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# dynamic indices

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#1
Yingjin Ma, Stefan Knecht, Markus Reiher
We analyze resonance Raman spectra of the nucleobase uracil in the short-time approximation calculated with multiconfigurational methods. We discuss the importance of static electron correlation by means of density-matrix renormalization group self-consistent field (DMRG-SCF) calculations. Our DMRG-SCF results reveal that a minimal active orbital space that leads to a qualitatively correct description of the resonance Raman spectrum of uracil should encompass parts of the $\sigma/\sigma^{\ast}$ bonding/anti-bonding orbitals of the pyrimidine ring...
December 8, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
#2
Eduardo Laborda, Angela Molina, Vanesa Fernández Espín, Francisco Martínez-Ortiz, José García de la Torre, Richard G Compton
A new electrochemical framework for tracking individual soft particles in solution and monitoring their fusion with polarized liquid-liquid interfaces is reported. The physicochemical principle lies in the interfacial transfer of an ionic probe confined in the particles dispersed in solution and that is released upon their collision and fusion with the fluid interface. As a proof-of-concept, spike-like transients of a stochastic nature are reported in the current-time response of 1,2-dichloroethane(DCE)|water(W) submilli-interfaces after injection of DCE-in-W emulsions...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
#3
Ramanujan T Raghavan, Vincent Prevosto, Marc A Sommer
Recent studies of sensorimotor processing have benefited from decision-making paradigms that emphasize the selection of appropriate movements. Selecting when to make those responses, or action timing, is important as well. Although the cerebellum is commonly viewed as a controller of movement dynamics, its role in action timing is also firmly supported. Several lines of research have now extended this idea. Anatomical findings have revealed connections between the cerebellum and broader timing circuits, neurophysiological results have suggested mechanisms for timing within its microcircuitry, and theoretical work has indicated how temporal signals are processed through it and decoded by its targets...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
#4
Sidsel B Schmidt, Marta Powikrowska, Ken S Krogholm, Bianca Naumann-Busch, Jan K Schjoerring, Søren Husted, Poul E Jensen, Pai R Pedas
A catalytic manganese (Mn) cluster is required for the oxidation of water in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) in plants. Despite this essential role of Mn in generating the electrons driving photosynthesis, limited information is available on how Mn deficiency affects PSII functionality. We have here used parameters derived from measurements of fluorescence induction kinetics (OJIP transients), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and PSII subunit composition to investigate how latent Mn deficiency changes the photochemistry in two barley genotypes differing in Mn efficiency...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
#5
Yuan Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Kun Cheng, Lianqing Li, Xuhui Zhang, Jufeng Zheng, Jinwei Zheng, Genxing Pan
Although climate change is predicted to affect methane (CH4) emissions in paddy soil, the dynamics of methanogens and methanotrophs in paddy fields under climate change have not yet been fully investigated. To address this issue, a multifactor climate change experiment was conducted in a Chinese paddy field using the following experimental treatments: (1) enrichment of atmospheric CO2 concentrations (500 ppm, CE), (2) canopy air warming (2°C above the ambient, WA), (3) combined CO2 enrichment and warming (CW), and (4) ambient conditions (CK)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
#6
Pavel Jedlička, Ulrich R Ernst, Alena Votavová, Robert Hanus, Irena Valterová
Understanding the social evolution leading to insect eusociality requires, among other, a detailed insight into endocrine regulatory mechanisms that have been co-opted from solitary ancestors to play new roles in the complex life histories of eusocial species. Bumblebees represent well-suited models of a relatively primitive social organization standing on the mid-way to highly advanced eusociality and their queens undergo both, a solitary and a social phase, separated by winter diapause. In the present paper, we characterize the gene expression levels of major endocrine regulatory pathways across tissues, sexes, and life-stages of the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, with special emphasis on critical stages of the queen's transition from solitary to social life...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
#7
Eric V Jang, Carolina Ramirez-Vizcarrondo, Carlos D Aizenman, Arseny S Khakhalin
The neural circuits in the optic tectum of Xenopus tadpoles are selectively responsive to looming visual stimuli that resemble objects approaching the animal at a collision trajectory. This selectivity is required for adaptive collision avoidance behavior in this species, but its underlying mechanisms are not known. In particular, it is still unclear how the balance between the recurrent spontaneous network activity and the newly arriving sensory flow is set in this structure, and to what degree this balance is important for collision detection...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
