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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817561/comparing-efficacies-of-moxifloxacin-levofloxacin-and-gatifloxacin-in-tuberculosis-granulomas-using-a-multi-scale-systems-pharmacology-approach
#1
Elsje Pienaar, Jansy Sarathy, Brendan Prideaux, Jillian Dietzold, Véronique Dartois, Denise E Kirschner, Jennifer J Linderman
Granulomas are complex lung lesions that are the hallmark of tuberculosis (TB). Understanding antibiotic dynamics within lung granulomas will be vital to improving and shortening the long course of TB treatment. Three fluoroquinolones (FQs) are commonly prescribed as part of multi-drug resistant TB therapy: moxifloxacin (MXF), levofloxacin (LVX) or gatifloxacin (GFX). To date, insufficient data are available to support selection of one FQ over another, or to show that these drugs are clinically equivalent. To predict the efficacy of MXF, LVX and GFX at a single granuloma level, we integrate computational modeling with experimental datasets into a single mechanistic framework, GranSim...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817531/bias-confounding-and-interaction-lions-and-tigers-and-bears-oh-my
#2
Thomas R Vetter, Edward J Mascha
Epidemiologists seek to make a valid inference about the causal effect between an exposure and a disease in a specific population, using representative sample data from a specific population. Clinical researchers likewise seek to make a valid inference about the association between an intervention and outcome(s) in a specific population, based upon their randomly collected, representative sample data. Both do so by using the available data about the sample variable to make a valid estimate about its corresponding or underlying, but unknown population parameter...
September 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817526/the-anesthesiologist-s-dream-wireless-vital-sign-monitoring
#3
Robert H Thiele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817434/everolimus-is-associated-with-less-weight-gain-than-tacrolimus-2-years-following-liver-transplantation-results-of-a-randomized-multicenter-study
#4
Michael Charlton, Mary Rinella, Dharmesh Patel, Kevin McCague, Julie Heimbach, Kymberly Watt
BACKGROUND: Weight gain early after transplant is a risk factor for posttransplant metabolic syndrome (PTMS), cardiovascular events, and renal insufficiency. The impact of mTOR inhibition on posttransplant weight gain and the development of PTMS components postliver transplantation were examined in a randomized, controlled study. METHODS: Following a run-in period, patients (N = 719) were randomized at 30±5 days posttransplant in a 1:1:1 ratio to 3 treatment groups: (i) everolimus (EVR) + reduced tacrolimus (TAC)(n=245); (ii) TAC control (n=243) or (iii) TAC elimination (n=231)...
August 15, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817358/evaluation-of-gastric-conduit-perfusion-during-esophagectomy-with-indocyanine-green-fluorescence-imaging
#5
Francisco Schlottmann, Marco G Patti
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage is a determining factor of morbidity and mortality after an esophagectomy. An adequate blood supply of the gastric conduit is vital to prevent this complication. We aimed to determine the feasibility and usefulness of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging to evaluate the gastric conduit perfusion during an esophagectomy. METHODS: Patients with distal esophageal cancer or esophagogastric junction cancer scheduled for esophagectomy were enrolled in this study...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817335/killed-by-police-validity-of-media-based-data-and-misclassification-of-death-certificates-in-massachusetts-2004-2016
#6
Justin M Feldman, Sofia Gruskin, Brent A Coull, Nancy Krieger
OBJECTIVES: To assess the validity of demographic data reported in news media-based data sets for persons killed by police in Massachusetts (2004-2016) and to evaluate misclassification of these deaths in vital statistics mortality data. METHODS: We identified 84 deaths resulting from police intervention in 4 news media-based data sources (WGBH News, Fatal Encounters, The Guardian, and The Washington Post) and, via record linkage, conducted matched-pair analyses with the Massachusetts mortality data...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817329/assessing-years-of-life-lost-versus-number-of-deaths-in-the-united-states-1995-2015
#7
Glen B Taksler, Michael B Rothberg
OBJECTIVES: To assess years of life lost to each cause of death in the United States between 1995 and 2015, and compare it with the number of deaths. METHODS: We used Vital Statistics mortality data and defined "life-years lost" as remaining life expectancy for each decedent's age, sex, and race. We calculated the share of life-years lost to each cause of death in each year, and examined reasons for changes. RESULTS: In 2015, heart disease caused the most deaths, but cancer caused 23% more life-years lost...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817321/community-health-worker-impact-on-chronic-disease-outcomes-within-primary-care-examined-using-electronic-health-records
#8
Maia Ingram, Kevin Doubleday, Melanie L Bell, Abby Lohr, Lucy Murrieta, Maria Velasco, John Blackburn, Samantha Sabo, Jill Guernsey de Zapien, Scott C Carvajal
