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Fabio Giardina, Fumiya Iida
Locomotion of machines and robots operating in rough terrain is strongly influenced by the mechanics of the ground-machine interactions. A rolling wheel in terrain with obstacles is subject to collisional energy losses, which is governed by mechanics comparable to hopping or walking locomotion. Here we investigate the energetic cost associated with overcoming an obstacle for rolling and hopping locomotion, using a simple mechanics model. The model considers collision-based interactions with the ground and the obstacle, without frictional losses, and we quantify, analyse, and compare the sources of energetic costs for three locomotion strategies...
2018: PloS One
Sarah Jane Hobbs, Mark A Robinson, Hilary M Clayton
Background: Ground reaction forces (GRF) measured during equine gait analysis are typically evaluated by analyzing discrete values obtained from continuous force-time data for the vertical, longitudinal and transverse GRF components. This paper describes a simple, temporo-spatial method of displaying and analyzing sagittal plane GRF vectors. In addition, the application of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is introduced to analyse differences between contra-lateral fore and hindlimb force-time curves throughout the stance phase...
2018: PeerJ
Madison N Quintanar, Tess Pu'uwaionalani Millar, Matthew A Burd
The limb of the equine athlete is subjected to all types of various stressors during exercise. To ensure the health of the horse and to prevent the possibility of lameness, it has been a common practice to apply cold therapy to the distal limb of the horse pre- and post-exercise. Commercially available boots are widely available for the application of cold therapy. To test the effectiveness of the boot, 6 healthy performance level sport type horses were exercised at a walk, trot, and canter in a round-pen and then subjected to the application of the ice boot for 20 minutes on a treatment leg, and no ice boot on an untreated leg...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Francisco Javier Navas González, Jordi Jordana Vidal, Jose Manuel León Jurado, Amy Katherine McLean, Gabriela Pizarro Inostroza, Juan Vicente Delgado Bermejo
Genetic analyses in donkeys are likely to face compromises in terms of sample size and population structure. This study aims at implementing a suitable model to estimate breeding values and genetic parameters for gaits in Andalusian donkeys. Empirical observation revealed that ambling donkeys (showing a slightly uneven, non-isochronous 1-2, 3-4 lateral sequence gait) did not walk (i.e. presented an isochronous, even 1-2-3-4 sequence gait) and vice versa. However, the two donkey groups could trot, equally. In this study, 2700 gait records were registered from 300 donkeys...
February 12, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Sara Negro, Ester Bartolomé, Antonio Molina, Marina Solé, Mª Dolores Gómez, Mercedes Valera
The stress level is suggested to have a negative effect on horses during equestrian competitions, specifically in trotter racing. The main objectives of this study were to measure stress levels in Spanish Trotter Horse races with a reliable non-invasive method, and determining the threshold level of stress that leads to the best performance results and also shows when the stress perceived by the horse becomes distress. One hundred and thirty individuals were evaluated, measuring their performance (based on racing time per kilometre (TPK)) and their stress (based on eye temperature, assessed with infrared thermography, and heart rate) in different competitions...
February 3, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Iain D C Hill, Benzheng Dong, W Jon P Barnes, Aihong Ji, Thomas Endlein
The adhesive mechanisms of climbing animals have become an important research topic because of their biomimetic implications. We examined the climbing abilities of hylid tree frogs on vertical cylinders of differing diameter and surface roughness to investigate the relative roles of adduction forces (gripping) and adhesion. Tree frogs adhere using their toe pads and subarticular tubercles, the adhesive joint being fluid-filled. Our hypothesis was that, on an effectively flat surface (adduction forces on the largest 120 mm diameter cylinder were insufficient to allow climbing), adhesion would effectively be the only means by which tree frogs could climb, but on the two smaller diameter cylinders (44 mm and 13 mm), frogs could additionally utilise adduction forces by gripping the cylinder either with their limbs outstretched or by grasping around the cylinder with their digits, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Antonio M Cruz, Beatriz Vidondo, Alessandra A Ramseyer, Ugo E Maninchedda
OBJECTIVE To assess effects of speed on kinematic variables measured by use of extremity-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) in nonlame horses performing controlled exercise on a treadmill. ANIMALS 10 nonlame horses. PROCEDURES 6 IMUs were attached at predetermined locations on 10 nonlame Franches Montagnes horses. Data were collected in triplicate during trotting at 3.33 and 3.88 m/s on a high-speed treadmill. Thirty-three selected kinematic variables were analyzed. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the effect of speed...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
J E Aman, S J Valberg, N Elangovan, A Nicholson, S S Lewis, J Konczak
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar Purkinje cell axonal degeneration has been identified in horses with shivering but its relationship with abnormal hindlimb movement has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To characterise surface electromyographic (sEMG) hindlimb muscle activity in horses with shivering, correlate with clinical scores and examine horses for Purkinje axonal degeneration. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive controlled clinical study. METHODS: The hindlimb of seven shivering and six control draught horses were clinically scored...
