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Lithium neurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423937/concordance-of-several-subcellular-interactions-initiates-alzheimer-s-dementia-their-reversal-requires-combination-treatment
#1
W J Fessel
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease involves multiple pathways that, at the macrolevel, include decreased proliferation plus increased loss affecting neurons, astrocytes, and capillaries and, at the subcellular level, involve several elements: amyloid/amyloid precursor protein, presenilins, the unfolded protein response, the ubiquitin/proteasome system, the Wnt/catenin system, the Notch signaling system, mitochondria, mitophagy, calcium, and tau. Data presented show the intimate, anatomical interactions between neurons, astrocytes, and capillaries; the interactions between the several subcellular factors affecting those cells; and the treatments that are currently available and that might correct dysfunctions in the subcellular factors...
May 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415676/nitrobenzylthioinosine-mimics-adenosine-to-attenuate-the-epileptiform-discharge-of-hippocampal-neurons-from-epileptic-rats
#2
Hao Huang, Jing Wang, Jun Zhang, Zhong Luo, Dongxu Li, Xiaowei Qiu, Yan Peng, Zhongxiang Xu, Ping Xu, Zucai Xu
Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), a specific inhibitor of type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter, could regulate the extracellular adenosine concentration and have protective roles in seizures. However, the protection mechanism of NBTI in seizures remains poorly understood. Here, the expression pattern and subcellular distribution of adenosine A1 receptor were detected by Western blot analysis and double-labeling immunofluorescence staining in Lithium Chloride-Pilocarpine induced epileptic rat model. At 24 h after pilocarpine induced rat seizures, hippocampal slices were prepared and the evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) amplitude of pyramidal neurons in hippocampus CA1 region was recorded using whole-cell patch clamp...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408639/interaction-between-neuronal-calcium-sensor-protein-1-and-lithium-in-pedunculopontine-neurons
#3
Stasia D'Onofrio, James Hyde, Edgar Garcia-Rill
Bipolar disorder is characterized by sleep dysregulation, suggesting a role for the reticular activating system (RAS). Postmortem studies showed increased expression of neuronal calcium sensor protein 1 (NCS-1) in the brains of some bipolar disorder patients, and reduced or aberrant gamma band activity is present in the same disorder. Lithium (Li(+)) has been shown to effectively treat the mood disturbances in bipolar disorder patients. We previously showed that NCS-1 at low levels increased, and at high levels decreased, gamma oscillations in RAS pedunculopontine neurons (PPN), and that Li(+) decreased these oscillations...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390940/ginkgo-biloba-l-attenuates-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-and-associated-neurological-conditions-in-lithium-pilocarpine-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-through-inhibition-of-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway-hyperactivation
#4
Arindam Ghosh Mazumder, Pallavi Sharma, Vikram Patial, Damanpreet Singh
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) has been widely used in traditional medicine for variety of neurological conditions particularly behavioral and memory impairments. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was envisaged to explore the effect of a standardized fraction of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBbf) in rat model of lithium-pilocarpine induced spontaneous recurrent seizures, and associated behavioral impairments and cognitive deficit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats showing appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures following lithium pilocarpine (LiPc)-induced status epilepticus (SE) were treated with different doses of GBbf or vehicle for subsequent 4 weeks...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387136/the-protective-effect-of-aucubin-from-eucommia-ulmoides-against-status-epilepticus-by-inducing-autophagy-and-inhibiting-necroptosis
#5
Jin Wang, Ying Li, Wei-Hua Huang, Xiang-Chang Zeng, Xiao-Hui Li, Jian Li, Jun Zhou, Jian Xiao, Bo Xiao, Dong-Sheng Ouyang, Kai Hu
Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. is a famous traditional Chinese medicine which exhibits anti-oxidative stress ability and neuro-protective effects. Aucubin is the predominant component of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Our present study is intended to investigate aucubin's potential protective effects on neurons against epilepsy in the hippocampus by establishing the lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (SE) rat model in vivo. Aucubin (at a low dose and a high dose of 5[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg, respectively) was administered through gavage for two weeks before lithium-pilocarpine injection...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385536/mining-the-topography-and-dynamics-of-the-4d-nucleome-to-identify-novel-cns-drug-pathways
#6
Gerald A Higgins, Ari Allyn-Feuer, Patrick Georgoff, Vahagn Nikolian, Hasan Alam, Brian D Athey
The pharmacoepigenome can be defined as the active, noncoding province of the genome including canonical spatial and temporal regulatory mechanisms of gene regulation that respond to xenobiotic stimuli. Many psychotropic drugs that have been in clinical use for decades have ill-defined mechanisms of action that are beginning to be resolved as we understand the transcriptional hierarchy and dynamics of the nucleus. In this review, we describe spatial, temporal and biomechanical mechanisms mediated by psychotropic medications...
