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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724227/carbon-and-nitrogen-allocation-strategy-in-posidonia-oceanica-is-altered-by-seawater-acidification
#1
Andrea Scartazza, Stefano Moscatello, Olga Gavrichkova, Maria Cristina Buia, Marco Lauteri, Alberto Battistelli, Maurizio Lorenti, Samantha Laird Garrard, Carlo Calfapietra, Enrico Brugnoli
Rising atmospheric CO2 causes ocean acidification that represents one of the major ecological threats for marine biota. We tested the hypothesis that long-term exposure to increased CO2 level and acidification in a natural CO2 vent system alters carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism in Posidonia oceanica L. (Delile), affecting its resilience, or capability to restore the physiological homeostasis, and the nutritional quality of organic matter available for grazers. Seawater acidification decreased the C to N ratio in P...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724165/cytogenotoxicity-of-inclusion-complexes-of-diazepam-with-2-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin
#2
Jasmina Hadžiabdić, Nevenka Kopjar, Davor Želježić, Selma Špirtović-Halilović, Davorka Završnik
Background Diazepam, as one of the most frequent prescribed drug from 1,4-benzodiazepine group, has certain limitations in pharmaceutical technology due to its poor solubility in water. By forming inclusion complexes with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, diazepam's biopharmaceutical properties can be greatly improved. Aim Aim of this research was to in vitro evaluate genotoxicity of prepared novel complexes of diazepam and their influence on proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods For identification of possible genotoxicity of diazepam inclusion complexes, cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay has been chosen...
July 19, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724102/impact-of-biochar-organic-and-inorganic-carbon-on-soil-co2-and-n2o-emissions
#3
Rivka B Fidel, David A Laird, Timothy B Parkin
Biochar has been shown to influence soil CO and NO emissions following application to soil, but the presence of carbonates in biochars has largely confounded efforts to differentiate among labile and recalcitrant C pools in biochar and establish their timeframe of influence. Understanding the mechanism, magnitude, and duration of biochar C pools' influence on C and N dynamics is imperative to successful implementation of biochar for C sequestration. Here we therefore aim to assess biochar organic and inorganic C pool impacts on CO and NO emissions from soil amended with two untreated biochars, inorganic carbon (as NaCO), acid (HCl) and bicarbonate (NaHCO) extracts of the biochars, and acid and bicarbonate/acid-washed biochars during a 140-d soil incubation...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724075/a-comprehensive-image-based-phenomic-analysis-reveals-the-complex-genetic-architecture-of-shoot-growth-dynamics-in-rice-oryza-sativa
#4
Malachy T Campbell, Qian Du, Kan Liu, Chris J Brien, Bettina Berger, Chi Zhang, Harkamal Walia
Early vigor is an important trait for many rice ( L.)-growing environments. However, genetic characterization and improvement for early vigor is hindered by the temporal nature of the trait and strong genotype × environment effects. We explored the genetic architecture of shoot growth dynamics during the early and active tillering stages by applying a functional modeling and genomewide association (GWAS) mapping approach on a diversity panel of ∼360 rice accessions. Multiple loci with small effects on shoot growth trajectory were identified, indicating a complex polygenic architecture...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724040/cardiac-remodeling-indicators-in-adolescent-athletes
#5
Joaquim Castanheira, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Daniela Costa, Diogo Martinho, Jorge Fernandes, João Duarte, Nuno Sousa, Vasco Vaz, Luis Rama, António Figueiredo, Manuel Coelho-E-Silva
Objective: The idea that different sports and physical training type results in different cardiac adaptations has been widely accepted. However, this remodelling process among different sport modalities is still not fully understood. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the heart morphology variation associated with a set of different modalities characterized by distinct models of preparation and different methods and demands of training and completion. Method: The sample comprises 42 basketball players, 73 roller hockey players, 28 judo athletes and 21 swimmers...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723819/exploring-game-dynamics-in-padel-implications-for-assessment-and-training
#6
Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Bernardino J Sánchez-Alcaraz Martinez, Diego Muñoz Marín
A better understanding of in-game competition demands potentially improves coaching strategy and quality. However, there is very limited information about game patterns in padel, a very modern racket sport born in the 70'. The purpose of this study was therefore to quantify and classify game dynamics during the match in professional padel players through a multivariate decision tree approach including technical, spatial and effectiveness indicators. The results determined three main game styles strongly defined by the court zone (net, middle and baseline)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723125/pharmacokinetics-on-a-chip-using-label-free-sers-technique-for-programmable-dual-drug-analysis
#7
Jiayuan Fei, Lei Wu, Yizhi Zhang, Shenfei Zong, Zhuyuan Wang, Yiping Cui
Synergistic effects of dual or multiple drugs have attracted great attention in medical fields, especially in cancer therapies. We provide a programmable microfluidic platform for pharmacokinetic detection of multiple drugs in multiple cells. The well-designed microfluidic platform includes two 2 × 3 microarrays of cell chambers, two gradient generators, and several pneumatic valves. Through the combined use of valves and gradient generators, each chamber can be controlled to infuse different kinds of living cells and drugs with specific concentrations as needed...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723072/superposition-principle-in-auger-recombination-of-charged-and-neutral-multicarrier-states-in-semiconductor-quantum-dots
#8
Kaifeng Wu, Jaehoon Lim, Victor I Klimov
Application of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in optical and optoelectronic devices is often complicated by unintentional generation of extra charges, which opens fast nonradiative Auger recombination pathways whereby the recombination energy of an exciton is quickly transferred to the extra-carrier(s) and ultimately dissipated as heat. Previous studies of Auger recombination have primarily focused on neutral, and more recently, negatively charged multi-carrier states. Auger dynamics of positively charged species remains more poorly explored due to difficulties in creating, stabilizing, and detecting excess holes in the QDs...
