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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688782/effect-of-contact-time-on-variance-of-ground-reaction-forces-during-force-platform-gait-analysis-of-a-heterogeneous-sample-of-clinically-normal-dogs
#1
Christopher L Hoffman, Nicola J Volstad, Eric C Hans, Brett W Nemke, Peter Muir
OBJECTIVE To develop contact time (ConT) and withers height-normalized relative ConT (ConT*) for force platform gait analysis of dogs. ANIMALS 29 healthy client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Height at the most dorsal aspect of the shoulders (withers) was measured with a framing square. Dogs were trotted across a force platform at their preferred velocity with controlled acceleration (± 0.5 m/s2 ). Ranges of ConT and ConT* centered on the population mean ConT were created. Variance effects on ground reaction forces (GRFs) for 4 thoracic limb and 4 pelvic limb ConT and associated ConT* ranges were examined...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679400/the-development-of-hoof-balance-and-landing-preference-in-the-postnatal-period
#2
B M C Gorissen, F M Serra Bragança, C F Wolschrijn, W Back, P R van Weeren
BACKGROUND: Foals can follow the herd within hours of birth, but it has been shown that kinetic gait parameters and static balance still have to mature. However, development of dynamic balance has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: To objectively quantify landing and pressure pattern dynamics under the hoof during the first half year of life. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study performed at a single stud farm. METHODS: Pressure plate measurements at walk and trot from ten Dutch warmblood foals during the first 24 weeks of life were used to quantify toe-heel and medial-lateral hoof balance asymmetry indexes and to determine preferred landing strategy...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665054/does-hacking-surface-type-affect-equine-forelimb-foot-placement-movement-symmetry-or-hoof-impact-deceleration-during-ridden-walk-and-trot-exercise
#3
A Barstow, J Bailey, J Campbell, C Harris, R Weller, T Pfau
BACKGROUND: Both pleasure and competition horses regularly exercise on surfaces such as tarmac, gravel, and turf during 'hacking'. Despite this, there is limited evidence relating to the effect of these surfaces upon foot-surface interaction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate forelimb foot placement, hoof vibration and movement symmetry in pleasure horses on three commonly encountered hacking surfaces. STUDY DESIGN: Quantitative gait study in a convenience sample...
April 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663282/the-frozen-brain-state-of-cryptococcus-gattii-a-globe-trotting-tropical-neurotropic-fungus
#4
Paul T Akins, Brian Jian
Initially reported in tropical regions, Cryptococcus gattii infection is now diagnosed globally. METHODS: case report; Literature review. Although initial reports described outbreaks of pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) disease in tropical regions such as Australia and New Guinea, it is now clear that Cryptococcus gattii is a global, neurotropic pathogen. In contrast with C. neoformans, C. gattii patients are more likely to present with cryptococcomas in the brain and lungs and are often HIV negative...
April 16, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658147/vertical-movement-symmetry-of-the-withers-in-horses-with-induced-forelimb-and-hindlimb-lameness-at-trot
#5
M Rhodin, E Persson-Sjodin, A Egenvall, F M Serra Bragança, T Pfau, L Roepstorff, M A Weishaupt, M H Thomsen, P R van Weeren, E Hernlund
BACKGROUND: The main criteria for lameness assessment in horses are head movement for forelimb lameness and pelvic movement for hindlimb lameness. However, compensatory head nod in horses with primary hindlimb lameness is a well-known phenomenon. This compensatory head nod movement can be easily misinterpreted as a sign of primary ipsilateral forelimb lameness. Therefore, discriminating compensatory asymmetries from primary directly pain-related movement asymmetries is a prerequisite for successful lameness assessment...
April 15, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625573/long-term-consistency-and-location-specificity-of-equine-gluteus-medius-muscle-activity-during-locomotion-on-the-treadmill
#6
Rebeka R Zsoldos, Anna Voegele, Bjoern Krueger, Ulrike Schroeder, Andreas Weber, Theresia F Licka
BACKGROUND: The equine m. gluteus medius (GM) is the largest muscle of the horse, its main movement function is the extension of the hip joint. The objective of the present study was to measure equine GM activity in three adjacent locations on GM during walk and trot on a treadmill, in order to document potential differences. Fourteen Haflinger mares were measured using surface electromyography and kinematic markers to identify the motion cycles on three occasions over 16 weeks. The electrodes were placed on left and right gluteus medius muscle over the middle of its widest part and 5 cm lateral and medial of it...
