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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940974/efficacy-of-constant-load-verification-testing-to-confirm-vo2-max-attainment
#1
Todd A Astorino, Jamie DeRevere
Although maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) has been measured for almost 100 years, it is unknown when 'true' VO2 max is attained. Primary (the VO2 plateau) and secondary criteria are used to confirm VO2 max incidence, but frequency of the VO2 plateau varies, and secondary criteria are relatively invalid. The verification test (VER) seems to elicit similar estimates of VO2 max versus the incremental value (INC), yet existing data are limited by small populations and use of inadequate criteria to confirm 'true' VO2 max...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935825/effect-of-tapering-after-a-period-of-high-volume-sprint-interval-training-on-running-performance-and-muscular-adaptations-in-moderately-trained-runners
#2
Casper Skovgaard, Nicki Winfield Almquist, Thue Kvorning, Peter Møller Christensen, Jens Bangsbo
The effect of tapering following a period of high-volume sprint interval training (SIT) and a basic volume of aerobic training on performance and muscle adaptations in moderately trained runners was examined. Eleven (8 males, 3 females) runners (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 56.8±2.9 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1); mean±SD) conducted high-volume SIT (HV; 20 SIT sessions; 8-12 x 30-s all-out) for 40 days followed by 18 days of tapering (TAP; 4 SIT sessions; 4 x 30-s all-out). Before and after HV as well as midway through and at the end of TAP, the subjects completed a 10-km running test and a repeated running test at 90% of vVO2-max to exhaustion (RRT)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925577/sex-and-maturity-status-affected-the-validity-of-a-submaximal-cycle-test-in-adolescents
#3
Frida Björkman, Andrea Eggers, Adam Stenman, Tony Bohman, Björn Ekblom, Örjan Ekblom
AIM: This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Ekblom-Bak (EB) submaximal cycle test in adolescents and identified any sex or maturity-related factors for prediction errors. METHODS: We recruited 50 healthy subjects through a public announcement in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2016. The 27 boys and 23 girls were aged 10-15 years and in Tanner stages I-IV. They performed an EB test and incremental treadmill running test for direct measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)...
September 19, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877646/comparison-of-canadian-firefighters-and-normal-controls-based-on-the-submaximal-fitness-testing-and-strength-considering-age-and-gender
#4
Goris Nazari, Joy C MacDermid, Kathryn E Sinden R Kin, Tom J Overend
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have addressed whether the firefighters are more fit than the general population and possess sufficient levels of aerobic capacity and muscle strength to perform on duty tasks in a safe and efficient manner, considering age and gender. We aimed to evaluate the fitness levels of Hamilton firefighters, and to determine the effects of age and gender. METHODS: 89 participants were recruited. The Modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test was used to determine participants' estimated maximal oxygen consumptions (VO2-max) levels...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869309/resting-heart-rate-heart-rate-reserve-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-professional-firefighters-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
BongKyoo Choi, SangBaek Ko, Stacey Kojaku
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the associations of resting heart rate (RHR) and heart rate reserve (HRR) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in firefighters. METHODS: For each of 288 professional firefighters, HRR was calculated as the difference between measured RHR and estimated maximum HR. For comparison, VO2 max based on a treadmill test was included. MetS was defined according to the NCEP/ATP III criteria. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS was 14...
September 4, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846611/high-intensity-exercise-can-it-protect-you-from-a-fast-food-diet
#6
Christian Duval, Marc-Antoine Rouillier, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Antony D Karelis
The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of high intensity exercise to counteract the deleterious effects of a fast food diet on the cardiometabolic profile of young healthy men. Fifteen men were subjected to an exclusive fast food diet from a popular fast food restaurant chain (three extra value meals/day + optional snack) for 14 consecutive days. Simultaneously, participants were asked to perform each day high intensity interval training (HIIT) (15 × 60 sec sprint intervals (~90% of maximal heart rate)) on a treadmill...
August 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836151/it-s-time-to-start-changing-the-game-a-12-week-workplace-team-sport-intervention-study
#7
Andrew Brinkley, Hilary McDermott, Rachel Grenfell-Essam, Fehmidah Munir
BACKGROUND: A 12-week multi-team sport programme was provided to employees of a large services organisation and conducted in workplaces. This programme was used to investigate the short-term effect of regular sports team participation on individual employee and organisational health. METHODS: A large services organisation participated in this study. Two regional worksites of office workers were assigned as the team sport (intervention) (n = 28 participants) or control (n = 20 participants) groups...
