces with wrinkled morphologies using post-polymerization modification (PPM), where the length scale of the buckled features can be tuned from hundreds of nanometers to one micrometer using PPM reaction time. We show that partial crosslinking of the outer layer of the polymer brush under poor solvent conditions is critical to obtain wrinkled morphologies upon swelling. Characterization of the PPM kinetics and swelling behavior via ellipsometry and the through-thickness composition profile via time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) provided keys insight into parameters influencing the buckling behavior...
November 14, 2017: Macromolecules
Kristina M Bridges, Francisco J Diaz, Zhiwen Wang, Ishfaq Ahmed, Debra K Sullivan, Shahid Umar, Daniel C Buckles, K Allen Greiner, Christina M Hester
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population...
February 26, 2018: Genes
Tengyu He, Chu-Cheng Lin, Liangjing Shi, Ranran Wang, Jing Sun
Recent years have witnessed a breathtaking development of wearable strain sensors. Coupling high sensitivity and stretchability in a strain sensor is greatly desired by emerging wearable applications but remains a big challenge. To tackle this issue, a through-layer buckle wavelength-gradient design is proposed and a facile and universal fabrication strategy is demonstrated to introduce such a gradient into the sensing film with multilayered sensing units. Following this strategy, strain sensors are fabricated using graphene woven fabrics (GWFs) as sensing units, which exhibit highly tunable electromechanical performances...
March 1, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nishant Patel, Manoj Monga
INTRODUCTION: Ureteral access sheaths (UAS) facilitate flexible ureteroscopy in the treatment of urolithiasis. The physical properties of UAS vary by manufacturer and model. We compared three new UAS: Glideway (GW, Terumo, 11/13Fr, 12/14Fr), Pathway (PW, Terumo 12/14F) and Navigator HD (NHD, Boston Scientific, 11/13Fr, 12/14Fr) in the domains of safety characteristics, positioning characteristics, lubricity and radioopacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro testing of the three UAS included safety testing-tip perforation force, sheath edge deformation and dilator extraction forces...
March 1, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Ahsan Mukhtar, Mohammad Asim Mehboob, Zaheer Uddin Babar, Mazhar Ishaq
Objective: To compare the effects of Pars Plana Vitrectomy (PPV) and Scleral Buckling (SB) with reference to Central Corneal Thickness (CCT), Corneal Endothelial-Cell Density (CED), Anterior Chamber Depth (ACD) and Axial Length (AL) in repair of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment (RRD). Methods: This comparative cross sectional analytical study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO), Rawalpindi from July 2013 to July 2015. A total of 69 eyes of 69 patients which underwent repair of RRD by either PPV or SB were analyzed to compare mean change in CCT, CED, ACD and AL between two groups...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Fan Guo, Yanqiu Jiang, Zhen Xu, Youhua Xiao, Bo Fang, Yingjun Liu, Weiwei Gao, Pei Zhao, Hongtao Wang, Chao Gao
Carbon aerogels demonstrate wide applications for their ultralow density, rich porosity, and multifunctionalities. Their compressive elasticity has been achieved by different carbons. However, reversibly high stretchability of neat carbon aerogels is still a great challenge owing to their extremely dilute brittle interconnections and poorly ductile cells. Here we report highly stretchable neat carbon aerogels with a retractable 200% elongation through hierarchical synergistic assembly. The hierarchical buckled structures and synergistic reinforcement between graphene and carbon nanotubes enable a temperature-invariable, recoverable stretching elasticity with small energy dissipation (~0...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Gerald S Manning
The physical principles underlying expansion of a single-chain polyelectrolyte coil caused by Coulomb repulsions among its ionized groups, and the expansion of a cross-linked polyelectrolyte gel, are probably the same. In this paper, we analyze a "one-dimensional" version of a gel, namely, a linear chain of charged beads connected by Hooke's law springs. In the Debye-Hückel range of relatively weak Coulomb strength, where counterion condensation does not occur, the springs are realistically stretched on a nanolength scale by the repulsive interactions among the beads, if we use a spring constant normalized by the inverse square of the solvent Bjerrum length...
February 28, 2018: Soft Matter
Norbert Stoop, Jörn Dunkel
Topological defects shape the material and transport properties of physical systems. Examples range from vortex lines in quantum superfluids, defect-mediated buckling of graphene, and grain boundaries in ferromagnets and colloidal crystals, to domain structures formed in the early universe. The Kibble-Zurek (KZ) mechanism describes the topological defect formation in continuous non-equilibrium phase transitions with a constant finite quench rate. Universal KZ scaling laws have been verified experimentally and numerically for second-order transitions in planar Euclidean geometries, but their validity for non-thermal transitions in curved and topologically nontrivial systems still poses open questions...
February 28, 2018: Soft Matter
Elizabeth McElnea, Kirk Stephenson, Sarah Gilmore, Michael O'Keefe, David Keegan
AIM: To provide contemporary data on the aetiology, clinical features and outcomes of paediatric retinal detachment. METHODS: A retrospective review of all those under 16y who underwent surgical repair for retinal detachment at a single centre between the years 2008 and 2015 inclusive was performed. In each case the cause of retinal detachment, the type of detachment, the presence or absence of macular involvement, the number and form of reparative surgeries undertaken, and the surgical outcome achieved was recorded...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Eirik Søvik, Pauline Berthier, William P Klare, Paul Helliwell, Edwina L S Buckle, Jenny A Plath, Andrew B Barron, Ryszard Maleszka
Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing behavioral disorder. The high relapse rate has often been attributed to the perseverance of drug-associated memories due to high incentive salience of stimuli learnt under the influence of drugs. Drug addiction has also been interpreted as a memory disorder since drug associated memories are unusually enduring and some drugs, such as cocaine, interfere with neuroepigenetic machinery known to be involved in memory processing. Here we used the honey bee (an established invertebrate model for epigenomics and behavioral studies) to examine whether or not cocaine affects memory processing independently of its effect on incentive salience...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Carl S Wilkins, Vaidehi S Dedania, Devon H Ghodasra, Mark W Johnson
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of vitreous cavity-Tenon capsule fistula formation after removal of a symptomatic hydrogel scleral buckle. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 43-year-old man presented with chronic headache and involuntary gaze deviation for over 1 year after hydrogel scleral buckle surgery 25 years prior. After removal of the scleral buckle, the patient developed a fluid-filled inflation of the buckle capsule, surrounding a previously noted area of severe scleral thinning...
February 26, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
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