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liquid and electrolytes

Tahmid Latif, Fengyuan Gong, Michael Dickey, Mihail Sichitiu, Alper Bozkurt, Tahmid Latif, Fengyuan Gong, Michael Dickey, Mihail Sichitiu, Alper Bozkurt, Michael Dickey, Tahmid Latif, Fengyuan Gong, Alper Bozkurt, Mihail Sichitiu
Biobotics is an emerging and useful advent in the field of robotics which harnesses the mechanical power of live invertebrates and benefits from them as "working" animals. Most biobotic applications rely on neural or muscular stimulation through implanted electrodes for achieving direct control of their locomotory behavior. Degradation of stimulation efficiency is often noticed through extended usage, partly owing to incompatibility of implanted electrodes to the application. Our previous achievements in biobotics utilized commercially available stainless steel wires as stimulation electrodes due to its availability and lower cost...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Carmen Tejada-Casado, David Moreno-González, Francisco J Lara, Ana M García-Campaña, Monsalud Del Olmo-Iruela
A novel method based on capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry has been proposed and validated for the identification and simultaneous quantification of twelve benzimidazoles in meat samples. Electrophoretic separation was carried out using 500mM formic acid (pH 2.2) as background electrolyte and applying a voltage of 25kV at 25°C. In order to improve the sensitivity, stacking mode injection was applied, using as injection solvent a mixture of 30:70 acetonitrile/water at 50mbar for 75s. Sensitivity enhancement factors from 74 to 317 were obtained under these conditions...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Chaofan Yang, Xiaosong Zhang, Mengyi Huang, Junjie Huang, Zebo Fang
LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) is regarded as a promising material for next-generation lithium ion batteries due to the high capacity, but its practical applications are limited by the poor electronic conductivity. Here, a one-step method is used to prepare carbon coated LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM/C) by applying active carbon as reaction matrix. TEM shows LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 particles are homogeneously coated by carbon with a thickness about 10 nm. NCM/C delivers the discharge capacity of 191.2 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C (85 mA g-1) with a columbic efficiency of 91...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sarah L White, Progna Banerjee, Prashant K Jain
Super-ionic solids, which exhibit ion mobilities as high as those in liquids or molten salts, have been employed as solid-state electrolytes in batteries, improved thermoelectrics and fast-ion conductors in super-capacitors and fuel cells. Fast-ion transport in many of these solids is supported by a disordered, 'liquid-like' sub-lattice of cations mobile within a rigid anionic sub-lattice, often achieved at high temperatures or pressures via a phase transition. Here we show that ultrasmall clusters of copper selenide exhibit a disordered cationic sub-lattice under ambient conditions unlike larger nanocrystals, where Cu(+) ions and vacancies form an ordered super-structure similar to the bulk solid...
February 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Ya Zhou, Chen Peng, Kenneth D Harris, Rupasri Mandal, D Jed Harrison
We present a surface assisted laser desorption ionization (SALDI) technique, coupled with fluorocarbon coating, to achieve selective segregation of ionic and/or hydrophilic analytes from background biofluid electrolytes for quantiatve mass spectrometric analysis. By controlling the contact angle of (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl) trichlorosilane or (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl) dimethylchlorosilane to a specific range (105-120°), background electrolytes can be made to segregate from hydrophilic analytes during a drying step on the surface of a highly nanoporous thin film...
February 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Ming Chen, Song Li, Guang Feng
Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. In this work, we investigate the effects of different supercapacitor models and anion shape on the electrical double layers (EDLs) of two different RTILs: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf₂N]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(cyano)pyrrolide ([Emim][CNPyr]) by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The EDL microstructure is represented by number densities of cations and anions, and the potential drop near neutral and charged electrodes reveal that the supercapacitor model with a single electrode has the same EDL structure as the model with two opposite electrodes...
February 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lai-Hao Wang, Yu-Han Zhang
A flow-electrolytic cell that consists of a bare gold wire or of different thiol-compound-modified gold electrodes (such as 2,4-thiazolidinedione, 2-mercapto-5-thiazoline, 2-mercaptothiazoline, l-cysteine, thioglycolic acid) was designed to be used in a voltammetric detector to identify l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Both l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine are more efficiently electrochemically oxidized on a thiol/gold than on a bare gold electrode...
