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Motion Capture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772495/walking-variations-in-healthy-women-wearing-high-heeled-shoes-shoe-size-and-heel-height-effects
#1
Enrica Di Sipio, Giulia Piccinini, Cristiano Pecchioli, Marco Germanotta, Chiara Iacovelli, Chiara Simbolotti, Arianna Cruciani, Luca Padua
BACKGROUND: The use of high heels is widespread in modern society in professional and social contests. Literature showed that wearing high heels can produce injurious effects on several structures from the toes to the pelvis. No studies considered shoe length as an impacting factor on walking with high heels. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate walking parameters in young healthy women wearing high heels, considering not only the heel height but also the foot/shoe size...
May 3, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772411/regulation-of-hip-joint-kinetics-for-increasing-angular-momentum-during-the-initiation-of-a-pirouette-en-dehors-in-classical-ballet
#2
Akiko Imura, Yoichi Iino
This study examined how dancers regulate the hip joint kinetics to coordinate the upper and lower body angular momenta with the increased rotation of pirouette en dehors (pirouette) during the preparation. During the preparation of the pirouette, the upper body rotates greatly about the vertical axis; however, the lower extremity remains relatively stationary. Therefore, there must be specific control at the hip to coordinate the upper and lower body angular momenta in turns of increased rotation. Kinematics and kinetics of single to quadruple pirouettes performed by eight ballet dancers were analysed using a motion capture system and force plates...
May 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770274/do-running-speed-and-shoe-cushioning-influence-impact-loading-and-tibial-shock-in-basketball-players
#3
Wing-Kai Lam, Jacobus Liebenberg, Jeonghyun Woo, Sang-Kyoon Park, Suk-Hoon Yoon, Roy Tsz-Hei Cheung, Jiseon Ryu
Background: Tibial stress fracture (TSF) is a common injury in basketball players. This condition has been associated with high tibial shock and impact loading, which can be affected by running speed, footwear condition, and footstrike pattern. However, these relationships were established in runners but not in basketball players, with very little research done on impact loading and speed. Hence, this study compared tibial shock, impact loading, and foot strike pattern in basketball players running at different speeds with different shoe cushioning properties/performances...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765940/a-comparative-survey-of-methods-for-remote-heart-rate-detection-from-frontal-face-videos
#4
Chen Wang, Thierry Pun, Guillaume Chanel
Remotely measuring physiological activity can provide substantial benefits for both the medical and the affective computing applications. Recent research has proposed different methodologies for the unobtrusive detection of heart rate (HR) using human face recordings. These methods are based on subtle color changes or motions of the face due to cardiovascular activities, which are invisible to human eyes but can be captured by digital cameras. Several approaches have been proposed such as signal processing and machine learning...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765877/gender-related-differences-in-reliability-of-thorax-lumbar-and-pelvis-kinematics-during-gait-in-patients-with-non-specific-chronic-low-back-pain
#5
Rasool Bagheri, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mehdi Dadgoo, Amir Ahmadi, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Amir-Salar Jafarpisheh
Objective: To evaluate test-retest reliability of trunk kinematics relative to the pelvis during gait in two groups (males and females) of patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NCLBP) using three-dimensional motion capture system. Methods: A convenience sample of 40 NCLBP participants (20 males and 20 females) was evaluated in two sessions. Participants were asked to walk with self-selected speed and kinematics of thorax and lumbar spine were captured using a 6-infrared-cameras motion-analyzer system...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765607/internal-protein-motions-in-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-bragg-and-diffuse-x-ray-scattering
#6
Michael E Wall
Molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of Bragg and diffuse X-ray scattering provide a means of obtaining experimentally validated models of protein conformational ensembles. This paper shows that compared with a single periodic unit-cell model, the accuracy of simulating diffuse scattering is increased when the crystal is modeled as a periodic supercell consisting of a 2 × 2 × 2 layout of eight unit cells. The MD simulations capture the general dependence of correlations on the separation of atoms. There is substantial agreement between the simulated Bragg reflections and the crystal structure; there are local deviations, however, indicating both the limitation of using a single structure to model disordered regions of the protein and local deviations of the average structure away from the crystal structure...
March 1, 2018: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765177/new-estimation-model-of-the-initial-lower-limb-angle-to-improve-angle-estimation-during-the-extension-phase-of-standing-up-movement
#7
Fang Jin, Takayuki Nagasaki, Chikamune Wada
[Purpose] An estimation model of the knee and ankle joint angles during the extension phase was proposed in the previous study. However, it had limited use because of the fixed initial lower limb angle before standing up. This study aimed to propose a new estimation model of the initial lower limb angle to improve the angle estimation during extension phase. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy male volunteers were enrolled. The new estimation model approximated the initial lower limb angle using a force sensor plate that measured the plantar pressure of the subjects...
