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3D surface scanning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330179/influence-of-type-i-fimbriae-and-fluid-shear-stress-on-bacterial-behavior-and-multicellular-architecture-of-early-escherichia-coli-biofilms-at-single-cell-resolution
#1
Liyun Wang, Robert Keatch, Qi Zhao, John A Wright, Clare E Bryant, Anna L Redmann, Eugene M Terentjev
Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in food and medical industry can cause severe contamination and infection, yet how biological and physical factors determine cellular architecture of early biofilms and bacterial behavior of the constituent cells remains largely unknown. In this study we examine the specific role of type-I fimbriae in nascent stages of biofilm formation and the response of micro-colonies to environmental flow shear at single-cell resolution. The results show that type-I fimbriae are not required for reversible adhesion from plankton, but critical for irreversible adhesion of Escherichia coli (E...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328211/effects-of-defocus-on-the-transfer-function-of-coherence-scanning-interferometry
#2
Rong Su, Matthew Thomas, Richard Leach, Jeremy Coupland
Coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) offers three-dimensional (3D) measurement of surface topography with high precision and accuracy. Defocus within the interferometric objective lens, however, is commonly present in CSI measurements and reduces both the resolving power of the imaging system and the ability to measure tilted surfaces. This Letter extends the linear theory of CSI to consider the effects of defocus on the 3D transfer function and the point spread function in an otherwise ideal CSI instrument...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327547/-finite-element-analysis-on-the-effect-of-lateral-wedge-insole-intervention-on-the-contact-characteristics-of-the-subtalar-joint
#3
En-Chang Zhou, Ping Tang, Chuan-Ying Zhu, Shi-Ming Liu
OBJECTIVE: To establish a three-dimensional finite element model of the lower limb bones, and investigate the changes of the contact characteristics of the subtalar joint after using laterally wedge insole intervention. METHODS: Using the reverse modeling technology, the lower limb bones of normal adult volunteers was scanned by CT. Mimics 10.0 and Geomagic Studio 6.0 software were used to reconstruct the 3D morphology of bones and external soft tissue of the feet...
January 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325886/comparison-analysis-of-orbital-shape-and-volume-in-unilateral-fractured-orbits
#4
Johanna Nilsson, Johan Nysjö, Anders-Petter Carlsson, Andreas Thor
Facial fractures often result in changes of the orbital volume. These changes can be measured in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) scans for preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation. The aim of this study was to analyze the orbital volume and shape before and after surgical treatment of unilateral orbital fractures using semi-automatic image segmentation and registration techniques. The orbital volume in 21 patients was assessed by a semi-automatic model-based segmentation method. The fractured orbit was compared relative to the contralateral orbit...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321071/head-circumference-a-useful-single-parameter-for-skull-volume-development-in-cranial-growth-analysis
#5
Markus Martini, Anne Klausing, Guido Lüchters, Nils Heim, Martina Messing-Jünger
BACKGROUND: The measurement of maximal head circumference is a standard procedure in the examination of childrens' cranial growth and brain development. The objective of the study was to evaluate the validity of maximal head circumference to cranial volume in the first year of life using a new method which includes ear-to-ear over the head distance and maximal cranial length measurement. METHODS: 3D surface scans for cranial volume assessment were conducted in this method comparison study of 44 healthy Caucasian children (29 male, 15 female) at the ages of 4 and 12 months...
January 10, 2018: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318674/a-simple-route-to-porous-graphene-from-carbon-nanodots-for-supercapacitor-applications
#6
Volker Strauss, Kris Marsh, Matthew D Kowal, Maher El-Kady, Richard B Kaner
A facile method to convert biomolecule-based carbon nanodots (CNDs) into high-surface-area 3D-graphene networks with excellent electrochemical properties is presented. Initially, CNDs are synthesized by microwave-assisted thermolysis of citric acid and urea according to previously published protocols. Next, the CNDs are annealed up to 400 °C in a tube furnace in an oxygen-free environment. Finally, films of the thermolyzed CNDs are converted into open porous 3D turbostratic graphene (3D-ts-graphene) networks by irradiation with an infrared laser...
January 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313254/aligned-electrospun-fibers-for-neural-patterning
#7
Erfan Soliman, Fabio Bianchi, James N Sleigh, Julian H George, M Zameel Cader, Zhanfeng Cui, Hua Ye
OBJECTIVES: To test a 3D approach for neural network formation, alignment, and patterning that is reproducible and sufficiently stable to allow for easy manipulation. RESULTS: A novel cell culture system was designed by engineering a method for the directional growth of neurons. This uses NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells cultured on suspended and aligned electrospun fibers. These fiber networks improved cellular directionality, with alignment angle standard deviations significantly lower on fibers than on regular culture surfaces...