February 16, 2017: Sensors
Kaleigh Margita, Maxim A Voinov, Alex I Smirnov
Spin probe and spin labeling Electron Paramagnetic Resonance methods are indispensable research tools for solving a wide range of bioanalytical problems-from measuring microviscosity and polarity of phase-separated liquids to oxygen concentrations in tissues. One of the emerging uses of spin probes are the studies of proton transfer-related and surface electrostatic phenomena. The latter Electron Paramagnetic Resonance methods rely on molecular probes containing an additional functionality capable of reversible ionization (protonation, in particular) in the immediate proximity to an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance-active reporter group, such as (N-O(•)) for nitroxides...
February 17, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Xing Liu, Zhifu Liu, Zhenli Zhu, Dong He, Siqi Yao, Hongtao Zheng, Shenghong Hu
In this study, a novel high efficiency vapor generation strategy was proposed based on solution anode glow discharge for the determination of Cd and Zn by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. In this approach, a glow discharge microplasma was acted as a gaseous cathode to initiate the plasma electrochemical vapor generation of Cd and Zn. Cadmium/Zinc ions could be converted into molecular species efficiently at the plasma-liquid interface from a supporting electrolyte (HCl, pH=3.2). It was found that the overall efficiency of the plasma electrochemical vapor generation (PEVG) system was much higher than the conventional electrochemical hydride generation (EcHG) and HCl-KBH4 system...
February 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Nerea Casado, Matthias Hilder, Cristina Pozo-Gonzalo, Maria Forsyth, David Mecerreyes
Biomass derived polymers, such as lignin, contain redox quinone/hydroquinone redox moieties that can be used to store charge. Composites based on the biopolymer lignin and several conjugated polymers have shown good charge storage properties. However, their performance has been just studied in acidic aqueous media limiting the applications mainly to supercapacitors. Here we show that PEDOT/Lignin biopolymers are electroactive in aprotic ionic liquids and we move a step further by assembling sodium full cell batteries using PEDOT/Lignin as electrode material and ionic liquid electrolytes...
February 15, 2017: ChemSusChem
Di-Yan Wang, Chuan-Yu Wei, Meng-Chang Lin, Chun-Jern Pan, Hung-Lung Chou, Hsin-An Chen, Ming Gong, Yingpeng Wu, Chunze Yuan, Michael Angell, Yu-Ju Hsieh, Yu-Hsun Chen, Cheng-Yen Wen, Chun-Wei Chen, Bing-Joe Hwang, Chia-Chun Chen, Hongjie Dai
Recently, interest in aluminium ion batteries with aluminium anodes, graphite cathodes and ionic liquid electrolytes has increased; however, much remains to be done to increase the cathode capacity and to understand details of the anion-graphite intercalation mechanism. Here, an aluminium ion battery cell made using pristine natural graphite flakes achieves a specific capacity of ∼110 mAh g(-1) with Coulombic efficiency ∼98%, at a current density of 99 mA g(-1) (0.9 C) with clear discharge voltage plateaus (2...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
Marcello Berto, Stefano Casalini, Michele Di Lauro, Simone L Marasso, Matteo Cocuzza, Denis Perrone, Marcello Pinti, Andrea Cossarizza, Candido F Pirri, Daniel T Simon, Magnus Berggren, Francesco Zerbetto, Carlo A Bortolotti, Fabio Biscarini
Biorecognition is a central event in biological processes in the living systems that is also widely exploited in technological and health applications. We demonstrate that the Electrolyte Gated Organic Field Effect Transistor (EGOFET) is an ultrasensitive and specific device that allows us to quantitatively assess the thermodynamics of biomolecular recognition between a human antibody and its antigen, namely, the inflammatory cytokine TNFα at the solid/liquid interface. The EGOFET biosensor exhibits a superexponential response at TNFα concentration below 1 nM with a minimum detection level of 100 pM...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Sze-Yin Tan, Patrick R Unwin, Julie V Macpherson, Jie Zhang, Alan M Bond
Quantitative studies of electron transfer processes at electrode/electrolyte interfaces, originally developed for homogeneous liquid mercury or metallic electrodes, are difficult to adapt to the spatially heterogeneous nanostructured electrode materials that are now commonly used in modern electrochemistry. In this study, the impact of surface heterogeneity on Fourier-transformed alternating current voltammetry (FTACV) has been investigated theoretically under the simplest possible conditions where no overlap of diffusion layers occurs and where numerical simulations based on a 1D diffusion model are sufficient to describe the mass transport problem...
