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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903315/gait-and-posture-discrimination-in-sheep-using-a-tri-axial-accelerometer
#1
M Radeski, V Ilieski
Temporo-spatial observation of the leg could provide important information about the general condition of an animal, especially for those such as sheep and other free-ranging farm animals that can be difficult to access. Tri-axial accelerometers are capable of collecting vast amounts of data for locomotion and posture observations; however, interpretation and optimization of these data records remain a challenge. The aim of the present study was to introduce an optimized method for gait (walking, trotting and galloping) and posture (standing and lying) discrimination, using the acceleration values recorded by a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on the hind leg of sheep...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898852/horse-species-symposium-biomechanics-of-the-exercising-horse
#2
Hilary M Clayton
In spite of having large height and body mass, horses are cursorial animals with an extensive gait repertoire and considerable athletic abilities. The limbs have evolved so that the heavy musculature is confined to the proximal limbs while the distal limbs are light in weight with a single functional digit and long, lightweight tendons to move and support the distal joints. These adaptations reduce the moment of inertia and decrease the energy expended to protract and retract the limbs during locomotion. There is a division of labor between the forelimbs, which have a pillar-like construction specialized for weight bearing, and the hind limbs, in which the more angulated joints provide leverage for the generation of propulsion...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884141/normal-patellofemoral-kinematic-patterns-during-daily-activities-in-dogs
#3
Erica J Moore, Stanley E Kim, Scott A Banks, Antonio Pozzi, Jason D Coggeshall, Stephen C Jones
BACKGROUND: Patellar abnormalities are a common cause of pain and lameness in dogs; however, in vivo the relative motion between the femur and patella in dogs is not well described. The objective of this study was to define normal in vivo sagittal plane patellofemoral kinematics in three axes of motion using non-invasive methods. We hypothesized patellofemoral alignment in the sagittal plane would tightly correlate with the femorotibial flexion angle. Six healthy dogs without orthopedic disease underwent computed tomography (CT) of their hind limbs to create 3-D models of the patella and femur...
November 25, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862238/validation-of-distal-limb-mounted-inertial-measurement-unit-sensors-for-stride-detection-in-warmblood-horses-at-walk-and-trot
#4
F M Bragança, S Bosch, J P Voskamp, M Marin-Perianu, B J Van der Zwaag, J C M Vernooij, P R van Weeren, W Back
BACKGROUND: Inertial-measurement-unit (IMU)-sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. OBJECTIVES: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU-sensors. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective validation study comparing IMU-sensors and motion capture with force plate data. METHODS: Seven Warmblood horses equipped with metacarpal/metatarsal IMU-sensors and reflective markers for motion capture were hand walked and trotted over a force plate...
November 12, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859501/the-development-of-locomotor-kinetics-in-the-foal-and-the-effect-of-osteochondrosis
#5
B M C Gorissen, C F Wolschrijn, F M Serra Bragança, A A J Geerts, W O J L Leenders, W Back, P R van Weeren
BACKGROUND: Foals stand and walk immediately after birth, but insight into the subsequent longitudinal development of their gait kinetics in the early juvenile phase and the possible influence of osteochondrosis thereon is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To quantify gait kinetics in foals during the first half year of life, taking into account their osteochondrosis status. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study performed at a single stud farm. METHODS: Pressure plate measurements at walk and trot from eleven Dutch Warmblood foals during the first 24 weeks of life were used to determine body mass normalised peak vertical force, normalised vertical impulse and stance duration...
