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Radiation safety

Alice Indini, Elisabetta Schiavello, Veronica Biassoni, Luca Bergamaschi, Maria Chiara Magni, Nadia Puma, Stefano Chiaravalli, Federica Pallotti, Ettore Seregni, Barbara Diletto, Emilia Pecori, Lorenza Gandola, Geraldina Poggi, Maura Massimino
To assess the long-term safety of administering growth hormone (GH) in patients with GH deficiency due to treatment for childhood medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Data were retrospectively retrieved on children receiving GH supplementation, assessing their disease-free and overall survival outcomes and risk of secondary malignancies using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. Overall 65 children were consecutively collected from May 1981 to April 2013. All patients had undergone craniospinal irradiation (total dose 18-39 Gy), and subsequently received GH for a median (interquartile range, IQR) of 81 (50...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
J-E Bibault, A Pernet, V Mollo, L Gourdon, O Martin, P Giraud
PURPOSE: With the increase of treatment complexity, enhancing safety is a key concern in radiation oncology. Beyond the involvement of the healthcare professional, patient involvement and empowerment could play a major role in that setting. We explored how patients perceived and fulfilled that role during their radiation treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was administered to all patients treated in our department between November 2013 and May 2014...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Itsuko Tsukimura, Hideki Murakami, Makoto Sasaki, Hirooki Endo, Daisuke Yamabe, Ryosuke Oikawa, Minoru Doita
The safety of metallic spinal implants in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed using ultrahigh fields has not been established. Hence, we examined whether the displacement forces caused by a static magnetic field and the heating induced by radiofrequency radiation are substantial for spinal implants in a 7 T field. We investigated spinal rods of various lengths and materials, a screw, and a cross-linking bridge in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines. The displacement forces of the metallic implants in static 7 T and 3 T static magnetic fields were measured and compared...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Melissa Pilewskie, Cristina Olcese, Sujata Patil, Kimberly J Van Zee
BACKGROUND: Identifying DCIS patients at low risk for disease progression could obviate need for standard therapy. The LORIS (surgery versus active monitoring for low-risk DCIS) trial is studying the safety of monitoring low-risk DCIS, although ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rates in patients meeting enrollment criteria after complete surgical excision are unknown. METHODS: Women with pure DCIS treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with/without radiation therapy (RT) from 1/1996-1/2011 were included from a prospectively maintained database...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Jennie Engstrand, Grzegorz Toporek, Piotr Harbut, Eduard Jonas, Henrik Nilsson, Jacob Freedman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy and safety of antenna placement performed with the use of a CT-guided stereotactic navigation system for percutaneous ablation of liver tumors and to assess the safety of high-frequency jet ventilation for target motion control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with malignant liver lesions for which surgical resection was contraindicated or that were not readily visible on ultrasound or not accessible by ultrasound guidance were included in the study...
October 20, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Juan M Vásquez-Jiménez, Mary Lopez-Perez, Andrés F Vallejo, Andrés B Amado-Garavito, Nora Céspedes, Angélica Castellanos, Karen Molina, Johanna Trejos, José Oñate, Judith E Epstein, Thomas L Richie, Sócrates Herrera
BACKGROUND: Immunizing human volunteers by mosquito bite with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (RAS) results in high-level protection against infection. Only two volunteers have been similarly immunized with P. vivax (Pv) RAS, and both were protected. A phase 2 controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety and protective efficacy of PvRAS immunization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A randomized, single-blinded trial was conducted...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Thomas B Brunner, Ursula Nestle, Sonja Adebahr, Eleni Gkika, Rolf Wiehle, Dimos Baltas, Anca-Ligia Grosu
OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic radiotherapy near serial organs at risk (OAR) requires special caution. A novel intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) prescription concept termed simultaneous integrated protection (SIP) for quantifiable and comparable dose prescription to targets very close to OAR is described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An intersection volume of a planning risk volume (PRV) with the total planning target volume (PTV) defined the protection volume (PTVSIP)...
