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Radiation safety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161293/high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-ablation-around-the-tubing
#1
Jun Yang Siu, Chenhui Liu, Yufeng Zhou
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been emerging as an effective and noninvasive modality in cancer treatment with very promising clinical results. However, a small vessel in the focal region could be ruptured, which is an important concern for the safety of HIFU ablation. In this study, lesion formation in the polyacrylamide gel phantom embedded with different tubing (inner diameters of 0.76 mm and 3 mm) at varied flow speeds (17-339 cm/s) by HIFU ablation was photographically recorded. Produced lesions have decreased length (~30%) but slightly increased width (~6%) in comparison to that without the embedded tubing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159764/establishing-iaea-trs-457-diagnostic-x-ray-beam-qualities-at-the-australian-primary-standard-dosimetry-laboratory
#2
Kam L Lee, Duncan Butler, Tracy Bailey
This paper reports the process and findings in establishing the diagnostic beam qualities for the calibration of diagnostic dose meters in the Australian primary standard dosimetry laboratory at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, ARPANSA. A novel iterative method to achieve the RQR beam quality requirements described by IEC 61267 is presented. The correction factors for the primary standard free-air chamber and their uncertainties are reported. The calibration procedure with detailed uncertainty budget of a typical diagnostic ionisation chamber (model PTW 34060) is reported...
November 20, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159210/dataset-on-ground-radiometric-survey-in-part-of-the-eastern-dahomey-basin-sw-nigeria
#3
Kehinde D Oyeyemi, Ahzegbobor P Aizebeokhai, Oluwarotimi M Olofinnade
The dataset for this article contains the measured activity concentration of radionuclides and gamma-radiation dose rate obtained from the radiometric survey in Ota, Ado-Odo Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The data were manually collected in fifty (50) locations using the Super SPEC RS-125 spectrometer for about three (3) weeks in January, 2017. The descriptive statistical analysis of the data were equally explored for possible statistical relationships. The field dataset is made available publicly for further extended analyses that can provide insights into the safety status of the study area from radiological health concerns...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158680/analysis-of-the-factors-affecting-the-safety-of-robotic-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients
#4
Xiaojie Liu, Yongchun Song, Ping Liang, Tingshi Su, Huojun Zhang, Xianzhi Zhao, Zhiyong Yuan, Ping Wang
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the safety of robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and its related factors. Methods: A total of 74 HCC patients with Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) Class A were included in a multi-institutional, single-arm Phase II trial (NCT 02363218) between February 2013 and August 2016. All patients received SBRT treatment at a dose of 45 Gy/3f. The liver function was compared before and after SBRT treatment by the analysis of adverse hepatic reactions and changes in CTP classification...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157183/photobiology-eye-safety-for-horticultural-led-lighting-transmittance-performance-of-eyewear-protection-using-high-irradiant-monochromatic-leds
#5
Bo-Sen Wu, Mark G Lefsrud
Light emitting diodes have slowly gained market share as horticultural lighting systems in greenhouses due to their rapid improvement in color performances and light outputs. These advancements have increased the availability of the full spectrum of visible wavelengths and the corresponding irradiance outputs available to plants. However, light emitting diodes owners have limited information on the proper options for personal eyewear protection as the irradiance levels have increased. The objective of this study was to measure the light transmittance performance of 12 eyewear protection including welding goggles, safety goggles, polarized glasses and sunglasses across the human visible spectrum (380-740 nm) up to an irradiance level of 1500 W·m(-2) from high-irradiant light emitting diodes assemblies...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157155/work-environment-and-occupational-risk-assessment-for-small-animal-portuguese-veterinary-activities
#6
Angela C Macedo, Vânia T Mota, João M Tavares, Osvaldo L Machado, Francisco X Malcata, Marinela P Cristo, Olga N Mayan
The professional work of small animal veterinary staff encompasses a wide diversity of demanding tasks. This has prompted a number of studies covering physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic or psychological hazards, as well as their health effects upon veterinary workers. However, such results were obtained from self-reported surveys (via paper or online). This study reports the identification of potential hazards and provides a risk assessment of 15 veterinary clinics based on data from walk-through surveys, interviews with workers, and quantification of indoor air quality parameters including concentration of volatile organic compounds (total, isoflurane and glutaraldehyde)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155344/freehand-technique-for-c2-pedicle-and-pars-screw-placement-safe-or-not
#7
Prachya Punyarat, K Daniel Riew, Benjamin T Klawson, Colleen Peters, Thamrong Lertudomphonwanit, Jacob M Buchowski
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: During placement of C2 pedicle and pars screws, intraoperative fluoroscopy is used so that neurovascular complications can be avoided, and screws can be placed in the proper position. However, this method is time consuming and increases radiation exposure. Furthermore, it does not guarantee completely safe and accurate screw placement. PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety of the C2 pedicle and pars screw placement without fluoroscopic or other guidance methods...
