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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092067/interrelations-among-the-adipocytokines-leptin-and-adiponectin-oxidative-stress-and-aseptic-inflammation-markers-in-pre-and-early-pubertal-normal-weight-and-obese-boys
#1
George Paltoglou, Maria Schoina, George Valsamakis, Nicolaos Salakos, Alexandra Avloniti, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexandra Margeli, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Maria Papagianni, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Ioannis G Fatouros, George Mastorakos
PURPOSE: Presumed interrelationships among deleterious aspects of adipose tissue metabolism, inflammation, and cellular oxidative stress could be influenced by pubertal hormonal changes. They were investigated in pre- and early pubertal normal-weight and obese boys before and after an exercise bout employed as an energy demanding stimulator. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Seventy-six healthy pre- (mean ± SD, 10.6 ± 0.2 years old, 28 normal-weight, and 11 obese) and early-(11...
January 16, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062521/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-activity-explains-the-obesity-deprivation-relationship-in-children
#2
Alan M Nevill, Michael J Duncan, Ian M Lahart, Gavin Sandercock
This study examined the association between obesity and deprivation in English children and whether cardiorespiratory fitness or physical activity (PA) can explain this association. Obesity was assessed using IOTF criteria in 8,398 10-16 year olds. Social deprivation was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) (subdivided into 3 groups; high, mid and low deprivation). Obesity was analysed using binary logistic regression with stature, age and sex incorporated as confounding variables. Children's fitness levels were assessed using predicted VO2 max (20-metre shuttle run test) and PA was estimated using the PA Questionnaire for Adolescents or Children (PAQ)...
January 6, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050932/physical-activity-levels-of-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#3
Valderi Abreu de Lima, Luis Paulo Gomes Mascarenhas, Juliana Pereira Decimo, William Cordeiro de Souza, Anna Louise Stellfeld Monteiro, Ian Lahard, Suzana Nesi França, Neiva Leite
: The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in comparison with healthy scholar participants. Total of 154 teenagers (T1D=45 and CON=109). Height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), and the level of physical activity by the Bouchard's Physical Activity Record were measured, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in T1D. The VO2 max was lower in the T1D (38.38 ± 7.54) in comparison with the CON (42...
January 4, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034589/bone-variables-in-active-overweight-obese-men-and-sedentary-overweight-obese-men
#4
Georges El Khoury, Hassane Zouhal, Geneviève Cabagno, César El Khoury, Maroun Rizkallah, Ghassan Maalouf, Rawad El Hage
The aim of this study was to compare bone variables in active overweight/obese men and sedentary overweight/obese men. Thirty-seven active overweight/obese men and 45 sedentary overweight/obese men participated in this study. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Body composition and bone variables (bone mineral content [BMC], bone mineral density [BMD], geometric indices of hip bone strength, and trabecular bone score) were measured by DXA. Physical activity level, daily calcium intake, daily protein intake, and sleep duration were measured by validated questionnaires...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028816/physiological-limits-to-endurance-exercise-performance-influence-of-sex
#5
Michael J Joyner
This brief review summarizes factors associated with elite endurance performance, trends in distance running training, and participation by men and more recently women. It is framed in the context of key ideas about the physiological determinants of endurance performance but also touches on some historical and sociological factors relevant to the overall topic. Historical trends that served to increase women's participation in elite endurance events are also discussed as is the role of increased volume and intensity of training...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028686/biomarkers-of-chondriome-topology-and-function-implications-for-the-extension-of-healthy-aging
#6
David W Hollar
Multiple theories of aging (e.g., free radical, error catastrophe, mitochondrial) are complementary but fail to provide adequate models that comprehensively predict lifelong aging processes and that are valid across species. Hayflick (PLoS Genet 3(12):2351-2354, 2007) described six universal characteristics of aging that focus upon post-reproductive molecular entropy. Here we present a thermodynamic potential model of aging in which the energetic and topological properties of the mitochondrion drive functional and structural stabilities within living systems...