April 6, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623685/specific-bioactive-collagen-peptides-petagile-%C3%A2-as-supplement-for-horses-with-osteoarthritis-a-two-centred-study
#7
B Dobenecker, S Reese, W Jahn, M Schunck, J Hugenberg, H Louton, S Oesser
The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of specific bioactive collagen peptides (BCP), here administered orally as PETAGILE® , on horses with mild to moderate, naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Data from a two-centred pilot study were used for the meta-analysis. Thirty-eight privately owned horses of various breeds were available. In one centre, 18 of these patients (6 ± 3 years; 519 ± 100 kg BW) received either 25 g (n = 6) or 50 g (n = 12) BCP/day orally for 12 weeks. In the second centre, 20 horses (18 ± 4 years; 413 ± 94 kg BW) received either a placebo (control; n = 10) or 25 g BCP/day...
April 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621299/influence-of-seating-styles-on-head-and-pelvic-vertical-movement-symmetry-in-horses-ridden-at-trot
#8
Emma Persson-Sjodin, Elin Hernlund, Thilo Pfau, Pia Haubro Andersen, Marie Rhodin
Detailed knowledge of how a rider's seating style and riding on a circle influences the movement symmetry of the horse's head and pelvis may aid rider and trainer in an early recognition of low grade lameness. Such knowledge is also important during both subjective and objective lameness evaluations in the ridden horse in a clinical setting. In this study, inertial sensors were used to assess how different rider seating styles may influence head and pelvic movement symmetry in horses trotting in a straight line and on the circle in both directions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589413/physiological-demands-of-daily-riding-gaits-in-jockeys
#9
Michael A Kiely, Giles D Warrington, Adrian McGOLDRICK, Gillian O'Loughlin, Sarahjane Cullen
BACKGROUND: Jockeys should maintain a high level of physical fitness to meet the physical demands of horse racing. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological requirements of the riding gaits used regularly in training. METHODS: Eleven trainee jockeys performed a maximal incremental Wattbike cycle ergometer test. Mean absolute and relative oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were recorded for the steady-state period during a walk, trot and canter...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538459/collision-based-energetic-comparison-of-rolling-and-hopping-over-obstacles
#10
Fabio Giardina, Fumiya Iida
Locomotion of machines and robots operating in rough terrain is strongly influenced by the mechanics of the ground-machine interactions. A rolling wheel in terrain with obstacles is subject to collisional energy losses, which is governed by mechanics comparable to hopping or walking locomotion. Here we investigate the energetic cost associated with overcoming an obstacle for rolling and hopping locomotion, using a simple mechanics model. The model considers collision-based interactions with the ground and the obstacle, without frictional losses, and we quantify, analyse, and compare the sources of energetic costs for three locomotion strategies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492341/a-simple-method-of-equine-limb-force-vector-analysis-and-its-potential-applications
#11
Sarah Jane Hobbs, Mark A Robinson, Hilary M Clayton
Background: Ground reaction forces (GRF) measured during equine gait analysis are typically evaluated by analyzing discrete values obtained from continuous force-time data for the vertical, longitudinal and transverse GRF components. This paper describes a simple, temporo-spatial method of displaying and analyzing sagittal plane GRF vectors. In addition, the application of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is introduced to analyse differences between contra-lateral fore and hindlimb force-time curves throughout the stance phase...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445615/thermodynamic-effects-of-commercially-available-ice-boots
#12
Madison N Quintanar, Tess Pu'uwaionalani Millar, Matthew A Burd
The limb of the equine athlete is subjected to all types of various stressors during exercise. To ensure the health of the horse and to prevent the possibility of lameness, it has been a common practice to apply cold therapy to the distal limb of the horse pre- and post-exercise. Commercially available boots are widely available for the application of cold therapy. To test the effectiveness of the boot, 6 healthy performance level sport type horses were exercised at a walk, trot, and canter in a round-pen and then subjected to the application of the ice boot for 20 minutes on a treatment leg, and no ice boot on an untreated leg...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430609/genetic-parameter-estimation-and-implementation-of-the-genetic-evaluation-for-gaits-in-a-breeding-program-for-assisted-therapy-in-donkeys
#13
Francisco Javier Navas González, Jordi Jordana Vidal, Jose Manuel León Jurado, Amy Katherine McLean, Gabriela Pizarro Inostroza, Juan Vicente Delgado Bermejo
Genetic analyses in donkeys are likely to face compromises in terms of sample size and population structure. This study aims at implementing a suitable model to estimate breeding values and genetic parameters for gaits in Andalusian donkeys. Empirical observation revealed that ambling donkeys (showing a slightly uneven, non-isochronous 1-2, 3-4 lateral sequence gait) did not walk (i.e. presented an isochronous, even 1-2-3-4 sequence gait) and vice versa. However, the two donkey groups could trot, equally. In this study, 2700 gait records were registered from 300 donkeys...
February 12, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421489/stress-level-effects-on-sport-performance-during-trotting-races-in-spanish-trotter-horses
#14
Sara Negro, Ester Bartolomé, Antonio Molina, Marina Solé, Mª Dolores Gómez, Mercedes Valera
The stress level is suggested to have a negative effect on horses during equestrian competitions, specifically in trotter racing. The main objectives of this study were to measure stress levels in Spanish Trotter Horse races with a reliable non-invasive method, and determining the threshold level of stress that leads to the best performance results and also shows when the stress perceived by the horse becomes distress. One hundred and thirty individuals were evaluated, measuring their performance (based on racing time per kilometre (TPK)) and their stress (based on eye temperature, assessed with infrared thermography, and heart rate) in different competitions...