#8
Akmal El-Mazny, Ahmed Kamel, Wafaa Ramadan, Sherine Gad-Allah, Suzy Abdelaziz, Ahmed M Hussein
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis has been found to be among the most important factors in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The formation of new blood vessels is critical for the survival of newly implanted endometriotic foci. The use of 3-D power Doppler allows for the demonstration of the dynamic vascular changes that occur during the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF). We aimed to evaluate the effect of ovarian endometrioma on uterine and ovarian blood flow in infertile women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a case-control study at a university teaching hospital, 138 women with unilateral ovarian endometrioma scheduled for IVF were compared to 138 women with male-factor or unexplained infertility...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
#9
Wei-Ying Chen, Sheng K Wu, Tai-Fen Song, Kuei-Ming Chou, Kuei-Yuan Wang, Yao-Ching Chang, Patrick T Goodbourn
The specific demands of a combat-sport discipline may be reflected in the perceptual-motor performance of its athletes. Taekwondo, which emphasizes kicking, might require faster perceptual processing to compensate for longer latencies to initiate lower-limb movements and to give rapid visual feedback for dynamic postural control, while Karate, which emphasizes both striking with the hands and kicking, might require exceptional eye-hand coordination and fast perceptual processing. In samples of 38 Taekwondo athletes (16 females, 22 males; mean age = 19...
December 7, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
#10
Akshata R Udyavar, David J Wooten, Megan D Hoeksema, Mukesh Bansal, Andrea Califano, Lourdes Estrada, Santiago Schnell, Jonathan M Irish, Pierre P Massion, Vito Quaranta
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a devastating disease due to its propensity for early invasion and refractory relapse after initial treatment response. Although these aggressive traits have been associated with phenotypic heterogeneity, our understanding of this association remains incomplete. To fill this knowledge gap, we inferred a set of 33 transcription factors (TF) associated with gene signatures of the known neuroendocrine/epithelial (NE) and non-neuroendocrine/mesenchymal-like (ML) SCLC phenotypes...
December 8, 2016: Cancer Research
#11
REVIEW
Lydia J Ansen-Wilson, Robert J Lipinski
Cortical interneurons (cINs) are a diverse group of locally projecting neurons essential to the organization and regulation of neural networks. Though they comprise only ∼20% of neurons in the neocortex, their dynamic modulation of cortical activity is requisite for normal cognition and underlies multiple aspects of learning and memory. While displaying significant morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological variability, cINs collectively function to maintain the excitatory-inhibitory balance in the cortex by dampening hyperexcitability and synchronizing activity of projection neurons, primarily through use of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)...
December 5, 2016: Neurotoxicology
#12
Gaylor Hoskins, Brian Williams, Purva Abhyankar, Peter Donnan, Edward Duncan, Hilary Pinnock, Marjon van der Pol, Petra Rauchhaus, Anne Taylor, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Despite being a core component of self-management, goal setting is rarely used in routine care. We piloted a primary care, nurse-led intervention called Achieving Good Outcomes for Asthma Living (GOAL) for adults with asthma. Patients were invited to identify and prioritise their goals in preparation for discussing and negotiating an action/coping plan with the nurse at a routine asthma review. METHODS: The 18-month mixed methods feasibility cluster pilot trial stratified and then randomised practices to deliver usual care (UC) or a goal-setting intervention (GOAL)...
December 8, 2016: Trials
#13
Wei Huang, Prashant S Emani, Gabriele Varani, Gary P Drobny
Intrinsic motions may allow HIV-1 TAR RNA to change its conformation to form a functional complex with the Tat protein, which is essential for viral replication. Understanding the dynamic properties of TAR necessitates determining motion on the intermediate ns-μs time scale. To this end, we performed solid-state deuterium NMR line shape and T1Z relaxation time experiments to measure intermediate motions for two uridine residues, U40 and U42, within the lower helix of TAR. We infer global motions at rates of ~10(5) s(-1) in the lower helix, which are much slower than those of the upper helix (~10(6) s(-1)), indicating the two helical domains reorient independently of one another in the solid-state sample...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
#14
Peter A Bos, Nadine Jap-Tjong, Hannah Spencer, Dennis Hofman
Children use emotional facial expressions of others for guiding their behavior, a process which is important to a child's social-emotional development. Earlier studies on facial interaction demonstrate that imitation of emotional expressions of others is automatic, yet can be dynamically modulated depending on contextual information. Considering the value of emotional expressions for children especially, we tested whether and to what extent information about children's temperament and domestic situation alters mimicry of their emotional expressions...