December 27, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027317/infection-with-schistosoma-mansoni-has-an-effect-on-quality-of-life-but-not-on-physical-fitness-in-schoolchildren-in-mwanza-region-north-western-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Safari Kinung'hi, Pascal Magnussen, Godfrey Kaatano, Annette Olsen
BACKGROUND: Infection with Schistosoma mansoni negatively impact children's physical health and may influence their general well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of S. mansoni infections on a panel of morbidity indicators with emphasis on quality of life (PedsQL; measured in four different dimensions) and physical fitness (measured as VO2 max) among 572 schoolchildren aged 7-8 years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prevalence of S. mansoni infections was 58...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024987/effects-of-high-intensity-training-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#8
Camilla M Mandrup, Jon Egelund, Michael Nyberg, Martina H Lundberg Slingsby, Caroline Andersen, Sofie Løgstrup, Jens Bangsbo, Charlotte Suetta, Bente Stallknecht, Ylva Hellsten
BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the causal factors have been proposed to be the loss of estrogen and the subsequent alterations of the hormonal milieu. However, which factors that contribute to the deterioration of cardio-metabolic health in postmenopausal women is debated as the menopausal transition is also associated with increased age and fat mass. Furthermore, indications of reduced cardio-metabolic adaptations to exercise in postmenopausal women add to the adverse health profile...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013058/leg-compressions-improve-ventilatory-efficiency-while-reducing-peak-and-post-exercise-blood-lactate-but-does-not-improve-perceived-exertion-exercise-economy-or-aerobic-exercise-capacity-in-endurance-trained-runners
#9
Eric Rivas, John D Smith, Nestor W Sherman
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine if leg compressions would alter cardiorespiratory and perceived exertion measures during rest, submaximal and maximal exercise in endurance-trained runners. METHOD: Thirteen young, endurance trained runners (10 males, 20.9±3y, 58.9±5.7mlkgmin(-1)) completed a randomized design, leg compressions and non-compression control condition. The incremental graded exercise test consisted of baseline rest and submaximal intensities at 23%, 70%, 75%, 85% and then a progressive increase to 100% VO2max...
December 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012121/triathlon-training-for-women-breast-cancer-survivors-feasibility-and-initial-efficacy
#10
Alexander V Ng, Alyson N Cybulski, Ashley A Engel, Paula E Papanek, Megan A Sheffer, Leslie J Waltke, Judy A Tjoe
: ᅟ: Exercise can improve quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. In contrast to many group or home-based exercise programs, little is known about the effectiveness of goal-oriented recreational activities. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a clinically overseen team triathlon training program on improving physiological and psychosocial health-related measures in female breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Twenty-three participants (age = 48 (8), BMI = 25 (1), mean (SE)) were recruited from a 14-week sprint triathlon (800-m swim, 20-km bike, 5-km run) team training program for women breast cancer survivors (4 (3) years post-surgery, chemo-, or radiation-therapy)...
December 24, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994826/crossfit-%C3%A2-instructor-demographics-and-practice-trends
#11
Gregory R Waryasz, Vladimir Suric, Alan H Daniels, Joseph A Gil, Craig P Eberson
CrossFit(®) is an increasingly popular exercise modality that uses high intensity power training. The literature to date regarding CrossFit(®) has focused on its benefits to VO2 Max, body composition and the motivational variables of participants of CrossFit(®). A computerized survey was distributed to CrossFit(®) instructors using Survey Monkey(®) (Palo Alto, CA, USA). One hundred and ninety-three CrossFit(®) instructors responded to the survey. Of these 86.6% (155/179) reported being a certified CrossFit(®) instructor with 26...
November 17, 2016: Orthopedic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993294/the-effect-of-habitual-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-on-pulmonary-function-and-exercise-capacity-in-young-healthy-males-a-pilot-study
#12
F I Hawari, N A Obeidat, I M Ghonimat, H S Ayub, S S Dawahreh
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the health effects of habitual waterpipe smoking is limited, particularly in young smokers. Respiratory health and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were compared in young male habitual waterpipe smokers (WPS) versus non-smokers. METHODS: 69 WPS (≥3 times/week for three years) and 69 non-smokers were studied. Respiratory health was assessed through the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78) adult questionnaire...
January 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957824/physical-fitness-level-affects-perception-of-chronic-stress-in-military-trainees
#13
Carolin Tuch, Thomas Teubel, Roberto La Marca, Lilian Roos, Hubert Annen, Thomas Wyss
This study investigated whether physical fitness affects the perception of chronic stress in military trainees while controlling for established factors influencing stress perception. The sample consisted of 273 men (20.23 ± 1.12 years, 73.56 ± 10.52 kg, 1.78 ± 0.06 m). Physical fitness was measured by progressive endurance run (maximum oxygen uptake; VO2 max), standing long jump, seated shot put, trunk muscle strength, and one leg standing test. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire in Weeks 1 and 11 of basic military training (BMT)...
