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Impact brain apnoea

Rosemary S C Horne, Sunjuri Sun, Stephanie R Yiallourou, Karinna L Fyfe, Alexsandria Odoi, Flora Y Wong
KEY POINTS: Periodic breathing and apnoea were more common in preterm compared to age-matched term-born infants across the first 6 months after term-corrected age. Periodic breathing decreased with age in both term and preterm infants. Apnoea duration was not different between groups; however, the decline in apnoea index with postnatal age observed in the term infants was not seen in the preterm infants. Falls in tissue oxygenation index (brain TOI) associated with apnoeas were greater in the preterm infants at all three ages studied...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Stephanie Alison Ward, Elsdon Storey, Robyn L Woods, Garun S Hamilton, Ryo Kawasaki, Andrew L Janke, Matthew T Naughton, Fergal O'Donoghue, Rory Wolfe, Tien Y Wong, Christopher M Reid, Walter P Abhayaratna, Nigel Stocks, Ruth Trevaks, Sharyn Fitzgerald, Lauren A B Hodgson, Liubov Robman, Barbara Workman, John J McNeil
PURPOSE: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in older adults. Increasing evidence links SDB to the risk of dementia, mediated via a number of pathways, some of which may be attenuated by low-dose aspirin. This study will evaluate, in a healthy older cohort, the prospective relationship between SDB and cognitive function, changes in retinal and cerebral microvasculature, and determine whether low-dose aspirin ameliorates the effects of SDB on these outcomes over 3years...
January 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
P J Santosh, L Bell, K Lievesley, J Singh, F Fiori
BACKGROUND: Rett Syndrome (RTT), caused by a loss-of-function in the epigenetic modulator: X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), is a pervasive neurological disorder characterized by compromised brain functions, anxiety, severe mental retardation, language and learning disabilities, repetitive stereotyped hand movements and developmental regression. An imbalance in the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system (dysautonomia) and the resulting autonomic storms is a frequent occurrence in patients with RTT...
November 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Mark H Wilson, John Hinds, Gareth Grier, Brian Burns, Simon Carley, Gareth Davies
OBJECTIVE: Early death following cranial trauma is often considered unsurvivable traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, Impact Brain Apnoea (IBA), the phenomenon of apnoea following TBI, may be a significant and preventable contributor to death attributed to primary injury. This paper reviews the history of IBA, cites case examples and reports a survey of emergency responder experience. METHODS: Literature and narrative review and focused survey of pre-hospital physicians...
August 2016: Resuscitation
Takuo Arikawa, Shigeru Toyoda, Akiko Haruyama, Hirohisa Amano, Shu Inami, Naoyuki Otani, Masashi Sakuma, Isao Taguchi, Shichiro Abe, Koichi Node, Teruo Inoue
BACKGROUND: The impact of obstructive sleep apnoea on heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is unknown. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients who had heart failure with a left ventricular ejection fraction; ≥50% underwent a sleep study. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were determined at enrolment and at one, six, 12 and 36 months after enrolment. RESULTS: Obstructive sleep apnoea was found in 39 patients (67%), and they were all subsequently treated with continuous positive airway pressure...
May 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Lisa J Jones, Paul D Craven, Anil Lakkundi, Jann P Foster, Nadia Badawi
BACKGROUND: With improvements in neonatal intensive care, more preterm infants are surviving the neonatal period and presenting for surgery in early infancy. Inguinal hernia is the most common condition requiring early surgery, appearing in 38% of infants whose birth weight is between 751 grams and 1000 grams. Approximately 20% to 30% of otherwise healthy preterm infants having general anaesthesia for inguinal hernia surgery at a postmature age have at least one apnoeic episode within the postoperative period...
June 9, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ds Urquhart
Sleep-disordered breathing includes disorders of breathing that affect airway patency, e.g. obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, and also conditions that affect respiratory drive (central sleep disorders) or cause hypoventilation, either as a direct central effect or due to peripheral muscle weakness. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is an increasingly-recognised clinical entity affecting up to 5.7% of children, which, if left untreated, is associated with adverse effects on growth and development including deleterious cognitive and behavioural outcomes...
