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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706467/ketogenic-diet-benefits-body-composition-and-well-being-but-not-performance-in-a-pilot-case-study-of-new-zealand-endurance-athletes
#1
Caryn Zinn, Matthew Wood, Mikki Williden, Simon Chatterton, Ed Maunder
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat and ketogenic diets are increasingly adopted by athletes for body composition and sports performance enhancements. However, as yet, there is no consensus on their efficacy in improving performance. There is also no comprehensive literature on athletes' experiences while undertaking this diet. The purpose of this pilot work was two-fold: i. to examine the effects of a non-calorie controlled ketogenic diet on body composition and performance outcomes of endurance athletes, and ii...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697553/impact-of-training-volume-and-intensity-on-rbc-nos-no-pathway-and-endurance-capacity
#2
Christina Koliamitra, Bastian Holtkamp, Philipp Zimmer, Wilhelm Bloch, Marijke Grau
BACKGROUND: Acute exercise increases red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activation and RBC deformability but the effect of regular training remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To detect the chronic effect of enduring moderate and high intensity training on the RBC-NOS/NO pathway and to detect a relation between RBC deformability and endurance capacity. METHODS: 38 healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: High Volume Training (HVT; 120-140 beats per minute (bpm)), High Intensity Training (HIT; 160-180 bpm) and Moderate Intensity Training (MIT; 140-160 bpm)...
July 3, 2017: Biorheology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685860/exercise-mediated-modulation-of-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#3
REVIEW
Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Jose A L Calbet
Although exercise exerts multiple beneficial health effects, it may also damage cellular structures. Damaged elements are continuously degraded and its constituents recycled to produce renovated structures through a process called autophagy, which is essential for the adaptation to training. Autophagy is particularly active in skeletal muscle, where it can be evaluated by using specific molecular markers of activation (unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation) and specific proteins indicating increased autophagosome content (increased total LC3, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio)...
July 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676154/new-generalized-equation-for-predicting-maximal-oxygen-uptake-from-the-fitness-registry-and-the-importance-of-exercise-national-database
#4
Peter Kokkinos, Leonard A Kaminsky, Ross Arena, Jiajia Zhang, Jonathan Myers
Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is closely linked to chronic illness and associated with adverse events. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) regression equations (ACSM equations) developed to estimate oxygen uptake have known limitations leading to well-documented overestimation of CRF, especially at higher work rates. Thus, there is a need to explore alternative equations to more accurately predict CRF. We assessed maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) obtained directly by open-circuit spirometry in 7,983 apparently healthy subjects who participated in the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND)...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675760/association-of-perceived-physical-health-and-physical-fitness-in-two-swedish-national-samples-from-1990-and-2015
#5
S J G Olsson, E Ekblom-Bak, B Ekblom, L V Kallings, Ö Ekblom, M Börjesson
BACKGROUND: Perceived health and physical fitness have been shown to correlate, and low levels of either variable increase the risk for future illness and mortality. However, risk factors and their interrelationship may vary between societies and over time. In this study, the associations of physical fitness and perceived health were therefore assessed in two Swedish national samples 25 years apart. METHODS: Perceived physical health, dichotomized as "good" or "bad", maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), counter movement jump (CMJ), balance (one-legged 60 second stance), and self-reported demographics and lifestyle were recorded in two cross-sectional samples (sample size, number of eligible participants) of Swedish adults, aged 20 - 65 years, in 1990 - 1991 (2203, 1365), and 2013 - 2015 (3357, 422)...
July 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669689/effects-of-erythropoietin-on-cycling-performance-of-well-trained-cyclists-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Jules A A C Heuberger, Joris I Rotmans, Pim Gal, Frederik E Stuurman, Juliëtte van 't Westende, Titiaan E Post, Johannes M A Daniels, Matthijs Moerland, Peter L J van Veldhoven, Marieke L de Kam, Herman Ram, Olivier de Hon, Jelle J Posthuma, Jacobus Burggraaf, Adam F Cohen
BACKGROUND: Substances that potentially enhance performance (eg, recombinant human erythropoietin [rHuEPO]) are considered doping and are therefore forbidden in sports; however, the scientific evidence behind doping is frequently weak. We aimed to determine the effects of rHuEPO treatment in well trained cyclists on maximal, submaximal, and race performance and on safety, and to present a model clinical study for doping research on other substances. METHODS: We did this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at the Centre for Human Drug Research in Leiden (Netherlands)...