July 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722698/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-parotid-gland-tumors-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-sequence-evaluation
#9
Xavier Stefanovic, Yassine Al Tabaa, Gregory Gascou, Sandy Lacombe, Yves Auge, Philippe Delort, Paul Hagen, Renaud Garrel, Alain Bonafe, Jean-Pierre Daures, Jean-François Vendrell
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the characterization of parotid gland tumors. METHODS: Fifty-five parotid lesions in 55 patients were retrospectively included. Two observers interpreted 2 reading protocols derived from all MR imaging in 2 distinct sessions, independently and blinded. Benign versus malignant distinction was carried out for protocol 1 (without contrast administration) and protocol 2 (with dynamic contrast-enhanced sequence)...
July 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722423/generation-of-a-cgmp-indicator-with-an-expanded-dynamic-range-by-optimization-of-amino-acid-linkers-between-a-fluorescent-protein-and-pde5%C3%AE
#10
Shogo Matsuda, Kazuki Harada, Motoki Ito, Mai Takizawa, Devina Wongso, Takashi Tsuboi, Tetsuya Kitaguchi
Here we describe the development of a single fluorescent protein (FP)-based cGMP indicator, Green cGull, based on the cGMP binding domain from mouse phosphodiesterase 5α. The dynamic range of Green cGull was enhanced to a 7.5-fold fluorescence change upon cGMP binding by optimization of the amino acid linkers between the cGMP binding domain and FP. Green cGull has excitation and emission peaks at 498 and 522 nm, respectively, and specifically responds to cGMP in a dose-dependent manner. Live cell imaging analysis revealed that addition of a nitric oxide (NO) donor induced different cGMP kinetics and was cell-type dependent...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722168/role-of-palmitoylation-of-cysteine-415-in-functional-coupling-cb1-receptor-to-g%C3%AE-i2-protein
#11
Sergio Oddi, Antonio Totaro, Lucia Scipioni, Beatrice Dufrusine, Tomasz Maciej Stepniewski, Jana Selent, Mauro Maccarrone, Enrico Dainese
In this study, we investigated the role of CB1 palmitoylation in modulating the functional interaction with G proteins both in the absence and in the presence of agonist binding. Our data show that the non-palmitoylated CB1 receptor significantly reduced its association with Gαi2 . The agonist-stimulation induced a partial dissociation of Gαi2 proteins from the wild-type receptor, while on the C415A mutant the agonist binding was not able to induce a significant dissociation of Gαi2 from the receptor. Our data suggest that the lack of palmitoyl chain hampers the ability of the receptor to functionally interact with the Gαi2 and indicate that the palmitoyl chain is responsible for the functional transmission of the agonist-induced conformational change of the receptor to the G protein...
July 19, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722127/contrasting-outcomes-of-species-and-community-level-analyses-of-the-temporal-consistency-of-functional-composition
#12
Masatoshi Katabuchi, S Joseph Wright, Nathan G Swenson, Kenneth J Feeley, Richard Condit, Stephen P Hubbell, Stuart J Davies
Multiple anthropogenic drivers affect every natural community, and there is broad interest in using functional traits to understand and predict the consequences for future biodiversity. There is, however, no consensus regarding the choice of analytical methods. We contrast species- and community-level analyses of change in the functional composition for four traits related to drought tolerance using three decades of repeat censuses of trees in the 50-ha Forest Dynamics Plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama...
July 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722047/the-effect-of-hofmeister-anions-on-water-structure-at-protein-surfaces
#13
Euihyun Lee, Jun-Ho Choi, Minhaeng Cho
To understand the effects of specific ions on protein-water interactions and the thermodynamic stability of proteins in salt solutions, we use a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to examine the water structure, orientational distribution, and dynamics near the surface of ubiquitin. In particular, we consider NaCl, NaBF4, NaSCN, and NaClO4 salt solutions containing ubiquitin, where the anions of the latter three salts are well-known chaotropic ions in the Hofmiester anion series. The number of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) per water molecule is found to decrease significantly at the ubiquitin-water interface, indicating a significant disruption of the water H-bonding network...
