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Lithium neurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917448/lithium-reversibly-inhibits-schwann-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-without-inducing-myelin-loss
#1
Gonzalo Piñero, Randall Berg, Natalia Denise Andersen, Patricia Setton-Avruj, Paula Virginia Monje
This study was undertaken to examine the bioactivity, specificity, and reversibility of lithium's action on the growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation of cultured Schwann cells (SCs). In isolated SCs, lithium promoted a state of cell cycle arrest that featured extensive cell enlargement and c-Jun downregulation in the absence of increased expression of myelin-associated markers. In addition, lithium effectively prevented mitogen-induced S-phase entry without impairing cell viability. When lithium was administered together with differentiating concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analogs, a dramatic inhibition of the expression of the master regulator of myelination Krox-20 was observed...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882645/long-term-lithium-treatment-increases-intracellular-and-extracellular-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-cortical-and-hippocampal-neurons-at-subtherapeutic-concentrations
#2
Vanessa J De-Paula, Wagner F Gattaz, Orestes V Forlenza
OBJECTIVES: The putative neuroprotective effects of lithium treatment rely on the fact that it modulates several homeostatic mechanisms involved in the neurotrophic response, autophagy, oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Lithium is a well-established therapeutic option for the acute and long-term management of bipolar disorder and major depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of subtherapeutic and therapeutic concentrations of chronic lithium treatment on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) synthesis and secretion...
November 24, 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882149/combination-of-endogenous-neural-stem-cell-mobilization-and-lithium-chloride-treatment-for-hydrocephalus-following-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#3
Qiang Yuan, Xing-Yao Bu, Zhao-Yue Yan, Xian-Zhi Liu, Zhen-Yu Wei, Chun-Xiao Ma, Ming-Qi Qu
As there are multiple factors causing hydrocephalus subsequent to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), it is difficult to achieve the best treatment effect using a single drug alone. In the present study, the protective effect of combination treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and lithium chloride against hydrocephalus after IVH was investigated. A total of 130 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups, including the IVH control, G-CSF treatment, lithium chloride treatment, combination treatment and sham surgery groups...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878228/lithium-carbonate-and-coenzyme-q10-reduce-cell-death-in-a-cell-model-of-machado-joseph-disease
#4
C M Lopes-Ramos, T C Pereira, D B Dogini, R Gilioli, I Lopes-Cendes
Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of the polyglutamine domain of the ataxin-3 (ATX3) protein. MJD/SCA3 is the most frequent autosomal dominant ataxia in many countries. The mechanism underlying MJD/SCA3 is thought to be mainly related to protein misfolding and aggregation leading to neuronal dysfunction followed by cell death. Currently, there are no effective treatments for patients with MJD/SCA3. Here, we report on the potential use of lithium carbonate and coenzyme Q10 to reduce cell death caused by the expanded ATX3 in cell culture...
November 21, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873133/altered-expression-of-cxcl13-and-cxcr5-in-intractable-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-pilocarpine-induced-epileptic-rats
#5
Ruohan Li, Limin Ma, Hao Huang, Shu Ou, Jinxian Yuan, Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Xi Liu, Juan Yang, Yangmei Chen, Xi Peng
The mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of epilepsy are still unclear. Recent studies have indicated that inflammatory processes occurring in the brain are involved in a common and crucial mechanism in epileptogenesis. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its only receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and participate in inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to assess the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in the brain tissues of both patients with intractable epilepsy (IE) and a rat model (lithium-pilocarpine) of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to identify possible roles of the CXCL13-CXCR5 signaling pathway in epileptogenesis...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853172/lithium-promotes-dna-stability-and-survival-of-ischemic-retinal-neurocytes-by-upregulating-dna-ligase-iv
#6
Ying Yang, Nandan Wu, Sijia Tian, Fan Li, Huan Hu, Pei Chen, Xiaoxiao Cai, Lijun Xu, Jing Zhang, Zhao Chen, Jian Ge, Keming Yu, Jing Zhuang
Neurons display genomic fragility and show fragmented DNA in pathological degeneration. A failure to repair DNA breaks may result in cell death or apoptosis. Lithium protects retinal neurocytes following nutrient deprivation or partial nerve crush, but the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. Here we demonstrate that pretreatment with lithium protects retinal neurocytes from ischemia-induced damage and enhances light response in rat retina following ischemia-reperfusion injury. Moreover, we found that DNA nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair is implicated in this process because in ischemic retinal neurocytes, lithium significantly reduces the number of γ-H2AX foci (well-characterized markers of DNA double-strand breaks in situ) and increases the DNA ligase IV expression level...