August 23, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833625/physical-activity-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-metabolic-outcomes-in-monozygotic-twin-pairs-discordant-for-bmi
#8
Bram Berntzen, Sakari Jukarainen, Mikko Kataja, Antti Hakkarainen, Jesper Lundbom, Nina Lundbom, Tuija Tammelin, Riitta Simonen, Päivi Piirilä, Aila Rissanen, Jaakko Kaprio, E Juulia Paavonen, Kirsi H Pietiläinen
PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate 1) how monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who are discordant for body mass index (BMI) differ for objectively and subjectively measured physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 max), and 2) associations of PA and VO2max with adiposity and measures of metabolic health, in individual twins and independent of genetic and shared environmental effects within twin pairs. METHODS: We examined 27 BMI-discordant and 14 BMI-concordant MZ twin pairs...
August 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832747/pre-participation-physical-fitness-does-not-influence-adherence-to-a-supervised-exercise-program
#9
Fábio Akio Nishijuka, Christina Grüne de Souza E Silva, Carlos Vieira Duarte, Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo
Background: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation tends to reduce mortality. However, it requires medium/long-term adherence to regular physical exercise. It is relevant to identify the variables that affect adherence to an supervised exercise program (SEP). Objective: To evaluate the influence of pre-participation levels of aerobic and non-aerobic physical fitness components in medium-term adherence to SEP. Methods: A total of 567 SEP participants (65 ± 12 years) (68% men) were studied...
August 17, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801974/heritability-estimates-of-endurance-related-phenotypes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Hirofumi Zempo, Noriyuki Fuku, Naoki Kikuchi, Motohiko Miyachi, Haruka Murakami
The aim of this study was to clarify heritability estimates for endurance-related phenotypes and the underlying factors affecting these estimates. A systematic literature search was conducted for studies reporting heritability estimates of endurance-related phenotypes using the PubMed database (up to September 30, 2016). Studies that estimated the heritability of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), submaximal endurance phenotypes, and endurance performance were selected. The weighted mean heritability for endurance-related phenotypes was calculated using a random-effects model...
August 12, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791498/patient-reported-dyspnea-correlates-poorly-with-aerobic-exercise-capacity-measured-during-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#11
Dany Gaspard, Jonathan Kass, Stephen Akers, Krystal Hunter, Melvin Pratter
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported dyspnea plays a central role in assessing cardiopulmonary disease. There is little evidence, however, that dyspnea correlates with objective exercise capacity measurements. If the correlation is poor, dyspnea as a proxy for objective assessment may be misleading. OBJECTIVE: To compare patient's perception of dyspnea with maximum oxygen uptake (MaxVO2) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing CPET for dyspnea evaluation were studied prospectively...
August 8, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782653/a-maximal-incremental-effort-alters-tear-osmolarity-depending-on-the-fitness-level-in-military-helicopter-pilots
#12
Jesús Vera Vilchez, Raimundo Jimenez, Iker Madinabeitia, Nerijus Masiulis, David Cárdenas
PURPOSE: Fitness level modulates the physiological responses to exercise for a variety of indices. While intense bouts of exercise have been demonstrated to increase tear osmolarity (Tosm), it is not known if fitness level can affect the Tosm response to acute exercise. This study aims to compare the effect of a maximal incremental test on Tosm between trained and untrained military helicopter pilots. METHODS: Nineteen military helicopter pilots (ten trained and nine untrained) performed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill...
August 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780577/drug-treatment-effects-on-outcomes-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Sean Lee Zheng, Fiona T Chan, Adam A Nabeebaccus, Ajay M Shah, Theresa McDonagh, Darlington O Okonko, Salma Ayis
BACKGROUND: Clinical drug trials in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction have failed to demonstrate improvements in mortality. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials (RCT) assessing pharmacological treatments in patients with heart failure with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction≥40% from January 1996 to May 2016. The primary efficacy outcome was all-cause mortality...
