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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443175/the-versatile-approach-a-novel-single-incision-combined-with-anterior-and-posterior-approaches-for-decompression-and-instrumented-fusion-to-treat-tuberculosis-of-the-thoracic-spine
#1
Sudhir Kumar Srivastava, Rishi Anil Aggarwal, Sunil Krishna Bhosale, Kunal Roy, Pradip Sharad Nemade
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. PURPOSE: To describe a novel single incision that combines anterior and posterior approaches for decompression and instrumented fusion to treat tuberculosis of the thoracic spine and study the neurological and radiological outcomes. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Tuberculosis of the spine remains a major health issue in many developing countries. The options for treating tuberculosis of the thoracic spine include the anterior, posterior, and combined approaches, each with its advantages and disadvantages...
April 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441496/room-temperature-ferromagnetism-in-two-dimensional-fe2si-nanosheet-with-enhanced-spin-polarization-ratio
#2
Yingjie Sun, Zhiwen Zhuo, Xiaojun Wu, Jinlong Yang
Searching experimental feasible two-dimensional (2D) ferromagnetic crystals with large spin-polarization ratio, high Curie temperature and large magnetic anisotropic energy is one key to develop next-generation spintronic nanodevices. Here, 2D Fe2Si nanosheet, one counterpart of Hapkeite mineral discovered in meteorite with novel magnetism is proposed on the basis of first-principles calculations. The 2D Fe2Si crystal has a slightly buckled triangular lattice with planar hexacoordinated Si and Fe atoms. The spin-polarized calculations with hybrid HSE06 function method indicate that 2D Fe2Si is a ferromagnetic half metal at its ground state with 100% spin-polarization ratio at Fermi energy level...
April 27, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440369/a-variable-stiffness-dielectric-elastomer-actuator-based-on-electrostatic-chucking
#3
Hiroya Imamura, Kevin Kadooka, Minoru Taya
Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are one type of promising artificial muscle; however, applications of bending-type DEA for robotic end-effectors may be limited by their low stiffness and ability to resist external loads without buckling. Unimorph DEA can produce large out-of-plane deformation suitable for use as robotic end effectors; however, design of such actuators for large displacement comes at the cost of low stiffness and blocking force. This work proposes and demonstrates a variable stiffness dielectric elastomer actuator (VSDEA) consisting of a plurality of unimorph DEA units operating in parallel, which can exhibit variable electrostatic chucking to modulate the structure's bending stiffness...
April 25, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438161/refolddb-a-new-and-sustainable-gateway-to-experimental-protocols-for-protein-refolding
#4
Hisashi Mizutani, Hideaki Sugawara, Ashley M Buckle, Takeshi Sangawa, Ken-Ichi Miyazono, Jun Ohtsuka, Koji Nagata, Tomoki Shojima, Shohei Nosaki, Yuqun Xu, Delong Wang, Xiao Hu, Masaru Tanokura, Kei Yura
BACKGROUND: More than 7000 papers related to "protein refolding" have been published to date, with approximately 300 reports each year during the last decade. Whilst some of these papers provide experimental protocols for protein refolding, a survey in the structural life science communities showed a necessity for a comprehensive database for refolding techniques. We therefore have developed a new resource - "REFOLDdb" that collects refolding techniques into a single, searchable repository to help researchers develop refolding protocols for proteins of interest...
