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liquid and electrolytes

Snehashis Choudhury, Shuya Wei, Yalcin Ozhabes, Deniz Gunceler, Michael J Zachman, Zhengyuan Tu, Jung Hwan Shin, Pooja Nath, Akanksha Agrawal, Lena F Kourkoutis, Tomas A Arias, Lynden A Archer
Secondary batteries based on earth-abundant sodium metal anodes are desirable for both stationary and portable electrical energy storage. Room-temperature sodium metal batteries are impractical today because morphological instability during recharge drives rough, dendritic electrodeposition. Chemical instability of liquid electrolytes also leads to premature cell failure as a result of parasitic reactions with the anode. Here we use joint density-functional theoretical analysis to show that the surface diffusion barrier for sodium ion transport is a sensitive function of the chemistry of solid-electrolyte interphase...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
David Jager, Daniel Kupka, Miroslava Vaclavikova, Lucia Ivanicova, George Gallios
Degradation of commercial grade Reactive Black 5 (RB5) azo dye by chemical and electrochemical treatment was examined using a dimensionally stable anode and stainless steel cathodes as electrode materials, with NaCl as supporting electrolyte. The electrochemical treatment was compared to the chemical treatment with hypochlorite generated by electrolysis. The compounds present in the commercial grade RB5 azo dye and the products of its electrochemical degradation were separated using ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography on reversed phase...
September 27, 2017: Chemosphere
S Papović, N Cvjetićanin, Slobodan Gadžurić, M Bešter-Rogač, M Vraneš
Ionic liquid/organic solvent mixtures are investigated as potential optimal electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that can combine low flammability, good thermal stability and high electrical conductivity. In this work the standard ionic association constants of different 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ([Cnmim](+), n is the number of C in the alkyl side chain - 2, 4, 6 or 8) TFSI(-) based ionic liquids (ILs) in γ-butyrolactone (GBL) are determined using the low concentration Chemical Model (lcCM). Based on the values of for ILs in GBL and earlier physicochemical systematic investigations in that solvent, the system with the lowest was selected for the preparation of the LiTFSI/C2mimTFSI/GBL electrolyte for testing TiO2 nanotube arrays as anode material for LIBs...
October 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Michio Matsumoto, Sunao Shimizu, Rina Sotoike, Masayoshi Watanabe, Yoshihiro Iwasa, Takuzo Aida
Electric double layer (EDL) capacitors are promising as next-generation energy accumulators if their capacitances and operation voltages are both high. However, only few electrolytes can simultaneously fulfil these two requisites. Here we report that an oligomeric ionic liquid such as IL4(TFSI) with four imidazolium ion units in its structure provides a wide electrochemical window of ~5.0 V, similar to monomeric ionic liquids. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance measurements using Au working electrodes demonstrated that IL4(TFSI) exhibits an exceptionally high EDL capacitance of ~66 µF/cm(2), which is ~6 times as high as those of monomeric ionic liquids so far reported...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jayraj V Vaghasiya, Keval K Sonigara, Thomas Beuvier, Alain Gibaud, Saurabh S Soni
A novel saturated heterocyclic organic ionic crystal, piperidinium iodide (PiHI), is synthesized by a facile route and applied as a solid electrolyte in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (ss-DSSCs). Upon addition of a small quantity of iodine, PiHI self-assembles into a 1D lamellar micro crystalline structure that shows anisotropic conductivity. The two-component PiHI was characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, steady state voltammetry, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. Wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement confirms the presence of long range 1D lamellar channels that pave the way for the diffusion of the redox couple I(-)/I3(-) and exhibit high anisotropic conductivity...
October 11, 2017: Nanoscale
Oleg Borodin, Liumin Suo, Mallory Gobet, Xiaoming Ren, Fei Wang, Antonio Faraone, Jing Peng, Marco Olguin, Marshall Schroeder, Michael S Ding, Eric Gobrogge, Arthur von Wald Cresce, Stephen Munoz, Joseph A Dura, Steve Greenbaum, Chunsheng Wang, Kang Xu
Using molecular dynamics simulations, small-angle neutron scattering, and a variety of spectroscopic techniques, we evaluated the ion solvation and transport behaviors in aqueous electrolytes containing bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. We discovered that, at high salt concentrations (from 10 to 21 mol/kg), a disproportion of cation solvation occurs, leading to a liquid structure of heterogeneous domains with a characteristic length scale of 1 to 2 nm. This unusual nano-heterogeneity effectively decouples cations from the Coulombic traps of anions and provides a 3D percolating lithium-water network, via which 40% of the lithium cations are liberated for fast ion transport even in concentration ranges traditionally considered too viscous...
