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Aerobic threshold

Peter Kokkinos
A plethora of evidence exists supporting that structured aerobic exercise or activities that increase cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) lower resting blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension (HTN). Relatively few studies have assessed the effects of anaerobic or resistance exercise on BP. Thus, its role in managing HTN is not defined. Also, possible risks related with exercise in hypertensive patients have not been adequately addressed.In addition to lowering BP, CRF attenuates the incidence of HTN. A substantial part of the age-related progression to HTN is not an inevitable outcome of aging as once thought, but a consequence of lifestyle characterized by high-fat/salt diets and physical inactivity...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nicole H Martin, Aljoša Trmčić, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Kathryn J Boor, Martin Wiedmann
Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance). As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 h at 32-35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cian McGinley, David John Bishop
This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid/base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1. We investigated whether 4 weeks of work-matched, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), performed either just above the lactate threshold (HIITΔ20; n = 8), or close to peak aerobic power (HIITΔ90; n = 8), influenced adaptations in acid/base transport protein abundance, non-bicarbonate muscle buffer capacity (βmin vitro), and exercise capacity in active men...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Brandon A Baiamonte, Robert R Kraemer, Chelsea N Chabreck, Matthew L Reynolds, Kayla M McCaleb, Georgia L Shaheen, Daniel B Hollander
Previous research has demonstrated significant decreases in pain perception in healthy individuals following both aerobic and upper body resistance exercise, but research on circuit training has been limited. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a strenuous bout of dynamic circuit resistance exercise on pain threshold and pain tolerance in conjunction with changes in blood lactate levels, heart rate (HR), and perceived exertion. A sample of 24 college-age students participated in 2 sessions: (1) a maximal strength testing session and (2) a circuit training bout of exercise that consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions with a 1:1 work to rest ratio at 60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM) predicted from a three-repetition maximum (3-RM) for 9 exercises...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Thomas Beltrame, Robert Amelard, Rodrigo Villar, Mohammad Javad Shafiee, Alexander Wong, Richard L Hughson
The study of oxygen uptake (VO2) dynamics during walking exercise transitions adds valuable information regarding fitness level and energy expenditure. However, direct VO2 measurements are not applicable for measurements in the general population under realistic settings. Devices to measure VO2 are associated with elevated cost, uncomfortable use of a mask, need of trained technicians and impossibility of long-term data collection. The objective of this study was to predict the VO2 dynamics from heart rate and inputs from the treadmill ergometer by a novel artificial neural network approach...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Patrick Grabowski, John Wilson, Alyssa Walker, Dan Enz, Sijian Wang
OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate implementation, safety and feasibility of multimodal, impairment-based physical therapy (PT) combining vestibular/oculomotor and cervical rehabilitation with sub-symptom threshold exercise for the treatment of patients with post-concussion syndrome (PCS). SETTING: University hospital outpatient sports medicine facility. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five patients (12-20 years old) meeting World Health Organization criteria for PCS following sport-related concussion referred for supervised PT consisting of sub-symptom cardiovascular exercise, vestibular/oculomotor and cervical spine rehabilitation...
June 7, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Bryan H Goldstein, Elaine M Urbina, Philip R Khoury, Zhiqian Gao, Michelle A Amos, Wayne A Mays, Andrew N Redington, Bradley S Marino
BACKGROUND: Fontan survivors demonstrate diminished vascular function and functional outcomes, but the relationships between these measures have not been established. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 60 Fontan survivors (52% male) with a mean age of 13.9±4.1 years and mean Fontan duration of 9.9±4.2 years. Multimodality assessment of endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index and flow-mediated dilation) and arterial stiffness (augmentation index and baseline pulse amplitude) was performed with peripheral arterial tonometry and brachial flow-mediated dilation...
2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Michelle Ploughman, Liam P Kelly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Converging evidence from animal models of stroke and clinical trials suggests that aerobic exercise has effects across multiple targets. RECENT FINDINGS: The subacute phase is characterized by a period of heightened neuroplasticity when aerobic exercise has the potential to optimize recovery. In animals, low intensity aerobic exercise shrinks lesion size and reduces cell death and inflammation, beginning 24 h poststroke. Also in animals, aerobic exercise upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor near the lesion and improves learning...
