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liquid and electrolytes

Gebrekidan Gebreselassie Eshetu, Sangsik Jeong, Pascal Pandard, Amandine Lecocq, Guy Marlair, Stefano Passerini
The use of ionic liquids (ILs) as advanced electrolytes components in electrochemical energy storage devices is one of the most appealing and emerging options. However, though ILs are hailed as safer and eco-friendly electrolytes, overcoming the limitations imposed by the highly volatile/combustible carbonate based electrolytes, the full scale and precise appraisal of their overall safety levels under abuse conditions still need to be fully addressed. With the aim of providing the entreated level of information on the thermal and chemical stabilities as well as actual fire hazards, we embarked on a detailed investigation of the short - and long - term thermal stabilities, bio-degradability and combustion behaviour of various pyrrolidinium ([Pyr1A] +)-based ILs, enlisting different alkyl chain lengths, [Pyr1A] + (A=3-10), counter-anions ([TFSI]-/[FSI]-/[BETI]-), cations (Pyr14+/Pyr12O1+) and the effect of doping with Li salts (e...
June 23, 2017: ChemSusChem
Giuseppe Fisicaro, Luigi Genovese, Oliviero Andreussi, Sagarmoy Mandal, Nisanth N Nair, Nicola Marzari, Stefan Goedecker
We present an implicit solvation approach where the interface between the quantum-mechanical solute and the surrounding environment is described by a fully continuous permittivity built up with atomic-centered ``soft'' spheres. This approach combines many of the advantages of the self-consistent continuum solvation model in handling solutes and surfaces in contact with complex dielectric environments or electrolytes in electronic-structure calculations. In addition it is able to describe accurately both neutral and charged systems...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Han Xiao, Zhong-Shuai Wu, Long Chen, Feng Zhou, Shuanghao Zheng, Wencai Ren, Hui-Ming Cheng, Xinhe Bao
Rational engineering and simplified fabrication of high-energy micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) using graphene and other 2D nanosheets are of great value for flexible and integrated electronics. Here we develop one-step mask-assisted simplified fabrication of high-energy MSCs (PG-MSCs) based on the interdigital hybrid electrode (PG) patterns of stacking high-quality phosphorene nanosheets and electrochemically exfoliated graphene in ionic liquid electrolyte. The hybrid PG films with interdigital patterns were directly manufactured by layer-by-layer deposition of phosphorene and graphene nanosheets with the assistance of a customized interdigital mask, and directly transferred onto a flexible substrate...
June 22, 2017: ACS Nano
Jae Ah Lee, Na Li, Carter S Haines, Keon Jung Kim, Xavier Lepró, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Seon Jeong Kim, Ray H Baughman
While artificial muscle yarns and fibers are potentially important for many applications, the combination of large strokes, high gravimetric work capacities, short cycle times, and high efficiencies are not realized for these fibers. This paper demonstrates here electrochemically powered carbon nanotube yarn muscles that provide tensile contraction as high as 16.5%, which is 12.7 times higher than previously obtained. These electrochemical muscles can deliver a contractile energy conversion efficiency of 5...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
Vitor L Martins, Anthony J R Rennie, Roberto M Torresi, Peter J Hall
We investigated the use of fluorine free ionic liquids (ILs) containing the tricyanomethanide anion ([C(CN)3]) as an electrolyte in electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). Three cations were used; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([Im1,4]), N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium ([Pyr1,4]) and N-butyl-N-methylpiperidinium ([Pip1,4]). Their physicochemical properties are discussed alongside with their performance as electrolytes. We found that the cyano-based ILs present higher ionic conductivity (9.4, 8.7 and 4...
June 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Faiz Ullah Shah, Oleg I Gnezdilov, Andrei Filippov
This study was focused on the investigation of ion dynamics in halogen-free, hydrophobic, and hydrolytically stable phosphonium bis(salicylato)borate [P4,4,4,8][BScB] ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. The structure and purity of the synthesized ionic liquid and lithium bis(salicylato)borate Li[BScB] salt were characterized using (1)H, (13)C, (31)P, and (11)B NMR spectroscopy. The Li[BScB] salt was mixed with an ionic liquid at the concentrations ranging from 2.5 mol% to 20 mol%. The physicochemical properties of the resulting electrolytes were characterized using thermal analysis (TGA and DSC), electrical impedance spectroscopy, and pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy...
