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Gema Rebolleda, Beatriz Puerto, Victoria de Juan, Marta Gómez-Mariscal, Francisco José Muñoz-Negrete, Alfonso Casado
Purpose: We investigated the early effects of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) on optic nerve head (ONH) morphology. Methods: All of the participants underwent applanation tonometry and enhanced depth imaging by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography immediately before injection, and within 5 and 30 minutes after IAI. Changes in the anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth, prelaminar tissue thickness (PTT), optic cup width, optic cup depth, and Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) were assessed...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Richard Gale, Jean-Francois Korobelnik, Yit Yang, Tien Y Wong
PURPOSE: This retrospective review examined visual acuity (VA) in subjects with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and identified early and delayed response to ranibizumab. PROCEDURES: MARINA, ANCHOR, HARBOR, and CATT published data were examined for response with monthly versus individualized dosing and predictors of early versus delayed response. RESULTS: Data were available for 1,631 subjects; 18-29% were early gainers and 15-16% were delayed gainers...
October 27, 2016: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
Peter Sandner, Peter Berger, Christoph Zenzmaier
Fibrotic diseases cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and their incidence increases with age. Despite intense research and development efforts, effective and well-tolerated antifibrotic treatments are scarce. Transforming growth factor-β signaling, which is widely considered the most important profibrotic factor, causes a pro-oxidant shift in redox homeostasis and a concomitant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell and organ function in whole-body hemostasis...
October 27, 2016: Gerontology
Karla A Mark, Kathleen J Dumas, Dipa Bhaumik, Birgit Schilling, Sonnet Davis, Tal Ronnen Oron, Dylan J Sorensen, Mark Lucanic, Rachel B Brem, Simon Melov, Arvind Ramanathan, Bradford W Gibson, Gordon J Lithgow
Vitamin D has multiple roles, including the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis. Deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the major circulating form of vitamin D, is associated with an increased risk of age-related chronic diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cognitive impairment, and cancer. In this study, we utilized Caenorhabditis elegans to examine the mechanism by which vitamin D influences aging. We found that vitamin-D3-induced lifespan extension requires the stress response pathway genes skn-1, ire-1, and xbp-1...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Mylène Bilodeau-Mercure, Pascale Tremblay
OBJECTIVES: To explore age differences in speech production in relation to orofacial physiology. DESIGN: Cross-sectional quasi-experimental group study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Physically and cognitively healthy volunteers recruited from the community (N = 30), including 15 young (18-39) and 15 older (66-85) adults. MEASUREMENTS: Accuracy and speech rate were calculated during the production of sequences of syllables containing oral vowels, nasal vowels, or both...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Paola Sebastiani, Bharat Thyagarajan, Fangui Sun, Lawrence S Honig, Nicole Schupf, Stephanie Cosentino, Mary F Feitosa, Mary Wojczynski, Anne B Newman, Monty Montano, Thomas T Perls
OBJECTIVES: To determine reference values for laboratory tests in individuals aged 85 and older. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: International. PARTICIPANTS: Long Life Family Study (LLFS) participants (N~5,000, age: range 25-110, median 67, 45% male). MEASUREMENTS: Serum biomarkers were selected based on association with aging-related diseases and included complete blood count, lipids (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3, vitamin D epi-isomer, diabetes mellitus-related biomarkers (adiponectin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproduct), kidney disease-related biomarkers (albumin, creatinine, cystatin), endocrine biomarkers (dehydroepiandrosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin, testosterone), markers of inflammation (interleukin 6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide), ferritin, and transferrin...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Yannis M Paulus, Akrit Sodhi
Recent breakthroughs in our understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of retinal vascular disease have allowed us to specifically target pathological angiogenesis while minimizing damage to the neurosensory retina. This is perhaps best exemplified by the development of therapies targeting the potent angiogenic growth factor and vascular permeability mediator, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anti-VEGF therapies, initially introduced for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in patients with age-related macular degeneration, have also had a dramatic impact on the management of retinal vascular disease and are currently an indispensable component for the treatment of macular edema in patients with diabetic eye disease and retinal vein occlusions...