October 13, 2017: ACS Nano
Federico Bella, Jelena Popovic, Andrea Lamberti, Elena Tresso, Claudio Gerbaldi, Joachim Maier
With the purpose of achieving stable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with high efficiency, a new type of soft matter electrolyte is tested in which specific amounts of nanosized silica particles are finely dispersed in short-chained polyethylene glycol dimethylether encompassing iodide/triiodide redox mediator. It results in a solid-liquid composite having synergistic electrical and favorable mechanical properties. The combination of interfacial effects and particle network formation promotes enhanced ion transport, which directly impacts the short-circuit photocurrent density...
October 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
David Moreno-González, Rob Haselberg, Laura Gámiz-Gracia, Ana M García-Campaña, Gerhardus J de Jong, Govert W Somsen
The on-line coupling of micellar electrokinetic chromatography and mass spectrometry (MEKC-MS) is often hampered by incompatibility problems leading to reduced separation performance and unfavorable limits of detection (LODs). Here we propose a new selective and highly sensitive MEKC-MS/MS method employing a sheathless porous-tip interface in combination with a micellar phase comprised of semi-volatile surfactant molecules. Carbamate pesticides (CRBs) were selected as representative model compounds being neutral toxic pollutants potentially present at trace levels in environmental water samples...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Victoria Fernández, Hector A Bahamonde, José Javier Peguero-Pina, Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín, Domingo Sancho-Knapik, Luis Gil, Heiner E Goldbach, Thomas Eichert
Most aerial plant surfaces are covered with a lipid-rich cuticle, which is a barrier for the bidirectional transport of substances between the plant and the surrounding environment. This review article provides an overview of the significance of the leaf cuticle as a barrier for the deposition and absorption of water and electrolytes. After providing insights into the physico-chemical properties of plant surfaces, the mechanisms of foliar absorption are revised with special emphasis on solutes. Due to the limited information and relative importance of the leaf cuticle of herbaceous and deciduous cultivated plants, an overview of the studies developed with Alpine conifers and treeline species is provided...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jiang Deng, Michael R Nellist, Michaela Burke Stevens, Christian Dette, Yong Wang, Shannon W Boettcher
Nickel (oxy)hydroxide-based (NiOxHy) materials are widely used for energy storage and conversion devices. Understanding dynamic processes at the solid-liquid interface of nickel (oxy)hydroxide is important to improve reaction kinetics and efficiencies. In this study, in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) was used to directly investigate dynamic changes of single-layered Ni(OH)2 nanosheets during electrochemistry measurements. Reconstruction of Ni(OH)2 nanosheets, along with insertion of ions from the electrolyte, results in an increase of the volume by 56% and redox capacity by 300%...
October 11, 2017: Nano Letters
Hsien-Hsin Chou, Yu-Chieh Liu, Guanjie Fang, Qiao-Kai Cao, Tzu-Chien Wei, Chen-Yu Yeh
The need for low-cost and highly efficient dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells under both the sunlight and dim light environments is growing. We have devised GJ-series push-pull organic dyes which require only four synthetic steps. These dyes feature a linear molecular structure of donor-perylene-ethynylene-arylcarboxylic acid where donor represents N,N-diarylamino group and arylcarboxylic groups represents benzoic, thienocarboxylic, 2-cyano-3-phenylacrylic, 2-cyano-3-thienoacrylic and 4-benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl-benzoic groups...
October 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jianhui Cheng, David D Y Chen
A Nonaqueous Capillary Electrophoresis Mass Spectrometry (NACE-MS) method was developed to separate and determine highly hydrophobic temporin peptides. The nonaqueous background electrolyte solution was a mixture of 20% acetonitrile, 78% methanol and 2% formic acid, with 20 mM ammonium formate. The separation of 6 peptides was completed within 12 minutes. The CE system was connected to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in MRM mode using a chemical modifier solution of 2 mM ammonium formate in ethanol with the flow through microvial interface...