June 29, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638349/cardiorespiratory-coordination-in-repeated-maximal-exercise
#7
Sergi Garcia-Retortillo, Casimiro Javierre, Robert Hristovski, Josep L Ventura, Natàlia Balagué
Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605306/behaviour-tracking-and-three-year-longitudinal-associations-between-physical-activity-screen-time-and-fitness-among-young-children
#8
Morgan Potter, John C Spence, Normand Boulé, Jodie A Stearns, Valerie Carson
PURPOSE: Understanding the correlates of children's fitness as they develop is needed. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the longitudinal associations between physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and fitness, (2) determine if sex moderates associations, and (3) track PA and ST over three years. METHODS: Findings are based on 649 children (baseline: 4.5±0.5 years; follow-up: 7.8±0.6 years) from Edmonton, Canada. Parental-reported hour/week of PA and ST were measured at baseline and three years later...
June 12, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599381/exercise-intervention-on-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-a-university-population-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#9
Sarah Dalibalta, Fatemeh Mirshafiei, Gareth Davison
Objective 1) To assess the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a university population, and 2) to investigate the effects of an 8-week exercise intervention on CVD risk factors. Methods Forty-six students participated in this study. Baseline cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR), blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness were also assessed...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557857/consumption-of-a-5-mg-melatonin-supplement-does-not-affect-32-2-kilometer-cycling-time-trial-performance
#10
Kyle J Brandenberger, Christopher P Ingalls, Jeffrey C Rupp, J Andrew Doyle
Some studies suggest that exogenous melatonin supplementation may improve athletic performance in hot humid environments because of its precooling effect. However, melatonin is also consumed as a sleep aid for its depressive effects on the central nervous system, which may hinder performance. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether consuming a 5 mg supplement of melatonin would affect performance in a laboratory-simulated 32.2 kilometer cycling time trial. The time trial was conducted in a thermoneutral environment to separate CNS depressive effects of the melatonin from the cooling effects...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556577/clinical-and-neurobiological-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-in-dental-phobia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Brigitt L Lindenberger, Jens Plag, Sarah Schumacher, Katharina Gaudlitz, Sophie Bischoff, Thomas Bobbert, Fernando Dimeo, Moritz B Petzold, Clemens Kirschbaum, Zsuzsa Dudás, Andreas Ströhle
BACKGROUND: Physical activity has shown to be effective in anxiety disorders. For specific phobia, no studies are available that systematically examined the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on phobic fear within a randomized-controlled design. Therefore, we investigated the acute effect of a standardized aerobic training on clinical symptoms of dental phobia as well as on stress-related neurobiological markers. METHODS: Within a crossover design, 30 patients with dental phobia (mean age: 34...
May 26, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547918/exercise-with-weight-loss-improves-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-markers-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-postmenopausal-women
#12
Heidi K Ortmeyer, Andrew P Goldberg, Alice S Ryan
OBJECTIVE: The effects of 6-month weight loss (WL) versus aerobic exercise training (AEX)+WL on fat and skeletal muscle markers of fatty acid metabolism were determined in normal (NGT) and impaired (IGT) glucose tolerant African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women with overweight/obesity. METHODS: Fat (gluteal and abdominal) lipoprotein lipase (LPL), skeletal muscle LPL, acyl-CoA synthase (ACS), ß-hydroxacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1), and citrate synthase (CS) activities were measured at baseline (n = 104) and before and after WL (n = 34) and AEX+WL (n = 37)...
July 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544643/adaptations-to-endurance-training-depend-on-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-exploiting-redox-inter-individual-variability
#13
Nikos V Margaritelis, Anastasios A Theodorou, Vassilis Paschalis, Aristidis S Veskoukis, Konstantina Dipla, Andreas Zafeiridis, George Panayiotou, Ioannis S Vrabas, Antonios Kyparos, Michalis G Nikolaidis
AIM: The aim of the present study was to reveal the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in exercise adaptations under physiological in vivo conditions and without the interference from other exogenous redox agents (e.g., a pro-oxidant or antioxidant). METHODS: We invented a novel methodological set-up that exploited the large redox inter-individual variability in exercise responses. More specifically, we used exercise-induced oxidative stress as the "classifier" measure (i...