November 12, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846308/the-challenge-of-evaluating-the-intensity-of-short-actions-in-soccer-a-new-methodological-approach-using-percentage-acceleration
#6
Karin Sonderegger, Markus Tschopp, Wolfgang Taube
PURPOSE: There are several approaches to quantifying physical load in team sports using positional data. Distances in different speed zones are most commonly used. Recent studies have used acceleration data in addition in order to take short intense actions into account. However, the fact that acceleration decreases with increasing initial running speed is ignored and therefore introduces a bias. The aim of our study was to develop a new methodological approach that removes this bias...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811300/comparative-locomotor-costs-of-domestic-dogs-reveal-energetic-economy-of-wolf-like-breeds
#7
C M Bryce, T M Williams
The broad diversity in morphology and geographic distribution of the 35 free-ranging members of the family Canidae is only rivaled by that of the domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris. Considered to be among nature's most elite endurance athletes, both domestic and wild canids provide a unique opportunity to examine the variability in mammalian aerobic exercise performance and energy expenditure. To determine the potential effects of domestication and selective breeding on locomotor gait and economy in canids, we measured the kinematics and mass-specific metabolism of three large (>20 kg) dog breed groups (northern breeds, retrievers, and hounds) of varying morphological and genomic relatedness to their shared progenitor, the gray wolf...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810211/body-lean-angle-in-sound-dressage-horses-in-hand-on-the-lunge-and-ridden
#8
Line Greve, Sue Dyson
Animals can minimise the risk of falling by leaning into a curve. The aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the difference between observed (measured by an inertial measurement unit, IMU) and predicted body lean angle (calculated as a cyclist when turning) in horses; and (2) to compare circles versus straight lines ridden versus in-hand and trot with canter, and investigate the influence of age, rein and ridden work quality in trot (Fédération Equestre Internationale grading scale 1-10) in horses. Thirteen non-lame horses were assessed prospectively in a non-random, cross-sectional survey...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668584/an-attempt-to-detect-lameness-in-galloping-horses-by-use-of-body-mounted-inertial-sensors
#9
Marco A F Lopes, Antonio C O Dearo, Allen Lee, Shannon K Reed, Joanne Kramer, P Frank Pai, Yoshiharu Yonezawa, Hiromitchi Maki, Terry L Morgan, David A Wilson, Kevin G Keegan
OBJECTIVE To evaluate head, pelvic, and limb movement to detect lameness in galloping horses. ANIMALS 12 Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURES Movement data were collected with inertial sensors mounted on the head, pelvis, and limbs of horses trotting and galloping in a straight line before and after induction of forelimb and hind limb lameness by use of sole pressure. Successful induction of lameness was determined by measurement of asymmetric vertical head and pelvic movement during trotting. Differences in gallop strides before and after induction of lameness were evaluated with paired-sample statistical analysis and neural network training and testing...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633893/central-control-of-interlimb-coordination-and-speed-dependent-gait-expression-in-quadrupeds
#10
Simon M Danner, Simon D Wilshin, Natalia A Shevtsova, Ilya A Rybak
KEY POINTS: Quadrupeds express different gaits depending on speed of locomotion. Central pattern generators (one per limb) within the spinal cord generate locomotor oscillations and control limb movements. Neural interactions between these generators define interlimb coordination and gait. We present a computational model of spinal circuits representing four rhythm generators with left-right excitatory and inhibitory commissural and fore-hind inhibitory interactions within the cord. Increasing brainstem drive to all rhythm generators and excitatory commissural interneurons induces an increasing frequency of locomotor oscillations accompanied by speed-dependent gait changes from walk to trot and to gallop and bound...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527224/using-the-horse-grimace-scale-hgs-to-assess-pain-associated-with-acute-laminitis-in-horses-equus-caballus
#11
Emanuela Dalla Costa, Diana Stucke, Francesca Dai, Michela Minero, Matthew C Leach, Dirk Lebelt
Acute laminitis is a common equine disease characterized by intense foot pain, both acutely and chronically. The Obel grading system is the most widely accepted method for describing the severity of laminitis by equine practitioners, however this method requires movement (walk and trot) of the horse, causing further intense pain. The recently developed Horse Grimace Scale (HGS), a facial-expression-based pain coding system, may offer a more effective means of assessing the pain associated with acute laminitis...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525126/flexible-coupling-of-respiration-and-vocalizations-with-locomotion-and-head-movements-in-the-freely-behaving-rat
#12
Joseph Andrews Alves, Barbara Ciralli Boerner, Diego Andrés Laplagne
Quadrupedal mammals typically synchronize their respiration with body movements during rhythmic locomotion. In the rat, fast respiration is coupled to head movements during sniffing behavior, but whether respiration is entrained by stride dynamics is not known. We recorded intranasal pressure, head acceleration, instantaneous speed, and ultrasonic vocalizations from male and female adult rats while freely behaving in a social environment. We used high-speed video recordings of stride to understand how head acceleration signals relate to locomotion and developed techniques to identify episodes of sniffing, walking, trotting, and galloping from the recorded variables...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518920/different-horse-s-paces-during-hippotherapy-on-spatio-temporal-parameters-of-gait-in-children-with-bilateral-spastic-cerebral-palsy-a-feasibility-study
#13
Fabiane Nunes Antunes, Alexandre Severo do Pinho, Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Ana Paula Salazar, Giovana Duarte Eltz, Alcyr Alves de Oliveira Junior, Fernanda Cechetti, Manuela Galli, Aline Souza Pagnussat
Hippotherapy is often carried out for the rehabilitation of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), with the horse riding at a walking pace. This study aimed to explore the immediate effects of a hippotherapy protocol using a walk-trot pace on spatio-temporal gait parameters and muscle tone in children with Bilateral Spastic CP (BS-CP). Ten children diagnosed with BS-CP and 10 healthy aged-matched children (reference group) took part in this study. The children with BS-CP underwent two sessions of hippotherapy for one week of washout between them...
