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VO2 max

Bhupinder Singh, Huy Vo, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, John H Yack
PURPOSE: This study assessed the biomechanical gait changes in obese and normal weight female adult subjects following a commonly recommended 30-minute walking session. Hip and knee adduction and extensor moments, which are the primary modulators of frontal and sagittal plane load distribution were hypothesized to increase in obese females following a 30-minute walking period, resulting in more stress across the hip and knee joint. METHODS: Ten obese (37.7 ± 4...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Avish P Sharma, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y Robertson, Philo U Saunders, Kevin G Thompson
PURPOSE: This investigation sought to determine the effect of training at 2100 metres natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance. METHODS: In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD; Age, 25 ± 5 years; VO2 max, 71 ± 5 completed either 4-6 weeks of sea-level training (CON, n = 7), or a 4-5 week natural altitude training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400-2700 m (ALT, n = 12) following a period of sea-level training...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Vijay R Varma, Amber Watts
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that results in severe disability. Very few studies have explored changes in daily physical activity patterns during early stages of AD when components of physical function and mobility may be preserved. OBJECTIVE: Our study explored differences in daily physical activity profiles, independent of the effects of non-cognitive factors including physical function and age, among individuals with mild AD compared to controls...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Lone Schaadt, Robin Christensen, Lars Erik Kristensen, Marius Henriksen
INTRODUCTION: Intensity of exercise is believed to be a key determinant of response to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rehabilitation. We hypothesized that a higher intensity of exercise, in combination with physiotherapist-led instructions and education in management of breathlessness, would lead to better self-management, possibly delaying calls to the emergency service and preventing hospitalization. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test this hypothesis in a subsequent randomized trial, and in order to test study processes and estimate hospitalization rates, we did a small preliminary prospective cohort study on severe COPD patients referred to outpatient rehabilitation...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Martin Fiala, Veronika Bulková, Libor Škňouřil, Renáta Nevřalová, Ondřej Toman, Jaroslav Januška, Jindřich Špinar, Dan Wichterle
AIMS: Identifying patients who benefit from restored sinus rhythm (SR) would optimize the selection of candidates for ablation of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LSPAF). This prospective study sought to identify the hitherto unknown factors associated with global functional improvement after successful radiofrequency catheter ablation of LSPAF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 171 LSPAF patients (84% of the total consecutive 203 patients) who were examined in SR 12 months after ablation, the individual per cent change from baseline value in maximum oxygen consumption at exercise test (VO2 max), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and five-dimensional descriptive system (EQ-5D) of quality-of-life questionnaire were classified in quartiles by 0 (worse) to 3 (best) grades...
October 5, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
K D Gejl, N Ørtenblad, E Andersson, P Plomgaard, H C Holmberg, J Nielsen
Skeletal muscle glycogen is heterogeneous distributed in three separated compartments (intramyofibrillar, intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal). Although only constituting 4-15% of the total glycogen volume, the availability of intramyofibrillar glycogen has been shown to be of particular importance to muscle function. The present study was designed to investigate the depletion of these three sub-cellular glycogen compartments during repeated supra-maximal exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite cross-country skiers (age: 25 ± 4 yrs...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Thomas Morville, Mads Rosenkilde, Thor Munch-Andersen, Peter Riis Andersen, Katja Kjær, Signe Helbo, Marianne Kristensen, Andreas Vigelsø, Nick Mattsson, Hanne Kruuse Rasmusen, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Angela Fago, Christina Neigaard Hansen, Brigitte Twelkmeyer, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Flemming Dela, Jørn Wulff Helge
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Fat metabolism and muscle adaptation was investigated in 6 older trained men (age: 61 ± 4 years; VO2max: 48 ± 2 mL kg min) following repeated prolonged exercise). METHODS: 2706 km (1,681 miles) cycling was performed over 14 days and a blood sample and a muscle biopsy were obtained at rest after an overnight fast before and 30 hours after the completion of the cycling. VO2-max and maximal fat oxidation were measured using incremental exercise tests...
