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Stine Mandrup Andreassen, Anne Mette Lindberg Vinther, Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Pia Haubro Andersen, Aziz Tnibar, Annemarie T Kristensen, Stine Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: Septic arthritis is a common and potentially devastating disease characterized by severe intra-articular (IA) inflammation and fibrin deposition. Research into equine joint pathologies has focused on inflammation, but recent research in humans suggests that both haemostatic and inflammatory pathways are activated in the joint compartment in arthritic conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the IA haemostatic and inflammatory responses in horses with experimental lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced joint inflammation...
June 19, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
L Haywood, D L Spike-Pierce, Bonnie Barr, D Mathys, D Mollenkopf
BACKGROUND: Incomplete ossification of the cuboidal bones of the carpus and tarsus in foals has the potential for significant consequences including chronic lameness and decreased athletic ability. OBJECTIVES: To determine if the degree of ossification of the cuboidal bones is associated with gestational length. To determine if the diagnosis of incomplete ossification is a predictor of performance in Thoroughbred racehorses. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
June 19, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Salvador F Ausar, Kavisha Jayasundara, Lamees Akawi, Cristopher Roque, Anthony Sheung, Jian Hu, Marina Kirkitadze, Nausheen Rahman
The Pneumococcal Histidine Triad Protein D (PhtD) is believed to play a central role in pneumococcal metal ion homeostasis and has been proposed as a promising vaccine candidate against pneumococcal disease. To investigate for potential stabilizers, a panel of physiologically relevant metals was screened using the thermal shift assay and it was found that only Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) were able to increase PhtD melting temperature. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed a sequential unfolding of PhtD and the presence of at least 3 independent folding domains that can be stabilized by Zn(2+) and Mn(2+)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
S A Wagner, J M Young, J K Tena, B H Manning
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flunixin meglumine treatment on lameness pain in dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were enrolled in the study based on visual observation of abnormal locomotion. The primary measurement endpoint was weight-shifting between the rear limbs. Weight-shifting was calculated as the standard deviation of the weight borne on the rear limbs over a 15 min period; this value correlates directly with lameness pain in dairy cows. After collecting baseline weight-bearing data, we randomly assigned cows to 1 of 2 treatment groups: 2...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Craig S McConnel, Ashleigh A McNeil, Joleen C Hadrich, Jason E Lombard, Franklyn B Garry, Jane Heller
Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Darla K Moser, Mike J Schoonover, Kate M Sippel, Alix M Dieterly, Jerry W Ritchey, Corey R Wall
This report describes fibrous cyst lining injection and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) of a medial femoral condyle (MFC) subchondral cystic lesion (SCL) resulting in catastrophic MFC fracture in an Arabian mare. The mare was presented for evaluation of a severe hind limb lameness of approximately 4 months duration. On presentation, a non-weight bearing lameness of the left hind limb with severe effusion and soft tissue swelling of the stifle region was noted. Radiographic evaluation of the stifle revealed a large SCL of the MFC with associated osteoarthritis...
2017: Open veterinary journal
Emily Morabito, Herman W Barkema, Edmond A Pajor, Laura Solano, Doris Pellerin, Karin Orsel
Cow comfort is of increasing importance in the dairy industry, due to an increased focus on animal welfare. However, whether producer changes to the cows' environment affect cow comfort has not been well characterized. Our objectives were to: (1) quantify the effect of freestall area changes on the prevalence of lameness, leg injuries, and average lying time; and (2) compare cow comfort outcomes on farms that had never had an assessment of cow comfort to farms that had had a previous assessment of cow comfort...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
S Palacio, L Peignier, C Pachoud, C Nash, S Adam, R Bergeron, D Pellerin, A M de Passillé, J Rushen, D Haley, T J DeVries, E Vasseur
Video stall lameness scoring (SLS) has been shown to be comparable to video locomotion scoring for evaluating lameness in dairy cows housed in tie-stalls and may be a more practical and easier method to measure lameness in a herd. We compared live SLS to video SLS and to live locomotion scoring. A total of 685 lactating cows subsampled from 27 commercial dairy herds were examined for lameness through live and video SLS. Cows scored with the live or video SLS system were scored for 4 behavioral indicators while still in their stall: weight shifting (shift), standing on the edge of the stall (edge), uneven weight bearing while standing (rest), and uneven weight bearing while moving from side to side (uneven)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 10, 2017: Veterinary Record
Sara Jabbari-Farouji, Olivier Lame, Michel Perez, Joerg Rottler, Jean-Louis Barrat
We examine the microscopic origin of the tensile response in semicrystalline polymers by performing large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of various chain lengths. We investigate the microscopic rearrangements of the polymers during tensile deformation and show that the intercrystalline chain connections known as tie chains contribute significantly to the elastic and plastic response. These results suggest that the mechanical behavior of semicrystalline polymers is controlled by two interpenetrated networks of entanglements and tie chains...