August 9, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485468/cardio-metabolic-responses-during-horse-riding-at-three-different-speeds
#14
Gianmarco Sainas, Salvatore Melis, Francesco Corona, Andrea Loi, Giovanna Ghiani, Raffaele Milia, Filippo Tocco, Elisabetta Marongiu, Antonio Crisafulli
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present investigation was to study the metabolic demand and cardiovascular response during a typical horse riding session. METHODS: To this aim, 19 (9 male, 10 female) riders, regularly participating in competitions, were enrolled. They underwent a preliminary, incremental exercise test on a cycle-ergometer to assess their anaerobic threshold (AT) and VO2max. Then, participants underwent a riding training session, which comprised periods of walking, trotting, and cantering for a total of 20 min...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475358/high-resolution-spectroscopy-of-jet-cooled-phenyl-radical-the-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-a1-symmetry-c-h-stretching-modes
#15
Chih-Hsuan Chang, David J Nesbitt
A series of CH stretch modes in phenyl radical (C6H5) has been investigated via high resolution infrared spectroscopy at sub-Doppler resolution (∼60 MHz) in a supersonic discharge slit jet expansion. Two fundamental vibrations of a1 symmetry, ν1 and ν2, are observed and rotationally analyzed for the first time, corresponding to in-phase and out-of-phase symmetric CH stretch excitation at the ortho/meta/para and ortho/para C atoms with respect to the radical center. The ν1 and ν2 band origins are determined to be 3073...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468024/the-effect-of-a-slow-release-formulation-of-zuclopenthixol-acetate-acunil%C3%A2-on-captive-blue-wildebeest-connochaetes-taurinus-behavior-and-physiological-response
#16
Liesel L Laubscher, Louwrens C Hoffman, Neville I Pitts, Jacobus P Raath
The study investigated the effect of a slow-release formulation of zuclopenthixol acetate (Acunil®) on blue wildebeest ( Connochaetes taurinus ) in captivity. Two groups of trials were conducted using either Acunil or a placebo (control). Animals (Acunil: n = 17; placebo: n = 12) were observed for a 12-hr period before the administration of Acunil or the placebo (pretreatment). After 24 hr, animals were administered Acunil (1.5 mg/kg) or a placebo (1.0-3.0 ml of sterile water) and observed again for 12 hr (posttreatment)...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459189/finite-element-analysis-of-bone-stresses-on-primary-impact-in-a-large-animal-model-the-distal-end-of-the-equine-third-metacarpal
#17
Cristin A McCarty, Jeffrey J Thomason, Karen D Gordon, Timothy A Burkhart, Jaques S Milner, David W Holdsworth
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the transient stresses of foot impact with the ground are similar to those found during midstance loading and if the location of high stress correlate with the sites most commonly associated with mechanically induced osteoarthritis (OA). We compared impact stresses in subchondral bone between two subject-specific, three-dimensional, finite-element models of the equine metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint-one with advanced OA and one healthy, and with similar published data on the stresses that occur at midstance...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454814/an-investigation-into-the-prevalence-and-impact-of-breast-pain-bra-issues-and-breast-size-on-female-horse-riders
#18
Jenny Burbage, Lorna Cameron
For female horse riders, breast pain, bra issues and breast size may be important concerns which have yet to be considered. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of breast pain and bra issues in female horse riders and explores the impact of breast size on breast pain and bra issues. A 6-part, 32 question online survey was completed by 1324 females who participated in horse riding activities. Descriptive and chi-squared (χ(2)) analyses were utilised; data for 1265 participants were included in the final analysis...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439451/biomechanical-comparison-of-3-0-mm-headless-compression-screw-and-3-5-mm-cortical-bone-screw-in-a-canine-humeral-condylar-fracture-model
#19
Mishka N Gonsalves, Daniel A Jankovits, Michael L Huber, Adam M Strom, Tanya C Garcia, Susan M Stover
OBJECTIVE: To compare the biomechanical properties of simulated humeral condylar fractures reduced with one of two screw fixation methods: 3.0 mm headless compression screw (HCS) or 3.5 mm cortical bone screw (CBS) placed in lag fashion. METHODS: Bilateral humeri were collected from nine canine cadavers. Standardized osteotomies were stabilized with 3.0 mm HCS in one limb and 3.5 mm CBS in the contralateral limb. Condylar fragments were loaded to walk, trot, and failure loads while measuring construct properties and condylar fragment motion...
September 20, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413640/an-exploration-of-the-influence-of-diagonal-dissociation-and-moderate-changes-in-speed-on-locomotor-parameters-in-trotting-horses
#20
Sarah Jane Hobbs, John E A Bertram, Hilary M Clayton
Background. Although the trot is described as a diagonal gait, contacts of the diagonal pairs of hooves are not usually perfectly synchronized. Although subtle, the timing dissociation between contacts of each diagonal pair could have consequences on gait dynamics and provide insight into the functional strategies employed. This study explores the mechanical effects of different diagonal dissociation patterns when speed was matched between individuals and how these effects link to moderate, natural changes in trotting speed...
2016: PeerJ
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