January 21, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Å Viklund, S Eriksson
A linear profiling protocol was introduced in 2013 at tests for 3-year-old Swedish Warmblood horses. In this protocol, traits are subjectively described on a nine-point linear scale from one biological extreme to the other. This complements the traditional scoring where horses are evaluated in relation to the breeding objective. This study aimed to investigate the suitability of the linear information for genetic evaluation. Data on 22 conformation traits, 17 movement traits, 14 jumping traits and one temperament trait from 3,410 horses tested between 2013 and 2016 were analysed using an animal model...
February 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
Nadia L Kopec, Jane M Williams, Gillian F Tabor
OBJECTIVE To compare the kinematics of the thoracic limb of healthy dogs during descent of stairs and a ramp with those during a trot across a flat surface (control). ANIMALS 8 privately owned dogs. PROCEDURES For each dog, the left thoracic limb was instrumented with 5 anatomic markers to facilitate collection of 2-D kinematic data during each of 3 exercises (descending stairs, descending a ramp, and trotting over a flat surface). The stair exercise consisted of 4 steps with a 35° slope. For the ramp exercise, a solid plank was placed over the steps to create a ramp with a 35° slope...
January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
M F Sepulveda Caviedes, B S Forbes, T Pfau
BACKGROUND: With the view of implementing gait symmetry measurements in Thoroughbreds in training for early detection of injuries, repeatability of inertial measurement unit (IMU) gait parameters needs to be established. OBJECTIVES: To assess the variation of head and pelvis movement symmetry in Thoroughbreds in training. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated observations in horses in race training. METHODS: Daily and weekly repeat gait assessments were conducted in 14 Thoroughbreds equipped with IMUs on poll, sacrum and right (RTC) and left (LTC) tuber coxae...
December 28, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Ingrid den Uijl, Constanza B Gómez Álvarez, David Bartram, Yoni Dror, Robert Holland, Alasdair Cook
Early detection of disease by an animal owner may motivate them to seek early veterinary advice. Presentation before a more advanced clinical manifestation is evident could lead to more effective treatment and thus benefit the animal's health and welfare. Accelerometers are able to detect changes in specific activities or behaviours, thus indicating early signs of possible adverse health events. The objective of this validation study was to determine whether the detection of eight behavioural states: walk, trot, canter/gallop, sleep, static/inactive, eat, drink, and headshake, by an accelerometer device was sufficiently accurate to be useful in a clinical setting...
2017: PloS One
C B Gómez Álvarez, P Gustås, A Bergh, M Rhodin
Compensatory limb loading has been studied in lame dogs; however, little is known about how these compensations relate to motion of the head and pelvis, assessment of which is an important component of lameness examinations. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of vertical head and pelvic motion symmetry at the trot in dogs with induced supporting limb lameness in the forelimbs or hind limbs. Ten sound dogs were trotted on a treadmill before and after temporary induction of moderate lameness (grade 2/5) in each limb...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
Antonia Zellner, Barbara Bockstahler, Christian Peham
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Kinesio Taping on the trajectory of the forelimb and the muscle activity of the M. brachiocephalicus and the M. extensor carpi radialis in horses. 19 horses and ponies of different breeds (body weight: 496±117 kg), gender (8 mares, 10 geldings and 3 stallions) and ages (14.9±6.9 years old) were analysed without Kinesio Tape ("no tape"), with Kinesio Tape (muscle facilitation application on both muscles of both sides, "with tape") and immediately after Kinesio Taping ("post tape") through kinematic motion analysis and surface electromyography on a treadmill at the walk (speed: 1...