January 8, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311563/ensemble-landmarking-of-3d-facial-surface-scans
#8
Markus A de Jong, Pirro Hysi, Tim Spector, Wiro Niessen, Maarten J Koudstaal, Eppo B Wolvius, Manfred Kayser, Stefan Böhringer
Landmarking of 3D facial surface scans is an important analysis step in medical and biological applications, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Manual landmarking is often employed with considerable cost and rater dependent variability. Landmarking automatically with minimal training is therefore desirable. We apply statistical ensemble methods to improve automated landmarking of 3D facial surface scans. Base landmarking algorithms using features derived from 3D surface scans are combined using either bagging or stacking...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301597/surface-based-morphometry-of-human-brain-intra-individual-comparison-between-3t-and-7t-high-resolution-structural-mr-imaging
#9
Zhiye Chen, Meng-Qi Liu, Lin Ma
ObjectiveHigh resolution structural MR imaging can reveal structural characteristics of cerebral cortex and provide an insight into normal brain development and neuropsychological diseases. The aim of this study was to compare cortical structural characteristics of normal human brain between 3T and 7T MRI systems using surface-based morphometry based on high resolution structural MR imaging. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers were scanned by both 3T with 3D T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo (3D T1-FSPGR) sequence and 7T with 3D T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (3D T1-MPRAGE) sequence...
December 30, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301258/improvement-in-electrode-performance-of-novel-swcnt-loaded-three-dimensional-porous-rvc-composite-electrodes-by-electrochemical-deposition-method
#10
Ali Aldalbahi, Mostafizur Rahaman, Mohammed Almoigli, Al Yahya Meriey, Khalid N Alharbi
The three-dimensional (3D) composite electrodes were prepared by depositing different amounts of acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (a-SWCNTs) on porous reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) through the electrochemical deposition method. The SWCNT was functionalized by the reflux method in nitric acid and was proven by Raman and visible spectra. The optimum time for sonication to disperse the functionalized SWCNT (a-SWCNT) in dimethyl formamide (DMF) well was determined by UV spectra. The average pore size of RVC electrodes was calculated from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images...
January 1, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299627/3d-vascular-anatomy-of-the-presacral-space-impact-of-age-and-adiposity
#11
Alexander A Berger, Steven Abramowitch, Pamela A Moalli
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Defining patient characteristics that alter vascular anatomy at the sacrum is critical for avoiding life-threatening bleeding at the time of sacrocolpopexy. We tested the hypothesis that in thinner/older women, the bifurcations of the aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) are lower relative to S1 resulting in less space accessible for suture/mesh placement, placing this group at increased risk of major vascular injury. METHODS: In a retrospective cross-sectional study, CT scans were used to make 2D measurements and a 3D model of the aorta/IVC, intervertebral disc space, and bony anatomy using segmentation and modeling software...
January 3, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299614/cortical-and-subcortical-morphometric-and-iron-changes-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-and-their-association-with-white-matter-t2%C3%A2-lesion-load-a%C3%A2-3-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#12
Ali Al-Radaideh, Imad Athamneh, Hadeel Alabadi, Majed Hbahbih
INTRODUCTION: This study was carried out to investigate the global and regional morphometric and iron changes in grey matter (GM) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and link them to the white matter (WM) lesions in a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 30 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients along with 30 age-matched healthy controls (HC) who were scanned on a 3T Siemens Trio system. The scanning protocol included a 3D, high resolution T1, T2, and T2*-weighted sequences...
January 3, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288823/high-resolution-3d-microscopy-study-of-cardiomyocytes-on-polymer-scaffold-nanofibers-reveals-formation-of-unusual-sheathed-structure
#13
Victor Balashov, Anton Efimov, Olga Agapova, Alexander Pogorelov, Igor Agapov, Konstantin Agladze
Building functional and robust scaffolds for engineered biological tissue requires a nanoscale mechanistic understanding of how cells use the scaffold for their growth and development. A vast majority of the scaffolds used for cardiac tissue engineering are based on polymer materials, the matrices of nanofibers. Attempts to load the polymer fibers of the scaffold with additional sophisticated features, such as electrical conductivity and controlled release of the growth factors or other biologically active molecules, as well as trying to match the mechanical features of the scaffold to those of the extracellular matrix, cannot be efficient without a detailed knowledge of how the cells are attached and strategically positioned with respect to the scaffold nanofibers at micro and nanolevel...