February 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Jianbo Wu, Wenpei Gao, Hong Yang, Jian-Min Zuo
Dissolution due to atom-level etching is a major factor for the degradation of Pt-based electrocatalysts used in low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Selective surface etching is also used to precisely control shapes of nanoparticles. Dissolution kinetics of faceted metal nanoparticles in solution however is poorly understood despite considerable progress in understanding etching of two-dimensional surfaces. We report here the application of in situ liquid transmission electron microscopy for quantitative analysis of oxidative etching of cubic and icosahedral Pt nanoparticles...
February 14, 2017: ACS Nano
Valery V Belousov
High temperature electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen separators based on ceramic materials are used for efficient energy conversion. These devices generally operate in the temperature range of 800-1000 °C. The high operating temperatures lead to accelerated degradation of the SOFC and oxygen separator materials. To solve this problem, the operating temperatures of these electrochemical devices must be lowered. However, lowering the temperature is accompanied by decreasing the ionic conductivity of fuel cell electrolyte and oxygen separator membrane...
February 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Yimin A Wu, Zuwei Yin, Maryam Farmand, Young-Sang Yu, David A Shapiro, Hong-Gang Liao, Wen-I Liang, Ying-Hao Chu, Haimei Zheng
We report the study of Mg cathodic electrochemical deposition on Ti and Au electrode using a multimodal approach by examining the sample area in-situ using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Magnesium Aluminum Chloride Complex was synthesized and utilized as electrolyte, where non-reversible features during in situ charging-discharging cycles were observed. During charging, a uniform Mg film was deposited on the electrode, which is consistent with the intrinsic non-dendritic nature of Mg deposition in Mg ion batteries...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hironobu Tahara, Rei Baba, Kodai Iwanaga, Takamasa Sagara, Hiroto Murakami
A ferrocene-viologen linked "bipolar" type redox-active ionic liquid ([FcC11VC1][TFSI]2) was synthesized as an electrochromic (EC) material that functions without any other additives: solvents, supporting electrolytes and sacrificial agents. The efficiency of a prototype symmetrical EC cell was 70 cm(2) C(-1) at 1.0 V. The EC process was stable even after over 10 000 potential cycles.
February 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Mitsunori Kitta, Hikaru Sano
Nanoscale investigations of Li deposition on the surface of a Li electrode are crucial to understand the initial mechanism of dendrite growth in rechargeable Li-metal batteries during charging. Here, we studied the initial Li deposition and related protrusion growth processes at the surface of the Li electrode with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in a galvanostatic experiment under operand condition. A flat Li-metal surface prepared by precision cutting a Li-metal wire in electrolyte solution (100 mM LiPF6 in propylene carbonate) was observed with peak-force-tapping mode AFM under an inert atmosphere...
February 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Simon Wiemers-Meyer, Martin Winter, Sascha Nowak
This work describes the development of an in situ battery cell to monitor liquid electrolytes by means of NMR spectroscopy. The suitability of this approach is confirmed by NMR measurements and electrochemical analysis. The cell allows for undistorted high resolution NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, constant current cycling data, C-rate sequences and impedance measurements indicates a long cycle life as well as reasonable specific capacities and Ohmic resistances.
February 7, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Aminu K Rabiu, Peter S Toth, Andrew N J Rodgers, Robert A W Dryfe
There is much interest in understanding the interfacial properties of carbon nanotubes, particularly at water/oil interfaces. Here, the adsorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) at the water/1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) interface, and the subsequent investigation of the influence of the adsorbed nanotube layer on interfacial ion transfer, is studied by using the voltammetric transfer of tetramethylammonium (TMA(+)) and hexafluorophosphate (PF6(-)) as probe ions. The presence of the interfacial SWCNT layer significantly suppresses the transfer of both ions across the interface, with a greater degree of selectivity towards the PF6(-) ion...
February 2017: ChemistryOpen
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