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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142326/complex-organic-molecules-in-strongly-uv-irradiated-gas
#1
S Cuadrado, J R Goicoechea, J Cernicharo, A Fuente, J Pety, B Tercero
We investigate the presence of complex organic molecules (COMs) in strongly UV-irradiated interstellar molecular gas. We have carried out a complete millimetre (mm) line survey using the IRAM 30 m telescope towards the edge of the Orion Bar photodissociation region (PDR), close to the H2 dissociation front, a position irradiated by a very intense far-UV (FUV) radiation field. These observations have been complemented with 8.5″ resolution maps of the H2CO JKa,Kc = 51,5 → 41,4 and C(18)O J = 3 → 2 emission at 0...
July 2017: Astronomy and Astrophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135048/the-biomechanical-construction-of-the-horse-s-body-and-activity-patterns-of-three-important-muscles-of-the-trunk-in-the-walk-trot-and-canter
#2
K Kienapfel, H Preuschoft, A Wulf, H Wagner
The activity patterns of trunk muscles are commonly neglected, in spite of their importance for maintaining body shape. Analysis of the biomechanics of the trunk under static conditions has led to predictions of the activity patterns. These hypotheses are tested experimentally by surface electromyography (EMG). Five horses, with and without a rider, were examined in the walk, trot and canter. Footfall was synchronised with EMG by an accelerometer. Averages of ten consecutive cycles were calculated and compared by statistical methods...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132037/flunixin-meglumine-improves-pregnancy-rate-in-embryo-recipient-beef-cows-with-an-excitable-temperament
#3
R K Kasimanickam, J B Hall, C T Estill, J P Kastelic, C Joseph, R L Abdel Aziz, D Nak
Objectives were to determine effects of: 1) handling temperament and administration of flunixin meglumine, an inhibitor of prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) synthesis, given at the time of embryo transfer, on pregnancy rates in beef cattle embryo transfer recipients; 2) handling temperament and flunixin meglumine on peripheral concentrations of progesterone, cortisol, substance-P, prostaglandin F metabolites (PGFM, (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2a) and isoprostane 8-epi PGF2a; and 3) flunixin meglumine treatment on proportion of non-pregnant recipient cows returning to estrus within an expected interval...
November 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121424/numerical-time-domain-modelling-of-hoof-ground-interaction-during-the-stance-phase
#4
R Behnke
BACKGROUND: Hoof-ground interaction impacts on the health and performance characteristics of horses. Due to complex interactions between hoof and ground during the stance phase, previous experimentally dominated studies concentrated on subproblems of the phenomena observed. A multidisciplinary methodology with mathematical modelling, material testing and in-vivo experimental measurements seems promising. OBJECTIVES: With the help of a mathematical approach, this contribution aims to explain from a biomechanical point of view the phenomena observed during experimental investigations (hoof acceleration, interacting forces) and aims to contribute to an overall experimental-mathematical multidisciplinary approach...
November 9, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099133/sub-doppler-infrared-spectroscopy-of-resonance-stabilized-hydrocarbon-intermediates-%C3%AE-3-%C3%AE-4-ch-stretch-modes-and-ch2-internal-rotor-dynamics-of-benzyl-radical
#5
A Kortyna, A J Samin, T A Miller, D J Nesbitt
Highly reactive benzyl radicals are generated by electron dissociative attachment to benzyl chloride doped into a neon-hydrogen-helium discharge and immediately cooled to Trot = 15 K in a high density, supersonic slit expansion environment. The sub-Doppler spectra are fit to an asymmetric-top rotational Hamiltonian, thereby yielding spectroscopic constants for the ground (v = 0) and first excited (v = 1, ν3, ν4) vibrational levels of the ground electronic state. The rotational constants obtained for the ground state are in good agreement with previous laser induced fluorescence measurements (LIF), with vibrational band origins (ν3 = 3073...
November 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093169/age-and-speed-dependent-modulation-of-locomotor-gaits-in-dscam-2j-mutant-mice
#6
Louise Thiry, Maxime Lemieux, Frederic Bretzner
Locomotor gaits depend on the interplay between distributed spinal neural networks termed central pattern generators generating rhythmic and coordinated movements, primary afferents and descending supraspinal inputs. Recent studies demonstrated that the mouse display a rich repertoire of locomotor gaits. Changes in locomotor gaits occur in mutant mice lacking particular neurons or molecular signaling pathways implicated in the normal establishment of these neural networks Given the role of the Down Syndrome Cell Adherence Molecule (DSCAM) to the formation and maintenance of spinal interneuronal circuits and sensorimotor integration, we have investigated its functional contribution to locomotor gaits over a wide range of locomotor speeds using freely walking mice...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076365/influence-of-trial-repetition-on-lameness-during-force-platform-gait-analysis-in-a-heterogeneous-population-of-clinically-lame-dogs-each-trotting-at-its-preferred-velocity
#7
Megan A Mickelson, Thao Vo, Alexander M Piazza, Nicola J Volstad, Brett W Nemke, Peter Muir
OBJECTIVE To determine variance effects influencing ground reaction forces (GRFs) in a heterogeneous population of lame dogs during trotting. ANIMALS 30 client-owned dogs with thoracic limb lameness and 31 dogs with pelvic limb lameness. PROCEDURES GRFs, velocity, height at the dorsal aspect of the scapulae (ie, withers), and shoulder height were obtained. Each dog was trotted across a force platform at its preferred velocity. Variance effects for 12 velocity and associated relative velocity (V*) ranges were examined...