June 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Thomas Köllner, Thomas Boeck, Jörg Schumacher
The combined effects of buoyancy-driven Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RC) and surface tension-driven Marangoni convection (MC) are studied in a triple-layer configuration which serves as a simplified model for a liquid metal battery (LMB). The three-layer model consists of a liquid metal alloy cathode, a molten salt separation layer, and a liquid metal anode at the top. Convection is triggered by the temperature gradient between the hot electrolyte and the colder electrodes, which is a consequence of the release of resistive heat during operation...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
Biyi Xu, Huanan Duan, Hezhou Liu, Chang An Wang, Shengwen Zhong
To improve the solid-electrolyte/electrode interface compatibility, we have proposed the concept of hybrid electrolyte by including a small amount of liquid electrolyte in between. In this work, n-BuLi, a superbase, has been found to significantly improve the cycling performance of LiFePO4/Li hybrid cells containing Li7La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12 (LLZT) and conventional carbonate-based liquid electrolyte. The modified cells have been cycled for 400 cycles at 100 and 200 μA cm(-2) at room temperature, indicating excellent solid/liquid electrolyte interface stability...
June 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xuan Qing Shi, Qing Xia, Xiao Xiang, Yun Sheng Ye, Yan Hai Peng, Gang Zhi Xue, Lin Xiao Xie, Yiu-Wing Mai
Composite polymeric and ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes are some of the most promising electrolyte systems for safer battery technology. Although much effort has been directed towards enhancing the transport properties of polymer electrolytes (PEs) through nanoscopic modification by incorporating nano-fillers, it is still difficult to construct ideal ion conducting networks. Here, a novel class of three-dimensional self-assembled polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-functionalized cellulose nano-crystals (CNC) confining ILs in surface-grafted PIL polymer chains, able to form colloidal crystal polymer electrolytes (CCPE), is reported...
June 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yonggang Wang, Chao Li, Ziyang Guo, Bingchang Yang, Yao Liu, Yongyao Xia
The utilization of CO2 in Li-CO2 batteries is attracting extensive attention, while the poor rechargeability and low applied current density have remained the "Achilles' heel" of this energy device. Herein, the gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), which is composed of a polymer matrix filled with tetraglyme-based liquid electrolyte, is firstly used to fabricate a rechargeable Li-CO2 battery with a carbon nanotubes-based gas electrode. The discharge product of Li2CO3 formed in the GPE-based Li-CO2 battery exhibits a particle-shaped morphology with poor crystallinity, which is different from the contiguous polymer-like discharge product in conventional Li-CO2 battery using liquid electrolyte...
June 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Yi Zhao, Jinzhang Liu, Bin Wang, Jiangbo Sha, Yan Li, Dezhi Zheng, Mojtaba Amjadipour, Jennifer M Macleod, Nunzio Motta
A novel approach to improve the specific capacitance of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films is reported. We combine the aqueous dispersion of liquid-crystalline GO incorporating salt and urea with a blade-coating technique to make hybrid films. After drying, stacked GO sheets mediated by solidified NaCl and urea are hydrothermally reduced, resulting in a nanoporous film consisting of rumpled N-doped rGO sheets. As a supercapacitor electrode, the film exhibits a high gravimetric specific capacitance of 425 F g(-1) and a record volumetric specific capacitance of 693 F cm(-3) at 1 A g(-1) in 1 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte when integrated into a symmetric cell...
June 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Haihui Joy Jiang, Silvia Imberti, Rob Atkin, Gregory G Warr
Pyrrolidinium ionic liquids, especially pyrrolidinium acetate (PyrrAc), have demonstrated outstanding capacity for extracting lignin from biomass, as electrolytes for fuel cells and lithium ion batteries and as solvents for acid-catalysed reactions. In this work we show that the unusual liquid nanostructure of PyrrAc is the key to its versatility as a solvent compared to other ionic liquids. Neutron diffraction with multiple H/D isotopic substitutions reveals that the bulk nanostructure of PyrrAc is a bicontinuous network of interpenetrating polar and apolar domains...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jiaxin Fan, Zhixiong Zhang, Yinhua Liu, Aiye Wang, Li Li, Wenhui Yuan
An ionic liquid dual-ion battery with pure 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as the electrolyte was developed, which exhibited a high discharge plateau initiated at 4.4 V, a well-defined capacity of 82 mA h g(-1), an ultrawide charge/discharge potential range of 1.0-5.0 V and a superior stability of ∼100% capacity retention for 600 cycles.
