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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340191/cardiac-health-and-fitness-of-colorado-male-female-firefighters
#1
K Li, T Lipsey, H J Leach, T L Nelson
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is documented as the leading cause of mortality in on-duty firefighters. Aims: To examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components, cardiorespiratory fitness levels and the association between them in firefighters in Colorado, USA. Methods: This study included male and female Colorado firefighters. MetS was identified where three or more metabolic abnormalities were present, using Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines...
March 16, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299717/physical-activity-and-maximal-oxygen-uptake-in-adults-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#2
Itai Gross, Harry J Hirsch, Naama Constantini, Shachar Nice, Yehuda Pollak, Larry Genstil, Talia Eldar-Geva, Varda Gross Tsur
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is the most common genetic syndrome causing life-threatening obesity. Strict adherence to a low-calorie diet and regular physical activity are needed to prevent weight gain. Direct measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), the "gold standard" for assessing aerobic exercise capacity, has not been previously described in PWS. OBJECTIVES: Assess aerobic capacity by direct measurement of VO2 max in adults with PWS, and in age and BMI-matched controls (OC), and compare the results with values obtained by indirect prediction methods...
March 16, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283234/endothelin-inhibitors-lower-pulmonary-vascular-resistance-and-improve-functional-capacity-in-patients-with-fontan-circulation
#3
Gabriella Agnoletti, Simona Gala, Francesca Ferroni, Roberto Bordese, Lorenzo Appendini, Carlo Pace Napoleone, Laura Bergamasco
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of endothelin inhibitors (ERAs) on hemodynamic and functional parameters in patients post-Fontan procedure with high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). METHODS: Among our cohort of patients with Fontan circulation, 8 children, 8 adolescents, and 8 adults had PVR ≥2 WU*m(2). These patients were treated with ERAs (minors with bosentan, adults with macitentan) and reevaluated after 6 months. Pre- and posttreatment hemodynamic variables were assessed by cardiac catheterization...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280889/end-points-in-heart-failure-are-we-doing-it-right
#4
REVIEW
Luxitaa Goenka, Melvin George, Sandhiya Selvarajan
PURPOSE: Heart Failure (HF) continues to be associated with high mortality and morbidity. We attempted to identify the most common end points used in phase 3 clinical trials of heart failure and discuss their merits and demerits. METHODS: Literature evaluation was done using the databases PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov from January 2010 to December 2016 to identify randomised clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of therapeutic drugs on heart failure. Following the literature search, the data on the primary end points were extracted from each of the selected trials...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267247/validity-of-physical-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-the-danish-cohort-diet-cancer-and-health-next-generations
#5
Lene Lerche, Anja Olsen, Kristina Elin Nielsen Petersen, Agnetha Linn Rostgaard-Hansen, Lars Ove Dragsted, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg, Anne Tjønneland, Jytte Halkjaer
Valid assessments of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is essential in epidemiological studies to define dose-response relationship for e.g. formulating thorough recommendations of an appropriate pattern of PA to maintain good health. The aim of this study was to validate the Danish step test, the physical activity questionnaire Active-Q and self-rated fitness against directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). A population based subsample (n=125) was included from the 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations' (DCH-NG) cohort which is under establishment...
March 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229576/hormonal-responses-during-two-different-concurrent-training-trials-in-youth-elite-soccer-players-does-changing-the-organisation-of-training-impact-the-hormonal-response-to-concurrent-exercise
#6
Kevin Enright, James Morton, John Iga, Barry Drust
BACKGROUND: There are no data describing the acute hormonal responses to concurrent- training programmes in youth elite soccer players. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the total testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and growth hormone (hGH) responses during two same-day concurrent-training (CT) trials in elite soccer players. METHODS: n=13 youth elite players (age: 17.0±0.2 yrs; height, 1.80±0.07 m; body mass, 73.1±5.7 kg; VO2 max, 64.4±4.8ml-1.kg-1...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207959/lipoprotein-lipase-activity-does-not-predict-vldl-tg-fatty-acid-oxidation-during-exercise
#7
Esben Søndergaard, Iben R Andersen, Lars P Sørensen, Lars C Gormsen, Søren Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Exercise lowers plasma triglyceride levels, but the physiological mechanisms remain not fully elucidated. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme in facilitating fatty acid uptake from lipoproteins. Since exercise increase the efficiency of VLDL-TG oxidation, we hypothesized that muscle LPL activity would be a rate-limiting step and predict VLDL-TG FA oxidation during exercise. METHODS: Sixteen healthy, lean subjects (8 men and 8 women) were examined before and during an acute exercise bout (90 min at 50% of VO2-max)...
