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Melanie L Chang, April Nowell
For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Wesam Saleh A Al Attar, Najeebullah Soomro, Peter J Sinclair, Evangelos Pappas, Ross H Sanders
BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries are among the most common non-contact injuries in sports. The Nordic hamstring (NH) exercise has been shown to decrease risk by increasing eccentric hamstring strength. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of the injury prevention programs that included the NH exercise on reducing hamstring injury rates while factoring in athlete workload. METHODS: Two researchers independently searched for eligible studies using the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via OvidSP, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) via OvidSP, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and AusSportMed, from inception to December 2015...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
Asghar Tofighi, Minoo Shirpoor, M H Khadem Ansari, Alireza Shirpoor, Mitra Zerehpoosh
OBJECTIVE: Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) consumption increases incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in athletes and mechanisms underlying those abnormalities continue to be investigated. This study examines whether nandrolone consumption induced cardiac and coronary artery wall abnormalities via oxidative stress. It was also designed to determine whether enforced swimming augmented possible cardiotoxic effects of nandrolone in rat heart. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control, nandrolone, and nandrolone with enforced swimming...
October 12, 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Andreas Reinke, Michael Behr, Alexander Preuss, Jimmy Villard, Bernhard Meyer, Florian Ringel
OBJECT: Total disc replacement (TDR) is typically indicated in young patients with a cervical soft disc herniation. To date, there are few data on the activity level of patients after cervical TDR; in particular, from young patients who are expected to have a high activity level with frequent exercising. The expectation is that returning to active sports after cervical TDR is not restricted. METHODS: Fifty patients were treated with a monosegmental cervical TDR at our department between May 2006 and March 2012...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
L Maïmoun, F Paris, O Coste, C Sultan
Participation in recreational physical activity is widely acknowledged to provide significant health benefits. Conversely, intense training imposes several constraints, such as intermittent or chronic metabolic and psychogenic training stressors and maintenance of very low body fat to maximize performance. Adolescent and adult athletic women are therefore at risk of overtraining and/or poor dietary intake, which may have several consequences for endocrine function particularly on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
October 14, 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
David A Shearer, William Sparkes, Jonny Northeast, Daniel J Cunningham, Christian J Cook, Liam P Kilduff
OBJECTIVES: Biochemical (e.g. creatine kinase (CK)) and neuromuscular (e.g. peak power output (PPO)) markers of recovery are expensive and require specialist equipment. Perceptual measures are an effective alternative, yet most validated scales are too long for daily use. DESIGN: This study utilises a longitudinal multi-level design to test an adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+), with four extra items and a 100mm visual analogue scale to measure recovery. METHODS: Elite under-21 academy soccer players (N=11) were monitored across five games with data (BAM+, CK and PPO) collected for each game at 24h pre, 24h and 48h post-match...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Carlos M Mery, Keila N Lopez, Silvana Molossi, S Kristen Sexson-Tejtel, Rajesh Krishnamurthy, E Dean McKenzie, Charles D Fraser, Scott B Cantor
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to use decision analysis to evaluate the impact of varying uncertainties on the outcomes of patients with anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery. METHODS: Two separate decision analysis models were created: one for anomalous left coronary artery (ALCA) and one for anomalous right coronary artery (ARCA). Three strategies were compared: observation, exercise restriction, and surgery. Probabilities and health utilities were estimated on the basis of existing literature...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Ljiljana S Sulovic, Meho Mahmutovic, Snezana Lazic, Nenad Sulovic
: Aims "Athlete's heart" is a cardiac adaptation to long-term intensive training. The aims of this study were to show the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in teenagers who participate in sports, to define the different types of cardiac re-modelling, and to differentiate between physiological and pathological hypertrophy. METHOD: Echocardiographic measurements were obtained by M-mode, two dimensional, and Doppler techniques of participants from sports and control groups...
October 18, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Paul Comfort, Robert Williams, Timothy J Suchomel, Jason P Lake
The aim of this study was to compare load-absorption force-time characteristics of the clean from the knee (CK), power clean from the knee (PCK) and clean pull from the knee (CPK). Ten collegiate athletes (age 27.5 ± 4.2 years; height 180.4 ± 6.7 cm; mass 84.4 ± 7.8 kg), performed three repetitions each of the CK, PCK and CPK with 90% of their 1RM power clean on a force platform. The CK load-absorption duration (0.95 ± 0.35 s) was significantly longer compared to the CPK (0.44 ± 0.15 s; p < 0.001, d = 2...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Debbie Van Biesen, Florentina Hettinga, Katina McCulloch, Yves C Vanlandewijck
PURPOSE: To understand how athletes invest their energy over a race, differences in pacing ability between athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II) were explored using a novel field test. METHODS: Well-trained runners (n=67) participated in this study, including 34 runners with II (age = 24.4 ± 4.5 years; IQ = 63.1 ± 7.7) and 33 runners without II (age = 31.4 ± 11.2 years). The ability to perform at a pre-planned submaximal pace was assessed. Two 400m running trials were performed on an athletics track, with an individually standardized velocity...