October 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Katarina Novak, Davorka Vrdoljak, Igor Jelaska, Josip Anđelo Borovac
BACKGROUND: The goal of this observational cohort study was to examine gender-specific differences in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), in-hospital complications and mortality. METHODS: A cohort of 1550 patients with the primary diagnosis of ACS were enrolled in the study over a period of 4 years. The in-hospital mortality and complications were analyzed as the main outcome measures. RESULTS: Women were significantly older compared to men (71 ± 11 years vs...
October 25, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Niamh A Merriman, Jan Ondřej, Alicia Rybicki, Eugenie Roudaia, Carol O'Sullivan, Fiona N Newell
Previous studies have reported an age-related decline in spatial abilities. However, little is known about whether the presence of other, task-irrelevant stimuli during learning further affects spatial cognition in older adults. Here we embedded virtual environments with moving crowds of virtual human pedestrians (Experiment 1) or objects (Experiment 2) whilst participants learned a route and landmarks embedded along that route. In subsequent test trials we presented clips from the learned route and measured spatial memory using three different tasks: a route direction task (i...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Research
Ana Coto-Montes, Jose A Boga, Dun X Tan, Russel J Reiter
Considering the increased speed at which the world population is aging, sarcopenia could become an epidemic in this century. This condition currently has no means of prevention or treatment. Melatonin is a highly effective and ubiquitously acting antioxidant and free radical scavenger that is normally produced in all organisms. This molecule has been implicated in a huge number of biological processes, from anticonvulsant properties in children to protective effects on the lung in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Neelima Bhargava, Vellasamy Shanmugaiah, Manav Saxena, Manish Sharma, Niroj Kumar Sethy, Sushil Kumar Singh, Karuppiah Balakrishnan, Kalpana Bhargava, Mainak Das
In vitro cell culture system for adult rod and cone photoreceptor (PR) is an effective and economical model for screening drug candidates against all kinds of age related retinal blindness. Interestingly, adult PR cells have a limited survival in the culture system, thus preventing full exploitation of this in vitro approach for drug screening applications. The limited survival of the adult PR cells in culture is due to their inherently high oxidative stress and photic injury. Mixed valence-state ceria nanoparticles have the ability to scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidative stress...
September 16, 2016: Biointerphases
Myriam Martin, Anna M Blom
Recognition and removal of apoptotic and necrotic cells must be efficient and highly controlled to avoid excessive inflammation and autoimmune responses to self. The complement system, a crucial part of innate immunity, plays an important role in this process. Thus, apoptotic and necrotic cells are recognized by complement initiators such as C1q, mannose binding lectin, ficolins, and properdin. This triggers complement activation and opsonization of cells with fragments of C3b, which enhances phagocytosis and thus ensures silent removal...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Enrico Girardi, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Laura Camoni, Patrizio Pezzotti, Giovanni Guaraldi, Adriana Ammassari, Andrea Antinori, Stefano Bonora, Cristina Mussini, Antonella Cingolani, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Silvia Adami, Luca Degli Esposti, Margherita Andretta
HIV disease has dramatically changed in the last two decades from a progressive, lethal disease to a chronic manageable condition. These changes are due to the availability of potent antiretroviral combination therapy, which also have the potential to contribute significantly to the control of the epidemic. Among persons living with HIV, incidence of immunosuppression-related opportunistic illnesses has clearly decreased, while an increase was observed in the prevalence of age-related noncommunicable comorbidities, including cardiovascular, metabolic, renal, bone and hepatic disease, due to chronic inflammatory state and to an overall aging of the population of persons with HIV...
October 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Yafeng Wang, Mingxu Wang, Xiaoqing Zhang, Qianyu Zhang, Jing Nie, Ming Zhang, Xiaohong Liu, Le Ma
Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR), 1...