December 27, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286366/high-resolution-confocal-imaging-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-imaging-3d-reconstruction-and-quantification-of-transcytosis
#14
Roberto Villaseñor, Ludovic Collin
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic multicellular interface that regulates the transport of molecules between the circulation and the brain. Transcytosis across the BBB regulates the delivery of hormones, metabolites, and therapeutic antibodies to the brain parenchyma. Here, we present a protocol that combines immunofluorescence of free-floating sections with laser scanning confocal microscopy and image analysis to visualize subcellular organelles within endothelial cells at the BBB. Combining this data-set with 3D image analysis software allows for the semi-automated segmentation and quantification of capillary volume and surface area, as well as the number and intensity of intracellular organelles at the BBB...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285552/focal-cortical-thinning-in-patients-with-stable-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-cross-sectional-based-novel-estimation-of-gray-matter-kinetics
#15
Lior Orbach, Shay Menascu, Chen Hoffmann, Shmuel Miron, Anat Achiron
PURPOSE: The aim of our study is to identify radiological patterns of cortical gray matter atrophy (CGMA) that correlate with disease duration in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: RRMS patients were randomly selected from the Sheba Multiple Sclerosis (MS) center computerized data registry based on stratification of disease duration up to 10 years. Patients were scanned by 3.0 T (Signa, GE) MRI, using a T1 weighted 3D high resolution, FSPGR, MS protocol...
February 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282550/bioactive-calcium-silicate-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-composite-scaffolds-3d-printed-under-mild-conditions-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#16
Yen-Hong Lin, Yung-Cheng Chiu, Yu-Fang Shen, Yuan-Haw Andrew Wu, Ming-You Shie
The present study provides a solvent-free processing method for establishing the ideal porous 3-dimension (3D) scaffold filled with different ratios of calcium silicate-based (CS) powder and polycaprolactone (PCL) for 3D bone substitute application. Characterization of hybrid scaffolds developed underwent assessments for physicochemical properties and biodegradation. Adhesion and growth of human Wharton's Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) on the CS/PCL blended scaffold were investigated in vitro. Cell attachment and morphology were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal microscope observations...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279759/a-standardization-model-based-on-image-recognition-for-performance-evaluation-of-an-oral-scanner
#17
Sang-Wan Seo, Wan-Sun Lee, Jae-Young Byun, Kyu-Bok Lee
PURPOSE: Accurate information is essential in dentistry. The image information of missing teeth is used in optically based medical equipment in prosthodontic treatment. To evaluate oral scanners, the standardized model was examined from cases of image recognition errors of linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and a model that combines the variables with reference to ISO 12836:2015 was designed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The basic model was fabricated by applying 4 factors to the tooth profile (chamfer, groove, curve, and square) and the bottom surface...
December 2017: Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275932/an-in-vitro-study-to-assess-the-feasibility-validity-and-precision-of-capturing-oncology-facial-defects-with-multimodal-image-fusion
#18
Rachael Y Jablonski, Cecilie A Osnes, Balvinder S Khambay, Brian R Nattress, Andrew J Keeling
AIM: Assess the feasibility, validity and precision of multimodal image fusion to capture oncology facial defects based on plaster casts. METHODS: Ten casts of oncology facial defects were acquired. To create gold standard models, a 3D volumetric scan of each cast was obtained with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner (NewTomVG). This was converted into surface data using open-source medical segmentation software and cropped to produce a CBCT mask using an open-source system for editing meshes...
December 21, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251786/multipoint-scanning-dual-detection-confocal-microscopy-for-fast-3d-volumetric-measurement
#19
D Lee, D-G Gweon, H Yoo
We propose a multipoint scanning dual-detection confocal microscopy (MS-DDCM) system for fast 3D volumetric measurements. Unlike conventional confocal microscopy, MS-DDCM can accomplish surface profiling without axial scanning. Also, to rapidly obtain 2D images, the MS-DDCM employs a multipoint scanning technique, with a digital micromirror device used to produce arrays of effective pinholes, which are then scanned. The MS-DDCM is composed of two CCDs: one collects the conjugate images and the other collects nonconjugate images...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248870/preventing-damage-and-redeposition-during-focused-ion-beam-milling-the-umbrella-method
#20
T Vermeij, E Plancher, C C Tasan
Focused ion beam (FIB) milling has enabled the development of key microstructure characterization techniques (e.g. 3D electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), 3D scanning electron microscopy imaging, site-specific sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy, site-specific atom probe tomography), and micro-mechanical testing techniques (e.g. micro-pillar compression, micro-beam bending, in-situ TEM nanoindentation). Yet, in most milling conditions, some degree of FIB damage is introduced via material redeposition, Ga+ ion implantation or another mechanism...
December 7, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
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