October 18, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
E Liniker, A M Menzies, B Y Kong, A Cooper, S Ramanujam, S Lo, R F Kefford, G B Fogarty, A Guminski, T W Wang, M S Carlino, A Hong, G V Long
The anti-PD-1 antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab are active in metastatic melanoma; however, there is limited data on combining anti-PD-1 antibody and radiotherapy (RT). We sought to review clinical outcomes of patients receiving RT and anti-PD-1 therapy. All patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibody and RT for metastatic melanoma were identified. RT and systemic treatment, clinical outcome, and toxicity data were collected. Fifty-three patients were included; 35 patients received extracranial RT and/or intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and 21 received whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) (three of whom also received SRS/extracranial RT)...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Yetunde A Onimode, John E Ejeh, Akintunde T Orunmuyi
OBJECTIVE: Radioactive iodine therapy (RAIT) is established as an efficient means of treating toxic goiter (TG) globally. The field of nuclear medicine (NM) still appears novel to many Nigerian clinicians and patients. A culturally embedded dread of radiation may raise ethical and moral concerns about potential adverse effects in the wake of RAIT in our setting. An adverse drug reaction may be described as "a response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man"...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Sadamoto Zenda, Takashi Kojima, Ken Kato, Sachiko Izumi, Taijiro Ozawa, Naomi Kiyota, Chikatoshi Katada, Takahiro Tsushima, Yoshinori Ito, Tetsuo Akimoto, Yasuhisa Hasegawa, Miyuki Kanamaru, Hiroyuki Daiko
PURPOSE: To clarify, in a multicenter, single-arm, phase 2 study (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry no. UMIN000001439), the clinical profile of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for cervical esophageal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with operable cervical esophageal cancer, excluding candidates for endoscopic resection, were enrolled. Protocol treatment consisted of CRT and adjuvant chemotherapy (CT). First, patients received concurrent CRT with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus cisplatin (CDDP)...
September 3, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Robert T Granata, Edward M Castillo, Gary M Vilke
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with altered mental status and alcohol intoxication can clinically resemble patients with an intracranial hemorrhage. Although intracranial hemorrhage is quickly excluded with a head computed tomographic (CT) scan, it is common practice to defer imaging and allow the patient to metabolize to spare ED resources and minimize radiation exposure to the patient. Although this reduces unnecessary scans, it may delay treatment in patients with occult intracranial hemorrhage, which some fear may increase morbidity and mortality...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Victor H F Lee, Dora L W Kwong, To-Wai Leung, Sherry C Y Ng, Ka-On Lam, Chi-Chung Tong, Chun-Kin Sze
We prospectively studied the efficacy and safety of hyperfractionated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (HF-IMRT) and compared to a historical cohort treated with standard fractionation (SF-IMRT) in patients with locally advanced recurrent (rT3-T4, rN0-N1, M0) nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten patients were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by HF-IMRT (64.8 Gy/54 fr/5.5 weeks) concurrent with weekly cisplatin. They were compared to another ten patients treated with induction chemotherapy followed by SF-IMRT (60 Gy/30 fr/6 weeks) concurrent with weekly cisplatin...
