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Radiation safety

Amy Huang, Arianna Phillips, Tony Adar, Andrea Hui
BACKGROUND: The eye is a vulnerable and commonly injured organ in cosmetic laser procedures of the face. Treatment of the eyelids and periorbital areas increases this risk, especially when ocular protection devices are not used or are removed during the procedure. A study has shown that injury from laser epilation of the periocular areas is one of the most common causes of litigation in cutaneous laser surgery. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review is to determine the causes of ocular injury in cosmetic laser procedures and derive lessons on critical safety elements to prevent future injury...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Huagang Hou, Nadeem Khan, Sangeeta Gohain, M Lakshmi Kuppusamy, Periannan Kuppusamy
Tissue oxygenation is a critical parameter in various pathophysiological situations including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Hypoxia can significantly influence the prognosis of solid malignancies and the efficacy of their treatment by radiation or chemotherapy. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry is a reliable method for repeatedly assessing and monitoring oxygen levels in tissues. Lithium octa-n-butoxynaphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO) has been developed as a probe for biological EPR oximetry, especially for clinical use...
March 16, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
V Moreno, J Bach, M Zarroca, Ll Font, C Roqué, R Linares
Radon levels in the soil and groundwater in the North Maladeta Fault area (located in the Aran Valley sector, Central Pyrenees) are analysed from both geological and radiation protection perspectives. This area is characterized by the presence of two important normal faults: the North Maladeta fault (NMF) and the Tredós Fault (TF). Two primary aspects make this study interesting: (i) the NMF shows geomorphic evidence of neotectonic activity and (ii) the presence of a thermal spa, Banhs de Tredós, which exploits one of the several natural springs of the area and needs to be evaluated for radiation dosing from radon according to the European regulation on basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Oksoo Kim, Mi Sun Kim, Hee Jung Jang, Hyangkyu Lee, Younhee Kang, Yanghee Pang, Heeja Jung
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To examine the current state of radiation safety education and its influence on nurses' compliance with safety procedures. BACKGROUND: Use of radiation in therapy and diagnosis has prolonged and improved millions of lives, but it presents potential hazards for healthcare professionals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design. METHODS: Participants included 1,672 female nurses of childbearing age who had recently been exposed to radiation emitting generators or radiation...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Luc Beaulieu, Dee-Ann Radford, J Eduardo Villarreal-Barajas
The Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists (COMP), in close partnership with the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) has developed a series of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment. These guidelines outline the performance objectives that equipment should meet in order to ensure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The TQC guidelines have been rigorously reviewed and field tested in a variety of Canadian radiation treatment facilities...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Vanessa Trieu, Harlan Pinto, Jonathan W Riess, Ruth Lira, Richard Luciano, Jessie Coty, Derek Boothroyd, A Dimitrios Colevas
LESSONS LEARNED: Chemotherapy for recurrent, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck need not be known for extreme toxicity.The weekly regimen studied here has been demonstrated to be tolerable and effective. BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish the response rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and safety profile of weekly docetaxel, platinum, and cetuximab (TPC) in patients with relapsed or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN)...
March 14, 2018: Oncologist
Richard Rammo, Karam Asmaro, Lonni Schultz, Lisa Scarpace, Salim Siddiqui, Tobias Walbert, Steven Kalkanis, Ian Lee
Cerebral radiation necrosis (CRN) is a known complication of radiation therapy. Treatment options are limited and include steroids, bevacizumab, and surgery. This study seeks to determine the safety of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) for CRN and identify the pattern of post-ablation volume change over time. Patients undergoing LITT for tumor treatment at Henry Ford Hospital between November 2013 and January 2016 with biopsy-confirmed CRN were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed with attention to ablation volume, survival, demographic data, steroid dose, and complications...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Jan Powers, Michael Luebbehusen, Lillian Aguirre, Julia Cluff, Mary Ann David, Vince Holly, Lorraine Linford, Nancy Park, Rocco Brunelle
BACKGROUND: Early enteral nutrition has been shown to decrease complications and improve patient outcomes. Post pyloric feeding is recommended for patients with gastric intolerance or at high risk for aspiration. Feeding tube placement can be challenging and pose risk of pulmonary complications. Reliance on radiographic confirmation for feeding tube placement exposes the patient to radiation. Electromagnetic placement device (EMPD) may offer a method to minimize pulmonary complications, increase successful placement, and decrease radiation exposure to the patient...
March 12, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Satoshi Suzuki, Michio Murakami, Tatsuhiro Nishikiori, Shigeki Harada
Fukushima residents' negative views on the safety of water and air environments have been a concern since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. The objective of this study was to clarify the factors determining these negative views and their association with radiation risk perception using the opinion poll conducted by Fukushima Prefecture from 2010 to 2015. In a model, in which the objective variables were the views on the safety of water and air environments, and the explanatory variables were the regions constituting Fukushima and the age and sex of the residents, the odds ratio (OR) of the views on the safety of the water and air environments (reference region: the least affected region) was significantly low at 0...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Jay Burmeister, Adrian Nalichowski, Michael Snyder, Robert Halford, Geoff Baran, Brian Loughery, Ahmad Hammoud, Joe Rakowski, Todd Bossenberger
We describe the commissioning of the first dedicated commercial total body irradiation (TBI) unit in clinical operation. The Best Theratronics GammaBeam 500 is a Co-60 teletherapy unit with extended field size and imaging capabilities. Radiation safety, mechanical and imaging systems, and radiation output are characterized. Beam data collection, calibration, and external dosimetric validation are described. All radiation safety and mechanical tests satisfied relevant requirements and measured dose distributions meet recommendations of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Report #17...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Pingyan Jin, Huijuan Feng, Wei Ouyang, Juqing Wu, Pan Chen, Jing Wang, Yungang Sun, Jialang Xian, Liuhua Huang
Postoperative131 I treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) can create a radiation hazard for nearby persons. The present prospective study aimed to investigate radiation dose rates in131 I-treated DTC patients to provide references for radiation protection. A total of 141131 I-treated DTC patients were enrolled, and grouped into a singular treatment (ST) group and a repeated treatment (RT) group. The radiation dose rate of131 I-treated patients was measured. The rate of achieving discharge compliance and restricted contact time were analyzed based on Chinese regulations...