July 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722041/ultrafast-dynamics-and-solvent-dependent-deactivation-kinetics-of-bodipy-molecular-rotors
#14
Tomislav Suhina, Saeed Amirjalayer, Sander Woutersen, Daniel Bonn, Albert M Brouwer
Molecular rotors based on meso-substituted boron-dipyrromethane (BODIPY) are widely recognized fluorescent viscosity sensors. The viscosity dependence of their fluorescence arises from an efficient excited-state deactivation process that can only occur when molecular-scale motion is not hindered. Here, we use visible and IR pump-probe spectroscopies combined with TD-DFT calculations to show that this fluorescence deactivation takes place through a fast and irreversible process which does not involve intermediate electronic states...
July 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721695/myopes-have-significantly-higher-serum-melatonin-concentrations-than-non-myopes
#15
Stephanie Kearney, Lisa O'Donoghue, Kirsty L Pourshahidi, Diego Cobice, Kathryn J Saunders
PURPOSE: Experimental animal models of myopia demonstrate that higher melatonin (Mel) and lower dopamine (DA) concentrations actively promote axial elongation. This study explored the association between myopia and serum concentrations of DA and Mel in humans. METHODS: Morning serum concentrations of DA and Mel were measured by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from 54 participants (age 19.1 ± 0.81 years) in September/October 2014 (phase 1) and March/April 2016 (phase 2)...
July 18, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721611/bone-targeting-parathyroid-hormone-conjugates-outperform-unmodified-pth-in-the-anabolic-treatment-of-osteoporosis-in-rats
#16
Yang Yang, Ali Aghazadeh-Habashi, Arash Panahifar, Yuchin Wu, Krishna H Bhandari, Michael R Doschak
Synthetic parathyroid hormone (PTH) is clinically indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis, through its anabolic effects on parathyroid hormone receptors (PTHRs), located on osteoblast cells. However, the bioavailability of PTH for bone cells is restricted by the short half-life of PTH and the widespread distribution of PTHRs in non-skeletal tissues. To impart affinity for mineralized bone surfaces, bisphosphonate (BP)-mediated PTH analogues were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated in vitro and in vivo...
July 18, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721356/targeted-ischemic-stroke-induction-and-mesoscopic-imaging-assessment-of-blood-flow-and-ischemic-depolarization-in-awake-mice
#17
Matilde Balbi, Matthieu P Vanni, Gergely Silasi, Yuki Sekino, Luis Bolanos, Jeffrey M LeDue, Timothy H Murphy
Despite advances in experimental stroke models, confounding factors such as anesthetics used during stroke induction remain. Furthermore, imaging of blood flow during stroke is not routinely done. We take advantage of in vivo bihemispheric transcranial windows for longitudinal mesoscopic imaging of cortical function to establish a protocol for focal ischemic stroke induction in target brain regions using photothrombosis in awake head-fixed mice. Our protocol does not require any surgical steps at the time of stroke induction or anesthetics during either head fixation or photoactivation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720853/complete-chloroplast-genome-sequences-of-lilium-insights-into-evolutionary-dynamics-and-phylogenetic-analyses
#18
Yun-Peng Du, Yu Bi, Feng-Ping Yang, Ming-Fang Zhang, Xu-Qing Chen, Jing Xue, Xiu-Hai Zhang
Lilium is a large genus that includes approximately 110 species distributed throughout cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The species-level phylogeny of Lilium remains unclear; previous studies have found universal markers but insufficient phylogenetic signals. In this study, we present the use of complete chloroplast genomes to explore the phylogeny of this genus. We sequenced nine Lilium chloroplast genomes and retrieved seven published chloroplast genomes for comparative and phylogenetic analyses...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720839/effect-of-head-group-and-lipid-tail-oxidation-in-the-cell-membrane-revealed-through-integrated-simulations-and-experiments
#19
M Yusupov, K Wende, S Kupsch, E C Neyts, S Reuter, A Bogaerts
We report on multi-level atomistic simulations for the interaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the head groups of the phospholipid bilayer, and the subsequent effect of head group and lipid tail oxidation on the structural and dynamic properties of the cell membrane. Our simulations are validated by experiments using a cold atmospheric plasma as external ROS source. We found that plasma treatment leads to a slight initial rise in membrane rigidity, followed by a strong and persistent increase in fluidity, indicating a drop in lipid order...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720818/structural-and-rheological-properties-conferring-fertilization-competence-to-xenopus-egg-coating-envelope
#20
Mayu Hanaue, Naofumi Miwa
The extracellular egg-coating envelope that comprises a meshwork of filaments polymerized by glycoproteins plays a pivotal role in species-selective sperm recognition and subsequent fertilization; however, the structural and rheological properties conferring fertilization competence to the egg-coating envelope remain poorly unveiled. Here we show several nanoscale-structural and viscoelastic properties of the egg-coat using the transmission electron microscopy and the quartz crystal microbalance experiments, following clamp of the egg-coat at either fertilization-competent or -incompetent statuses by short-term pretreatment with synthetic peptides...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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