May 24, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543734/the-effect-of-repeated-periods-of-speed-endurance-training-on-performance-running-economy-and-muscle-adaptations-113-120-characters
#14
Casper Skovgaard, Nicki Winfield Almquist, Jens Bangsbo
The effect of repeated intense training interventions was investigated in eight trained male runners (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 -max): 59.3±3.2 ml·kg(-1) ·min(-1) , mean±SD) who performed ten speed endurance training (SET; repeated 30-s 'all-out' bouts) and ten aerobic moderate-intensity training sessions during two 40-day periods (P1 and P2) separated by ~80 days of habitual training. Before and after both P1 and P2, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO2 -max and a repeated running test at 90% vVO2 -max to exhaustion (RRT) to determine short-term endurance capacity...
May 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534497/a-comparative-study-of-two-protocols-for-treadmill-walking-exercise-testing-in-ambulating-subjects-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#15
E Lundgaard, M F Wouda, V Strøm
STUDY DESIGN: This is a comparative study of two exercise testing protocols. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and achieved criteria for maximal exercise testing between the Sunnaas Protocol-a newly designed treadmill exercise test protocol-and the Modified Bruce Protocol in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: This study was conducted in Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Norway...
May 23, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531295/right-ventricular-vascular-coupling-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-and-pre-vs-post-capillary-pulmonary-hypertension
#16
Thomas M Gorter, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Adriaan A Voors, Yoran M Hummel, Carolyn S P Lam, Rolf M F Berger, Joost P van Melle, Elke S Hoendermis
Aims: Many patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) develop post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to increased left-sided filling pressures. However, a subset of patients develops combined post- and pre-capillary PH. We studied the value of echocardiographic right-sided characterization for the discrimination between pre- vs. post-capillary PH in HFpEF, using invasive haemodynamics as gold standard. Methods and results: 102 consecutive HFpEF patients with simultaneous right heart catheterization and echocardiography were identified...
May 22, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522762/postmeal-exercise-blunts-postprandial-glucose-excursions-in-people-on-metformin-monotherapy
#17
Melissa Lynn Erickson, Jonathan Peter Little, Jennifer L Gay, Kevin K McCully, Nathan T Jenkins
Metformin is used clinically to reduce fasting glucose with minimal effects on postprandial glucose. Postmeal exercise reduces postprandial glucose and may offer additional glucose-lowering benefit beyond that of metformin alone, yet controversy exists surrounding exercise and metformin interactions. It is currently unknown how postmeal exercise and metformin monotherapy in combination will affect postprandial glucose. Thus, we examined the independent and combined effects of postmeal exercise and metformin monotherapy on postprandial glucose...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502493/the-effect-of-maximal-vs-submaximal-exertion-on-postprandial-lipid-levels-in-individuals-with-and-without-coronary-heart-disease
#18
David M Aronov, Marina G Bubnova, Natalia V Perova, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
BACKGROUND: Decisions about fat consumption and levels of physical activity are among the everyday choices we make in life and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) can be affected by those choices. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a standard fat load combined with physical exertion of different intensities on the plasma lipid profile of CHD patients and CHD-free individuals. METHODS: This study looked at the influence of different intensities of physical exercise on postprandial lipid metabolism in 20 healthy men and 36 men with diagnosis of CHD...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495061/high-risk-cardiac-surgery-as-an-alternative-to-transplant-or-mechanical-support-in-patients-with-end-stage-heart-failure
#19
Hiroyuki Kawajiri, Cedric Manlhiot, Heather Ross, Diego Delgado, Filio Billia, Michael McDonald, Vivek Rao
OBJECTIVE: Although the results of cardiac surgery in patients with poor left ventricular function have been widely published, the outcomes in patients with end-stage heart failure who meet criteria for advanced therapies are not well investigated. As access to transplantation and ventricular assist device therapy remains limited, we explored the possibility of conventional surgery as an alternative option for highly selected patients with end-stage heart failure. METHODS: We identified patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <20% and VO2 max <14 mL/min/m(2), who were initially referred for advanced therapies but were instead offered a conventional procedure from 2002 to 2012...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486334/aerobic-exercise-supplemented-with-muscular-endurance-training-improves-onset-of-blood-lactate-accumulation
#20
John W Farrell, David J Lantis, Carl J Ade, Greg S Cantrell, Rebecca D Larson
Studies have shown that when aerobic exercise is supplemented with muscular endurance training metabolic adaptions occur that result in the delay of the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). However, previous studies have not explored any submaximal cardiorespiratory adaptations that may result from this training protocol. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with a muscular endurance training program on various cardiorespiratory and metabolic measurements...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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