October 22, 2016: Nutrients
Isabell Prager, Ina Patties, Katrin Himmelbach, Eva Kendzia, Felicitas Merz, Klaus Müller, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Annegret Glasow
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy plays an essential role in the treatment of brain tumors, but neurocognitive deficits remain a significant risk, especially in pediatric patients. In recent trials, hippocampal sparing techniques are applied to reduce these adverse effects. Here, we investigate dose-dependent effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on juvenile hippocampal neurogenesis. Additionally, we evaluate the radioprotective potential of resveratrol, a plant polyphenol recognized for its bifunctional tumor-preventive and anticancer effects...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Xianjuan Kou, Xingran Liu, Xianbing Chen, Jie Li, Xiaoqi Yang, Jingjing Fan, Yi Yang, Ning Chen
The underlying molecular mechanisms for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not fully understood. Currently, growing evidences have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in aging and aging-related diseases. The up-regulation of miR-34a has been reported to be associated with aging-related diseases, and thus it should be a promising therapeutic target. Ampelopsin, also called dihydromyricetin (DHM), a natural flavonoid from Chinese herb Ampelopsis grossedentata, has been reported to possess multiple pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-cancer functions...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Martin Larsson, Grazyna Lietzau, David Nathanson, Claes-Göran Östenson, Carina Mallard, Maria E Johansson, Thomas Nyström, Cesare Patrone, Vladimer Darsalia
Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients often develop early cognitive and sensorimotor impairments. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind these problems are largely unknown. Recent studies demonstrate that dysfunctional γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons are involved in age-related cognitive decline. We hypothesized that similar, but earlier dysfunction is taking place under T2D in the neocortex and striatum (two brain areas important for cognition and sensorimotor functions). We also hypothesized that the T2D-induced effects are pharmacologically reversible by anti-diabetic drugs targeting the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R)...
October 25, 2016: Bioscience Reports
Jakob Agergaard, Jacob Bulow, Jacob K Jensen, Søren Reitelseder, Micah J Drummond, Peter Schjerling, Thomas Scheike, Anja Serena, Lars Holm
INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated whether well-tolerated light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects skeletal muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and anabolic intracellular signaling as a way to counteract age-related loss of muscle mass. METHODS: Untrained healthy men (age: +65 yrs) were subjected to 13 hours supine rest. After 21/2 hours of rest, unilateral LL-RE was conducted consisting of leg extensions (10 sets, 36 repetitions) at 16% 1RM. Subsequently, the subjects were randomized to oral intake of PULSE (4g whey protein/hour; N=10), BOLUS (28g whey protein at 0 hours and 12g whey protein at 7 hours post-exercise; N=10) or placebo (4g maltodextrin/hour; N=10)...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
I Rostás, J Tenk, A Mikó, N Füredi, S Soós, M Solymár, A Lengyel, M Székely, B Gaszner, D Feller, E Pétervári, M Balaskó
Leptin is a key catabolic regulator of food intake (FI) and energy expenditure. Both aging and obesity have been shown to induce leptin-resistance. The present study aimed to analyze age-related changes in the anorexigenic and hypermetabolic responsiveness to acute intracerebroventricular leptin administration in different age-groups of normally fed male Wistar rats (adult and old rats from 3 to 24months of age, NF3 to NF24, respectively). The expressions of the long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and inhibitory SOCS3 genes were also assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
October 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Akihiko Hasegawa, Tomo Yonezawa, Noboru Taniguchi, Koji Otabe, Yukio Akasaki, Tetsuya Matsukawa, Masahiko Saito, Masashi Neo, Lihua Y Marmorstein, Martin K Lotz
OBJECTIVES: The EFEMP1 gene encoding fibulin-3 is specifically expressed in the superficial zone of articular cartilage. This study examined fibulin-3 expression patterns in joint aging and osteoarthritis (OA) and the role of fibulin-3 in OA pathogenesis. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on normal and OA human and mouse knee cartilage. Experimental OA was induced in wild type and fibulin-3(-/-) mice and OA severity was evaluated by histological scoring...
October 25, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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