April 24, 2017: BMC Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436426/stretchable-ag-electrodes-with-mechanically-tunable-optical-transmittance-on-wavy-patterned-pdms-substrates
#5
Eun-Hye Ko, Hyo-Joong Kim, Sang-Mok Lee, Tae-Woong Kim, Han-Ki Kim
We report on semi-transparent stretchable Ag films coated on a wavy-patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate for use as stretchable electrodes for stretchable and transparent electronics. To improve the mechanical stretchability of the Ag films, we optimized the wavy-pattern of the PDMS substrate as a function of UV-ozone treatment time and pre-strain of the PDMS substrate. In addition, we investigated the effect of the Ag thickness on the mechanical stretchability of the Ag electrode formed on the wavy-patterned PDMS substrate...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431451/-experience-with-the-hind-foot-relaxation-boot
#6
Hans Zwipp, Michael Borrmann, Eberhard Walter
The goal of this paper is to report our experience with hindfoot fractures using our specially developed boot, with a follow-up of 557 cases. This boot works like the well-known Allgöwer-Röck ortheses (ARO), but is a hybrid between a boot and an orthesis. It allows full weightbearing without using crutches and completely protects an acutely operated hind foot fracture, hind foot arthrodesis or a hind foot fracture which is suitable for conservative treatment. In its first generation, this boot was custom made and used in 408 cases, from March 1999 to February 2011...
April 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430445/controlling-the-roughness-of-langmuir-blodgett-monolayers
#7
Gregory J Silverberg, Arthur A McClelland, Sarah Griesse-Nascimento, Camille Girabawe, Julian P Kadow, Lakshminarayanan Mahadevan, Chad David Vecitis
Controlling the surface roughness of thin films with nanoscale precision is of significant interest for the rational design of surface coatings. Although wrinkling and buckling of Langmuir monolayers under compression has been demonstrated for several years, there is currently no method to precisely control this behavior during compression and thereby modify the surface roughness of deposited films. Here, we combine conventional Langmuir phase analysis with a novel dynamic viscoelasticity measurement to simply and accurately observe the jamming transition of monolayers of silica spheres, graphene oxide, and surfactant...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429793/attogram-mass-sensing-based-on-silicon-microbeam-resonators
#8
In-Bok Baek, Sangwon Byun, Bong Kuk Lee, Jin-Hwa Ryu, Yarkyeon Kim, Yong Sun Yoon, Won Ik Jang, Seongjae Lee, Han Young Yu
Using doubly-clamped silicon (Si) microbeam resonators, we demonstrate sub-attogram per Hertz (ag/Hz) mass sensitivity, which is extremely high sensitivity achieved by micro-scale MEMS mass sensors. We also characterize unusual buckling phenomena of the resonators. The thin-film based resonator is composed of a Si microbeam surrounded by silicon nitride (SiN) anchors, which significantly improve performance by providing fixation on the microbeam and stabilizing oscillating motion. Here, we introduce two fabrication techniques to further improve the mass sensitivity...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427819/size-dependent-axial-instability-of-microtubules-surrounded-by-cytoplasm-of-a-living-cell-based-on-nonlocal-strain-gradient-elasticity-theory
#9
S Sahmani, M M Aghdam
Microtubules including tubulin heterodimers arranging in a parallel shape of cylindrical hollow plays an important role in the mechanical stiffness of a living cell. In the present study, the nonlocal strain gradient theory of elasticity including simultaneously the both nonlocality and strain gradient size dependency is put to use within the framework of a refined orthotropic shell theory with hyperbolic distribution of shear deformation to analyze the size-dependent buckling and postbuckling characteristics of microtubules embedded in cytoplasm under axial compressive load...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424847/characterization-of-microtubule-buckling-in-living-cells
#10
Carla Pallavicini, Alejandro Monastra, Nicolás González Bardeci, Diana Wetzler, Valeria Levi, Luciana Bruno
Microtubules are filamentous biopolymers involved in essential biological processes. They form key structures in eukaryotic cells, and thus it is very important to determine the mechanisms involved in the formation and maintenance of the microtubule network. Microtubule bucklings are transient and localized events commonly observed in living cells and characterized by a fast bending and its posterior relaxation. Active forces provided by molecular motors have been indicated as responsible for most of these rapid deformations...
