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liquid and electrolytes

Abhishek Lahiri, Maryam Shapouri Ghazvini, Giridhar Pulletikurthi, Tong Cui, Volker Klemm, David Rafaja, Frank Endres
In electrochemistry, the electrode/electrolyte interface (EEI) governs the charge/mass transfer processes and controls the nucleation/growth phenomena. The EEI in ionic liquids (IL) can be controlled by changing the cation/anion of the IL, salt concentration, electrode potential and temperature. In this paper, we show that adding a dopant salt leads to the deposition of nanowires. To illustrate, zinc nanowires were electrodeposited from ZnCl2/1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethylsulfonate in presence of GaCl3 as a dopant salt...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jie Wang, Chunli Gong, Sheng Wen, Hai Liu, Caiqin Qin, Chuanxi Xiong, Lijie Dong
Poor dispersion and inert ionic conduction are two major obstacles towards using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to modify polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) in energy conversion devices. In this work, solvent-free carbon nanotube fluids (CNT fluids) with liquid-like behavior are prepared through an ion exchange method and incorporated into a chitosan (CS) matrix to fabricate composite membranes. The electrostatic interactions between SO3 - groups in the CNT fluids and NH2 groups in the CS matrix, in addition to the unique flow properties of the CNT fluids, promote the uniform dispersion of CNT fluids in the CS matrix...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Qi Xu, Hao Yuan, Xulin Dong, Yan Zhang, Muhammad Asif, Zehua Dong, Wenshan He, Jinghua Ren, Yimin Sun, Fei Xiao
The development of high-efficient technologies for cancer biomarkers detection has attracted tremendous research effort for its great clinic significance. In this work, we designed a new type of flexible and robust nanohybrid microelectrode by modifying carbon fiber with dual nanoenzyme, i.e., AuPd alloy nanoparticles (AuPd-ANPs) decorated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) assembly, and explored its practical application in electrochemical sensing system for sensitive detection of cancer biomarker hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in human breast cancer cells and tissue...
February 9, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Livius F Muff, Thomas Luxbacher, Ingo Burgert, Benjamin Michen
This work reports on streaming potential measurements through natural capillaries in wood and investigates the cause of a time-dependent zeta potential measured during the equilibration of wood cell-walls with an electrolyte solution. For the biomaterial, this equilibration phase takes several hours, which is much longer than for many other materials that have been characterized by electrokinetic measurements. During this equilibration phase the zeta potential magnitude is decaying due to two parallel mechanisms: (i) the swelling of the cell-wall which causes a dimensional change reducing the charge density at the capillary interface; (ii) the transport of ions from the electrolyte solution into the permeable cell-wall which alters the electrical potential at the interface by internal charge compensation...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Aliyeh Hasanzadeh, Alireza Khataee, Mahmoud Zarei, Sang Woo Joo
This work reports the potential application of modified gas-diffusion electrode (GDE) with C 60 -CNT composite, as a stable and efficient cathode material for degradation of trifluralin (TRL) pesticide by photo-assisted electrochemical (PE) process. C 60 -CNT composite was prepared and characterized. Subsequently, a novel C 60 -CNT composite modified GDE cathode was developed and the electrochemical and physical characteristics of the modified GDEs were studied. C 60 -CNT composite/GDE showed great efficiencies for electro-generating H 2 O 2 , owing to huge surface area and high conductivity...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Ying Wu, Jixiao Wang, Bin Ou, Song Zhao, Zhi Wang, Shichang Wang
Electrochemical polymerization of aniline is one of the most promising methods to prepare polyaniline (PANI) materials. However, during this process, the electrolyte solution must be replaced after electropolymerization of a certain time because of the generation and the accumulation of the by-products, which have significant effects on the morphology, purity and properties of PANI products. Treatment and recycling of the used electrolyte solution are worthwhile to study to reduce the high treatment cost of the used electrolyte solution containing aniline and its polymerization by-products...