June 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Kechao Tang, Andrew C Meng, Fei Hui, Yuanyuan Shi, Trevor Petach, Chuck Hitzman, Ai Leen Koh, David Goldhaber-Gordon, Mario Lanza, Paul C McIntyre
Resistance switching in TiO2 and many other transition metal oxide resistive random access memory materials is believed to involve the assembly and breaking of interacting oxygen vacancy filaments via the combined effects of ion electro-migration and local electronic conduction leading to Joule heating. These complex processes are very difficult to study directly, in part because the filaments form between metallic electrode layers that block their observation by most characterization techniques. By replacing the top electrode layer in a metal-insulator-metal memory structure with easily removable liquid electrolytes - either an ionic liquid (IL) with high resistance contact or a conductive aqueous electrolyte - we probe field-driven oxygen vacancy redistribution in TiO2 thin films under conditions that either suppress or promote Joule heating...
June 12, 2017: Nano Letters
Ying Liu, Jingyuan Liu, Hao Qin, Qi Liu, Zhanshuang Li, Rongrong Chen, Rumin Li, Hongquan Zhang, Jun Wang
The incorporation of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (AMIMPF6) and 1-vinlyimidazole (VIM) firstly served as electrolyte for oxygen sensor, which remarkably promoted response current. Moreover, the sheet-like structure of cobalt was deposited onto the surface of C@TiC nanowire (Co/C), which endowed the imidazole-based ionic liquid electrolyte with plentiful active sites and fast electron transfer rate for oxygen reduction reaction. There was little literature about the integration of AMIMPF6, VIM and Co/C as the electrolyte for oxygen sensor...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
Tao Xu, Tobias Waehler, Julia Vecchietti, Adrian Bonivardi, Tanja Bauer, Johannes Schwegler, Peter Steffen Schulz, Peter Wasserscheid, Jörg Libuda
Ionic liquids (IL) hold a great potential as novel electrolytes for applications in electronic materials and energy technology. The functionality of ILs in these applications relies on their interface to semiconducting nanomaterials. Therefore, methods to control the chemistry and structure of this interface are the key to assemble new IL-based electronic and electrochemical materials. Here, we present a new method to prepare a chemically well-defined interface between an oxide and an IL film. An imidazolium-based IL, which is carrying an ester group, is deposited onto cobalt oxide surface by evaporation...
June 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Motohiro Nakano, Takuya Nakashima, Tsuyoshi Kawai, Yoshiyuki Nonoguchi
Single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising candidates for light-weight and flexible energy materials. Recently, the thermoelectric properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes have been dramatically improved by ionic liquid addition; however, controlling factors remain unsolved. Here the thermoelectric properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes enhanced by electrolytes are investigated. Complementary characterization with absorption, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that shallow hole doping plays a partial role in the enhanced electrical conductivity...
June 8, 2017: Small
Kai Yu, Huagui Zhang, Chris Hodges, Simon Biggs, Zhenghe Xu, Olivier J Cayre, David Harbottle
The current study examined the foaming behavior of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-silica composite nanoparticles. Individually, the two components, PVP and silica nanoparticles, exhibited very little potential to partition at the air-water interface, and as such, stable foams could not be generated. In contrast, combining the two components to form silica-PVP core-shell nanocomposites led to good "foamability" and long-term foam stability. Addition of an electrolyte (Na2SO4) was shown to have a marked effect on the foam stability...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yang Shi, Hui-Juan Yan, Rui Wen, Li-Jun Wan
An understanding of the formation mechanism of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film at the nanoscale is paramount because it is one of the key issues at interfaces in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we explored the nucleation, growth, and formation of SEI film on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate in ionic liquid-based electrolytes 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide ([BMP](+)[FSI](-)) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMP](+)[TFSI](-)) by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and found that the types of anions have significant influence on the structure of the formed SEI...
June 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kang-Seop Yun, Sung Jin Pai, Byung Chul Yeo, Kwang-Ryeol Lee, Sun-Jae Kim, Sang Soo Han
We propose the ReaxFF reactive force field as a simulation protocol for predicting the evolution of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) components such as gases (C2H4, CO, CO2, CH4, and C2H6), and inorganic (Li2CO3, Li2O, and LiF) and organic (ROLi and ROCO2Li: R = -CH3 or -C2H5) products that are generated by the chemical reactions between the anodes and liquid electrolytes. ReaxFF was developed from ab initio results, and a molecular dynamics simulation with ReaxFF realized the prediction of SEI formation under real experimental conditions and with a reasonable computational cost...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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