September 28, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Maxime Valet, Gaëtan Stoquart, Yumiko Glibert, Jean-Claude Hakizimana, Thierry Lejeune
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is the most common and disabling symptom among patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). From the initial stages of the disease, a physical deconditioning is also observed among these patients. The aim of this study is to assess the cardiorespiratory endurance (i.e. exercise tolerance functions) and self-reported fatigue, as well as their associations, among patients suffering from MS with mild disability (expanded disability status scale≤4). MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: 21 patients with MS (15 women; age: 26-64 years, median 46 years; duration of disease: 0...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Carlos Ayán-Pérez, R Iván Martínez-Lemos, José M Cancela-Carral
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence about the psychometric properties of field tests to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in people with Down syndrome. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at analyzing the reliability and convergent validity of the 6-min run test when performed by young adults with Down syndrome (DS). METHODS: In a cross-sectional design fifty-one young adults with DS (mean age 26.20 ± 7.14 years; 54% women) performed the 6-min run test and the 16-min shuttle run test twice with a one week-interval between test and retest...
August 10, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Mahsa Mirdamadi, Besharat Rahimi, Enayat Safavi, Hamidreza Abtahi, Soheil Peiman
BACKGROUND: The precise head to head relationships between Cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters and patients' daily symptoms/activities and the disease social/emotional impact are less well defined. In this study, the correlation of COPD daily symptoms and quality of life [assessed by St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)] and COPD severity index (BODE-index) with CPET parameters were investigated. METHODS: Symptom-limited CPET was performed in 37 consecutive COPD (GOLD I-III) subjects during non-exacerbation phase...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Shikha Saxena, Senthil Kumaran, Bhamini K Rao
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to estimate the energy expenditure (EE) during a quiet standing task in children with bilateral spastic CP (BSCP) in comparison with typically developing (TD) children, using gas analyzer. METHODS: The study was an observational cross-sectional study of children with BSCP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels II and III; n = 30; 10 males, 20 females; mean weight 27.46 kgs; mean age 10 years) and TD children (n = 30; 16 males, 14 females; mean weight 25...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Bruce P Damons, Christian Schindler, Harald Seelig, Nan S N Htun, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Markus Gerber, Rosa du Randt, Uwe Pühse, Cheryl Walter, Jürg Utzinger
BACKGROUND: As traditional lifestyle and diets change with social and economic development, disadvantaged communities in low- and middle-income countries increasingly face a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. We studied the relationship between physical fitness and infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), intestinal protozoa and Helicobacter pylori among schoolchildren in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1009 children, aged 9 to 12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
César El Khoury, Antonio Pinti, Eric Lespessailles, Ghassan Maalouf, Eric Watelain, Georges El Khoury, Abdel-Jalil Berro, Marie-Louise Ayoub, Hechmi Toumi, Rawad El Hage
The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between performances obtained in different physical tests and bone parameters (bone mineral density [BMD], bone mineral content, hip geometry indices, and trabecular bone score [TBS]) in a group of young Lebanese overweight and obese adult men. Fifty-two overweight and/or obese (body mass index > 25 kg/m(2)) young men whose ages range from 18 to 35 yr participated in this study. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Joshua H Guy, David B Pyne, Glen B Deakin, Catherine M Miller, Andrew M Edwards
PURPOSE: While the intention of endurance athletes undertaking short term heat training protocols is to rapidly gain meaningful physical adaption prior to competition in the heat, it is currently unclear whether or not this process also presents an overt, acute challenge to the immune system. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the effects of heat training on both endurance performance and biomarkers associated with inflammatory and immune system responses. METHODS: Moderately-actively males (n = 24) were allocated randomly to either HOT (n = 8, 35°C, and 70% RH; NEUTRAL (n = 8, 20°C, and 45% RH); or a non-exercising control group, (CON, n = 8)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Abdelkrim Khadir, Sina Kavalakatt, Jehad Abubaker, Preethi Cherian, Dhanya Madhu, Irina Al-Khairi, Mohamed Abu-Farha, Samia Warsame, Naser Elkum, Mohammed Dehbi, Ali Tiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perturbation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has emerged as one of the prominent features of obesity and diabetes. This occurs when the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) fails to restore ER function in key metabolic tissues. We previously reported increased inflammation and impaired heat shock response (HSR) in obese human subjects that were restored by physical exercise. Here, we investigated the status of ER stress chaperone; glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and its downstream UPR pathways in human obese, and their modulation by a supervised 3-month physical exercise...