February 12, 2018: Nanomaterials
Mangesh I Chaudhari, Ajay Muralidharan, Lawrence R Pratt, Susan B Rempe
Progress in understanding liquid ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) on the basis of molecular simulation, emphasizing simple models of interatomic forces, is reviewed. Results on the bulk liquids are examined from the perspective of anticipated applications to materials for electrical energy storage devices. Preliminary results on electrochemical double-layer capacitors based on carbon nanotube forests and on model solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers of lithium ion batteries are considered as examples...
February 12, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Masaki Okoshi, Chien-Pin Chou, Hiromi Nakai
Superconcentrated electrolyte solutions are receiving increasing attention as a novel class of liquid electrolyte for secondary batteries because of their unusual and favorable characteristics, which arise from a unique solution structure with a very small number of free solvent molecules. The present theoretical study investigates the concentration dependence of the structural and dynamical properties of these electrolyte solutions for Na-ion batteries using large-scale quantum molecular dynamics simulations...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Marc-Antoine Sani, Pierre-Alexandre Martin, Ruhamah Yunis, Fangfang Chen, Maria Forsyth, Michael Deschamps, Luke A O'Dell
Dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP) enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy has been used to study an ionic liquid salt solution (N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, C3mpyrFSI, containing 1.0 m lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, 6LiFSI) in its glassy state at a temperature of 92 K. The incorporation of a biradical to enable DNP signal enhancement allowed the proximities of the lithium to the individual carbon sites on the pyrrolidinium cation to be probed using a 13C-6Li REDOR pulse sequence...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jun-Hong Lin
In this paper, cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was employed to prevent the restack of the thermally reduce graphene oxide (TRG) sheets. A facile approach was demonstrated to effectively enlarge the interlayer distance of the TRG sheets through the ionic interaction between the intercalated CTAB and ionic liquids (ILs). The morphology of the composites and the interaction between the intercalated ionic species were systematically characterized by SEM, SAXS, XRD, TGA, and FTIR. In addition, the performance of the EDLC cells based on these TRG composites was evaluated...
February 8, 2018: Materials
Germán Lobos Andrade, Carolina Salas Palma
OBJECTIVE: To determine the total average costs related to laboratory examinations performed in a hospital laboratory in Chile. METHOD: Retrospective study with data from July 2014 to June 2015. 92 examinations classified in ten groups were selected according to the analysis methodology. The costs were estimated as the sum of direct and indirect laboratory costs and indirect institutional factors. RESULTS: The average values obtained for the costs according to examination group (in USD) were: 1...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Dan Li, Long Chen, Tianshi Wang, Li-Zhen Fan
Replacement of flammable organic liquid electrolytes with solid Li+ conductors is a promising approach to realize excellent performance of Li metal batteries. However, ceramic electrolytes are either easily reduced by Li metal or penetrated by Li dendrites through their grain boundaries, and polymer electrolytes are also faced with instability on the electrode/electrolyte interface and weak mechanical property. Here we report a 3D fiber-network reinforced bicontinuous solid composite electrolyte with flexible Li+-conductive network (lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN)), which helps to enhance electrochemical stability on the electrode/electrolyte interface by isolating Li and LATP, and suppress Li dendrites growth by mechanical reinforcement of fiber-network for the composite solid electrolyte...
February 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Vladimir A Azov, Ksenia S Egorova, Marina M Seitkalieva, Alexey S Kashin, Valentine P Ananikov
Inorganic and organic "solvent-in-salt" (SIS) systems have been known for decades but have attracted significant attention only recently. Molten salt hydrates/solvates have been successfully employed as non-flammable, benign electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries leading to a revolution in battery development and design. SIS with organic components (for example, ionic liquids containing small amounts of water) demonstrate remarkable thermal stability and tunability, and present a class of admittedly safer electrolytes, in comparison with traditional organic solvents...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Ryo Kanzaki, Clément Guibert, Jérôme Fresnais, Véronique Peyre
HYPOTHESIS: Ionic liquids (ILs) are extremely concentrated electrolyte solutions. The ubiquitous presence of ions induces specific behaviors for chemical reactions compared to reactions in water solutions. This is also the case for the stability of colloidal dispersions, for which the DLVO model cannot be applied as the ionic strength is out of the model range. In a previous work, in the protic IL ethylammonium nitrate (doi:, we observed an unexpected influence of the pH on the stability of dispersion of maghemite nanoparticles coated with poly(acrylic acid) (pAA)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yanyan Zhang, Mao Su, Xiaofei Yu, Yufan Zhou, Jungang Wang, Ruiguo Cao, Wu Xu, Chongmin Wang, Donald R Baer, Oleg Borodin, Kang Xu, Yanting Wang, Xue-Lin Wang, Zhijie Xu, Fuyi Wang, Zihua Zhu
Ion-solvent interactions in non-aqueous electrolytes are of fundamental interest and practical importance, yet debates regarding ion preferential solvation and coordination numbers persist. In this work, in situ liquid SIMS was used to examine ion-solvent interactions in three representative electrolytes, i.e., lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) at 1.0 M in ethylene carbonate (EC)-dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) at both low (1.0 M) and high (4.0 M) concentrations in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME)...