March 10, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
K P Rooney, A B Miah, S A Bhide, M T Guerrero-Urbano, M T Sharabiani, K L Newbold, L Grove, K J Harrington, C M Nutting
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To determine the safety and tolerability of dose-escalation using modestly accelerated IMRT in high-risk locally advanced thyroid cancer requiring post-operative radiotherapy, and to report preliminary data on efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sequential Phase I dose-escalation design was used. Dose level one (DL1) received 58.8 Gy/28F to the post-operative bed and 50 Gy/28F to elective nodes. DL2 received 66.6 Gy/30F to the thyroid bed, 60 Gy/30F to post-operative nodal levels and 54 Gy/30F to elective nodal levels...
March 7, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Ahmed Mohey, Mohamed Alhefnawy, Mostafa Mahmoud, Rabea Gomaa, Tarek Soliman, Shabieb Ahmed, Yasser A Noureldin
INTRODUCTION: To assess the conversion rate during fluoroless-ureteroscopy (URS) and evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of fluoroless-URS as a definitive management of distal ureteral calculi. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between May 2013 and August 2015, patients with radio-opaque distal ureteral calculi of ≤ 1 cm in size were randomized to undergo fluoroless-URS or standard URS. Patients with previous ureteral surgery, ureteral kinking, ureteral stricture, single kidney, additional proximal ureteral or renal calculi, uncontrolled coagulopathy, and/or congenital anomalies of the urinary tract were excluded...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
Michael Chao, Huong Ho, Yee Chan, Alwin Tan, Trung Pham, Damien Bolton, Andrew Troy, Catherine Temelcos, Shomik Sengupta, Kevin McMillan, Chee Wee Cham, Madalena Liu, Wei Ding, Brindha Subramanian, Jason Wasiak, Daryl Lim Joon, Sandra Spencer, Nathan Lawrenstchuk
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report on the dosimetric benefits and late toxicity outcomes following injection of a hydrogel spacer (HS) between the prostate and rectum for patients treated with prostate radiotherapy. METHODS: A total of 76 patients with a clinical stage of T1-T3a prostate cancer underwent general anaesthesia for fiducial marker insertion plus injection of the HS into the peri-rectal space prior to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated radiation therapy (VMAT)...
March 9, 2018: BJU International
Jasna But-Hadzic, Vaneja Velenik
Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of experimental fractionation using intensity modulated radiation therapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) to shorten the overall treatment time without dose escalation in preoperative radiochemotherapy of locally advanced rectal cancer. Patients and methods: Between January 2014 and November 2015, a total of 51 patients with operable stage II-III rectal adenocarcinoma were treated...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Alessandro Magli, Eugenia Moretti, Annarita Tullio, Gianluca Giannarini, Fabrizio Tonetto, Mauro Urpis, Margherita Crespi, Claudio Foti, Agnese Prisco, Margherita Polsinelli, Gioacchino De Giorgi, Giulia Bravo, Paolo Scalchi, Marco Trovò
OBJECTIVE: The approach for treating high-risk prostate cancer still presents different unresolved issues. We report the safety and efficacy of a radiation therapy strategy based on the combination of moderate hypofractioned simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) and Image Guidance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this phase II trial of patients with high-risk prostate cancer, Image Guided SIB-IMRT plans (Simultaneous Intensity Modulated - Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy) were delivered between 2009 and 2012...
March 8, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Thea Buchan, Miles Walkden, Kathryn Jenkins, Pervez Sultan, Steve Bandula
AIM: To evaluate the effect of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) in place of standard intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) on procedure duration, patient radiation dose, complication rates, and outcomes during CT-guided cryoablation of small renal tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive CT-guided cryoablation procedures to treat small renal tumours under general anaesthesia were evaluated-50 with standard IPPV and 50 after the introduction of HFJV as standard practice...
March 7, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Raef F A Hafez, Magad S Morgan, Osama M Fahmy, Hamdy T Hassan
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to report and confirm long-term effectiveness and safety of stereotactic Gamma Knife Surgery as a primary sole treatment in the management of 40 glomus jagulare tumors patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological outcomes of 40 GJTs consecutive patients treated with GKS as primary sole treatment at International Medical Center (IMC), Cairo-Egypt from the beginning of 2005 till the end of 2014,with mean follow-up period of 84 months (range 36-156 months), mean tumor volume was 6...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Sheryl Tulin-Silver, Chrystal Obi, Nishita Kothary, Matthew Lungren
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare safety and efficacy of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) and percutaneous liver biopsy (PLB) with tract embolization in pediatric patients with liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TJLB and PLB between December 2009 and October 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Primary endpoints were adequate sampling and complication rate. Patient age, weight, coagulation factors, ascites, blood transfusions, adequacy of biopsy sample, number of biopsy samples, and complications were compared...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Motoo Nomura, Atsushi Otsuka, Michio Yoshimura, Yumi Nonomura, Yo Kaku, Shigemi Matsumoto, Manabu Muto
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of concurrent immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and radiotherapy (immunoradiotherapy) in patients with metastatic melanoma after progression on nivolumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 16 consecutive patients with metastatic melanoma treated with concurrent immunoradiotherapy after progression on nivolumab. Best responses to immunoradiotherapy were assessed either inside or outside of the radiation fields...
March 3, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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