November 17, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832289/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-fractalkine-production-by-altering-its-trafficking-from-golgi-to-plasma-membrane-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Almudena Fuster-Matanzo, Jerónimo Jurado-Arjona, Stefano Benvegnù, Esther García, Patricia Martín-Maestro, Raquel Gómez-Sintes, Félix Hernández, Jesús Ávila
Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a serine-threonine kinase implicated in multiple processes and signaling pathways. Its dysregulation is associated with different pathological conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we demonstrate how changes in GSK-3β activity and/or levels regulate the production and subsequent secretion of fractalkine, a chemokine involved in the immune response that has been linked to AD and to other different neurological disorders. Treatment of primary cultured neurons with GSK-3β inhibitors such as lithium and AR-A014418 decreased full-length fractalkine in total cell extracts...
November 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793772/tcf7l2-mediates-the-cellular-and-behavioral-response-to-chronic-lithium-treatment-in-animal-models
#8
Katarzyna Misztal, Nikola Brozko, Andrzej Nagalski, Lukasz M Szewczyk, Marta Krolak, Katarzyna Brzozowska, Jacek Kuznicki, Marta B Wisniewska
The mechanism of lithium's therapeutic action remains obscure, hindering the discovery of safer treatments for bipolar disorder. Lithium can act as an inhibitor of the kinase GSK3α/β, which in turn negatively regulates β-catenin, a co-activator of LEF1/TCF transcription factors. However, unclear is whether therapeutic levels of lithium activate β-catenin in the brain, and whether this activation could have a therapeutic significance. To address this issue we chronically treated mice with lithium. Although the level of non-phospho-β-catenin increased in all of the brain areas examined, β-catenin translocated into cellular nuclei only in the thalamus...
October 25, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793771/lithium-increases-synaptic-glua2-in-hippocampal-neurons-by%C3%A2-elevating-the-%C3%AE-catenin-protein
#9
Mobeen Farooq, Seonil Kim, Sunny Patel, Latika Khatri, Takuya Hikima, Margaret E Rice, Edward B Ziff
Lithium (Li(+)) is a drug widely employed for treating bipolar disorder, however the mechanism of action is not known. Here we study the effects of Li(+) in cultured hippocampal neurons on a synaptic complex consisting of δ-catenin, a protein associated with cadherins whose mutation is linked to autism, and GRIP, an AMPA receptor (AMPAR) scaffolding protein, and the AMPAR subunit, GluA2. We show that Li(+) elevates the level of δ-catenin in cultured neurons. δ-catenin binds to the ABP and GRIP proteins, which are synaptic scaffolds for GluA2...
