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R Leistner, A Bloch, P Gastmeier, F Schwab
In a previous study, we demonstrated prolonged length of hospital stay in cases of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive K. pneumoniae bacteremia compared to bacteremia cases due to E. coli (ESBL-positive and -negative) and ESBL-negative K. pneumoniae. The overall mortality was significantly higher in bacteremia cases resulting from ESBL-positive pathogens but also in K. pneumoniae cases disregarding ESBL-production. In order to examine whether pathogen species rather than multidrug resistance might affect mortality risk, we reanalyzed our dataset that includes 1...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Ana Laura Miranda-Romero, Jesus Silva-Sanchez, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Humberto Barrios, Alejandro Sánchez-Pérez, Fernando Reyna-Flores
We investigated the molecular characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-PEc) isolates from two hospitals and community settings in Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. Between 2011 and 2014, thirty-seven ESBL-PEc isolates were collected. The major encoded ESBL was the blaCTX-M-15 gene (97%); followed by 13.5% of the blaSHV-12 gene, and 5.5% encoded the blaTLA-1 gene. The PMQR gene aac(6´)-Ib-cr was detected in 97% of the isolates and the qnrB gene, in one isolate. The ESBL-PEc isolates corresponded to phylogenetic group B2, ST131...
October 7, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Anthony A Iwuafor, Folasade T Ogunsola, Rita O Oladele, Oyin O Oduyebo, Ibironke Desalu, Chukwudi C Egwuatu, Agwu U Nnachi, Comfort N Akujobi, Ita O Ita, Godwin I Ogban
BACKGROUND: Infections are common complications in critically ill patients with associated significant morbidity and mortality. AIM: This study determined the prevalence, risk factors, clinical outcome and microbiological profile of hospital-acquired infections in the intensive care unit of a Nigerian tertiary hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study, patients were recruited and followed up between September 2011 and July 2012 until they were either discharged from the ICU or died...
2016: PloS One
C C H Wielders, A H A M van Hoek, P D Hengeveld, C Veenman, C M Dierikx, T P Zomer, L A M Smit, W van der Hoek, D J Heederik, S C de Greeff, C B M Maassen, E van Duijkeren
OBJECTIVES: In the Netherlands there is an ongoing debate regarding environmental health risks of livestock farming for neighbouring residents. This explorative study aims to determine the prevalence of carriage of ESBL/pAmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL/pAmpC-E) in the general population living in a livestock-dense area, and to study associations between determinants, including exposure through contact with animals and the environment, and human carriage of ESBL/pAmpC-E. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 2,432 adults (aged 20-72 years) in twelve temporary research centres in the south of the Netherlands, consisting of a questionnaire and analysis of a faecal sample to assess carriage of ESBL/pAmpC-E...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Kang Liao, Yili Chen, Menghe Wang, Penghao Guo, Qiwen Yang, Yuxing Ni, Yunsong Yu, Bijie Hu, Ziyong Sun, Wenxiang Huang, Yong Wang, Anhua Wu, Xianju Feng, Yanping Luo, Zhidong Hu, Yunzhuo Chu, Shulan Chen, Bin Cao, Jianrong Su, Bingdong Gui, Qiong Duan, Shufang Zhang, Haifeng Shao, Haishen Kong, Yingchun Xu
BACKGROUND: Recently, the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms such as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has raised considerable concern regarding the appropriate treatment of intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). In this study, we investigated the molecular characteristics of ESBL among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae causing IAIs and their pattern of antimicrobial resistance, which can provide useful information about the epidemiology and risk factors associated with these infections...
October 7, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
M Muzslay, G Moore, N Alhussaini, A P R Wilson
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the healthcare setting and in the community despite established infection control guidelines indicates that these microorganisms may possess survival strategies that allow them to persist in the environment. AIMS: To determine the extent and variation in endemic ESBL-carrying species in different ward environments, and to investigate the potential for cephalosporin resistance to be transferred from environmental isolates to human pathogens...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
T Koiava, D Gonçalves, J Palmeira, K Arobelidze, M Tediashvili, L Akhvlediani, H Ferreira
Research describing the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant microbes is vital to the proactive development of new antimicrobial agents. In the last years, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have emerged worldwide and have replaced classical TEM and SHV-type ESBLs in many countries. CTX-M-15 is currently the most frequent, with a pandemic distribution, and its rapid spread is facilitated by incorporation of resistance genes in mobile genetic elements. The ESBL is efficacious in Gram-negative bacteria and thus closely associated with nosocomial environments, often colonizing the intestines, particularly in older and dependent patients...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Bassetti Matteo, Jesús Rodríguez Baño
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Yasutaka Mizuno, Yuri Miura, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: International travel is considered a risk for colonisation with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). To our knowledge, no studies to date have focused on ESBL-PE colonisation among long-termbusiness travellers. Therefore this study aimed to clarify the characteristics associated with ESBL-PE colonisation in Japanese long-term business travellers. METHODS: Japanese business travellers planning to stay abroad for ≥ 6 months were enrolled...
October 18, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Jeremiah Seni, Enock Sweya, Amri Mabewa, Stephen E Mshana, Japhet M Gilyoma
BACKGROUND: Secondary peritonitis is a common surgical emergence with deadly outcomes when not timely and promptly intervened. The emergence of Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria (ESBL) poses treatment challenge at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC); hence a need to evaluate the magnitude of ESBL so as to guide specific therapy. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at BMC from May 2014 to April 2015 involving patients with secondary peritonitis...
