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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900769/influence-of-menstrual-phase-and-arid-vs-humid-heat-stress-on-autonomic-and-behavioural-thermoregulation-during-exercise-in-trained-but-unacclimated-women
#1
Tze-Huan Lei, Stephen R Stannard, Blake G Perry, Zachary J Schlader, James D Cotter, Toby Mündel
We studied thermoregulatory responses of ten well-trained (VO2 max, 57 (7) mL min(-1) kg(-1) ) eumenorrheic women exercising in dry and humid heat, across their menstrual cycle. They completed four trials, each of resting and cycling at fixed intensities (125 and 150 W), to assess autonomic regulation, then self-paced intensity (30-min work trial), to assess behavioural regulation. Trials were in early-follicular (EF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases in dry (DRY) and humid (HUM) heat matched for wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT, 27°C)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888580/biology-of-vo2-max-looking-under-the-physiology-lamp
#2
REVIEW
C Lundby, D Montero, M Joyner
In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882555/a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study-of-vo2-max-testing-a-potential-model-for-measuring-relative-in-vivo-efficacy-of-different-red-blood-cell-products
#3
Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, Evelyn L Lockhart, Nicholas Bandarenko, Mary L Campbell, Michael J Natoli, Veronika K Jamnik, Timothy R Carter, Richard E Moon
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials, for example, RECESS, comparing "young" (median, 7-day) versus "middle-aged" (median, 28-day) red blood cells (RBCs), showed no difference in outcome. These data are important; however, they do not inform us about the safety and effectiveness of the oldest RBCs, which some patients receive. It may not be feasible to conduct a clinical trial randomizing patients to receive the oldest blood. Therefore, we propose strenuous exercise (VO2 max testing) as a model to study the relative efficacy to increase oxygen delivery to tissue of different RBC products, for example, extremes of storage duration...
November 23, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881670/the-effect-of-alternate-day-caloric-restriction-on-the-metabolic-consequences-of-eight-days-bed-rest-in-healthy-lean-men-a-randomized-trial
#4
Nina Majlund Harder-Lauridsen, Signe Tellerup Nielsen, Sebastian Porsdam Mann, Mark Preben Lyngbæk, Fabiana Braga Benatti, Annika Reynberg Langkilde, Ian Law, Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard, Carsten Thomsen, Kirsten Moller, Kristian Karstoft, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Rikke Krogh-Madsen
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and alternate-day fasting/caloric restriction may both ameliorate aspects of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, visceral fat mass accumulation, and cognitive impairment, by overlapping mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alternate-day caloric restriction (ADCR) with overall energy balance would reduce insulin resistance and accumulation of visceral fat, in addition to improving cognitive functions, after eight consecutive days in bed...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859725/effects-of-menthol-application-on-the-skin-during-prolonged-immersion-in-swimmers-and-controls
#5
P G Botonis, N D Geladas, S N Kounalakis, E D Cherouveim, M D Koskolou
We hypothesized that menthol application on the skin would enhance vasoconstriction of subjects immersed in cool water, which would reduce heat loss and rectal temperature (Tre) cooling rate. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that this effect would be greater in individuals acclimatized to immersion in 24 °C water, such as swimmers. Seven swimmers (SW) and seven physical education students (CON) cycled at 60% VO2 max until Tre attained 38 °C, and were then immediately immersed in stirred water maintained at 24 °C on two occasions: without (NM) and with (M; 4...
November 18, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856713/effect-of-increased-and-maintained-frequency-of-speed-endurance-training-on-performance-and-muscle-adaptations-in-runners
#6
Casper Skovgaard, Nicki Winfield Almquist, Jens Bangsbo
The aim of the study was, in runners accustomed to speed endurance training (SET), to examine the effect of increased and maintained frequency of SET on performance and muscular adaptations. After familiarization (FAM) to SET, eighteen male (n=14) and female (n=4) runners (VO2-max: 57.3±3.4 ml·min(-1); mean±SD) completed twenty sessions of maintained low-frequency (LF; every fourth day; n=7) or high-frequency (HF; every second day; n=11) SET (intervention period; INT). Before FAM as well as before and after INT, subjects completed a series of running tests and a biopsy from m...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854281/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-peak-torque-differences-between-vegetarian-and-omnivore-endurance-athletes-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Heidi M Lynch, Christopher M Wharton, Carol S Johnston
In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs...