February 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Rafal Miroslaw Dziedzic, Mary A Waddington, Sarah E Lee, Jack Kleinsasser, John Plumley, William C Ewing, Beth D Bosley, Vincent Lavallo, Thomas L Peng, Alexander M Spokoyny
Electrochemical systems offer a versatile means for creating adaptive devices. However, the utility of electrochemical deposition is inherently limited by the properties of the electrolyte. The development of ionic liquids enables electrodeposition in high-vacuum environments and presents opportunities for creating electrochemically adaptive and regenerative spacecraft components. In this work we developed a silver-rich, boron cluster ionic liquid (BCIL) for reversible electrodeposition of silver films. This air and moisture stable elec-trolyte was used to deposit metallic films in an electrochemical cell to tune the emissivity of the cell in situ, demonstrating a proof-of-concept design for spacecraft thermal control...
February 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Deepak P Dubal, Nilesh R Chodankar, Do-Heyoung Kim, Pedro Gomez-Romero
Flexible solid-state supercapacitors (FSSCs) are frontrunners in energy storage device technology and have attracted extensive attention owing to recent significant breakthroughs in modern wearable electronics. In this study, we review the state-of-the-art advancements in FSSCs to provide new insights on mechanisms, emerging electrode materials, flexible gel electrolytes and novel cell designs. The review begins with a brief introduction on the fundamental understanding of charge storage mechanisms based on the structural properties of electrode materials...
February 5, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Sriteja Mantha, Grayson L Jackson, Mahesh K Mahanthappa, Arun Yethiraj
The dynamics of confined water is of fundamental and long-standing interest. In technologically important forms of confinement, such as proton exchange membranes, electrostatic interactions with the confining matrix and counterions play significant roles on the properties of water. There has been recent interest on the dynamics of water confined to the lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) morphologies of Gemini dicarboxylate surfactants. These systems are exciting because the nature of confinement, e.g., size and curvature of channels and surface functionality is dictated by the chemistry of the self-assembling surfactant molecules...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Angela Molina, Eduardo Laborda, José Manuel Olmos, Enrique Millan-Barrios
Analytical expressions are obtained for the study of the net current and individual fluxes across macro- and micro-liquid|liquid interfaces in series as those found in ion sensing with solvent polymeric membranes and in ion-transfer batteries. The mathematical solutions deduced are applicable to any voltammetric technique independently of the lipophilicity and charge number of the target and compensating ions. When supporting electrolytes of semi-hydrophilic ions are employed, the so-called double transfer voltammograms tend to merge into a single signal, which notably complicates the modelling and analysis of the electrochemical response...
February 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Qiwei Yang, Zhaoqiang Zhang, Xiao-Guang Sun, Yong-Sheng Hu, Huabin Xing, Sheng Dai
The ever-growing demand for advanced energy storage devices in portable electronics, electric vehicles and large scale power grids has triggered intensive research efforts over the past decade on lithium and sodium batteries. The key to improve their electrochemical performance and enhance the service safety lies in the development of advanced electrode, electrolyte, and auxiliary materials. Ionic liquids (ILs) are liquids consisting entirely of ions near room temperature, and are characterized by many unique properties such as ultralow volatility, high ionic conductivity, good thermal stability, low flammability, a wide electrochemical window, and tunable polarity and basicity/acidity...
February 2, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
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