April 19, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419245/support-of-the-aortic-wall-a-histological-study-in-sheep-comparing-a-macroporous-mesh-with-low-porosity-vascular-graft-of-the-same-polyethylene-terephthalate-material
#11
Lucas Van Hoof, Peter Verbrugghe, Erik Verbeken, Tom Treasure, Nele Famaey, Bart Meuris, Paul Herijgers, Filip Rega
OBJECTIVES: Wrapping with various materials was an early treatment for aortic aneurysms. Wrapping with low-porosity vascular grafts has been associated with graft migration and vascular erosion. An alternative is to use a macroporous mesh (MPM) made of the same polymer (polyethylene terephalate). We compared the histological outcome 1 year after wrapping sheep aortas with low-porosity grafts versus MPM fabrics. METHODS: The 2 different fabrics were wrapped around the aorta of 3 sheep...
April 16, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409023/a-new-sutureless-illuminated-macular-buckle-designed-for-myopic-macular-hole-retinal-detachment
#12
Ahmed M Bedda, Ahmed M Abdel Hadi, Mohamed Lolah, Muhammad S Abd Al Shafy
Purpose. To report the anatomic and visual results of a new sutureless illuminated macular buckle designed for patients with macular hole retinal detachment related to high myopia (MMHRD). Design. Prospective nonrandomized comparative interventional trial. Methods. Twenty myopic eyes of 20 patients (mean age, 51.4 years; range, 35-65 years) presenting with MMHRD with a posterior staphyloma, in whom the new buckle was used, were evaluated. The buckle used was assembled from a 5 mm wide sponge and a 7 mm wide silicone tire; it was fixed utilizing the sterile topical adhesive Histoacryl Blue (B Braun, TS1050044FP) which polymerizes in seconds upon being exposed to water-containing substances...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407712/relationship-between-young-s-modulus-and-film-architecture-in-cellulose-nanofibril-based-multilayered-thin-films
#13
Firas Azzam, Laurent Chaunier, Céline Moreau, Denis Lourdin, Patricia Bertoncini, Bernard Cathala
Young's moduli of cellulose nanofibril (CNF)-poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) multilayered thin films were measured using strain-induced elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM) and the quantitative nanomechanical mapping technique (PF-QNM). To establish the relationship between structure and mechanical properties, three types of films with various architectures were built using the layer-by-layer method by changing the ionic strength of the dipping solution. Both methods demonstrate that the architecture of a film has a strong impact on its mechanical properties even though the film has similar cellulose content, emphasizing the role of the architecture...
April 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402378/buckling-behaviour-of-composites-with-double-walled-nanotubes-from-carbon-and-phosphorus
#14
Kun Cai, Jing Wan, Likui Yang, Ning Wei, Jiao Shi, Qing-Hua Qin
Due to weak interactions among phosphorus atoms in black phosphorene, a nanotube obtained by curling single-layer black phosphorus is not as stable as a carbon nanotube (CNT) at finite temperature. In the present work, we recommend a new 1D composite material with a double-walled nanotube (DWNT) from a black phosphorus nanotube (BPNT) and a CNT. The dynamic response of the composite DWNTs is simulated using a molecular dynamics approach. Effects of the factors including temperature, slenderness and configurations of DWNTs on dynamic behavior of the composite are discussed...
April 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402010/shape-shifting-patchy-particles
#15
Xiaolong Zheng, Mingzhu Liu, Mingxin He, David J Pine, Marcus Weck
A facile method to synthesize shape-shifting patchy particles on the colloidal scale is described. The design is based on the solvent-induced shifting of the patch shape between concave and convex features. The initial concave patchy particles were synthesized in a water suspension by a swelling-induced buckling process. Upon exposure to different solvents, the patches were tuned reversibly to be either concave or convex. These particles can be assembled into chained, branched, zigzag, and cyclic colloidal superstructures in a highly site-specific manner by surface-liquid capillary bridging...
