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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166751/is-there-a-glucose-metabolic-signature-of-spreading-tdp-43-pathology-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
Donatienne van Weehaeghe, Jenny Ceccarini, Stefanie M Willekens, Joke de Vocht, Philip van Damme, Koen van Laere
BACKGROUND: Recently, four neuropathological stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with spreading of transactive response DNA-Binding Protein-43 pathology were described. Although 18F-FDG PET has been useful in diagnosis and prognosis of ALS patients, in vivo disease staging using glucose metabolic patterns across the different ALS stages have not been attempted so far. In this study, we investigated whether the discriminant brain regions of the neuropathological stage model can be translated to metabolic patterns for in vivo staging of ALS...
November 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166355/restoring-faculty-vitality-in-academic-medicine-when-burnout-threatens
#2
Darshana T Shah, Valerie N Williams, Luanne E Thorndyke, E Eugene Marsh, Roberta E Sonnino, Steven M Block, Thomas R Viggiano
Increasing rates of burnout-with accompanying stress and lack of engagement-among faculty, residents, students, and practicing physicians have caused alarm in academic medicine. Central to the debate among academic medicine's stakeholders are oft-competing issues of social accountability; cost containment; effectiveness of academic medicine's institutions; faculty recruitment, retention, and satisfaction; increasing expectations for faculty; and mission-based productivity.The authors propose that understanding and fostering what contributes to faculty and institutional vitality is central to preventing burnout during times of change...
November 21, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165512/-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-for-hiv-aids-in-women-a-sociocultural-perspective
#3
Julieta Belmar, Valeria Stuardo
BACKGROUND: Adequate adherence to HAART has a high impact on survival of AIDA patients. There is little consensus on the causes of low adherence to treatment in women, who are in a situation of inequality in terms of prevention and related care. OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the socio-cultural aspects related to the adherence of women to antiretroviral treatment for HIV / AIDS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Qualitative, exploratory-descriptive study...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165486/optical-control-of-mitochondrial-reductive-reactions-in-living-cells-using-an-electron-donor-acceptor-linked-molecule
#4
Yuta Takano, Reina Munechika, Vasudevanpillai Biju, Hideyoshi Harashima, Hiroshi Imahori, Yuma Yamada
It has been known for decades that intracellular redox reactions control various vital functions in living systems, which include the synthesis of biomolecules, the modulation of protein functions, and cell signaling. Although there have been several reports on the control of such functions using DNA and RNA, the non-invasive optical control of biological functions is an important ongoing challenge. In this study, a hybrid of an electron donor-acceptor linked molecule based on a ferrocene(Fc)-porphyrin(ZnP)-fullerene(C60) analogue and an elaborately designed nano-carrier, referred to herein as a MITO-Porter, resulted in a successful photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer reaction via the long-lived intramolecular charge separation, leading to site-specific reductive reactions in the mitochondria of living HeLa cells...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165448/shedding-light-on-the-different-behavior-of-ionic-and-nonionic-surfactants-in-emulsion-polymerization-from-atomistic-simulations-to-experimental-observations
#5
Giulia Magi Meconi, Nicholas Ballard, José M Asua, Ronen Zangi
Although surfactants are known to play a vital role in polymerization reactions carried out in dispersed media, many aspects of their use are poorly understood, perhaps none more so than the vastly different action of ionic and nonionic surfactants in emulsion polymerization. In this work, we combine experimental measurements of emulsion polymerization of styrene with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to better understand the behavior of surfactants at monomer/polymer-water interfaces. In a batch emulsion polymerization of styrene, the nonionic surfactant Disponil AFX 1080 leads to two nucleation periods, in contrast to the behavior observed for the ionic surfactant SDS...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165439/proteomic-signatures-differentiating-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-sporulation-on-soil-relative-to-laboratory-media
#6
D S Wunschel, J R Hutchison, B L Deatherage Kaiser, E D Merkley, B M Hess, A Lin, M G Warner
The process of sporulation is vital for the stability and infectious cycle of Bacillus anthracis. The spore is the infectious form of the organism and therefore relevant to biodefense. While the morphological and molecular events occurring during sporulation have been well studied, the influence of growth medium and temperature on the proteins expressed in sporulated cultures is not well understood. Understanding the features of B. anthracis sporulation specific to natural vs. laboratory production will address an important question in microbial forensics...
November 22, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165241/lifting-the-veil-on-the-dynamics-of-neuronal-activities-evoked-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#7
Bingshuo Li, Juha P Virtanen, Axel Oeltermann, Cornelius Schwarz, Martin A Giese, Ulf Ziemann, Alia Benali
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used non-invasive tool to study and modulate human brain functions. However, TMS-evoked activity of individual neurons has remained largely inaccessible due to the large TMS-induced electromagnetic fields. Here we present a general method providing direct in vivo electrophysiological access to TMS-evoked neuronal activity 0.8-1 ms after TMS onset. We translated human single-pulse TMS to rodents and unveiled time-grained evoked activities of motor cortex layer V neurons that show high-frequency spiking within the first 6 ms depending on TMS-induced current orientation and a multiphasic spike-rhythm alternating between excitation and inhibition in the 6-300 ms epoch, all of which can be linked to various human TMS responses recorded at the level of spinal cord and muscles...