May 26, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Yuzo Koketsu, Ryosuke Iida
Female pigs in breeding herds can be managed through four phases-gilt development, breeding, gestation, and lactation-during which they may be housed in group or individual pens, stalls, or on pasture. In this review, we focus on housing environments that optimize outcomes during gestation and lactation. Appropriate housing is important during early gestation, to protect embryos and to confirm pregnancy, and from mid-to-late gestation, to ensure sufficient nutrition to increase placental and fetal growth. No difference in the number of pigs born alive were reported between group housing and individual stall housing, although more risk factors for reproductive performance are associated with group housing than stall housing including genetics, bedding, floor space allowance, group size, social ranking, and parity...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
H Müller, M Heinrich, N Mielenz, S Reese, A Steiner, A Starke
BACKGROUND: Local circulatory disturbances have been implicated in the development of foot disorders in cattle. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs using pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler ultrasonography and to investigate quantitative arterial blood flow variables at that site in dairy cows. An Esaote MyLabOne ultrasound machine with a 10-MHz linear transducer was used to assess blood flow in the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs of 22 healthy German Holstein cows...
June 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Julie B Engiles, Holly Stewart, Jennifer Janes, Laura A Kennedy
As a pathologist, postmortem examination of the equine carpus can be daunting. The anatomy is complex and oftentimes, small or subtle lesions have significant impact on lameness and secondary lesions such as catastrophic musculoskeletal fractures and other injuries. In performance horses, particularly racehorses, the carpus is a common site of injury and source of lameness. Given the predisposition of racehorses to developing carpal disease, familiarity with clinically relevant anatomy and common developmental, degenerative, traumatic, and inflammatory processes are imperative for thorough postmortem examination...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Temple Grandin
Handling and stunning at slaughter plants has greatly improved through the use of numerical scoring. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the use of numerical scoring systems at the slaughter plants to assess conditions that compromise welfare that occurred either during transport or on the farm. Some of the transport problems that can be assessed are bruises, death losses, and injured animals. Welfare issues that occurred on the farm that can be assessed at the abattoir are body condition, lameness, lesions, injuries, animal cleanliness and internal pathology...
May 10, 2017: Meat Science
J K Shearer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Johann F Coetzee, J K Shearer, Matthew L Stock, Michael D Kleinhenz, Sarel R van Amstel
Lameness affects the cattle industry via both economic losses and welfare considerations. In addition to production deficits, the pain and distress associated with lameness have been documented. Evaluation and prevalence of lame cattle are among the primary factors in third-party welfare audit programs. Mean lameness prevalence in herds has been reported to be as high as 36.8%, although a less than 10% prevalence of lame cattle was reported by some producers. Note that lameness is usually underreported by producers compared with independent observers, potentially because of a decreased sensitivity in detecting lame cattle...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Pablo Pinedo, Juan Velez, Diego Manriquez, Hans Bothe
Animal welfare is an essential aspect of organic dairying. Consequently, adequate lameness control should be a central component of on-farm health monitoring programs. The combination of organic management practices, including grazing requirements that are combined with different types of housing, results in unique features determining the cows' feet and legs health condition. Because the use of therapeutic resources is limited, preventive management and early detection of lameness is critical in organic dairies...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
J K Shearer, Sarel R van Amstel
Traumatic lesions of the sole are a common cause of lameness in beef and dairy cattle. This article provides a brief description of traumatically induced conditions with specific attention to underlying causes, treatment, and prevention. Lameness, traumatic lesions of the sole, sole punctures, thin soles, thin sole toe ulcers, toe tip necrosis syndrome, and toe abscesses are discussed.
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
André Desrochers
Claw diseases are the principal cause of lameness in cattle. They can be easily diagnosed by examining the feet while the animal is in the trimming chute. Lameness originating from the proximal limb is more challenging because it is less visible. The author describes a systematic approach to diagnose upper limb lameness. The most common causes of lameness are reviewed with special emphasis on physical examinations and appropriate diagnostic tools.
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Lily N Edwards-Callaway, Michelle S Calvo-Lorenzo, John A Scanga, Temple Grandin
Lameness is among the most important welfare and production issues affecting dairy cattle. Recently, it has received significant research emphasis. Certain events in 2013 within the cattle industry heightened the focus on mobility issues in finished cattle. Scoring systems are needed in the finished cattle industry to capture and measure mobility issues at packing facilities. The North American Meat Institute Animal Welfare Committee helped facilitate the creation of a scoring system to evaluate mobility of cattle at packing plants, providing the cattle industry with a tool to benchmark and improve the welfare of finished cattle...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
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