October 9, 2017: Electrophoresis
Dechao Zhang, Long Zhang, Kun Yang, Hongqiang Wang, Chuang Yu, Di Xu, Bo Xu, Li-Min Wang
Exploration of advanced solid electrolytes with good interfacial stability toward electrodes is a highly relevant research topic for all-solid-state batteries. Here, we report PCL/SN blends integrating with PAN-skeleton as solid polymer electrolyte prepared by a facile method. This polymer electrolyte with hierarchical architectures exhibits high ionic conductivity, large electrochemical windows, high degree flexibility, good flame-retardance ability, and thermal stability (workable at 80 °C). Additionally, it demonstrates superior compatibility and electrochemical stability toward metallic Li as well as LiFePO4 cathode...
October 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yue Gao, Yuming Zhao, Yuguang C Li, Qingquan Huang, Thomas E Mallouk, Donghai Wang
The lithium (Li) metal anode suffers severe interfacial instability from its high reactivity toward liquid electrolytes, especially carbonate-based electrolytes, resulting in poor electrochemical performance of batteries that use 4 V high-capacity cathodes. We report a new skin-grafting strategy that stabilizes the Li metal-liquid electrolyte interface by coating the Li metal surface with poly((N-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methyl)-5-norbornene-exo-2,3-dicarboximide), a chemically and electrochemically active polymer layer...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hansol D Lee, Armando D Estillore, Holly S Morris, Kamal K Ray, Aldair Alejandro, Vicki H Grassian, Alexei V Tivanski
Understanding the role of sea spray aerosol (SSA) on climate and the environment is of great interest due to their high number throughout the Earth's atmosphere. Despite fundamental importance, direct surface tension measurements of SSA relevant submicrometer particles are rare, largely due to their extremely small volumes. Herein, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to directly measure the surface tension of individual submicrometer SSA particle mimics at ambient temperature and varying relative humidity (RH)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Piotr Kubisiak, Andrzej Eilmes
Classical molecular dynamics simulations were performed for Na+ conducting electrolytes based on EMIM-TFSI ionic liquid and NaTFSI salt. Several parameterizations of force fields have been tested, including polarizable fields with dipole polarizabilities or Drude-type polarization. Trajectories up to 1 µs long have been used to estimate viscosities, diffusion coefficients and conductivities of electrolytes with increasing amount of sodium salt. Results have been compared to available experimental data. In most cases the best agreement to measured values has been obtained in non-polarizable simulations...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Ziqiang Yin, Michael Hoffmann, Sunny Jiang
Electrical heating has been proposed as a potential method for pathogen inactivation in human waste sludge, especially in decentralized wastewater treatment systems. In this study, we investigated the heat production and E. coli inactivation in wastewater sludge using electrical thermal treatment. Various concentrations of NaCl and NH4Cl were tested as electrolyte to enhance conductivity in sludge mixtures. At same voltage input (18V), sludge treated with direct current (DC) exhibited slower ascent of temperature and lower energy efficiencies for heat production comparing to that using alternate current (AC)...
September 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Haiping Lei, Jiguo Tu, Zhijing Yu, Shuqiang Jiao
Graphene has been successfully electrochemically exfoliated by electrolysis of cathode graphite in the aluminum-ion battery with ionic liquid electrolyte comprising AlCl3 and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl). The AlCl4(-), Al2Cl7(-), etc., intercalation into graphite flakes in ionic liquid of the aluminum-ion battery by different electrolysis processes to exfoliate graphite has been researched in detail. As a result of the enhanced structural flexibility, the intercalant gallery height increases in the less than five-layer graphene film, providing more free space for AlCl4(-), Al2Cl7(-), etc...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Oluwatosin O Dada, Yimeng Zhao, Nomalie Jaya, Oscar Salas-Solano
Peptide mapping with mass spectrometry (MS) detection is a powerful technique routinely used for interrogating physicochemical properties of proteins. Peptide mapping benefits from an efficient front-end separation to increase selectivity and reduce complexity prior to MS detection. The most commonly used method for peptide mapping is based on reverse phase liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS). Capillary zone electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (CZE-MS) is an orthogonal technique with growing attention for peptide mapping of biotherapeutic proteins due to its high efficiency and sensitivity...
October 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
L Y Beaulieu, E R Logan, K L Gering, J R Dahn
An automated system was developed to measure the viscosity of fluids as a function of temperature using image analysis tracking software. An Ostwald viscometer was placed in a three-wall dewar in which ethylene glycol was circulated using a thermal bath. The system collected continuous measurements during both heating and cooling cycles exhibiting no hysteresis. The use of video tracking analysis software greatly reduced the measurement errors associated with measuring the time required for the meniscus to pass through the markings on the viscometer...
September 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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