November 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073822/equine-exercise-in-younger-and-older-adults-simulated-versus-real-horseback-riding
#8
Min Joo Kim, TaeYeong Kim, Sejun Oh, BumChul Yoon
Horseback riding is an effective exercise for improving postural control and balance. To reduce costs and improve accessibility, simulated horseback riding has been developed; but no differential effects of simulated and real horseback riding on muscle activation patterns in older adults have been studied. Thus, we compared muscle activation patterns for older and younger adults engaged in real and simulated horseback riding exercises, using surface electromyography recordings of the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, internal oblique abdominis, and rectus femoris muscles...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067696/pharmacokinetics-and-antinociceptive-effects-of-the-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitor-t-tucb-in-horses-with-experimentally-induced-radiocarpal-synovitis
#9
A G P Guedes, F Aristizabal, A Sole, A Adedeji, R Brosnan, H Knych, J Yang, S-H Hwang, C Morisseau, B D Hammock
This study determined the pharmacokinetics, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory effects of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor t-TUCB (trans-4-{4-[3-(4-Trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid) in horses with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced radiocarpal synovitis. A total of seven adult healthy mares (n = 4-6/treatment) were administered 3 μg LPS into one radiocarpal joint and t-TUCB intravenously (i.v.) at 0 (control), 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg in a blinded, randomized, crossover design with at least 3 weeks washout between...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037406/monitoring-changes-in-body-surface-temperature-associated-with-treadmill-exercise-in-dogs-by-use-of-infrared-methodology
#10
Maria Rizzo, Francesca Arfuso, Daniela Alberghina, Elisabetta Giudice, Matteo Gianesella, Giuseppe Piccione
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of moderate treadmill exercise session on body surface and core temperature in dog measured by means of two infrared instruments. Ten Jack Russell Terrier/Miniature Pinscher mixed-breed dogs were subjected to 15min of walking, 10min of trotting and 10min of gallop. At every step, body surface temperature (Tsurface) was measured on seven regions (neck, shoulder, ribs, flank, back, internal thigh and eye) using two different methods, a digital infrared camera (ThermaCam P25) and a non-contact infrared thermometer (Infrared Thermometer THM010-VT001)...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023800/to-pace-or-not-to-pace-a-pilot-study-of-four-and-five-gaited-icelandic-horses-homozygous-for-the-dmrt3-gait-keeper-mutation
#11
K Jäderkvist Fegraeus, I Hirschberg, T Árnason, L Andersson, B D Velie, L S Andersson, G Lindgren
The Icelandic horse is a breed known mainly for its ability to perform the ambling four-beat gait 'tölt' and the lateral two-beat gait pace. The natural ability of the breed to perform these alternative gaits is highly desired by breeders. Therefore, the discovery that a nonsense mutation (C>A) in the DMRT3 gene was the main genetic factor for horses' ability to perform gaits in addition to walk, trot and canter was of great interest. Although several studies have demonstrated that homozygosity for the DMRT3 mutation is important for the ability to pace, only about 70% of the homozygous mutant (AA) Icelandic horses are reported to pace...