October 25, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777112/stereological-investigation-of-the-ca1-pyramidal-cell-layer-in-untreated-and-lithium-treated-3xtg-ad-and-wild-type-mice
#10
Evelin L Schaeffer, Sergio Catanozi, Mark J West, Wagner F Gattaz
Pyramidal neuron loss in the hippocampal CA1 region is a very early hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Lithium might be a therapeutic strategy for AD due to its neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties. This study used modern stereological techniques to investigate possible CA1 pyramidal neuron loss in 11-month-old triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice, and also the effects of therapeutic and subtherapeutic lithium doses on the number and density of CA1 pyramidal neurons and volume of CA1 pyramidal layer in 3xTg-AD and wild-type mice treated from 3 to 11 months of age...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770643/1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-of-glutamate-related-abnormality-in-bipolar-disorder
#11
Hiroko Kubo, Masahito Nakataki, Satsuki Sumitani, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shusuke Numata, Naomi Kameoka, Shin-Ya Watanabe, Hidehiro Umehara, Makoto Kinoshita, Masatoshi Inoshita, Mai Tamaru, Masashi Ohta, Chiaki Nakayama-Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Funakoshi, Masafumi Harada, Tetsuro Ohmori
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown neurophysiological abnormalities related to the glutamate (Glu)-glutamine (Gln) cycle, membrane turnover, and neuronal integrity, although the results were neither consistent nor conclusive. Recently it has been reported the Gln/Glu ratio is the most useful index, quantifying neuronal-glial interactions and the balance of glutamatergic metabolites In this MRS study, we elucidated the abnormalities of metabolites in a larger sample of patients with BD with a high-field MRI system...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752079/dixdc1-contributes-to-psychiatric-susceptibility-by-regulating-dendritic-spine-and-glutamatergic-synapse-density-via-gsk3-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#12
P-M Martin, R E Stanley, A P Ross, A E Freitas, C E Moyer, A C Brumback, J Iafrati, K S Stapornwongkul, S Dominguez, S Kivimäe, K A Mulligan, M Pirooznia, W R McCombie, J B Potash, P P Zandi, S M Purcell, S J Sanders, Y Zuo, V S Sohal, B N R Cheyette
Mice lacking DIX domain containing-1 (DIXDC1), an intracellular Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway protein, have abnormal measures of anxiety, depression and social behavior. Pyramidal neurons in these animals' brains have reduced dendritic spines and glutamatergic synapses. Treatment with lithium or a glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibitor corrects behavioral and neurodevelopmental phenotypes in these animals. Analysis of DIXDC1 in over 9000 cases of autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia reveals higher rates of rare inherited sequence-disrupting single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in these individuals compared with psychiatrically unaffected controls...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745527/association-between-mossy-fiber-sprouting-and-expression-of-semaphorin-3f-protein-in-dentate-gyrus-of-hippocampus-in-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-mouse-model
#13
Xiaodong Cai, Ling Long, Libai Yang, Ziyi Chen, Guanzhong Ni, Jiaming Qin, Jueqian Zhou, Liemin Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Mossy fiber sprouting is involved in the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. But the exact mechanism of formation of mossy fiber sprouting is still unclear. Semaphorin-3f protein could inhibit the growth of neuron axons. The aim of this research is to evaluate the association between semaphorin-3f expression and mossy fiber sprouting. METHODS: We established pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE) models firstly. Then, mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus of PISE models was examined by Timm staining...