November 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165119/comorbidities-according-to-airflow-limitation-severity-data-from-comprehensive-health-examination-in-japan
#8
Shota Masuda, Hisamitsu Omori, Ayumi Onoue, Xi Lu, Kenichi Kubota, Noritaka Higashi, Yasuhiro Ogata, Takahiko Katoh
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between airflow limitation (AL) severity and comorbidities in comprehensive health examination. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 6661 men and 6044 women aged 40-89 who underwent a lung function test during medical checkups. AL was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity of < 0.7. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between AL severity and the presence of comorbidities...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165112/influence-of-a-50bp-ins-del-polymorphism-at-promoter-of-the-superoxide-dismutase-1-on-gene-expression-and-risk-of-heroin-dependency
#9
Khyber Saify, Mostafa Saadat
OBJECTIVE: Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1, OMIM: 147450) is one of the major antioxidant enzymes, which plays a vital role in clearance of reactive oxygen species. A genetic polymorphism of 50 bp insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) in the promoter region of the SOD1 was reported. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the influence of this polymorphism on the SOD1 mRNA levels in human peripheral blood cells and its association with risk of heroin dependency. METHODS: The present study consisted of 47 healthy students of Shiraz University (south-west Iran) for investigating the association between the Ins/Del polymorphism on expression level of SOD1, also a total of 442 heroin dependent and 799 healthy controls were included in a case-control study investigating the association between the study polymorphism and risk of dependency to heroin...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164525/heat-shock-factor-4-regulates-the-expression-of-hsp25-and-alpha-b-crystallin-by-associating-with-dexd-h-box-rna-helicase-uap56
#10
Xiukun Cui, Wenxiu Han, Jing Li, Riping Feng, Zheng Zhou, JiuLi Han, Mengyuan Li, Shuangfeng Wang, Wanting Zhang, Qin Lei, Jun Zhang, Yutiao Liu, Yanzhong Hu
Heat shock factor 4 controls the transcription of small heat shock proteins (e.g., HSP25, alpha B-cyrstallin, and r-crystallin), that play important roles in modulating lens proteostasis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying HSF4-mediated transcription is still unclear. Using yeast two hybrid, we found that HSF4 interacts with the ATP-dependent DEXD/H-box RNA helicase UAP56, and their interaction in lens epithelial cell line was further confirmed by GST-pull down assay. UAP56 is a vital regulator of pre-mRNA splicing and mature mRNA nuclear export...
November 21, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164499/cognitive-disparities-the-impact-of-the-great-depression-and-cumulative-inequality-on-later-life-cognitive-function
#11
Jo Mhairi Hale
Population aging has driven a spate of recent research on later-life cognitive function. Greater longevity increases the lifetime risk of memory diseases that compromise the cognitive abilities vital to well-being. Alzheimer's disease, thought to be the most common underlying pathology for elders' cognitive dysfunction (Willis and Hakim 2013), is already the sixth leading cause of death in the United States (Alzheimer's Association 2016). Understanding social determinants of pathological cognitive decline is key to crafting interventions, but evidence is inconclusive for how social factors interact over the life course to affect cognitive function...
November 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164390/nutrition-and-mobility-predict-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-12%C3%A2-months-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#12
Sarah Eichler, Annett Salzwedel, Axel Harnath, Christian Butter, Karl Wegscheider, Mihai Chiorean, Heinz Völler, Rona Reibis
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine pre-interventional predictors for all-cause mortality in patients after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with a 12-month follow-up. METHODS: From 10/2013 to 07/2015, 344 patients (80.9 ± 5.0 years, 44.5% male) with an elective TAVI were consecutively enrolled prospectively in a multicentre cohort study. Prior to the intervention, sociodemographic parameters, echocardiographic data and comorbidities were documented...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164281/monitoring-of-post-mortem-changes-of-saliva-n-glycosylation-by-nano-lc-ms
#13
Bum Jin Kim, Chanyoung Han, Hantae Moon, Joseph Kwon, Ik-Soon Jang, Si-Keun Lim, Ki-Won Park, Jong-Soon Choi, Hyun Joo An
The estimation of post-mortem interval (PMI) is a crucial part for investigations of crime and untimely deaths in forensic science. However, standard methods of PMI estimation are easily confounded by extenuating circumstances and/or environmental factors. Therefore, a panel of PMI markers obtained from a more acceptable and accurate method is necessary to definitely determine time of death. Saliva, one of the vital fluids encountered at crime scenes, contains various glycoproteins that are highly affected by biochemical environment...
November 21, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164190/upgrading-well-plates-using-open-microfluidic-patterning
#14
Samuel B Berry, Tianzi Zhang, John H Day, Xiaojing Su, Ilham Z Wilson, Erwin Berthier, Ashleigh B Theberge
Cellular communication between multiple cell types is a ubiquitous process that is responsible for vital physiological responses observed in vivo (e.g., immune response, organ function). Many in vitro coculture strategies have been developed, both in traditional culture and microscale systems, and have shown the potential to recreate some of the physiological behaviors of organs or groups of cells. A fundamental limitation of current systems is the difficulty of reconciling the additional engineering requirements for creating soluble factor signaling systems (e...