May 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765175/the-impact-of-walking-speed-on-interlimb-coordination-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Cheng-Chieh Lin, Robert C Wagenaar
[Purpose] Interlimb coordination can be affected by the symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease and may result in an increased risk of falls. The purpose of the current study was to compare changes in interlimb coordination in individuals with Parkinson's disease to healthy older adults while systematically manipulating walking speed. [Subjects and Methods] Participants walked on a treadmill while systematically increasing and decreasing the walking speed between 0.22 and 1.30 m/s. Kinematic data were collected by means of a three dimensional motion capture system...
May 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764676/effect-of-plantarflexion-resistance-of-an-ankle-foot-orthosis-on-ankle-and-knee-joint-power-during-gait-in-individuals-post-stroke
#9
Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S Orendurff, Madeline L Singer, Fan Gao, Grace Hunt, K Bo Foreman
Plantarflexion resistance of an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) plays an important role to prevent foot-drop, but its impact on push-off has not been well investigated in individuals post-stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plantarflexion resistance of an articulated AFO on ankle and knee joint power of the limb wearing the AFO in individuals post-stroke. Gait analysis was performed on 10 individuals with chronic stroke using a Vicon 3-dimensional motion capture system and a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764466/validity-of-shoe-type-inertial-measurement-units-for-parkinson-s-disease-patients-during-treadmill-walking
#10
Myeounggon Lee, Changhong Youm, Jeanhong Jeon, Sang-Myung Cheon, Hwayoung Park
BACKGROUND: When examining participants with pathologies, a shoe-type inertial measurement unit (IMU) system with sensors mounted on both the left and right outsoles may be more useful for analysis and provide better stability for the sensor positions than previous methods using a single IMU sensor or attached to the lower back and a foot. However, there have been few validity analyses of shoe-type IMU systems versus reference systems for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) walking continuously with a steady-state gait in a single direction...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764312/angle-dependent-distortions-in-the-perceptual-topology-of-acoustic-space
#11
W Owen Brimijoin
By moving sounds around the head and asking listeners to report which ones moved more, it was found that sound sources at the side of a listener must move at least twice as much as ones in front to be judged as moving the same amount. A relative expansion of space in the front and compression at the side has consequences for spatial perception of moving sounds by both static and moving listeners. An accompanying prediction that the apparent location of static sound sources ought to also be distorted agrees with previous work and suggests that this is a general perceptual phenomenon that is not limited to moving signals...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762541/biomechanical-gait-variable-estimation-using-wearable-sensors-after-unilateral-total-knee-arthroplasty
#12
Ik-Hyun Youn, Jong-Hoon Youn, Joseph A Zeni, Brian A Knarr
Total knee arthroplasty is a common surgical treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. The majority of existing studies that have explored the relationship between recovery and gait biomechanics have been conducted in laboratory settings. However, seamless gait parameter monitoring in real-world conditions may provide a better understanding of recovery post-surgery. The purpose of this study was to estimate kinematic and kinetic gait variables using two ankle-worn wearable sensors in individuals after unilateral total knee arthroplasty...
May 15, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761555/computational-optimization-of-graft-tension-in-simulated-superior-capsule-reconstructions
#13
Michael W Hast, Elaine Schmidt, John D Kelly, Josh R Baxter
Superior capsular reconstruction has received increased attention as a surgical technique to address massive 'irreparable' rotator cuff tears; however, the functional limitations and surgical techniques associated with this repair have yet to be sufficiently explored. The goal of this study was to utilize a multidisciplinary approach to characterize the biomechanics of this repair by: 1) identifying activities of daily living that may overburden graft, and 2) optimizing surgical techniques used during implantation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761212/the-elastic-capacity-of-a-tendon-repair-construct-influences-the-force-necessary-to-induce-gapping
#14
Atesch Ateschrang, Christoph Salewski, Marc-Daniel Ahrend, Anna Janine Schreiner, Michael T Hirschmann, Ulrich Stöckle, Sufian S Ahmad
PURPOSE: Most biomechanical investigations of tendon repairs were based on output measures from hydraulic loading machines, therefore, accounting for construct failure rather than true gapping within the rupture zone. It was hypothesized that the elastic capacity of a tendon-repair construct influences the force necessary to induce gapping. METHODS: A tendon-repair model was created in 48 porcine lower hind limbs, which were allocated to three fixation techniques: (1) Krackow, (2) transosseous and (3) anchor fixation...