February 3, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361584/the-biomechanics-of-tree-frogs-climbing-curved-surfaces-a-gripping-problem
#15
Iain D C Hill, Benzheng Dong, W Jon P Barnes, Aihong Ji, Thomas Endlein
The adhesive mechanisms of climbing animals have become an important research topic because of their biomimetic implications. We examined the climbing abilities of hylid tree frogs on vertical cylinders of differing diameter and surface roughness to investigate the relative roles of adduction forces (gripping) and adhesion. Tree frogs adhere using their toe pads and subarticular tubercles, the adhesive joint being fluid-filled. Our hypothesis was that on an effectively flat surface (adduction forces on the largest 120 mm diameter cylinder were insufficient to allow climbing), adhesion would effectively be the only means by which tree frogs could climb, but on the 44 and 13 mm diameter cylinders, frogs could additionally utilise adduction forces by gripping the cylinder either with their limbs outstretched or by grasping around the cylinder with their digits, respectively...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359977/effect-of-trotting-speed-on-kinematic-variables-measured-by-use-of-extremity-mounted-inertial-measurement-units-in-nonlame-horses-performing-controlled-treadmill-exercise
#16
Antonio M Cruz, Beatriz Vidondo, Alessandra A Ramseyer, Ugo E Maninchedda
OBJECTIVE To assess effects of speed on kinematic variables measured by use of extremity-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) in nonlame horses performing controlled exercise on a treadmill. ANIMALS 10 nonlame horses. PROCEDURES 6 IMUs were attached at predetermined locations on 10 nonlame Franches Montagnes horses. Data were collected in triplicate during trotting at 3.33 and 3.88 m/s on a high-speed treadmill. Thirty-three selected kinematic variables were analyzed. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the effect of speed...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356055/abnormal-locomotor-muscle-recruitment-activity-is-present-in-horses-with-shivering-and-purkinje-cell-distal-axonopathy
#17
J E Aman, S J Valberg, N Elangovan, A Nicholson, S S Lewis, J Konczak
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar Purkinje cell axonal degeneration has been identified in horses with shivering but its relationship with abnormal hindlimb movement has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To characterise surface electromyographic (sEMG) hindlimb muscle activity in horses with shivering, correlate with clinical scores and examine horses for Purkinje axonal degeneration. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive controlled clinical study. METHODS: The hindlimb of seven shivering and six control draught horses were clinically scored...
January 21, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345075/genetic-analyses-of-linear-profiling-data-on-3-year-old-swedish-warmblood-horses
#18
Å Viklund, S Eriksson
A linear profiling protocol was introduced in 2013 at tests for 3-year-old Swedish Warmblood horses. In this protocol, traits are subjectively described on a nine-point linear scale from one biological extreme to the other. This complements the traditional scoring where horses are evaluated in relation to the breeding objective. This study aimed to investigate the suitability of the linear information for genetic evaluation. Data on 22 conformation traits, 17 movement traits, 14 jumping traits and one temperament trait from 3,410 horses tested between 2013 and 2016 were analysed using an animal model...
February 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287160/kinematic-analysis-of-the-thoracic-limb-of-healthy-dogs-during-descending-stair-and-ramp-exercises
#19
Nadia L Kopec, Jane M Williams, Gillian F Tabor
OBJECTIVE To compare the kinematics of the thoracic limb of healthy dogs during descent of stairs and a ramp with those during a trot across a flat surface (control). ANIMALS 8 privately owned dogs. PROCEDURES For each dog, the left thoracic limb was instrumented with 5 anatomic markers to facilitate collection of 2-D kinematic data during each of 3 exercises (descending stairs, descending a ramp, and trotting over a flat surface). The stair exercise consisted of 4 steps with a 35° slope. For the ramp exercise, a solid plank was placed over the steps to create a ramp with a 35° slope...
January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284186/repeatability-of-gait-analysis-measurements-in-thoroughbreds-in-training
#20
M F Sepulveda Caviedes, B S Forbes, T Pfau
BACKGROUND: With the view of implementing gait symmetry measurements in Thoroughbreds in training for early detection of injuries, repeatability of inertial measurement unit (IMU) gait parameters needs to be established. OBJECTIVES: To assess the variation of head and pelvis movement symmetry in Thoroughbreds in training. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated observations in horses in race training. METHODS: Daily and weekly repeat gait assessments were conducted in 14 Thoroughbreds equipped with IMUs on poll, sacrum and right (RTC) and left (LTC) tuber coxae...
December 28, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
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