October 5, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Harry T Mai, Robert J Burgmeier, Sean M Mitchell, Andrew C Hecht, Joseph C Maroon, Gordon W Nuber, Wellington K Hsu
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To determine if the level of a cervical disc herniation (CDH) procedure will uniquely impact performance-based outcomes in elite athletes of the National Football League (NFL). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Comparative assessments of post-surgical outcomes in NFL athletes with CDH at different levels are unknown. Further, the surgical decision making for these types of injuries in professional football athletes remains controversial...
September 30, 2016: Spine
Alicia Pike, Riana R Pryor, Stephanie M Mazerolle, Rebecca Stearns, Douglas J Casa
CONTEXT:  Availability of athletic trainer (AT) services in US secondary schools has recently been reported to be as high as 70%, but this only describes the public sector. The extent of AT coverage in private secondary school settings has yet to be investigated and may differ from the public secondary school setting for several reasons, including differences in funding sources. OBJECTIVE:  To determine the level of AT services in US private secondary schools and identify the reasons why some schools did not employ ATs...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
E K Greska, N Cortes, S I Ringleb, J A Onate, B L Van Lunen
Previous studies have shown conflicting information regarding leg dominance as an etiological factor for the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. It remains unclear if lower extremity neuromechanical limb asymmetries exist in experienced athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower extremity neuromechanical effects of leg dominance in female collegiate soccer athletes during an unanticipated side-step cutting task. Twenty female collegiate soccer players completed an unanticipated side-step cutting task, using their dominant and non-dominant legs...
October 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
E D'Elia, P Ferrero, C Vittori, A Calabrese, V Duino, S Perlini, M Senni
Athletes may have electrocardiogram (ECG) repolarization abnormalities during stress test suggestive for ischemia in the absence of ischemic coronary artery disease, often in a setting of myocardial septum hypertrophy. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) might be altered in these athletes compared to hypertensive patients with the same degree of septal thickness. About 735 consecutive athletes were screened for mandatory assessment of fitness to participate in competitive sports. At the stress test, 23 (19 M, 4 F) were found to have ECG repolarization abnormalities suggestive for ischemia in the presence of normal coronary vessels...
October 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Elizabeth Wellsandt, Ashutosh Khandha, Kurt Manal, Michael J Axe, Thomas S Buchanan, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury results in altered knee joint mechanics which frequently continue even after ACL reconstruction. The persistence of altered mechanical loading of the knee is of concern due to its likely role in the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA). Joint contact forces are associated with post-traumatic OA development, but evaluation of factors influencing the magnitude of contact forces after ACL injury is needed to advance current strategies aimed at preventing post-traumatic OA...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Myosotis Massidda, Valeria Bachis, Laura Corrias, Francesco Piras, Marco Scorcu, Claudia Culigioni, Daniele Masala, Carla M Calò
BACKGROUND: The ACTN3 gene may influence performance in team sports, in which sprint action and high-speed movements, regulated by the anaerobic energy system, are crucial to the ultimate success of a match. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism and elite team sport athletic status in Italian male athletes. METHODS: We compared the genotype and allele frequency of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism between team sport athletes (n = 75), endurance athletes (n = 40), sprint/power athletes (n = 64), and non-athletic healthy controls (n = 192) from Italy...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Karim Chamari, Johnny Padulo
The purpose of this Current Opinion article is to focus on the appropriate use of the terms 'aerobic'- and 'anaerobic'-exercise in sports medicine, in order to try to unify their use across coaches/athletes and sport scientists. Despite the high quality of most of the investigations, the terms aerobic/anaerobic continue to be used inappropriately by some researchers in exercise science. Until late 2014, for instance, 14,883 and 6,136 articles were cited in PubMed, in the field of 'exercise science', using the words 'aerobic' or 'anaerobic', respectively...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall, David Bishop, Greg Shaw, Simon Green
A large proportion of empirical research and reviews investigating the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation have focused predominately on performance outcomes and only speculate about underlying mechanisms responsible for any benefit. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the influence of NaHCO3 supplementation on mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle fatigue as it translates directly to exercise performance. Mechanistic links between skeletal muscle fatigue, proton accumulation (or metabolic acidosis) and NaHCO3 supplementation have been identified to provide a more targeted, evidence-based approach to direct future research, as well as provide practitioners with a contemporary perspective on the potential applications and limitations of this supplement...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Sabina Cauci, Cinzia Buligan, Micaela Marangone, Maria Pia Francescato
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. We investigated oxidative stress in sportswomen of different disciplines according to combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and lifestyle/alimentary habits. METHODS: Italian sportswomen (n = 144; mean age 23.4 ± 4.2 years; body mass index 21.2 ± 2.2 kg m(-2); sport activity 9.2 ± 4.1 h week(-1)) were analyzed; 48 % were volleyball players, 12.5 % soccer players, 10.4 % track-and-field sports, and followed by other disciplines' athletes...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
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