February 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202808/a-broad-scale-comparison-of-aerobic-activity-levels-in-vertebrates-endotherms-versus-ectotherms
#8
James F Gillooly, Juan Pablo Gomez, Evgeny V Mavrodiev
Differences in the limits and range of aerobic activity levels between endotherms and ectotherms remain poorly understood, though such differences help explain basic differences in species' lifestyles (e.g. movement patterns, feeding modes, and interaction rates). We compare the limits and range of aerobic activity in endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, reptiles, and amphibians) by evaluating the body mass-dependence of VO2 max, aerobic scope, and heart mass in a phylogenetic context based on a newly constructed vertebrate supertree...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181133/effects-of-aerobic-exercise-training-on-metabolism-of-nitric-oxide-and-endothelin-1-in-lung-parenchyma-of-rats-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#9
A Zimmer, R B Teixeira, J H P Bonetto, R Siqueira, C C Carraro, L M Donatti, A Hickmann, I E Litvin, A E G Godoy, A S Araujo, R Colombo, Adriane Belló-Klein
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by vasoconstriction and proliferative obstruction of pulmonary vessels, which promotes a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The effect of exercise training on oxidative stress, metabolism, and markers of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was analyzed in the lung tissue of rats with PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT).Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups (5-7 animals): sedentary control (SC), sedentary MCT (SM), trained control (TC), and trained MCT (TM)...
February 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179805/a-new-whole-room-indirect-calorimeter-for-measurement-of-the-energetics-of-exercise
#10
Russell Rising, Kathryn Whyte, Jeanine Albu, Xavier Pi-Sunyer
The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of exercise energy expenditure (EXEE) measurements from a metabolic cart (HG_MC) to that obtained with a new exercise whole room indirect calorimeter (EX_WRIC). First, the HG_MC and the EX_WRIC were subjected to 10, 30-min ethanol (99.8% purity) and propane (99.5% purity) combustion validations, respectively, for EE, ventilation rates (liters) of oxygen (VO2), carbon dioxide (VCO2), and the respiratory quotient (RQ; VCO2/VO2). Then, 15 healthy adults (13 men and 2 women) cycled at 65% age predicted heart rate max for random determination of their EXEE, VO2, VCO2 and RQ after a 12-hr fast with both the HG-MC and EX_WRIC...
December 2016: Journal of Exercise Physiology Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166185/heat-exposure-and-hypohydration-exacerbate-physiological-strain-during-load-carrying
#11
Elizabeth L Adams, Douglas J Casa, Robert A Huggins, Julie K DeMartini, Rebecca L Stearns, Rachel M Kennedy, Lindsay J DiStefano, Lawrence E Armstrong, Carl M Maresh
Heat exposure and hypohydration induce physiological and psychological strain during exercise; however, it is unknown if the separate effects of heat exposure and hypohydration are synergistic when co-occurring during loaded exercise. This study compared separate and combined effects of heat exposure and hypohydration on physiological strain, mood state, and visual vigilance during loaded exercise. Twelve males (mean±SD; age, 20±2 years; body mass, 74.0±8.2 kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 57.0±6.0 mLkg-1min-1) completed 4 trials under the following conditions: euhydrated temperate (EUT), hypohydrated temperate (HYT), euhydrated hot (EUH), and hypohydrated hot (HYH)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165641/effects-of-nitrate-supplementation-in-trained-and-untrained-muscle-is-modest-with-initial-high-plasma-nitrite-levels
#12
Peter M Christensen, Nanna K Petersen, Signe N Friis, Eddie Weitzberg, Lars Nybo
Nitrate (NO3(-) ) supplementation resulting in higher plasma nitrite (NO2(-) ) is reported to lower resting mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and oxygen uptake (VO2 ) during submaximal exercise in non-athletic populations, whereas effects in general are absent in endurance trained individuals. To test whether physiological effects of NO3(-) supplementation depend on local muscular training status or cardiovascular fitness, male endurance-trained cyclists (CYC, n=9, VO2 -max: 64±3 ml/min/kg; mean±SD) and recreational active subjects serving as a control group (CON, n=8, 46±3 ml/min/kg), acutely consumed nitrate-rich beetroot-juice ([NO3(-) ] ~9 mmol) (NIT) or placebo (PLA) with assessment of resting MAP and energy expenditure during moderate intensity (~50% VO2 -max) and incremental leg cycling (LEG-ex) and arm cranking exercise (ARM-ex)...
February 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164383/physiological-biochemical-anthropometric-and-biomechanical-influences-on-exercise-economy-in-humans
#13
Carsten Lundby, David Montero, Saskia Gehrig, Ulrika Anderson Hall, Pascal Kaiser, Robert Boushel, Anne-Kristine Meinild Lundby, Niels Kirk, Paola Valdivieso, Martin Flück, Niels H Secher, Frederik Edin, Tobias Hein, Klavs Madsen
Inter-individual variation in running and cycling exercise economy (EE) remains unexplained although studied for more than a century. This study is the first to comprehensively evaluate the importance of biochemical, structural, physiological, anthropometric, and biomechanical influences on running and cycling EE within a single study. In 22 healthy males (VO2 max range 45.5 to 72.1 ml.min(-1) .kg(-1) ) no factor related to skeletal muscle structure (% slow twitch fibre content, number of capillaries per fibre), mitochondrial properties (volume density, oxidative capacity, or mitochondrial efficiency) or protein content (UCP3 and MFN2 expression) explained variation in cycling and running EE among subjects...