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Peter Kokkinos
A plethora of evidence exists supporting that structured aerobic exercise or activities that increase cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) lower resting blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension (HTN). Relatively few studies have assessed the effects of anaerobic or resistance exercise on BP. Thus, its role in managing HTN is not defined. Also, possible risks related with exercise in hypertensive patients have not been adequately addressed.In addition to lowering BP, CRF attenuates the incidence of HTN. A substantial part of the age-related progression to HTN is not an inevitable outcome of aging as once thought, but a consequence of lifestyle characterized by high-fat/salt diets and physical inactivity...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nathan A Lewis, Colin Towey, Georgie Bruinvels, Glyn Howatson, Charles R Pedlar
Exercise causes alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH). Measuring ARH in elite athletes may aid in the identification of training tolerance, fatigued states, and underperformance. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined ARH in elite male and female distance runners at sea level. The monitoring of ARH in athletes is hindered by a lack of reliable and repeatable in-the-field testing tools and by the rapid turnaround of results. We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on ARH in healthy (non-over-reached) elite male and female endurance athletes using clinical point-of-care (POC) redox tests, referred to as the free oxygen radical test (FORT) (pro-oxidant) and the free oxygen radical defence (FORD) (antioxidant)...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Dean Cordingley, Richard Girardin, Karen Reimer, Lesley Ritchie, Jeff Leiter, Kelly Russell, Michael J Ellis
OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study were 2-fold: 1) to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and clinical use of graded aerobic treadmill testing in pediatric patients with sports-related concussion (SRC), and 2) to evaluate the clinical outcomes of treatment with a submaximal aerobic exercise program in patients with physiological post-concussion disorder (PCD). METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients (age < 20 years) with SRC who were referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and underwent graded aerobic treadmill testing between October 9, 2014, and February 11, 2016...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Nils Haller, Suzan Tug, Sarah Breitbach, Arne Jörgensen, Perikles Simon
PURPOSE: Increases in cfDNA concentrations have recently been demonstrated to occur in a variety of exhausting and vigorous exercise settings. Here we assessed the association of cfDNA with exercise duration and intensity in a controlled test-retest setting of a regenerative up to moderate aerobic run. METHODS: In a pre-test the lactate threshold (LT) was determined in 13 subjects (range: 10.8-13.4 km/h) by means of a step-wise incremental running test. Speed of the two endurance runs was set to 9...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Hamid R Molavian, Mohammad Kohandel, Sivabal Sivaloganathan
Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
A M Zagatto, M Papoti, Asr Da Silva, R A Barbieri, E Z Campos, E C Ferreira, J P Loures, K Chamari
The assessment of aerobic endurance is important for training prescription in soccer, and is usually measured by straight running without the ball on a track or treadmill. Due to the ball control and technical demands during a specific soccer test, the running speeds are likely to be lower compared to a continuous incremental test. The aim of the present study was to compare the heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and speeds corresponding to 2.0 mmol∙L(-1), 3.5 mmol∙L(-1), lactate threshold (Dmax method) and peak lactate determined in the laboratory and in the Hoff circuit soccer-specific test...
September 2016: Biology of Sport
Jeann L C Sabino-Carvalho, Thiago R Lopes, Tiago O Freitas, Thiago H N Ferreira, José E Succi, Antônio C Silva, Bruno M Silva
PURPOSE: Recent studies have reported ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can acutely improve endurance exercise performance in athletes. However, placebo and nocebo effects have not been sufficiently controlled, and the effect on aerobic metabolism parameters that determine endurance performance [e.g., oxygen cost of running, lactate threshold, and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max)] has been equivocal. Thus, we circumvented limitations from previous studies to test the effect of IPC on aerobic metabolism parameters and endurance performance in well-trained runners...
August 30, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Matthew A Wyon, Nick Allen, Ross Cloak, Sarah Beck, Paul Davies, Frances Clarke
An athlete's cardiorespiratory profile, maximal aerobic capacity, and anaerobic threshold is affected by training regimen and competition demands. The present study aimed to ascertain whether there are company rank differences in maximal aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold in elite classical ballet dancers. Seventy-four volunteers (M 34, F 40) were recruited from two full-time professional classical ballet companies. All participants completed a continuous incremental treadmill protocol with a 1-km/hr speed increase at the end of each 1-min stage until termination criteria had been achieved (e...
September 2016: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
Noriyasu Ota, Satoko Soga, Akira Shimotoyodome
Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary supplementation with tea catechins combined with exercise improved endurance capacity in mice. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of daily tea catechin consumption on aerobic capacity in humans. Sixteen Japanese non-athlete male subjects (aged 25-47 years) took 500 mL of a test beverage with or without tea catechins (570 mg) daily for 8 weeks and attended a training program twice a week. Aerobic capacity was evaluated by indirect calorimetry and near-infrared spectroscopy during graded cycle exercise...
December 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Alan J Richardson, Rebecca L Relf, Arron Saunders, Oliver R Gibson
Sprint interval training (SIT) is an efficient intervention capable of improving aerobic capacity and exercise performance. This experiment aimed to determine differences in training adaptations and the inflammatory responses following 2 weeks of SIT (30 s maximal work, 4 min recovery; 4-7 repetitions) performed in normoxia or hypoxia. Forty-two untrained participants [(mean ± SD), age 21 ±1 years, body mass 72.1 ±11.4 kg, and height 173 ±10 cm] were equally and randomly assigned to one of three groups; control (CONT; no training, n = 14), normoxic (NORM; SIT in FiO2: 0...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Peter P Swoboda, Bara Erhayiem, Adam K McDiarmid, Rosalind E Lancaster, Gemma K Lyall, Laura E Dobson, David P Ripley, Tarique A Musa, Pankaj Garg, Carrie Ferguson, John P Greenwood, Sven Plein
BACKGROUND: Athletic training leads to remodelling of both left and right ventricles with increased myocardial mass and cavity dilatation. Whether changes in cardiac strain parameters occur in response to training is less well established. In this study we investigated the relationship in trained athletes between cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) derived strain parameters of cardiac function and fitness. METHODS: Thirty five endurance athletes and 35 age and sex matched controls underwent CMR at 3...
2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Der-Sheng Han, Ming-Yen Hsiao, Tyng-Guey Wang, Ssu-Yuan Chen, Wei-Shiung Yang
BACKGROUND: Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases compared to the healthy population. Aerobic exercise training is one of the recommended treatments. However, literature regarding the effect of aerobic training on patients with SCI is scarce. This study evaluated changes in parameters of exercise physiology and serum myokines immediately after exercise and after a training program among patients with SCI. METHODS: Male patients with SCI and age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were recruited...
2016: BMC Neurology
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