April 3, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372486/the-effect-of-il-1%C3%AE-on-synaptophysin-expression-and-electrophysiology-of-hippocampal-neurons-through-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Zhaohua Xiao, Jing Peng, Liwen Wu, Ahmed Arafat, Fei Yin
BACKGROUND: The inflammation induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Synaptophysin (SYN) and other changes, including neuron electrophysiology, participate in the pathophysiological processes of MTLE. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway may play a critical role in regulating SYN expression and electrophysiology of hippocampal neurons. METHODS: We used lithium-pilocarpine-treated rats as model of human MTLE, detecting epileptic seizures with digital video-EEG, and evaluating the proteins related to the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway by western blot (WB)...
April 4, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366776/involvement-of-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-creb-signaling-pathway-on-chronic-omethoate-induced-depressive-like-behavior-and-improvement-effects-of-combined-lithium-chloride-and-astaxanthin-treatment
#8
Jingwen Qiao, Lixia Rong, Zhaoyue Wang, Meizeng Zhang
Chronic organophosphorus pesticides (OP) exposure is associated with an increased risk of depression, and there is an urgent need to find an effective treatment for the depressive-like symptoms caused by OP. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether combined lithium chloride (LiCl) and astaxanthin (AST) treatment would manifest synergetic antidepressant effects on mice with chronic OP exposure, and to determine the role of the Akt/GSK3β/CREB signaling pathway. Our results showed that chronic omethoate exposure significantly increased immobility time in behavioral tests and induced neuron damage in HE staining...
March 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264506/plasma-membrane-na%C3%A2-%C2%BA-coupled-citrate-transporter-slc13a5-and-neonatal-epileptic-encephalopathy
#9
REVIEW
Yangzom D Bhutia, Jonathan J Kopel, John J Lawrence, Volker Neugebauer, Vadivel Ganapathy
SLC13A5 is a Na⁺-coupled transporter for citrate that is expressed in the plasma membrane of specific cell types in the liver, testis, and brain. It is an electrogenic transporter with a Na⁺:citrate(3-) stoichiometry of 4:1. In humans, the Michaelis constant for SLC13A5 to transport citrate is ~600 μM, which is physiologically relevant given that the normal concentration of citrate in plasma is in the range of 150-200 μM. Li⁺ stimulates the transport function of human SLC13A5 at concentrations that are in the therapeutic range in patients on lithium therapy...