April 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401930/nanomechanics-of-individual-aerographite-tetrapods
#16
Raimonds Meija, Stefano Signetti, Arnim Schuchardt, Kerstin Meurisch, Daria Smazna, Matthias Mecklenburg, Karl Schulte, Donats Erts, Oleg Lupan, Bodo Fiedler, Yogendra Kumar Mishra, Rainer Adelung, Nicola M Pugno
Carbon-based three-dimensional aerographite networks, built from interconnected hollow tubular tetrapods of multilayer graphene, are ultra-lightweight materials recently discovered and ideal for advanced multifunctional applications. In order to predict the bulk mechanical behaviour of networks it is very important to understand the mechanics of their individual building blocks. Here we characterize the mechanical response of single aerographite tetrapods via in situ scanning electron and atomic force microscopy measurements...
April 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398452/buckling-induced-f-actin-fragmentation-modulates-the-contraction-of-active-cytoskeletal-networks
#17
Jing Li, Thomas Biel, Pranith Lomada, Qilin Yu, Taeyoon Kim
Actomyosin contractility originating from interactions between F-actin and myosin facilitates various structural reorganizations of the actin cytoskeleton. Cross-linked actomyosin networks show a tendency to contract to single or multiple foci, which has been investigated extensively in numerous studies. Recently, it was suggested that suppression of F-actin buckling via an increase in bending rigidity significantly reduces network contraction. In this study, we demonstrate that networks may show the largest contraction at intermediate bending rigidity, not at the lowest rigidity, if filaments are severed by buckling arising from myosin activity as demonstrated in recent experiments; if filaments are very flexible, frequent severing events can severely deteriorate network connectivity, leading to the formation of multiple small foci and low network contraction...
April 11, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397935/beyond-buckling-humidity-independent-measurement-of-the-mechanical-properties-of-green-nanobiocomposite-films
#18
Urooj Gill, Travis Sutherland, Sebastian Himbert, Yujie Zhu, Maikel C Rheinstädter, Emily D Cranston, Jose M Moran-Mirabal
Precise knowledge of the mechanical properties of emerging nanomaterials and nanocomposites is crucial to match their performance with suitable applications. While methods to characterize mechanical properties exist, they are limited by instrument sensitivity and sample requirements. For bio-based nanomaterials this challenge is exacerbated by the extreme dependence of mechanical properties on humidity. This work presents an alternative approach, based on polymer shrinking-induced wrinkling mechanics, to determine the elastic modulus of nanobiocomposite films in a humidity-independent manner...
April 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386993/nickel-allergy-in-a-danish-population-25%C3%A2-years-after-the-first-nickel-regulation
#19
Malin G Ahlström, Torkil Menné, Jacob P Thyssen, Jeanne D Johansen
BACKGROUND: Nickel in metallic items has been regulated in Denmark since 1990; however, 10% of young Danish women are still sensitized to nickel. There is a need for continuous surveillance of the effect of regulation. OBJECTIVES: To identify current self-reported metallic exposures leading to dermatitis in nickel-allergic patients, and the minimum contact time needed for dermatitis to occur. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all patients who reacted positively to nickel sulfate 5% pet...
April 7, 2017: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382966/the-pu-1-target-gene-zbtb11-regulates-neutrophil-development-through-its-integrase-like-hhcc-zinc-finger
#20
Maria-Cristina Keightley, Duncan P Carradice, Judith E Layton, Luke Pase, Julien Y Bertrand, Johannes G Wittig, Aleksandar Dakic, Andrew P Badrock, Nicholas J Cole, David Traver, Stephen L Nutt, Julia McCoey, Ashley M Buckle, Joan K Heath, Graham J Lieschke
In response to infection and injury, the neutrophil population rapidly expands and then quickly re-establishes the basal state when inflammation resolves. The exact pathways governing neutrophil/macrophage lineage outputs from a common granulocyte-macrophage progenitor are still not completely understood. From a forward genetic screen in zebrafish, we identify the transcriptional repressor, ZBTB11, as critical for basal and emergency granulopoiesis. ZBTB11 sits in a pathway directly downstream of master myeloid regulators including PU...
April 6, 2017: Nature Communications
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