July 2013: Hippokratia
Troy J Cross, Justin J Kavanagh, Toni Breskovic, Petra Zubin Maslov, Mihajlo Lojpur, Bruce D Johnson, Zeljko Dujic
The effects of involuntary respiratory contractions on the cerebral blood flow response to maximal apnoea is presently unclear. We hypothesised that while respiratory contractions may augment left ventricular stroke volume, cardiac output and ultimately cerebral blood flow during the struggle phase, these contractions would simultaneously cause marked 'respiratory' variability in blood flow to the brain. Respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular parameters were measured in ten trained, male apnoea divers during maximal 'dry' breath holding...
2013: PloS One
Akiomi Yoshihisa, Satoshi Suzuki, Takayoshi Yamaki, Koichi Sugimoto, Hiroyuki Kunii, Kazuhiko Nakazato, Hitoshi Suzuki, Shu-ichi Saitoh, Yasuchika Takeishi
AIMS: Effective pharmacotherapy for heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) is still unclear. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes cardiovascular dysfunction, giving rise to factors involved in HFpEF. However, it remains unclear whether adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) improves cardiovascular function and long-term prognosis of patients with HFpEF and SDB. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-six patients with HFpEF (LVEF >50%) and moderate to severe SDB (apnoea-hypopnoea index >15/h) were enrolled...
May 2013: European Journal of Heart Failure
Seo-Kyung Chung, Anna Bode, Thomas D Cushion, Rhys H Thomas, Charlotte Hunt, Sian-Elin Wood, William O Pickrell, Cheney J G Drew, Sumimasa Yamashita, Rita Shiang, Steffen Leiz, Ann-Carolyn Longardt, Ann-Carolyn Longhardt, Vera Raile, Bernhard Weschke, Ratna D Puri, Ishwar C Verma, Robert J Harvey, Didi D Ratnasinghe, Michael Parker, Chris Rittey, Amira Masri, Lokesh Lingappa, Owain W Howell, Jean-François Vanbellinghen, Jonathan G Mullins, Joseph W Lynch, Mark I Rees
Glycinergic neurotransmission is a major inhibitory influence in the CNS and its disruption triggers a paediatric and adult startle disorder, hyperekplexia. The postsynaptic α(1)-subunit (GLRA1) of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) and the cognate presynaptic glycine transporter (SLC6A5/GlyT2) are well-established genes of effect in hyperekplexia. Nevertheless, 52% of cases (117 from 232) remain gene negative and unexplained. Ligand-gated heteropentameric GlyRs form chloride ion channels that contain the α(1) and β-subunits (GLRB) in a 2α(1):3β configuration and they form the predominant population of GlyRs in the postnatal and adult human brain, brainstem and spinal cord...
March 1, 2013: Human Molecular Genetics
Dale C Hesdorffer, Torbjorn Tomson
Among people with epilepsy, there is a 20-fold higher risk of dying suddenly and unexpectedly compared with the general population. This phenomenon is called sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and the term is used when sudden death occurs in an otherwise reasonably healthy person with epilepsy and the autopsy is unrevealing. In most cases, SUDEP occurs during sleep and is unwitnessed. Risk factors for SUDEP include the presence or number of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), nocturnal seizures, young age at epilepsy onset, longer duration of epilepsy, dementia, absence of cerebrovascular disease, asthma, male gender, symptomatic aetiology of epilepsy and alcohol abuse...
February 2013: CNS Drugs
Ahmed Fahim, Anthony O C Johnson
Sleep apnoea is a common disorder with significant morbidity. It is categorised into obstructive and central sleep apnoea. There are a variety of conditions associated with central sleep apnoea ranging from cardiac failure to structural brain anomalies. We herein report a case of 57-year-old woman with Chiari malformation associated with significant sleep-disordered breathing. There was a family history of Chiari malformation. Although neurosurgical intervention had a significant impact on apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) with a reduction from 81/h preoperatively to 22...
2012: BMJ Case Reports
David Schurter, Julia Braun, Rolf Jenni, Bernd Van Der Loo
OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a technically simple and safe procedure. PFO is a common finding present in up to one third of the population. Although several conditions such as stroke, migraine, and sleep apnoea have been associated with a PFO, as underlined by observational studies, no causal relationship has been documented so far. As this setting may potentially leave more space for the involved physicians for the choice of treatment, we hypothesized that social characteristics of the patient with a PFO might play a role...
February 2012: Acta Cardiologica
Waney Squier
The "Shaken Baby" syndrome (SBS) is the subject of intense controversy; the diagnosis has in the past depended on the triad of subdural haemorrhage (SDH), retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy. While there is no doubt that infants do suffer abusive injury at the hands of their carers and that impact can cause catastrophic intracranial damage, research has repeatedly undermined the hypothesis that shaking per se can cause this triad. The term non-accidental head injury has therefore been widely adopted...