2016: PloS One
#15
Ehsan Ghane, Andry Z Ranaivoson, Gary W Feyereisen, Carl J Rosen, John F Moncrief
Transport of nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural and urban landscapes to surface water bodies can cause adverse environmental impacts. The main objective of this long-term study was to quantify and compare contaminant transport in agricultural drainage water and urban stormwater runoff. We measured flow rate and contaminant concentration in stormwater runoff from Willmar, Minnesota, USA, and in drainage water from subsurface-drained fields with surface inlets, namely, Unfertilized and Fertilized Fields...
2016: PloS One
#16
Bao-Cai Han, Wei Wei, Xiang-Cheng Mi, Ke-Ping Ma
Schima superba is an important dominant species in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests of China, and plays a vital role in community structure and dynamics. However, the survival rate of its seedlings in the field is low, and water shortage could be a factor that limits its regeneration. In order to better understand the response of its seedlings to drought stress on a functional genomics scale, RNA-seq technology was utilized in this study to perform a large-scale transcriptome sequencing of the S. superba seedlings under drought stress...
2016: PloS One
#17
Pau Redón, Guido Grassi, Josep Redon, Julio Álvarez-Pitti, Empar Lurbe
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this cross-sectional study is to assess the cardiac autonomic neural activity in the presence of abnormally increased body weight in youths and its relationship to metabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). METHODS: Sixty-four overweight and obese patients, aged 9-17 years, of both sexes, stratified according to the international BMI cut-off, were enrolled. Continuous ECG was recorded during 15 min in resting conditions, and the heart rate variability (HRV) was measured in the time domain, frequency domain and for nonlinear dynamics...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
#18
Daniel J Cohen, Martijn Gloerich, W James Nelson
Epithelial monolayers undergo self-healing when wounded. During healing, cells collectively migrate into the wound site, and the converging tissue fronts collide and form a stable interface. To heal, migrating tissues must form cell-cell adhesions and reorganize from the front-rear polarity characteristic of cell migration to the apical-basal polarity of an epithelium. However, identifying the "stop signal" that induces colliding tissues to cease migrating and heal remains an open question. Epithelial cells form integrin-based adhesions to the basal extracellular matrix (ECM) and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions on the orthogonal, lateral surfaces between cells...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#19
Matthew S Davenport, Dariya I Malyarenko, Yuxi Pang, Hero K Hussain, Thomas L Chenevert
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of gadoxetate disodium administration on arterial phase respiratory waveforms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, 107 subjects undergoing liver MRI with either gadoxetate disodium (10 mL diluted 1:1 with saline; injection rate, 2 mL/s; n = 40) or gadobenate dimeglumine (0.2 mL/kg; maximum, 20 mL; injection rate, 2 mL/s; n = 67) were enrolled. Respiratory waveforms obtained during unenhanced and dynamic contrast-enhanced phases were filtered by a physicist, who was blinded to contrast agent and imaging phase, to eliminate electronic and cardiac noise using fast Fourier transformation...
December 8, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
#20
REVIEW
Mila Gugnoni, Valentina Sancisi, Gloria Manzotti, Greta Gandolfi, Alessia Ciarrocchi
Autophagy and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) are major biological processes in cancer. Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that aids cancer cells to overcome intracellular or environmental stress, including nutrient deprivation, hypoxia and drugs effect. EMT is a complex transdifferentiation through which cancer cells acquire mesenchymal features, including motility and metastatic potential. Recent observations indicate that these two processes are linked in a complex relationship. On the one side, cells that underwent EMT require autophagy activation to survive during the metastatic spreading...
December 8, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
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