2017: PloS One
Simon M Danner, Natalia A Shevtsova, Alain Frigon, Ilya A Rybak
Interactions between cervical and lumbar spinal circuits are mediated by long propriospinal neurons (LPNs). Ablation of descending LPNs in mice disturbs left-right coordination at high speeds without affecting fore-hind alternation. We developed a computational model of spinal circuits consisting of four rhythm generators coupled by commissural interneurons (CINs), providing left-right interactions, and LPNs, mediating homolateral and diagonal interactions. The proposed CIN and diagonal LPN connections contribute to speed-dependent gait transition from walk, to trot, and then to gallop and bound; the homolateral LPN connections ensure fore-hind alternation in all gaits...
November 22, 2017: ELife
S Cuadrado, J R Goicoechea, J Cernicharo, A Fuente, J Pety, B Tercero
We investigate the presence of complex organic molecules (COMs) in strongly UV-irradiated interstellar molecular gas. We have carried out a complete millimetre (mm) line survey using the IRAM 30 m telescope towards the edge of the Orion Bar photodissociation region (PDR), close to the H2 dissociation front, a position irradiated by a very intense far-UV (FUV) radiation field. These observations have been complemented with 8.5″ resolution maps of the H2CO JKa,Kc = 51,5 → 41,4 and C(18)O J = 3 → 2 emission at 0...
July 2017: Astronomy and Astrophysics
K Kienapfel, H Preuschoft, A Wulf, H Wagner
The activity patterns of trunk muscles are commonly neglected, in spite of their importance for maintaining body shape. Analysis of the biomechanics of the trunk under static conditions has led to predictions of the activity patterns. These hypotheses are tested experimentally by surface electromyography (EMG). Five horses, with and without a rider, were examined in the walk, trot and canter. Footfall was synchronised with EMG by an accelerometer. Averages of ten consecutive cycles were calculated and compared by statistical methods...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
R K Kasimanickam, J B Hall, C T Estill, J P Kastelic, C Joseph, R L Abdel Aziz, D Nak
Objectives were to determine effects of: 1) handling temperament and administration of flunixin meglumine, an inhibitor of prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) synthesis, given at the time of embryo transfer, on pregnancy rates in beef cattle embryo transfer recipients; 2) handling temperament and flunixin meglumine on peripheral concentrations of progesterone, cortisol, substance-P, prostaglandin F metabolites (PGFM, (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2a) and isoprostane 8-epi PGF2a; and 3) flunixin meglumine treatment on proportion of non-pregnant recipient cows returning to estrus within an expected interval...
February 2018: Theriogenology
R Behnke
BACKGROUND: Hoof-ground interaction impacts on the health and performance characteristics of horses. Due to complex interactions between hoof and ground during the stance phase, previous experimentally dominated studies concentrated on subproblems of the phenomena observed. A multidisciplinary methodology with mathematical modelling, material testing and in vivo experimental measurements seems promising. OBJECTIVES: With the help of a mathematical approach, this contribution aims to explain from a biomechanical point of view the phenomena observed during experimental investigations (hoof acceleration, interacting forces) and aims to contribute to an overall experimental-mathematical multidisciplinary approach...
November 9, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
A Kortyna, A J Samin, T A Miller, D J Nesbitt
Highly reactive benzyl radicals are generated by electron dissociative attachment to benzyl chloride doped into a neon-hydrogen-helium discharge and immediately cooled to Trot = 15 K in a high density, supersonic slit expansion environment. The sub-Doppler spectra are fit to an asymmetric-top rotational Hamiltonian, thereby yielding spectroscopic constants for the ground (v = 0) and first excited (v = 1, ν3, ν4) vibrational levels of the ground electronic state. The rotational constants obtained for the ground state are in good agreement with previous laser induced fluorescence measurements (LIF), with vibrational band origins (ν3 = 3073...
November 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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