February 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253260/direct-keap1-nrf2-disruption-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Fiona Kerr, Oyinkan Sofola-Adesakin, Dobril K Ivanov, Jemma Gatliff, Beatriz Gomez Perez-Nievas, Hélène C Bertrand, Pedro Martinez, Rebecca Callard, Inge Snoeren, Helena M Cochemé, Jennifer Adcott, Mobina Khericha, Jorge Iván Castillo-Quan, Geoffrey Wells, Wendy Noble, Janet Thornton, Linda Partridge
Nrf2, a transcriptional activator of cell protection genes, is an attractive therapeutic target for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current Nrf2 activators, however, may exert toxicity and pathway over-activation can induce detrimental effects. An understanding of the mechanisms mediating Nrf2 inhibition in neurodegenerative conditions may therefore direct the design of drugs targeted for the prevention of these diseases with minimal side-effects. Our study provides the first in vivo evidence that specific inhibition of Keap1, a negative regulator of Nrf2, can prevent neuronal toxicity in response to the AD-initiating Aβ42 peptide, in correlation with Nrf2 activation...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242870/neurons-derived-from-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-divide-into-intrinsically-different-sub-populations-of-neurons-predicting-the-patients-responsiveness-to-lithium
#11
S Stern, R Santos, M C Marchetto, A P D Mendes, G A Rouleau, S Biesmans, Q-W Wang, J Yao, P Charnay, A G Bang, M Alda, F H Gage
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a progressive psychiatric disorder with more than 3% prevalence worldwide. Affected individuals experience recurrent episodes of depression and mania, disrupting normal life and increasing the risk of suicide greatly. The complexity and genetic heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders have challenged the development of animal and cellular models. We recently reported that hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts of BD patients are electrophysiologically hyperexcitable...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214985/melatonin-alleviates-the-epilepsy-associated-impairments-in-hippocampal-ltp-and-spatial-learning-through-rescue-of-surface-glur2-expression-at-hippocampal-ca1-synapses
#12
Yue Ma, Xiaolong Sun, Juan Li, Ruihua Jia, Fang Yuan, Dong Wei, Wen Jiang
Epilepsy-associated cognitive impairment is common, and negatively impacts patients' quality of life. However, most antiepileptic drugs focus on the suppression of seizures, and fewer emphasize treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized primarily in the pineal grand, is reported to be neuroprotective against several central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether melatonin could reverse cognitive dysfunction in lithium-pilocarpine treated rats. Chronic treatment with melatonin (8 mg/kg daily for 15 days) after induction of status epilepticus significantly alleviated seizure severity, reduced neuronal death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, improved spatial learning (as measured by the Morris water maze test), and reversed LTP impairments, compared to vehicle treatment...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195155/how-native-and-alien-metal-cations-bind-atp-implications-for-lithium-as-a-therapeutic-agent
#13
Todor Dudev, Cédric Grauffel, Carmay Lim
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the major energy currency of the cell, exists in solution mostly as ATP-Mg. Recent experiments suggest that Mg(2+) interacts with the highly charged ATP triphosphate group and Li(+) can co-bind with the native Mg(2+) to form ATP-Mg-Li and modulate the neuronal purine receptor response. However, it is unclear how the negatively charged ATP triphosphate group binds Mg(2+) and Li(+) (i.e. which phosphate group(s) bind Mg(2+)/Li(+)) and how the ATP solution conformation depends on the type of metal cation and the metal-binding mode...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177687/curcumin-protects-neuronal-cells-against-status-epilepticus-induced-hippocampal-damage-through-induction-of-autophagy-and-inhibition-of-necroptosis
#14
Jin Wang, Yuan Liu, Xiao-Hui Li, Xiang-Chang Zeng, Jian Li, Jun Zhou, Bo Xiao, Kai Hu
Status epilepticus, the most severe form of epilepsy, is characterized by progressive functional and structural damage in the hippocampus, ultimately leading to the development and clinical appearance of spontaneous, recurrent seizures. Though the pathogenesis underlying epileptogenesis processes remains unclear, a substantial body of evidence has shown that status epilepticus acts as an important initial factor in triggering epileptogenesis. Notably, besides classical cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necrosis, two novel regulators of cell fate known as necroptosis and autophagy, are demonstrated to be involved in neuronal damage in various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders...