October 17, 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738380/treatment-resistant-depression-with-loss-of-antidepressant-response-rapid-acting-antidepressant-action-of-dextromethorphan-a-possible-treatment-bridging-molecule
#14
Edward C Lauterbach
Dextromethorphan (DM) may have ketamine-like rapid-acting, treatment-resistant, and conventional antidepressant effects.(1,2) This reports our initial experience with DM in unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A patient with treatment-resistant MDD (failing adequate trials of citalopram and vortioxetine) with loss of antidepressant response (to fluoxetine and bupropion) twice experienced a rapid-acting antidepressant effect within 48 hours of DM administration and lasting 7 days, sustained up to 20 days with daily administration, then gradually developing labile loss of antidepressant response over the ensuing 7 days...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646265/pde11a-negatively-regulates-lithium-responsivity
#15
G Pathak, M J Agostino, K Bishara, W R Capell, J L Fisher, S Hegde, B A Ibrahim, K Pilarzyk, C Sabin, T Tuczkewycz, S Wilson, M P Kelly
Lithium responsivity in patients with bipolar disorder has been genetically associated with Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), and lithium decreases PDE11A mRNA in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hippocampal neurons originating from lithium-responsive patients. PDE11 is an enzyme uniquely enriched in the hippocampus that breaks down cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. Here we determined whether decreasing PDE11A expression is sufficient to increase lithium responsivity in mice. In dorsal hippocampus and ventral hippocampus (VHIPP), lithium-responsive C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac mice show decreased PDE11A4 protein expression relative to lithium-unresponsive BALB/cJ mice...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624386/neuronal-nos-induces-neuronal-differentiation-through-a-pkc%C3%AE-dependent-gsk3%C3%AE-inactivation-pathway-in-hippocampal-neural-progenitor-cells
#16
Shin-Young Park, Min-Jeong Kang, Joong-Soo Han
We investigated the role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from hippocampi of E16.5 rat embryos. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and nNOS expression increased markedly during neuronal differentiation as did the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT3), neurotrophin-4/5 (NT 4/5), and synapsin I. nNOS siRNA or the nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), decreased expression of the neurotrophins and synapsin I, and suppressed neurite outgrowth...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579184/microrna-132-interact-with-p250gap-cdc42-pathway-in-the-hippocampal-neuronal-culture-model-of-acquired-epilepsy-and-associated-with-epileptogenesis-process
#17
Jinxian Yuan, Hao Huang, Xin Zhou, Xi Liu, Shu Ou, Tao Xu, Ruohan Li, Limin Ma, Yangmei Chen
Increasing evidence suggests that epilepsy is the result of synaptic reorganization and pathological excitatory loop formation in the central nervous system; however, the mechanisms that regulate this process are not well understood. We proposed that microRNA-132 (miR-132) and p250GAP might play important roles in this process by activating the downstream Rho GTPase family. We tested this hypothesis using a magnesium-free medium-induced epileptic model of cultured hippocampal neurons. We investigated whether miR-132 regulates GTPase activity through p250GAP and found that Cdc42 was significantly activated in our experimental model...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537208/up-regulation-of-the-large-conductance-ca2-activated-k-channel-by-glycogen-synthase-kinase-gsk3%C3%AE
#18
Myriam Fezai, Musaab Ahmed, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The pleotropic functions of the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (maxi K+ channel or BK channels) include regulation of neuronal excitation and cell volume. Kinases participating in those functions include the glycogen synthase kinase GSK3 ß which is under negative control of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). GSK3ß is inhibited by the antidepressant Lithium. The present study thus explored whether GSK3ß modifies the activity of BK channels. METHODS: cRNA encoding the Ca2+ insensitive BK channel mutant BKM513I+Δ899-903 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type GSK3ß, inactive K85RGSK3ß, or wild-type GSK3ß with wild-type PKB...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500978/midazolam-ketamine-dual-therapy-stops-cholinergic-status-epilepticus-and-reduces-morris-water-maze-deficits
#19
Jerome Niquet, Roger Baldwin, Keith Norman, Lucie Suchomelova, Lucille Lumley, Claude G Wasterlain
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacoresistance remains an unsolved therapeutic challenge in status epilepticus (SE) and in cholinergic SE induced by nerve agent intoxication. SE triggers a rapid internalization of synaptic γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA ) receptors and externalization of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that may explain the loss of potency of standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We hypothesized that a drug combination aimed at correcting the consequences of receptor trafficking would reduce SE severity and its long-term consequences...
September 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471387/involvement-of-upregulation-of-mir-210-in-a-rat-epilepsy-model
#20
Licheng Chen, Hao Zheng, Shimeng Zhang
Epilepsy is a common type of neurological disorder with complex etiology. The mechanisms are still not clear. MicroRNAs are endogenous noncoding RNAs with many physiological activities. Multiple microRNAs were abnormally expressed in status epilepticus, including miR-210. In this study, we applied lithium chloride and pilocarpine to induce epileptic activity and aimed to disclose the potential mechanisms. Our data showed that miR-210 was significantly upregulated in hippocampus one day after modeling (P<0...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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