November 15, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829967/does-virtual-reality-based-kinect-dance-training-paradigm-improve-autonomic-nervous-system-modulation-in-individuals-with-chronic-stroke
#8
Luciana Maria Malosá Sampaio, Savitha Subramaniam, Ross Arena, Tanvi Bhatt
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and low resting heart rate variability (HRV) are associated with an increased cardiovascular deconditioning, risk of secondary stroke and mortality. Aerobic dance is a multidimensional physical activity and recent research supports its application as a valid alternative cardiovascular training. Furthermore, technological advances have facilitated the emergence of new approaches for exercise training holding promise, especially those methods that integrate rehabilitation with virtual gaming...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826398/four-weeks-of-supplementation-with-isolated-soy-protein-attenuates-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-and-enhances-muscle-recovery-in-well-trained-athletes-a-randomized-trial
#9
Shweta Shenoy, Mrinal Dhawan, Jaspal Singh Sandhu
BACKGROUND: The effects of consumption of isolated soy protein (ISP) for a chronic period (4 weeks) on exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) in athletic population have never been explored. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of ISP on muscle damage indices elicited via a bout of damaging exercise. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty males (20 boxers, 20 cyclists) aged 18 - 28 years were randomly assigned to two groups (ISP and Placebo) (n = 20). All participants who engaged themselves in specific, regular training of 30 hours a week during the competitive season were included in the study...
September 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810293/usefulness-of-stroke-volume-monitoring-during-upright-ramp-incremental-cycle-exercise-in-young-patients-with-fontan-circulation
#10
Antoine Legendre, Aurore Guillot, Magalie Ladouceur, Damien Bonnet
BACKGROUND: Aerobic capacity (VO2 max) of patients with Fontan circulation (FC) is lowest within patients with congenital heart disease. The reasons have not been completely elucidated. METHODS: Twenty five young patients with non-failing FC underwent a cardiopulmonary test during an upright ramp cycling. By using a signal morphology impedance cardiography device (physioflow®), stroke volume (SV) was evaluated along with effort. The results were compared with paired healthy controls...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797726/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-cardiometabolic-health-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-intervention-studies
#11
Romeo B Batacan, Mitch J Duncan, Vincent J Dalbo, Patrick S Tucker, Andrew S Fenning
The current review clarifies the cardiometabolic health effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in adults. A systematic search (PubMed) examining HIIT and cardiometabolic health markers was completed on 15 October 2015. Sixty-five intervention studies were included for review and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Downs and Black score. Studies were classified by intervention duration and body mass index classification. Outcomes with at least 5 effect sizes were synthesised using a random-effects meta-analysis of the standardised mean difference (SMD) in cardiometabolic health markers (baseline to postintervention) using Review Manager 5...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789785/distribution-of-cardiac-output-to-the-brain-across-the-adult-lifespan
#12
Chang-Yang Xing, Takashi Tarumi, Jie Liu, Yinan Zhang, Marcel Turner, Jonathan Riley, Cynthia Duron Tinajero, Li-Jun Yuan, Rong Zhang
A widely accepted dogma is that about 15-20% of cardiac output is received by the brain in healthy adults under resting conditions. However, it is unclear if the distribution of cardiac output directed to the brain alters across the adult lifespan and is modulated by sex or other hemodynamic variables. We measured cerebral blood flow/cardiac output ratio index in 139 subjects (88 women, age 21-80 years) using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. Body mass index, cardiac systolic function (eject fraction), central arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), arterial pressure, heart rate, physical fitness (VO2 max), and total brain volume were measured to assess their effects on the cardiac output-cerebral blood flow relationship...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753742/changes-in-gait-over-a-30-min-walking-session-in-obese-females
#13
Bhupinder Singh, Huy Vo, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, John H Yack
PURPOSE: This study assessed the biomechanical gait changes in obese and normal weight female adult subjects following a commonly recommended 30-minute walking session. Hip and knee adduction and extensor moments, which are the primary modulators of frontal and sagittal plane load distribution were hypothesized to increase in obese females following a 30-minute walking period, resulting in more stress across the hip and knee joint. METHODS: Ten obese (37.7 ± 4...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736249/training-at-2100-m-altitude-affects-running-speed-and-session-rpe-at-different-intensities-in-elite-middle-distance-runners
#14
Avish P Sharma, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y Robertson, Philo U Saunders, Kevin G Thompson
PURPOSE: This investigation sought to determine the effect of training at 2100 metres natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance. METHODS: In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD; Age, 25 ± 5 years; VO2 max, 71 ± 5 ml.kg.min-1) completed either 4-6 weeks of sea-level training (CON, n = 7), or a 4-5 week natural altitude training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400-2700 m (ALT, n = 12) following a period of sea-level training...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716669/daily-physical-activity-patterns-during-the%C3%A2-early-stage-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Vijay R Varma, Amber Watts