December 9, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138157/forebrain-specific-ablation-of-phospholipase-c%C3%AE-1-causes-manic-like-behavior
#15
Y R Yang, J H Jung, S-J Kim, K Hamada, A Suzuki, H J Kim, J H Lee, O-B Kwon, Y K Lee, J Kim, E-K Kim, H-J Jang, D-S Kang, J-S Choi, C J Lee, J Marshall, H-Y Koh, C-J Kim, H Seok, S H Kim, J H Choi, Y-B Choi, L Cocco, S H Ryu, J-H Kim, P-G Suh
Manic episodes are one of the major diagnostic symptoms in a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders that include schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder (BD). Despite a possible association between BD and the gene encoding phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCG1), its etiological basis remains unclear. Here, we report that mice lacking phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) in the forebrain (Plcg1(f/f); CaMKII) exhibit hyperactivity, decreased anxiety-like behavior, reduced depressive-related behavior, hyperhedonia, hyperphagia, impaired learning and memory and exaggerated startle responses...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120140/lithium-chloride-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-of-rat-neural-stem-cells-and-enhances-neural-regeneration-in-parkinson-s-disease-model
#16
Li Qi, Yonggang Tang, Wei He, Honghua Pan, Wenxian Jiang, Lin Wang, Weilin Deng
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neural degenerative disease, affecting millions of people globally. Great progress has been made in the PD treatment, and one of the most promising one is the stem cell-based therapy. Thus, studies on the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) are important to the advancement in PD therapy. In this study, we used the rat NSCs to elucidate the role of Lithium in the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs by immunostaining against Ki67 and BrdU analysis as well as immunostaining against specific neuronal markers...
April 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109985/the-synthetic-neuroactive-steroid-sge-516-reduces-status-epilepticus-and-neuronal-cell-death-in-a-rat-model-of-soman-intoxication
#17
Alison L Althaus, Hilary S McCarren, Aymen Alqazzaz, Cecelia Jackson, John H McDonough, Carl D Smith, Ethan Hoffman, Rebecca S Hammond, Albert J Robichaud, James J Doherty
Organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) are irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase that pose a serious threat to public health because of their use as chemical weapons. Exposure to high doses of OPNAs can dramatically potentiate cholinergic synaptic activity and cause status epilepticus (SE). Current standard of care for OPNA exposure involves treatment with cholinergic antagonists, oxime cholinesterase reactivators, and benzodiazepines. However, data from pre-clinical models suggest that OPNA-induced SE rapidly becomes refractory to benzodiazepines...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109561/lithium-reverses-behavioral-and-axonal-transport-related-changes-associated-with-ank3-bipolar-disorder-gene-disruption
#18
Michael G Gottschalk, Melanie P Leussis, Tillmann Ruland, Klaudio Gjeluci, Tracey L Petryshen, Sabine Bahn
Ankyrin 3 (ANK3) has been implicated as a genetic risk factor for bipolar disorder (BD), however the resulting pathophysiological and treatment implications remain elusive. In a preclinical systems biological approach, we aimed to characterize the behavioral and proteomic effects of Ank3 haploinsufficiency and chronic mood-stabilizer treatment in mice. Psychiatric-related behavior was evaluated with the novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) paradigm, elevated plus maze (EPM) and a passive avoidance task (PAT). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS(E)) was employed for hippocampal proteome profiling...
January 18, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101475/anticonvulsive-effects-of-licofelone-on-status-epilepticus-induced-by-lithium-pilocarpine-in-wistar-rats-a-role-for-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase
#19
Seyyed Majid Eslami, Mohammad Mobin Moradi, Mehdi Ghasemi, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological disorder with high prevalence and mortality rates, requiring immediate intervention. Licofelone is a cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitor, which its effectiveness to treat osteoarthritis has been approved. Increasing evidence suggests an involvement of COX and LOX enzymes in epileptic disorders. Thus, in the present study we investigate possible effects of licofelone on prevention and termination of SE...
December 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088383/evaluating-the-role-of-astrocytes-on-%C3%AE-estradiol-effect-on-seizures-of-pilocarpine-epileptic-model
#20
Masoumeh Sarfi, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani, Iran Goudarzi, Taghi Lashkar Boluki, Kataneh Abrari
Epilepsy with periodic and unpredictable seizures is associated with hippocampal glutamate toxicity and tissue reorganization. Astrocytes play an important role in mediating the neuroprotective effects of estradiol and reducing seizure severity. Accordingly, the protective effects of low and high doses of estradiol on behavioral, astrocytic involvement and neuronal survival aspects of Pilocarpine-induced epilepsy were investigated. Lithium- Pilocarpine (30mg/kg) model was used to provoke epilepsy. Βeta-estradiol (2,40μg/µl) was injected subcutaneously from 48 before to 48h after seizure induction...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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