February 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161527/a-systematic-review-of-prehabilitation-programs-in-abdominal-cancer-surgery
#14
REVIEW
Yasser Hijazi, Umair Gondal, Omer Aziz
INTRODUCTION: Prehabilitation programs aim to optimise patients in order to enhance post-operative recovery. This study aims to review the composition of prehabilitation programs for patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery and define the outcome measures that are used to evaluate this intervention. METHODS: A systematic literature review of all comparative studies on prehabilitation versus standard care in patients undergoing abdominal cancer surgery was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160518/physical-activity-outside-of-organised-sports-is-associated-with-functional-performance
#15
Noah Tocci, David R Howell, Dai Sugimoto, Andrea Stracciolini, Jen Morse, William P Meehan
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine whether high levels of strenuous physical activity outside of organised sports are associated with better functional test performance. METHODS: Youth athletes (n = 445, mean = 14.2 ± 2.5 years) reported their frequency of strenuous physical activity outside of organised sports. The functional performance tests: vertical jump height, pro agility test time, estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), front plank time and postural stability were measured and compared between groups...
February 4, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120856/the-effect-of-l-arginine-supplementation-on-body-composition-and-performance-in-male-athletes-a-double-blinded-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
N Pahlavani, M H Entezari, M Nasiri, A Miri, M Rezaie, M Bagheri-Bidakhavidi, O Sadeghi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Athletes used a lot of dietary supplements to achieve the more muscle mass and improve their athletic performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of l-arginine supplementation on sport performance and body composition in male soccer players. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This double-blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 56 male soccer players, with age range of 16-35, who referred to sport clubs in Isfahan, Iran...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092067/interrelations-among-the-adipocytokines-leptin-and-adiponectin-oxidative-stress-and-aseptic-inflammation-markers-in-pre-and-early-pubertal-normal-weight-and-obese-boys
#17
George Paltoglou, Maria Schoina, George Valsamakis, Nicolaos Salakos, Alexandra Avloniti, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexandra Margeli, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Maria Papagianni, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Ioannis G Fatouros, George Mastorakos
PURPOSE: Presumed interrelationships among deleterious aspects of adipose tissue metabolism, inflammation, and cellular oxidative stress could be influenced by pubertal hormonal changes. They were investigated in pre- and early pubertal normal-weight and obese boys before and after an exercise bout employed as an energy demanding stimulator. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Seventy-six healthy pre- (mean ± SD, 10.6 ± 0.2 years old, 28 normal-weight, and 11 obese) and early-(11...
January 16, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062521/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-activity-explains-the-obesity-deprivation-relationship-in-children
#18
Alan M Nevill, Michael J Duncan, Ian M Lahart, Gavin Sandercock
This study examined the association between obesity and deprivation in English children and whether cardiorespiratory fitness or physical activity (PA) can explain this association. Obesity was assessed using IOTF criteria in 8,398 10-16 year olds. Social deprivation was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) (subdivided into 3 groups; high, mid and low deprivation). Obesity was analysed using binary logistic regression with stature, age and sex incorporated as confounding variables. Children's fitness levels were assessed using predicted VO2 max (20-metre shuttle run test) and PA was estimated using the PA Questionnaire for Adolescents or Children (PAQ)...
January 6, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050932/physical-activity-levels-of-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#19
Valderi Abreu de Lima, Luis Paulo Gomes Mascarenhas, Juliana Pereira Decimo, William Cordeiro de Souza, Anna Louise Stellfeld Monteiro, Ian Lahard, Suzana Nesi França, Neiva Leite
The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in comparison with healthy scholar participants. Total of 154 teenagers (T1D=45 and CON=109). Height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), and the level of physical activity by the Bouchard's Physical Activity Record were measured, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in T1D. The VO2 max was lower in the T1D (38.38 ± 7.54) in comparison with the CON (42.44 ± 4...
January 4, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034589/bone-variables-in-active-overweight-obese-men-and-sedentary-overweight-obese-men
#20
Georges El Khoury, Hassane Zouhal, Geneviève Cabagno, César El Khoury, Maroun Rizkallah, Ghassan Maalouf, Rawad El Hage
The aim of this study was to compare bone variables in active overweight/obese men and sedentary overweight/obese men. Thirty-seven active overweight/obese men and 45 sedentary overweight/obese men participated in this study. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Body composition and bone variables (bone mineral content [BMC], bone mineral density [BMD], geometric indices of hip bone strength, and trabecular bone score) were measured by DXA. Physical activity level, daily calcium intake, daily protein intake, and sleep duration were measured by validated questionnaires...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
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