December 13, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932242/elevated-salivary-iga-decreased-anxiety-and-an-altered-oral-microbiota-are-associated-with-active-participation-on-an-undergraduate-athletic-team
#14
Ashley L Lamb, Debra E Hess, Sherie Edenborn, Elizabeth Ubinger, Andres E Carrillo, Pierette M Appasamy
BACKGROUND: Previous reports indicate that regular, but not excessive, exercise can moderate the response to anxiety and alter the immune response, therefore we hypothesized that college student athletes who were actively participating on an NCAA Division III athletics team ("in-season") would have lower levels of anxiety and higher salivary IgA levels than similar college athletes who were in their "off-season". NCAA Division III athletes participate in athletics at a level of intensity that is more moderate compared to other NCAA divisions...
February 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927570/exercise-tolerance-in-children-with-early-onset-scoliosis-growing-rod-treatment-graduates
#15
Kelly A Jeans, Charles E Johnston, Wilshaw R Stevens, Dong-Phuong Tran
STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively enrolled early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients undergoing growing rod treatment, who have had no surgery for >1 year and/or have received definitive fusion (growing rod "graduates"). OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen consumption during exercise and determine if a diminished conventional pulmonary function test (PFT) correlates with metabolic, pulmonary, and cardiovascular measures during exercise. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Based on clinical impression and sequential PFT values, EOS patients who have undergone extensive treatment are thought to have limited capacity during exercise...
November 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900769/influence-of-menstrual-phase-and-arid-vs-humid-heat-stress-on-autonomic-and-behavioural-thermoregulation-during-exercise-in-trained-but-unacclimated-women
#16
Tze-Huan Lei, Stephen R Stannard, Blake G Perry, Zachary J Schlader, James D Cotter, Toby Mündel
We studied thermoregulatory responses of ten well-trained (VO2 max, 57 (7) mL min(-1) kg(-1) ) eumenorrheic women exercising in dry and humid heat, across their menstrual cycle. They completed four trials, each of resting and cycling at fixed intensities (125 and 150 W), to assess autonomic regulation, then self-paced intensity (30-min work trial), to assess behavioural regulation. Trials were in early-follicular (EF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases in dry (DRY) and humid (HUM) heat matched for wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT, 27°C)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888580/biology-of-vo2-max-looking-under-the-physiology-lamp
#17
REVIEW
C Lundby, D Montero, M Joyner
In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882555/a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study-of-vo2-max-testing-a-potential-model-for-measuring-relative-in-vivo-efficacy-of-different-red-blood-cell-products
#18
Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, Evelyn L Lockhart, Nicholas Bandarenko, Mary L Campbell, Michael J Natoli, Veronika K Jamnik, Timothy R Carter, Richard E Moon
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials, for example, RECESS, comparing "young" (median, 7-day) versus "middle-aged" (median, 28-day) red blood cells (RBCs), showed no difference in outcome. These data are important; however, they do not inform us about the safety and effectiveness of the oldest RBCs, which some patients receive. It may not be feasible to conduct a clinical trial randomizing patients to receive the oldest blood. Therefore, we propose strenuous exercise (VO2 max testing) as a model to study the relative efficacy to increase oxygen delivery to tissue of different RBC products, for example, extremes of storage duration...
November 23, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881670/the-effect-of-alternate-day-caloric-restriction-on-the-metabolic-consequences-of-eight-days-bed-rest-in-healthy-lean-men-a-randomized-trial
#19
Nina Majlund Harder-Lauridsen, Signe Tellerup Nielsen, Sebastian Porsdam Mann, Mark Preben Lyngbæk, Fabiana Braga Benatti, Annika Reynberg Langkilde, Ian Law, Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard, Carsten Thomsen, Kirsten Moller, Kristian Karstoft, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Rikke Krogh-Madsen
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and alternate-day fasting/caloric restriction may both ameliorate aspects of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, visceral fat mass accumulation, and cognitive impairment, by overlapping mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alternate-day caloric restriction (ADCR) with overall energy balance would reduce insulin resistance and accumulation of visceral fat, in addition to improving cognitive functions, after eight consecutive days in bed...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859725/effects-of-menthol-application-on-the-skin-during-prolonged-immersion-in-swimmers-and-controls
#20
P G Botonis, N D Geladas, S N Kounalakis, E D Cherouveim, M D Koskolou
We hypothesized that menthol application on the skin would enhance vasoconstriction of subjects immersed in cool water, which would reduce heat loss and rectal temperature (Tre) cooling rate. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that this effect would be greater in individuals acclimatized to immersion in 24 °C water, such as swimmers. Seven swimmers (SW) and seven physical education students (CON) cycled at 60% VO2 max until Tre attained 38 °C, and were then immediately immersed in stirred water maintained at 24 °C on two occasions: without (NM) and with (M; 4...
November 18, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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