November 16, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152838/commissioning-of-the-world-s-first-compact-pencil-beam-scanning-proton-therapy-system
#8
Rajesh Pidikiti, Bijal C Patel, Matthew R Maynard, Joseph P Dugas, Joseph Syh, Narayan Sahoo, Hsinshun Terry Wu, Lane R Rosen
This paper summarizes clinical commissioning of the world's first commercial, clinically utilized installation of a compact, image-guided, pencil-beam scanning, intensity-modulated proton therapy system, the IBA Proteus(®) ONE, at the Willis-Knighton Cancer Center (WKCC) in Shreveport, LA. The Proteus(®) ONE is a single-room, compact-gantry system employing a cyclotron-generated proton beam with image guidance via cone-beam CT as well as stereoscopic orthogonal and oblique planar kV imaging. Coupling 220° of gantry rotation with a 6D robotic couch capable of in plane patient rotations of over 180° degrees allows for 360° of treatment access...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151864/dissecting-functional-components-of-reproductive-isolation-among-closely-related-sympatric-species-of-the-anopheles-gambiae-complex
#9
Marco Pombi, Pierre Kengne, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Billy Tene-Fossog, Diego Ayala, Colince Kamdem, Federica Santolamazza, Wamdaogo Moussa Guelbeogo, N'Falé Sagnon, Vincenzo Petrarca, Didier Fontenille, Nora J Besansky, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Roch Kounbobr Dabiré, Alessandra Della Torre, Frédéric Simard, Carlo Costantini
Explaining how and why reproductive isolation evolves and determining which forms of reproductive isolation have the largest impact on the process of population divergence are major goals in the study of speciation. By studying recent adaptive radiations in incompletely isolated taxa, it is possible to identify barriers involved at early divergence before other confounding barriers emerge after speciation is complete. Sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex offer opportunities to provide insights into speciation mechanisms...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150313/safety-practices-perceptions-and-behaviors-in-radiation-oncology-a-national-survey-of-radiation-therapists
#10
Kristina Demas Woodhouse, David Hashemi, Kathryn Betcher, Abigail Doucette, Allison Weaver, Brian Monzon, Seth A Rosenthal, Neha Vapiwala
PURPOSE: Radiation therapy is complex and demands high vigilance and precise coordination. Radiation therapists (RTTs) directly deliver radiation and are often the first to discover an error. Yet, few studies have examined the practices of RTTs regarding patient safety. We conducted a national survey to explore the perspectives of RTTs related to quality and safety. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In 2016, an electronic survey was sent to a random sample of 1500 RTTs in the United States...
June 15, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149150/the-hopeless-case-palliative-cryoablation-and-cementoplasty-procedures-for-palliation-of-large-pelvic-bone-metastases
#11
Tyler M Coupal, Kevin Pennycooke, Paul I Mallinson, Hugue A Ouellette, Paul W Clarkson, Pippa Hawley, Peter L Munk
BACKGROUND: Metastases to the bone are common in cancer patients, and it has been estimated that up to 50% of patients with pelvic bone metastases will not achieve adequate pain control with medications alone. This has led to a paradigm shift over recent years towards the use and development of minimally invasive image-guided treatment options for palliation of bony metastases. Despite these developments, large metastatic lesions are still often considered to be "hopeless cases" that would garner little to no benefit from image-guided intervention...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147456/prevalence-of-sun-protection-at-outdoor-recreation-and-leisure-venues-at-resorts-in-north-america
#12
Barbara J Walkosz, Michael D Scott, David B Buller, Peter A Andersen, Larry Beck, Gary R Cutter
Background: Exposure to solar ultra violet radiation (UVR) is a primary risk factor for skin cancer. Vacationers often fail to protect themselves from harmful UVR. Purpose: The study assessed the sun protection practices of resort guests in various outdoor leisure and recreation venues during warm-weather seasons. Method: 41 North American resorts were enrolled in a quasi-experimental randomized controlled trial. Adult guests were observed (n=4091) and surveyed (n=3694) in a cross sectional sample...
2017: American Journal of Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142626/resection-and-observation-for-brain-metastasis-without-prompt-postoperative-radiation-therapy
#13
Tae-Wook Song, In-Young Kim, Shin Jung, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Sub Moon, Woo-Youl Jang
Objective: Total resection without consecutive postoperative whole brain radiation therapy is indicated for patients with a single or two sites of brain metastasis, with close follow-up by serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we explored the effectiveness, usefulness, and safety of this follow-up regimen. Methods: From January 2006 to December 2015, a total of 109 patients (76 males, 33 females) underwent tumor resection as the first treatment for brain metastases (97 patients with single metastases, 12 with two metastases)...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139613/nipple-sparing-mastectomy-as-treatment-for-patients-with-ductal-carcinoma-in%C3%A2-situ-a-10-year-follow-up-study
#14
Víctor Lago, Vincenzo Maisto, Julia Gimenez-Climent, Jose Vila, Carlos Vazquez, Rafael Estevan
The objective was to determine the 10-year oncological safety of nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) in patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The use of NSM preserves the nipple-areola complex (NAC). As residual fibroglandular breast tissue can remain behind the spared NAC, its use for patient with breast cancer is controversial. The oncologic outcomes and complication rates after performing NSM compared to other techniques are still under debate and a concern when treating patients with breast cancer...