OBJECTIVES: To investigate community health worker (CHW) effects on chronic disease outcomes using electronic health records (EHRs). METHODS: We examined EHRs of 32 147 patients at risk for chronic disease during 2012 to 2015. Variables included contact with clinic-based CHWs, vitals, and laboratory tests. We estimated a mixed model for all outcomes. RESULTS: Within-group findings showed statistically significant improvements in chronic disease indicators after exposure to CHWs...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817258/synthesis-of-complex-glycolates-by-enantioconvergent-addition-reactions
#9
Samuel L Bartlett, Jeffrey S Johnson
The unique role that stereochemistry plays in molecular recognition events continues to provide a driving force for synthesizing organic compounds in enantioenriched form. The tendency of enantioenriched organic compounds to revert to an entropically favored racemic state in the presence of viable racemization pathways (e.g., the enolization of stereogenic carbonyl derivatives) can sometimes interfere with this objective; however, beginning with Noyori's foundational disclosure of a dynamic kinetic transfer hydrogenation, the ability to channel racemic, configurationally labile starting materials through stereoconvergent reaction pathways has been recognized as a powerful strategy in asymmetric synthesis...
August 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817202/perinatal-mortality-in-japanese-women-diagnosed-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Mamoru Morikawa, Takashi Sugiyama, Norimasa Sagawa, Yuji Hiramatsu, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Hiromi Hamada, Takashi Kameda, Emiko Hara, Shigeru Toda, Hisanori Minakami
AIMS: The objective of this study was to determine how many pregnant Japanese women with diabetes mellitus (DM)/gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) experience perinatal mortality in the presence of fetal anomalies. METHODS: Our investigation included data from 205 secondary/tertiary obstetric facilities located widely in Japan. The Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Vital Statistics of Japan was used for comparison. RESULTS: Of 237 941 women giving birth at 205 hospitals, 1796 (0...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817163/provider-initiated-patient-satisfaction-reporting-yields-improved-physician-ratings-relative-to-online-rating-websites
#11
Benjamin F Ricciardi, Brad S Waddell, Scott R Nodzo, Jeffrey Lange, Allina A Nocon, Spencer Amundsen, T David Tarity, Alexander S McLawhorn
Recently, providers have begun to publicly report the results of patient satisfaction surveys from their practices. However, these outcomes have never been compared with the findings of commercial online physician rating websites. The goals of the current study were to (1) compare overall patient satisfaction ratings for orthopedic surgeons derived from provider-based third-party surveys with existing commercial physician rating websites and (2) determine the association between patient ratings and provider characteristics...
August 17, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817100/modulatory-effects-of-exogenously-applied-polyamines-on-postharvest-physiology-antioxidant-system-and-shelf-life-of-fruits-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Sunil Sharma, Sunil Pareek, Narashans Alok Sagar, Daniel Valero, Maria Serrano
Polyamines (PAs) are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT), spermine (SPE), and spermidine (SPD) are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-ethylene nature is being exploited to enhance the shelf life when exogenously applied on fruits...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816642/proteomic-analysis-of-the-human-olfactory-bulb
#13
Manjunath Dammalli, Gourav Dey, Anil K Madugundu, Manish Kumar, Benvil Rodrigues, Harsha Gowda, Bychapur Gowrishankar Siddaiah, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad
The importance of olfaction to human health and disease is often underappreciated. Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in association with a host of common complex diseases, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. For health, olfaction or the sense of smell is also important for most mammals, for optimal engagement with their environment. Indeed, animals have developed sophisticated olfactory systems to detect and interpret the rich information presented to them to assist in day-to-day activities such as locating food sources, differentiating food from poisons, identifying mates, promoting reproduction, avoiding predators, and averting death...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816509/shp465-mixed-amphetamine-salts-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#14
Matthew Brams, Ann C Childress, Michael Greenbaum, Ming Yu, Brian Yan, Margo Jaffee, Brigitte Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of SHP465 mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind dose-optimization study enrolled children and adolescents (6-17 years) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision ADHD criteria and having baseline ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total scores ≥28...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816429/smart-cellulose-nanofluids-produced-by-tunable-hydrophobic-association-of-polymer-grafted-cellulose-nanocrystals