August 5, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759130/the-joint-impact-of-prediagnostic-inflammatory-markers-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-on-the-risk-of-cancer-mortality
#14
Perfenia Paul Pletnikoff, Jari A Laukkanen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Sudhir Kurl
Independently, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte count have been shown to predict cancer death. Little is known about the joint impact of CRF and prediagnostic markers of inflammation, particularly leukocyte count and CRP, and their prognostic value with cancer death. The aim of this study was to explore the association between prediagnostic inflammatory markers and CRF with cancer mortality. A population-based cohort of 2270 men from Eastern Finland with no cancer history at baseline participated in the study...
July 31, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751372/energy-cost-of-running-instability-evaluated-with-wearable-trunk-accelerometry
#15
Kurt Heinrich Schütte, Saint Sackey, Rachel Venter, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Maintaining stability under dynamic conditions is an inherent challenge to bipedal running. This challenge may impose an energetic cost (Ec) thus hampering endurance running performance, yet the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Wireless tri-axial trunk accelerometry is a simple tool that could be used to unobtrusively evaluate these mechanisms. Here, we test a cost of instability hypothesis by examining the contribution of trunk accelerometry-based measures (tri-axial root mean square, step and stride regularity, and sample entropy) to inter-individual variance in Ec (kcal...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737586/comparison-of-acute-physiological-and-psychological-responses-between-moderate-intensity-continuous-exercise-and-three-regimes-of-high-intensity-training
#16
Nicole Green, Timothy Wertz, Zachary LaPorta, Adam Mora, Jasmine Serbas, Todd A Astorino
High intensity interval training (HIIT) elicits similar physiological adaptations as moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) despite less time commitment. However, there is debate whether HIIT is more aversive than MICT. This study compared physiological and perceptual responses between MICT and three regimes of HIIT. Nineteen active adults (age = 24.0 ± 3.3 yr) unfamiliar with HIIT initially performed ramp exercise to exhaustion to measure maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and determine workload for subsequent sessions, whose order was randomized...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737294/a-call-to-action-towards-an-evidence-based-approach-to-using-verbal-encouragement-during-maximal-exercise-testing
#17
REVIEW
Adrian W Midgley, David C Marchant, Andrew R Levy
By definition, maximal exercise testing inherently requires participants to give a maximal effort. This is an important practical issue as submaximal efforts can produce invalid test results. Verbal encouragement is commonly used to motivate participants to maintain or increase effort investment during maximal exercise testing. Accordingly, studies have reported significant increases in time to exhaustion of between 8% and 18% during VO2max and multistage shuttle run tests, and a significant 30·5 m mean increase in 6-min walk test distance...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706467/ketogenic-diet-benefits-body-composition-and-well-being-but-not-performance-in-a-pilot-case-study-of-new-zealand-endurance-athletes
#18
Caryn Zinn, Matthew Wood, Mikki Williden, Simon Chatterton, Ed Maunder
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat and ketogenic diets are increasingly adopted by athletes for body composition and sports performance enhancements. However, as yet, there is no consensus on their efficacy in improving performance. There is also no comprehensive literature on athletes' experiences while undertaking this diet. The purpose of this pilot work was two-fold: i. to examine the effects of a non-calorie controlled ketogenic diet on body composition and performance outcomes of endurance athletes, and ii...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697553/impact-of-training-volume-and-intensity-on-rbc-nos-no-pathway-and-endurance-capacity
#19
Christina Koliamitra, Bastian Holtkamp, Philipp Zimmer, Wilhelm Bloch, Marijke Grau
BACKGROUND: Acute exercise increases red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activation and RBC deformability but the effect of regular training remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To detect the chronic effect of enduring moderate and high intensity training on the RBC-NOS/NO pathway and to detect a relation between RBC deformability and endurance capacity. METHODS: 38 healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: High Volume Training (HVT; 120-140 beats per minute (bpm)), High Intensity Training (HIT; 160-180 bpm) and Moderate Intensity Training (MIT; 140-160 bpm)...
July 3, 2017: Biorheology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685860/exercise-mediated-modulation-of-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#20
REVIEW
Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Jose A L Calbet
Although exercise exerts multiple beneficial health effects, it may also damage cellular structures. Damaged elements are continuously degraded and its constituents recycled to produce renovated structures through a process called autophagy, which is essential for the adaptation to training. Autophagy is particularly active in skeletal muscle, where it can be evaluated by using specific molecular markers of activation (unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation) and specific proteins indicating increased autophagosome content (increased total LC3, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio)...
July 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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