November 2011: Acta Neuropathologica
Lisa M Walter, Gillian M Nixon, Margot J Davey, Denise M O'Driscoll, John Trinder, Rosemary S C Horne
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep-disordered breathing in children is most prevalent in the pre-school years and has been associated with sleep fragmentation and hypoxia. We aimed to compare the sleep and spontaneous arousal characteristics of 3-5-year-old children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with that of non-snoring control children, and to further characterise the arousal responses to obstructive respiratory events. METHODS: A total of 73 children (48 male) underwent overnight polysomnography: 51 for assessment of snoring who were subsequently diagnosed with OSA (obstructive apnoea hypopnoea index (OAHI)>1 event per h) and 22 control children recruited from the community (OAHI ≤ 1 and no history of snoring)...
October 2011: Sleep Medicine
Tanja Klein-Rodewald, Thomas Seeger, Mathias Dutschmann, Franz Worek, Michael Mörschel
The impact of organophosphorus compound (OP) intoxication on the activity of central respiratory circuitry, causing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and accumulation of acetylcholine in the respiratory brainstem circuits, is not understood. We investigated the central effect of the OP Crotylsarin (CRS) on respiratory network activity using the working heart brainstem preparation, which specifically allows for the analysis of central drug effects without changes in brainstem oxygenation possibly caused by drug effects on peripheral cardio-respiratory activity...
September 25, 2011: Toxicology Letters
Lars Lüthje, Bernd Renner, Roger Kessels, Dirk Vollmann, Tobias Raupach, Bart Gerritse, Selcuk Tasci, Jörg O Schwab, Markus Zabel, Dieter Zenker, Peter Schott, Gerd Hasenfuss, Christina Unterberg-Buchwald, Stefan Andreas
AIMS: The combined therapeutic impact of atrial overdrive pacing (AOP) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on central sleep apnoea (CSA) in chronic heart failure (CHF) so far has not been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of CRT alone and CRT + AOP on CSA in CHF patients and to compare the influence of CRT on CHF between CSA positive and CSA negative patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty patients with CRT indication underwent full night polysomnography, echocardiography, exercise testing, and neurohumoral evaluation before and 3 months after CRT implantation...
March 2009: European Journal of Heart Failure
Austin Chin Chwan Ng, Glen Macartney Davis, Chin Moi Chow, Andrew J S Coats, Andrew Paul Sindone, Benedict Freedman
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in medical therapy, sleep disordered breathing (SDB) remains highly prevalent in chronic heart failure (CHF). The impact of severity of SDB on sympathovagal balance, central hemodynamic responses and cardiopulmonary functional status in these patients is uncertain. METHODS: Thirteen patients with stable CHF (mean age+/-10 years; 12 NYHA Class II, 1 Class III) identified with SDB (apnoea-hypopnoea index [AHI] >or=5) by polysomnography underwent echocardiography, standard hemodynamic and functional assessment, heart rate variability analysis and treadmill cardiopulmonary testing...
June 11, 2010: International Journal of Cardiology
Visnja Tokic, Ingeborg Barisic, Nevenka Huzjak, Giorgie Petkovic, Ksenija Fumic, Eduard Paschke
UNLABELLED: Although offered, two of our Hurler patients (OMIM 607014) had not undergone bone marrow transplantation at an early stage of their disease. Rapid disease progression had resulted in a range of signs and symptoms representative of advanced neurodegeneration and debilitating somatic Hurler disease. As general palliative care had only little impact on the burden of disease, laronidase (Aldurazyme) treatment was introduced in an attempt to alleviate somatic symptoms and to improve the quality of their lives...
July 2007: European Journal of Pediatrics
Archana Rao, Panagiota Georgiadou, Darrel P Francis, Andrew Johnson, Dimitris Th Kremastinos, Anita K Simonds, Andrew J S Coats, Alan Cowley, Mary J Morrell
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sleep-related breathing disorders (SDB) in a UK general heart failure (HF) population, and assess its impact on neurohumoral markers and symptoms of sleepiness and quality of life. Eighty-four ambulatory patients (72 male, mean (SD) age 68.6 (10) yrs) attending UK HF clinics underwent an overnight recording of respiratory impedance, SaO2 and heart rate using a portable monitor (Nexan). Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and urinary catecholamines were measured...
March 2006: Journal of Sleep Research
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