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that results in severe disability. Very few studies have explored changes in daily physical activity patterns during early stages of AD when components of physical function and mobility may be preserved. OBJECTIVE: Our study explored differences in daily physical activity profiles, independent of the effects of non-cognitive factors including physical function and age, among individuals with mild AD compared to controls...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713626/increased-mortality-in-patients-with-severe-copd-associated-with-high-intensity-exercise-a-preliminary-cohort-study
#16
Lone Schaadt, Robin Christensen, Lars Erik Kristensen, Marius Henriksen
INTRODUCTION: Intensity of exercise is believed to be a key determinant of response to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rehabilitation. We hypothesized that a higher intensity of exercise, in combination with physiotherapist-led instructions and education in management of breathlessness, would lead to better self-management, possibly delaying calls to the emergency service and preventing hospitalization. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test this hypothesis in a subsequent randomized trial, and in order to test study processes and estimate hospitalization rates, we did a small preliminary prospective cohort study on severe COPD patients referred to outpatient rehabilitation...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707782/functional-improvement-after-successful-catheter-ablation-for-long-standing-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#17
Martin Fiala, Veronika Bulková, Libor Škňouřil, Renáta Nevřalová, Ondřej Toman, Jaroslav Januška, Jindřich Špinar, Dan Wichterle
AIMS: Identifying patients who benefit from restored sinus rhythm (SR) would optimize the selection of candidates for ablation of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LSPAF). This prospective study sought to identify the hitherto unknown factors associated with global functional improvement after successful radiofrequency catheter ablation of LSPAF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 171 LSPAF patients (84% of the total consecutive 203 patients) who were examined in SR 12 months after ablation, the individual per cent change from baseline value in maximum oxygen consumption at exercise test (VO2 max), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and five-dimensional descriptive system (EQ-5D) of quality-of-life questionnaire were classified in quartiles by 0 (worse) to 3 (best) grades...
October 5, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689320/local-depletion-of-glycogen-with-supramaximal-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle-fibres
#18
Kasper D Gejl, Niels Ørtenblad, Erik Andersson, Peter Plomgaard, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Joachim Nielsen
KEY POINTS: Glycogen is stored in local spatially distinct compartments within skeletal muscle fibres and is the main energy source during supramaximal exercise. Using quantitative electron microscopy, we show that supramaximal exercise induces a differential depletion of glycogen from these compartments and also demonstrate how this varies with fibre types. Repeated exercise alters this compartmentalized glycogen depletion. The results obtained in the present study help us understand the muscle metabolic dynamics of whole body repeated supramaximal exercise, and suggest that the muscle has a compartmentalized local adaptation to repeated exercise, which affects glycogen depletion...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685008/repeated-prolonged-exercise-decreases-maximal-fat-oxidation-in-older-men
#19
Thomas Morville, Mads Rosenkilde, Thor Munch-Andersen, Peter Riis Andersen, Katja Kjær, Signe Helbo, Marianne Kristensen, Andreas Vigelsø, Nick Mattsson, Hanne Kruuse Rasmusen, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Angela Fago, Christina Neigaard Hansen, Brigitte Twelkmeyer, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Flemming Dela, Jørn Wulff Helge
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Fat metabolism and muscle adaptation was investigated in 6 older trained men (age: 61 ± 4 years; VO2max: 48 ± 2 mL kg min) following repeated prolonged exercise). METHODS: 2706 km (1,681 miles) cycling was performed over 14 days and a blood sample and a muscle biopsy were obtained at rest after an overnight fast before and 30 hours after the completion of the cycling. VO2-max and maximal fat oxidation were measured using incremental exercise tests...
September 28, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676916/is-fatigue-associated-with-cardiorespiratory-endurance-among-patients-suffering-from-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Maxime Valet, Gaëtan Stoquart, Yumiko Glibert, Jean-Claude Hakizimana, Thierry Lejeune
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is the most common and disabling symptom among patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). From the initial stages of the disease, a physical deconditioning is also observed among these patients. The aim of this study is to assess the cardiorespiratory endurance (i.e. exercise tolerance functions) and self-reported fatigue, as well as their associations, among patients suffering from MS with mild disability (expanded disability status scale≤4). MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: 21 patients with MS (15 women; age: 26-64 years, median 46 years; duration of disease: 0...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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