October 13, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Mordechai Duvdevani
Endoscopic treatment is currently the mainstay of management for urolithiasis. The high effectiveness of PCNL is well documented in the literature, as are its complications. Bleeding during PCNL is directly related to the size of the dilatation.(1) Several minimally invasive refinements in percutaneous surgery have been made to reduce access related complications and bleeding rates.(2) This was achieved mainly by reducing tract diameter, but the advantage over standard PCNL has yet to be proven.(3) The effectiveness of RIRS is decreasing with increasing stone burden...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Endourology
Jasna But-Hadzic, Franc Anderluh, Erik Brecelj, Ibrahim Edhemovic, Ajra Secerov-Ermenc, Rihard Hudej, Ana Jeromen, Miran Kozelj, Bojan Krebs, Irena Oblak, Mirko Omejc, Andrej Vogrin, Vaneja Velenik
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This phase 2 study investigated the efficacy and safety of preoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) without dose escalation, concomitant with standard capecitabine chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between January 2014 and March 2015, 51 patients with operable stage II-III rectal adenocarcinoma received preoperative IMRT with pelvic dose of 41.8 Gy and simultaneously delivered 46...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
D Mulas, J Garcia-Orellana, N Casacuberta, A Hierro, V Moreno, P Masqué
The production of dicalcium phosphate (DCP) uses phosphate rock (PR) as a raw material. Sedimentary phosphate rocks are enriched with relevant concentrations of natural radionuclides from the (238)U decay chain (around 10(3) Bq·kg(-1)), leading to the need of controlling potential exposures to radiation of workers and members of the public in accordance with IAEA safety standards. Indeed, phosphate industries are classified as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) industries. Thus, the aim of this work is to assess the radiological risk of the workers in a DCP production plant located in the Iberian Peninsula (South-West Europe), which digests PR with hydrochloric acid...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Yujin Xu, Zhun Wang, Guan Liu, Xiao Zheng, Yuezhen Wang, Wei Feng, Xiaojing Lai, Xia Zhou, Pu Li, Honglian Ma, Jin Wang, Xiao Hu, Ming Chen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and toxicity of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Chinese population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with ESCC, who received SIB-IMRT from September 2011 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The SIB-IMRT plans were designed to deliver primary gross tumor volume at 60-64.4 Gy in 28-30 fractions, and planning target volume at 50...
October 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Amit Roy, Pawinee Mahasittiwat, Ashley A Weiner, Steven R Hunt, Matthew G Mutch, Elisa H Birnbaum, Ira J Kodner, Thomas E Read, James W Fleshman, Jeffrey R Olsen, Robert J Myerson, Parag J Parikh
PURPOSE: Preoperative short-course radiation therapy (SCRT) has rarely been used for rectal cancer in the United States, although 2 randomized phase 3 trials demonstrate equivalence to conventional chemoradiation (CRT), and recent updates to national guidelines include this regimen as a treatment option. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative SCRT followed by immediate surgery within 1 week to treat rectal cancer in the US setting. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All patients treated with preoperative SCRT (4 Gy × 5 fractions for total 20 Gy) followed by planned surgery within 1 week at our institution were retrospectively evaluated...
August 31, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
L M Van der Pol, A T A Mairuhu, C Tromeur, F Couturaud, M V Huisman, F A Klok
Because pregnant women have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and at the same time normal pregnancy is associated with symptoms, mimicking those present in the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), the latter diagnosis is frequently suspected in this patient category. Since imaging tests expose both mother and foetus to ionizing radiation, the ability to rule out PE based on non-radiological diagnostic tests is of paramount importance. However, clinical decision rules have only been scarcely evaluated in the pregnant population with suspected PE, while D-dimer levels lose diagnostic accuracy due to a physiological increase during normal pregnancy...
September 29, 2016: Blood Reviews
Samer L Traboulsi, Johannes Alfred Witjes, Wassim Kassouf
Primary urethral cancer is one of the rare urologic tumors. Distal urethral tumors are usually less advanced at diagnosis compared with proximal tumors and have a good prognosis if treated appropriately. Low-stage distal tumors can be managed successfully with a surgical approach in men or radiation therapy in women. There are no clear-cut indications for the choice of the most appropriate treatment modality. Organ-preserving modalities have shown effective and should be used whenever they do not compromise the oncological safety to decrease the physical and psychological trauma of dismemberment or loss of sexual/urinary function...
November 2016: Urologic Clinics of North America
Yiyu Lu, Weiguang Gu, Jin Deng, Hua Yang, Wen Yang
BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation is the standard treatment for unresectable stage III Lung adenocarcinoma. However, no optimal concurrent chemotherapeutic regimen has been described. This study aimed to assess concurrent pemetrexed, nedaplatin and thoracic intensity-modulated radiotherapy followed by consolidation pemetrexed/nedaplatin for unresectable Stage IIIA/B lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Patients with unresectable stage III lung adenocarcinoma received thoracic intensity-modulated radiotherapy at 60-64 Gy in 30-32 fractions, concurrently with two cycles of 500 mg/m(2) pemetrexed, with nedaplatin doses escalating from 60 mg/m(2) (level 1) to 70 mg/m(2) (level 2) and 80 mg/m(2) (level 3)...
October 7, 2016: BMC Cancer
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