November 15, 2017: Breast Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138794/noninvasive-cardiac-testing-vs-clinical-evaluation-alone-in-acute-chest-pain-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-romicat-ii-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Samuel W Reinhardt, Chien-Jung Lin, Eric Novak, David L Brown
Importance: The incremental benefit of noninvasive testing in addition to clinical evaluation (history, physical examination, an electrocardiogram [ECG], and biomarker assessment) vs clinical evaluation alone for patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain is unknown. Objective: To examine differences in outcomes with clinical evaluation and noninvasive testing (coronary computed tomographic angiography [CCTA] or stress testing) vs clinical evaluation alone...
November 14, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135537/status-and-perception-of-risk-management-in-radiation-therapy-survey-among-korean-medical-physicists
#16
Sohyun Ahn, Dong Oh Shin, Sang Hyoun Choi, Jihye Koo, Soon Sung Lee, Dong-Wook Park, Yoon-Jin Oh, Sohyun Park, Dong Wook Kim
This study was conducted as part of an endeavor to improve the risk management system of radiation therapy departments in the Republic of Korea. An online survey on the status and perception of Korea's medical physicists on risk management in radiation therapy was carried out. A total of 40 domestic radiation oncology departments participated. This survey is divided into three categories: (1) work environment; (2) risk management status; and (3) opinions on how to improve risk management. Based on the results of the survey, the conclusions that can be derived are (1) the majority of respondents have a high interest in the risk management of radiation therapy; (2) the lack of staffing is one cause of risk management difficulties; (3) a risk-related terminology and classification system at the national or professional association level are required; (4) each hospital should create a voluntary reporting system for the handling of incidents; (5) medical physicists should establish incident reporting, analysis and countermeasures; and (6) government should develop education and training programs...
November 10, 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132255/selected-radiation-safety-aspects-including-transportation-and-lodging-after-outpatient-sup-131-sup-i-therapy-for-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#17
Cristiane Jeyce Gomes-Lima, Di Wu, Pejman H Kharazi, Gauri Khorjekar, Matthew D Ringel, Richard J Vetter, Gary Bloom, Kenneth D Burman, Leonard Wartofsky, Douglas Van Nostrand
BACKGROUND: Whether <sup>131</sup>I treatments for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) should be performed as an outpatient or inpatient remains controversial. The objective of this study was to survey selected aspects of radiation safety of patients treated with <sup>131</sup>I for DTC as an outpatient. METHODS: An e-mail invitation was sent to over 15,000 members of ThyCa: Thyroid Cancer Survivors' Association, Inc. to complete a web-based survey on selected aspects of radiation safety regarding their last outpatient <sup>131</sup>I treatment...
November 13, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131286/conscious-sedation-for-transcatheter-implantation-of-atrial-septal-occluders-with-the-2d-and-3d-transesophageal-echocardiography-guidance-the-feasibility-and-safety-study
#18
Piotr Lipiec, Dawid Miśkowiec, Jan Z Peruga, Michał Plewka, Ewa Szymczyk, Paulina Wejner-Mik, Karolina Kupczyńska, Jarosław D Kasprzak
BACKGROUND: General anesthesia may have negative impact on patients mortality and morbidity, as well as overall procedure costs in atrial septal occluders (ASO) implantation. AIM: We sought to evaluate the safety, efficacy and feasibility of conscious sedation for transcatheter implantation of ASO. METHODS: 122 patients (pts) referred for transcatheter implantation of ASO were included. Mean patients' age was 51±15 years, 43 patients were male (35%)...
November 13, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130778/lack-of-induced-mutagenesis-in-e-coli-or-human-lymphoblast-cell-line-upon-long-term-sub-culturing-in-medium-from-irradiated-meat
#19
Sachin N Hajare, Jyoti Tripathi, Satyendra Gautam
PURPOSE: Current study was aimed to enhance the confidence of consumers as well as entrepreneurs towards food irradiation program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this work, safety of high dose (25 kGy) irradiated meat samples (HDIMS) was ascertained by scoring mutation frequency through a long-term sub-culturing study in Escherichia coli MG1655 cells (ATCC 700926) up to 1500 generations (at 1%), 250 generations (at 5 and 10%) and human lymphoblast thymidine kinase heterozygote (TK6) cell line (ATCC CRL-8015) [at two gene loci, tk(-/+) (thymidine kinase) and hprt(+) (Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase)] up to 156 generations using goat meat sample...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130140/transforaminal-intrathecal-delivery-of-nusinersen-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography-for-children-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-and-extensive-surgical-instrumentation-early-results-of-technical-success-and-safety
#20
John J Weaver, Niranjana Natarajan, Dennis W W Shaw, Susan D Apkon, Kevin S H Koo, Giri M Shivaram, Eric J Monroe
BACKGROUND: Nusinersen, the only treatment approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is delivered intrathecally. Many children with SMA have extensive spinal instrumentation and deformities, often precluding the use of standard approaches for gaining intrathecal access. Furthermore the anatomical distortion that often occurs with rotoscoliosis can complicate the use of fluoroscopic guidance. Compared to fluoroscopy, CT affords superior guidance for complex needle placements...
November 13, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
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