May 14, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759947/a-simplified-method-to-account-for-wall-motion-in-patient-specific-blood-flow-simulations-of-aortic-dissection-comparison-with-fluid-structure-interaction
#15
Mirko Bonfanti, Stavroula Balabani, Mona Alimohammadi, Obiekezie Agu, Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam, Vanessa Díaz-Zuccarini
Aortic dissection (AD) is a complex and highly patient-specific vascular condition difficult to treat. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can aid the medical management of this pathology, yet its modelling and simulation are challenging. One aspect usually disregarded when modelling AD is the motion of the vessel wall, which has been shown to significantly impact simulation results. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) methods are difficult to implement and are subject to assumptions regarding the mechanical properties of the vessel wall, which cannot be retrieved non-invasively...
May 11, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758750/multimodal-transport-and-dispersion-of-organelles-in-narrow-tubular-cells
#16
Saurabh S Mogre, Elena F Koslover
Intracellular components explore the cytoplasm via active motor-driven transport in conjunction with passive diffusion. We model the motion of organelles in narrow tubular cells using analytical techniques and numerical simulations to study the efficiency of different transport modes in achieving various cellular objectives. Our model describes length and time scales over which each transport mode dominates organelle motion, along with various metrics to quantify exploration of intracellular space. For organelles that search for a specific target, we obtain the average capture time for given transport parameters and show that diffusion and active motion contribute to target capture in the biologically relevant regime...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758662/brownian-dynamics-of-self-regulated-particles-with-additional-degrees-of-freedom-symmetry-breaking-and-homochirality
#17
Debankur Bhattacharyya, Shibashis Paul, Shyamolina Ghosh, Deb Shankar Ray
We consider the Brownian motion of a collection of particles each with an additional degree of freedom. The degree of freedom of a particle (or, in general, a molecule) can assume distinct values corresponding to certain states or conformations. The time evolution of the additional degree of freedom of a particle is guided by those of its neighbors as well as the temperature of the system. We show that the local averaging over these degrees of freedom results in emergence of a collective order in the dynamics in the form of selection or dominance of one of the isomers leading to a symmetry-broken state...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757261/design-of-an-inertial-sensor-based-data-glove-for-hand-function-evaluation
#18
Bor-Shing Lin, I-Jung Lee, Shu-Yu Yang, Yi-Chiang Lo, Junghsi Lee, Jean-Lon Chen
Capturing hand motions for hand function evaluations is essential in the medical field. Various data gloves have been developed for rehabilitation and manual dexterity assessments. This study proposed a modular data glove with 9-axis inertial measurement units (IMUs) to obtain static and dynamic parameters during hand function evaluation. A sensor fusion algorithm is used to calculate the range of motion of joints. The data glove is designed to have low cost, easy wearability, and high reliability. Owing to the modular design, the IMU board is independent and extensible and can be used with various microcontrollers to realize more medical applications...
May 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757157/state-diagram-of-a-three-sphere-microswimmer-in-a-channel
#19
Abdallah Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Maciej Lisicki, Arnold J T M Mathijssen, Christian Hoell, Segun Goh, Jerzy Blawzdziewicz, Andreas M Menzel, Hartmut Löwen
Geometric confinements are frequently encountered in soft matter systems and in particular significantly alter the dynamics of swimming microorganisms in viscous media. Surface-related effects on the motility of microswimmers can lead to important consequences in a large number of biological systems, such as biofilm formation, bacterial adhesion and microbial activity. On the basis of low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics, we explore the state diagram of a three-sphere microswimmer under channel confinement in a slit geometry and fully characterize the swimming behavior and trajectories for neutral swimmers, puller- and pusher-type swimmers...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755744/enzyme-catalysis-captured-using-multiple-structures-from-one-crystal-at-varying-temperatures
#20
Sam Horrell, Demet Kekilli, Kakali Sen, Robin L Owen, Florian S N Dworkowski, Svetlana V Antonyuk, Thomas W Keal, Chin W Yong, Robert R Eady, S Samar Hasnain, Richard W Strange, Michael A Hough
High-resolution crystal structures of enzymes in relevant redox states have transformed our understanding of enzyme catalysis. Recent developments have demonstrated that X-rays can be used, via the generation of solvated electrons, to drive reactions in crystals at cryogenic temperatures (100 K) to generate 'structural movies' of enzyme reactions. However, a serious limitation at these temperatures is that protein conformational motion can be significantly supressed. Here, the recently developed MSOX (multiple serial structures from one crystal) approach has been applied to nitrite-bound copper nitrite reductase at room temperature and at 190 K, close to the glass transition...
May 1, 2018: IUCrJ
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