November 22, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163911/hyperfine-adjustment-of-flexible-pore-surface-pockets-enables-smart-recognition-of-gas-size-and-quadrupole-moment
#15
Chun-Ting He, Zi-Ming Ye, Yan-Tong Xu, Dong-Dong Zhou, Hao-Long Zhou, Da Chen, Jie-Peng Zhang, Xiao-Ming Chen
The pore size and framework flexibility of hosts are of vital importance for molecular recognition and related applications, but accurate control of these parameters is very challenging. We use the slight difference of metal ion size to achieve continuous hundredth-nanometer pore-size adjustments and drastic flexibility modulations in an ultramicroporous metal-organic framework, giving controllable N2 adsorption isotherm steps, unprecedented/reversed loading-dependence of H2 adsorption enthalpy, quadrupole-moment sieving of C2H2/CO2, and an exceptionally high working capacity for C2H2 storage under practical conditions (98 times that of an empty cylinder)...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163795/oral-4-n-stearoyl-gemcitabine-nanoparticles-inhibit-tumor-growth-in-mouse-models
#16
Caixia Wang, Yuanqiang Zheng, Michael A Sand Oval, Solange A Valdes, Zhe Chen, Dharmika S Lansakara-P, Maolin Du, Yanchun Shi, Zhengrong Cui
In spite of recent advances in targeted tumor therapy, systemic chemotherapy with cytotoxic agents remains a vital cancer treatment modality. Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog commonly used in the treatment of various solid tumors, but an oral gemcitabine dosage form remain unavailable. Previously, we developed the 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine solid lipid nanoparticles (GemC18-SLNs) by incorporating 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine (GemC18), an amide prodrug of gemcitabine, into solid lipid nanoparticles. GemC18-SLNs, when administered intravenously, showed strong antitumor activity against various human and mouse tumors in mouse models...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163775/loss-of-sun2-promotes-the-progression-of-prostate-cancer-by-regulating-fatty-acid-oxidation
#17
Cheng Yajun, Ye Chen, Li Xiaosa, Wang Xiao, Chen Jia, Wang Zhong, Xu Bin
The role of Sun2 has been described by previous studies in various types of cancers, including breast cancer and lung cancer. However, its role and potential molecular mechanism in the progression of prostate cancer have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that Sun2 expression was reduced in prostate cancer tissues compared with paired normal tissues, and that low expression of Sun2 was significantly correlated with Higher Gleason scores, postoperative T stage (pT), Lymph nodal invasion and Clinical pathological stages...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163714/downregulation-of-eukaryotic-initiation-factor-4a1-improves-radiosensitivity-by-delaying-dna-double-strand-break-repair-in-cervical-cancer
#18
Shanhui Liang, Xingzhu Ju, Yuqi Zhou, Yiran Chen, Guihao Ke, Hao Wen, Xiaohua Wu
Expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A1 (eIF4A1) following brachytherapy has been reported to predict improved radiosensitivity and tumor-specific survival in cervical cancer. Therefore, the present study investigated the function of eIF4A1 in cervical cancer and the mechanism by which eIF4A1 regulates cervical cancer radiosensitivity. It was determined that the downregulation of eIF4A1 in HeLa and SiHa cells notably attenuated cell proliferation, in addition to repressing cervical cancer migration and invasion, and promoting cell apoptosis...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163628/a-conserved-basal-transcription-factor-is-required-for-the-function-of-diverse-tal-effectors-in-multiple-plant-hosts
#19
Renyan Huang, Shugang Hui, Meng Zhang, Pei Li, Jinghua Xiao, Xianghua Li, Meng Yuan, Shiping Wang
Many Xanthomonas bacteria use transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins to activate plant disease susceptibility (S) genes, and this activation contributes to disease. We recently reported that rice basal transcription factor IIA gamma subunit, OsTFIIAγ5, is hijacked by TALE-carrying Xanthomonas oryzae infecting the plants. However, whether TFIIAγs are also involved in TALE-carrying Xanthomonas-caused diseases in other plants is unknown. Here, molecular and genetic approaches were used to investigate the role of TFIIAγs in other plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163619/far-red-insensitive-219-jar1-contributes-to-shade-avoidance-responses-of-arabidopsis-seedlings-by-modulating-key-shade-signaling-components
#20
Swadhin Swain, Han-Wei Jiang, Hsu-Liang Hsieh
To receive an ample amount of light, plants use elongation growth in response to vegetation shade. The combined interaction of light and hormones, including jasmonic acid (JA) signaling controls this elongation. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the response are still emerging. FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219/JASMONATE RESISTANCE 1 (FIN219/JAR1), a cytoplasmic localized JA-conjugating enzyme, integrates far-red light and JA signaling. Here, we report that FIN219/JAR1 negatively regulates shade-induced hypocotyl elongation and gene expression in Arabidopsis seedlings in response to shade...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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