October 21, 2016: BMC Emergency Medicine
Piers Mook, Jacquelyn McCormick, Manpreet Bains, Lauren A Cowley, Marie A Chattaway, Claire Jenkins, Amy Mikhail, Gwenda Hughes, Richard Elson, Martin Day, Rohini Manuel, Jayshree Dave, Nigel Field, Gauri Godbole, Timothy Dallman, Paul Crook
In England in 2015, Shigella sonnei isolates from men who have sex with men produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and exhibited macrolide resistance. Whole-genome sequencing showed a close relationship among the isolates, which harbored a plasmid that was previously identified in a shigellosis outbreak among this population but has acquired a mobile element.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yasufumi Matsumura, Johann D D Pitout, Ryota Gomi, Tomonari Matsuda, Taro Noguchi, Masaki Yamamoto, Gisele Peirano, Rebekah DeVinney, Patricia A Bradford, Mary R Motyl, Michio Tanaka, Miki Nagao, Shunji Takakura, Satoshi Ichiyama
The Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 C2/H30Rx clade with the blaCTX-M-15 gene had been most responsible for the global dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli. ST131 C1/H30R with blaCTX-M-27 emerged among ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan during the late 2000s. To investigate the possible expansion of a single clade, we performed whole-genome sequencing for 43 Japan and 10 global ST131 isolates with blaCTX-M-27 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 13), and others (n = 8)...
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Matteo Bassetti, Alessia Carnelutti, Maddalena Peghin
The isolation of multi-drug-resistant gram-negative (MDRGN) pathogens has progressively increased worldwide and has been associated with important delays in the prescription of an adequate antibiotic treatment, resulting in increased mortality rates. Patient's stratification for MDRGN infections to optimize the prescription of an adequate empiric antimicrobial regimen is crucial. Areas covered: This article covers MDRGN epidemiology, with a specific focus on risk factors for harbouring infections sustained by extended-spectrum-Beta-lactamase (ESBL), carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriacae (CRE), MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MDR Acinetobacter baumanii...
October 21, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Richard Aschbacher, Elisabetta Pagani, Massimo Confalonieri, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Francesco Luzzaro, Pier Giorgio Montanera, Aurora Piazza, Laura Pagani
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing worldwide, in both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Italy has one of the highest prevalence of MDR bacteria in European countries, especially with regard to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). METHOD: Review of studies on colonization by MDR bacteria from Italian LTCFs, risk factors for colonization and molecular characteristics of surveillance and clinical isolates, compared with other European countries...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Po-Liang Lu, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Jun-En Lin, Jun-Wei Huang, Tsung-Ying Yang, Lin Lin, Sung-Pin Tseng
Although fosfomycin is a treatment option for infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, fosfomycin resistance has been documented. To our knowledge, fosfomycin resistance mechanisms in Klebsiella pneumoniae have not been systematically investigated. A total of 108 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates collected from Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan, from August 2012 to May 2013 were analysed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed 64 pulsotypes and six non-typeable isolates, indicating high genetic diversity...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Matti Uhari
Enterobacteriaceae can produce β-lactamases that are capable of hydrolysing extended-spectrum cephalosporins, namely cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime and ceftatzidime. Today there are more than 1,600 different known β-lactamases (1) and, although the first reports of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were from Germany and England, ESBL producing bacteria have been particularly common in France (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 20, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
C O'Connor, M G Kiernan, C Finnegan, J Powell, L Power, N H O'Connell, C P Dunne
BACKGROUND: The Mid-West of Ireland has higher than average national rates of invasive extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) bloodstream infections and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), with increasing numbers of ESBL isolates detected in community-dwelling patients. AIMS: To conduct a point prevalence study in a convenience sample of the Mid-West population with the aim of determining the extent of ESBL colonisation. METHODS: Utilising anonymised community stool samples that had completed routine analysis, we conducted a point prevalence study over a 4-week period on all samples that met defined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
September 24, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Michael M Petrov, Atanaska Petrova, Irina Stanimirova, Marina Mircheva-Topalova, Lalka Koycheva, Rayna Velcheva, Mariana Stoycheva-Vartigova, Ralitsa Raycheva, Galina Asseva, Petar Petrov, Velichka Kardjeva, Marianna Murdjeva
The aim of this work is to study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella and Shigella at the largest Bulgarian hospital-University Hospital "St. George," Plovdiv-for the period 2009-2013. Two hundred ninety strains were in vitro tested for resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was demonstrated by a variety of specialized tests. For comparison, a collection of 28 strains submitted by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) "Enteric Infections" at the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD), Sofia, was also tested for the production of ESBLs...
October 19, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
James Knox, Claire Gregory, Louise Prendergast, Chandrika Perera, Jennifer Robson, Lynette Waring
Stool specimens spiked with a panel of 46 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and 59 non-carbapenemase producers were used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 4 testing algorithms for the detection of intestinal carriage of CPE: (1) culture on Brilliance ESBL agar followed by the Carba NP test; (2) Brilliance ESBL followed by the Carba NP test, plus chromID OXA-48 agar with no Carba NP test; (3) chromID CARBA agar followed by the Carba NP test; (4) chromID CARBA followed by the Carba NP test, plus chromID OXA-48 with no Carba NP test...
September 30, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Hemlata Hemlata, Arif Tasleem Jan, Archana Tiwari
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem exacerbated due to selective pressure of antimicrobial agents, spontaneous mutation, recombination and horizontal gene transfer. Of the different mechanisms that led to spread of resistance, one notorious phenomenon is the generation of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) preferably TEM, SHV, OXA and CTX-M. Their production and frequent mobilization through horizontal gene transfer, made bacteria to exhibit resistance against a broad range of antibiotics. Resilient development of resistance among bacteria hampers available treatment options against different infections in the health care system...
October 14, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
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