#15
Yea Ram Lee, Daehwan Park, Sang Koo Choi, Miju Kim, Heung Soo Baek, Jin Nam, Chan Bok Chung, Chinedum O Osuji, Jin Woong Kim
Cellulose fibrils, unique plant-derived semi-crystalline nanomaterials with exceptional mechanical properties, have significant potential for rheology modification of complex fluids due to their ability to form a physically associated semi-flexible fibrillary network. Here, we report new associative cellulose nanocrystals (ACNCs) with stress-responsive rheological behaviors in an aqueous solution. The surface-mediated living radical polymerization was employed to graft poly (stearyl methacrylate-co-2-methacryloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) brushes onto the nanofibrils, and then 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation was conducted to produce nanoscale ACNCs in the aqueous solution...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816340/coagulation-factor-xii-regulates-inflammatory-responses-in-human-lungs
#16
Rosanna Hess, Lukasz Wujak, Christina Hesse, Katherina Sewald, Danny Jonigk, Gregor Warnecke, Hans-Gerd Fieguth, Steven de Maat, Coen Maas, Francesco Bonella, Klaus T Preissner, Benjamin Weiss, Liliana Schaefer, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Philipp Markart, Malgorzata Wygrecka
Increased procoagulant activity in the alveolar compartment and uncontrolled inflammation are hallmarks of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we investigated whether the contact phase system of coagulation is activated and may regulate inflammatory responses in human lungs. Components of the contact phase system were characterized in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from 54 ARDS patients and 43 controls, and their impact on cytokine/chemokine expression in human precision cut lung slices (PCLS) was assessed by a PCR array...
August 17, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816293/-effects-of-bioactive-glass-on-reducing-the-hypersensitivity-after-full-crown-preparation
#17
H Li, Y H Liu, Z Q Luo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the 45S5 bioactive glass on the reduction of hypersensitivity of teeth prepared for full coverage crowns. METHODS: In the study, 31 prepared abutment teeth with vital pulp from 18 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. The patients were informed consent and recruited into the study. This was a before and after self-control, single blind clinical trial. The severity of tooth hypersensitivity at baseline was evaluated, after application of the placebo, which was the powder of zinc oxide, and after application of the 45S5 bioactive glass on the same tooth...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816229/plasma-expression-level-of-mirna-let-7-is-positively-correlated-with-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-patients-with-essential-hypertension
#18
Y-Q Huang, C Huang, J-Y Chen, J Li, Y-Q Feng
MicroRNAs (miRNA, miR) play vital part in the pathophysiology of arterial remodeling in hypertension patients, and are increasingly becoming novel biomarkers in cardiovascular disease. The study was designed to evaluate the correlation between let-7 expression level and subclinical atherosclerosis in untreated patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension. We assessed 240 participants including 60 healthy volunteers with normal carotid intima-media thickness (nCIMT), 60 healthy volunteers with increased CIMT (iCIMT), 60 hypertension patients with nCIMT and 60 hypertension patients with iCIMT...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816194/risk-factors-associated-with-dental-implant-failure-a-study-of-302-implants-placed-in-a-regional-center
#19
Mehmet Oztel, Wojciech M Bilski, Arthur Bilski
AIM: The aim of this research is to determine which risk factors are associated with dental implant failure and survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data pertaining to patients who received one or more dental implants from 2011 to 2013 in a regional center were retrospectively reviewed. This included a total of 302 Biomet 3i NanoTite Tapered Certain implants placed in 177 patients. All patients were followed up until the end of 2015. RESULTS: This study found an overall success rate of 95%...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816043/electronic-muscles-and-skins-a-review-of-soft-sensors-and-actuators
#20
Dustin Chen, Qibing Pei
This article reviews several classes of compliant materials that can be utilized to fabricate electronic muscles and skins. Different classes of materials range from compliant conductors, semiconductors, to dielectrics, all of which play a vital and cohesive role in the development of next generation electronics. This paper covers recent advances in the development of new materials, as well as the engineering of well-characterized materials for the repurposing in applications of flexible and stretchable electronics...
August 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
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