October 11, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970972/an-exploration-of-strategies-used-by-dressage-horses-to-control-moments-around-the-center-of-mass-when-performing-passage
#12
Hilary M Clayton, Sarah Jane Hobbs
BACKGROUND: Locomotion results from the generation of ground reaction forces (GRF) that cause translations of the center of mass (COM) and generate moments that rotate the body around the COM. The trot is a diagonally-synchronized gait performed by horses at intermediate locomotor speeds. Passage is a variant of the trot performed by highly-trained dressage horses. It is distinguished from trot by having a slow speed of progression combined with great animation of the limbs in the swing phase...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925076/using-the-robust-design-framework-and-relative-abundance-to-predict-the-population-size-of-pallid-sturgeon-scaphirhynchus-albus-in-the-lower-missouri-river
#13
K D Steffensen, L A Powell, M A Pegg
Several population viability models were constructed to aid recovery in endangered Scaphirhynchus albus, but these models are dependent upon accurate and precise input parameters that are not provided with standard catch per unit effort (CPUE) indices. Nine years of sampling efforts, under the robust design framework, provided 1223 unique captures with an 18·3% recapture rate. The annual population estimates varied from 4·0-7·3 fish rkm(-1) for wild and 8·4-18·4 fish rkm(-1) for hatchery-reared S...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914060/nuclear-spin-symmetry-conservation-in-1-h2-16-o-investigated-by-direct-absorption-ftir-spectroscopy-of-water-vapor-cooled-down-in-supersonic-expansion
#14
Robert Georges, Xavier Michaut, Audrey Moudens, Manuel Goubet, Olivier Pirali, Pascale Soulard, Pierre Asselin, Thérèse Huet, Pascale Roy, Martin Fournier, Andrey Vigasin
We report the results of an experimental study related to the relaxation of the nuclear spin isomers of the water molecule in a supersonic expansion. Rovibrational lines of both ortho and para spin isomers were recorded in the spectral range of H2O stretching vibrations at around 3700 cm(-1) using FTIR direct absorption. Water vapor seeded in argon, helium, or oxygen or in a mixture of oxygen and argon was expanded into vacuum through a slit nozzle. The water vapor partial pressure in the mixture varied over a wide range from 1...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843676/ventilatory-response-to-carbon-monoxide-during-exercise-in-hypoxia-and-hypercapnia
#15
George H Crocker, Jenny Kwon, Philip H Kass, James H Jones
We tested if the addition of CO to inspired gases with different inspired O2 and CO2 fractions (FIO2 and FICO2) stimulates ventilation at rest or during submaximal exercise. We measured minute ventilation (VE) in goats breathing combinations of FIO2 ranging from 0.21 to 0.06 and FICO2 from 0 to 0.05, both with and without inspired CO resulting in carboxyhemoglobin fractions (FHbCO) of 0.02 (no CO added), 0.15, or 0.45. We did this while they stood on a treadmill, walked at 1.4, or trotted at 2.5ms(-1). Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and exercise, alone and in combination, increased ventilation compared to breathing air at rest...
December 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836845/repeatability-of-gait-pattern-variables-measured-by-use-of-extremity-mounted-inertial-measurement-units-in-nonlame-horses-during-trotting
#16
Antonio M Cruz, Ugo E Maninchedda, Dominik Burger, Sabine Wanda, Beatriz Vidondo
OBJECTIVE To determine repeatability of gait variables measured by use of extremity-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) in nonlame horses during trotting under controlled conditions of treadmill exercise. ANIMALS 10 horses. PROCEDURES Six IMUs were strapped to the metacarpal, metatarsal, and distal tibial regions of each horse. Data were collected in a standardized manner (3 measurements/d on 3 d/wk over a 3-week period) while each horse was trotted on a treadmill. Every measurement consisted of a minimum of 20 strides from which a minimum of 10 strides was selected for analysis...
September 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836316/maximum-permissible-load-for-kiso-horses-trotting-over-a-short-straight-course
#17
Akihiro Matsuura, Sota Inoue, Mami Irimajiri, Koichi Hodate
This study aimed to determine the load-bearing capacity of trotting Kiso horses using gait analysis. Ten Kiso horses with a height at withers of 128 cm were included. Their riders were fitted with a marker (70 mm in diameter placed on their chest) recorded by two digital DVD cameras while trotting along a short, straight course. In total, eight tests were performed for each horse: the first with a 70 kg load; six with randomly loaded weights ranging 80-130 kg; and then a final test again with a 70 kg load...
August 24, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801497/veterinary-student-competence-in-equine-lameness-recognition-and-assessment-a-mixed-methods-study
#18
Sandra D Starke, Stephen A May
The development of perceptual skills is an important aspect of veterinary education. The authors investigated veterinary student competency in lameness evaluation at two stages, before (third year) and during (fourth/fifth year) clinical rotations. Students evaluated horses in videos, where horses were presented during trot on a straight line and in circles. Eye-tracking data were recorded during assessment on the straight line to follow student gaze. On completing the task, students filled in a structured questionnaire...
August 12, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789539/angle-resolved-molecular-beam-scattering-of-no-at-the-gas-liquid-interface
#19
Amelia Zutz, David J Nesbitt
This study presents first results on angle-resolved, inelastic collision dynamics of thermal and hyperthermal molecular beams of NO at gas-liquid interfaces. Specifically, a collimated incident beam of supersonically cooled NO ((2)Π1/2, J = 0.5) is directed toward a series of low vapor pressure liquid surfaces ([bmim][Tf2N], squalane, and PFPE) at θinc = 45(1)°, with the scattered molecules detected with quantum state resolution over a series of final angles (θs = -60°, -30°, 0°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) via spatially filtered laser induced fluorescence...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750969/a-case-study-utilizing-myofascial-release-acupressure-and-trigger-point-therapy-to-treat-bilateral-stringhalt-in-a-12%C3%A2-year-old-akhal-teke-horse
#20
Tammy Brockman
"Stringhalt" is a horse condition that causes one or both hind legs to spasm when walking, trotting or backing. The condition is thought to be related to a neurological cause from either plant toxicity or peripheral nerve injury. The prognosis is poor and the horse's performance and quality of life can be affected. Treatment has included surgically cutting the digital extensors with varied results. The objective of the study is to utilize soft tissue release via acupressure, trigger point and myofascial release to decrease symptoms of stringhalt...
July 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
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