September 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Habibollah Dehghan, Somayeh Gharehbaei, Behzad Mahaki
BACKGROUND: Heat stress is a threat to those who work in high temperatures. The purpose in this study was an examination of the cooling ability of Iranian phase change material (PCM) cold vest in hot and dry conditions in a climatic chamber. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This experimental study was implemented on 12 male students (age 23.7 ± 2.8 years, weight 66.1 ± 11.4 kg, and VO2 max 2.53 L/min) in 2013. The heat strain score index (HSSI), skin temperature and oral temperature, and heartbeat in two phases with and without cooling vest was measured during 30 min in a climatic chamber (temperature 38...
2016: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Samira Bahrainy, Wayne C Levy, Janet M Busey, James H Caldwell, John R Stratton
INTRODUCTION: Resting heart rate (RHR) declines with exercise training. Possible mechanisms include: 1) increased parasympathetic tone, 2) decreased responsiveness to beta-adrenergic stimulation, 3) decreased intrinsic heart rate or 4) combination of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an increase in resting parasympathetic tone or decrease in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation contributes to the decrease in RHR with training. METHODS: 51 screened healthy subjects aged 18-32 (n=20, mean age 26, 11 female) or 65-80 (n=31, mean age 69, 16 female) were tested before and after 6months of supervised exercise training...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Mikkel P Andersen, Rikke N Mortensen, Henrik Vardinghus-Nielsen, Jesper Franch, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Henrik Bøggild
BACKGROUND: Time spent on physical activity in elementary school has been altered to improve core academics. However, little is known about the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement. We examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and investigated the influence of parental socioeconomic status and ethnicity. METHODS: Participants were 542 girls and 577 boys aged 13 to 15 residing in the Danish municipality of Aalborg...
September 2016: Journal of School Health
Pam R Taub, Israel Ramirez-Sanchez, Minal Patel, Erin Higginbotham, Aldo Moreno-Ulloa, Luis Miguel Román-Pintos, Paul Phillips, Guy Perkins, Guillermo Ceballos, Francisco Villarreal
In heart failure patients the consumption of (-)-epicatechin ((-)-Epi)-rich cocoa can restore skeletal muscle (SkM) mitochondrial structure and decrease biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, nothing is known about its effects on exercise capacity and underlying mechanisms in normal, sedentary subjects. Twenty normal, sedentary subjects (∼50 years old) were randomized to placebo or dark chocolate (DC) groups and consumed 20 g of the products for 3 months. Subjects underwent before and after treatment, bicycle ergometry to assess VO2 max and work, SkM biopsy to assess changes in mitochondrial density, function and oxidative stress and blood sampling to assess metabolic endpoints...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Casper Skovgaard, Nina Brandt, Henriette Pilegaard, Jens Bangsbo
The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA response related to mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolism, angiogenesis, and myogenesis in trained human skeletal muscle to speed endurance exercise (S), endurance exercise (E), and speed endurance followed by endurance exercise (S + E). Seventeen trained male subjects (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 57.2 ± 3.7 (mean ± SD) mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed S (6 × 30 sec all-out), E (60 min ~60% VO2-max), and S + E on a cycle ergometer on separate occasions...
July 2016: Physiological Reports
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