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liquid and electrolytes

José Manuel Vicent-Luna, Eneko Azaceta, Said Hamad, José Manuel Ortiz-Roldán, Ramón Tena-Zaera, Sofía Calero, Juan Antonio Anta
Among many other applications, room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are used as electrolytes for storage and energy-conversion devices. In this work, we investigate, at the microscopic level, the structural and dynamical properties of 1-methyl-1-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide [C4 PYR]+ [Tf2 N]- IL-based electrolytes for metal-ion batteries. We carried out molecular dynamics simulations of electrolytes mainly composed of [C4 PYR]+ [Tf2 N]- IL with the addition of Mn+ -[Tf2 N]- metal salts (M=Li+ , Na+ , Ni2+ , Zn2+ , Co2+ , Cd2+ , and Al3+ , n=1, 2, and 3) dissolved in the IL...
April 18, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Yang Zhao, Xiaofei Yang, Liang-Yin Kuo, Payam Kaghazchi, Qian Sun, Jianneng Liang, Biqiong Wang, Andrew Lushington, Ruying Li, Huamin Zhang, Xueliang Sun
Na metal anode attracts increasing attention as a promising candidate for Na metal batteries (NMBs) due to the high specific capacity and low potential. However, similar to issues faced with the use of Li metal anode, crucial problems for metallic Na anode remain, including serious moss-like and dendritic Na growth, unstable solid electrolyte interphase formation, and large infinite volume changes. Here, the rational design of carbon paper (CP) with N-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) as a 3D host to obtain Na@CP-NCNTs composites electrodes for NMBs is demonstrated...
April 15, 2018: Small
Po-Hsin Wang, Tzong-Liu Wang, Wen-Churng Lin, Hung-Yin Lin, Mei-Hwa Lee, Chien-Hsin Yang
A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL) and ionic liquid (IL). This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP)-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br- in PIL-M-(Br) and TFSI- in PIL-M-(TFSI), respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br- and TFSI- , respectively...
April 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
Kyung-Hye Jung, Nimanka Panapitiya, John P Ferraris
Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are promising electrode materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) due to their high porosity and electrical conductivity. CNFs were prepared by electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment of a new precursor polymer, 6FDA-durene, without the addition of pore generating agents. The conversion of precursor nanofibers into CNFs was confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. CNFs were activated and annealed, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements were conducted to determine surface area and porosity...
April 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
Chih-Yao Chen, Tetsuya Tsuda, Susumu Kuwabata, Charles L Hussey
Rechargeable aluminum batteries composed of an aluminum anode, an expanded graphite cathode, and an inorganic chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolyte show remarkably improved capacity, reversibility, and rate capability at 393 K compared to cells based on a common organic salt based ionic liquid, AlCl3-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.
April 9, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Dagnachew Legesse Belachew, Stefan Terzer-Wassmuth, Leonard I Wassenaar, Philipp M Klaus, Lorenzo Copia, Luis J Araguás Araguás, Pradeep Aggarwal
Accurate and precise measurements of low levels of tritium (3 H) in environmental waters are difficult to attain due to complex steps of sample preparation, electrolytic enrichment, liquid scintillation decay counting, and extensive data processing. We present a Microsoft Access™ relational database application, TRIMS (Tritium Information Management System) to assist with sample and data processing of tritium analysis by managing the processes from sample registration and analysis to reporting and archiving...
March 9, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Ye Zhang, Rajesh Rajamani, Serdar Sezen
Traditional capacitive sensors suffer from significant parasitic noise when used in liquid environments or inside the human body. The parasitic noise overwhelms the force response of the sensor and makes it impossible to calculate the absolute force experienced by the sensor. This article focuses on the development of a supercapacitor based force sensor that is immune to parasitic noise. The supercapacitor consists of co-planar electrodes and a solid state ionic gel electrolyte on a deformable membrane. Force exertion causes deformation of the electrolyte membrane, increases its area of contact with the electrodes, resulting in a change of capacitance...
December 2017: IEEE Sensors Letters
Preeti Jain, Anil Kumar
The present study deals with the inter-ionic interactions between strong electrolytes and ionic liquids based on the thermodynamic properties such as excess partial molar enthalpy, HEIL, relative apparent molar enthalpy, φL, and the enthalpic interaction parameters. The thermodynamic properties of the systems are the key indicators to understand the interionic interactions. We have conducted a systematic investigation of the enthalpic behavior of aqueous solution of salts and ionic liquids and their mixtures...
April 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Alistair William Thomas King, Valtteri Mäkelä, Stephanie A Kedzior, Tiina Laaksonen, Gabriel J Partl, Sami Heikkinen, Harri Koskela, Harri August Heikkinen, Ashley John Holding, Emily D Cranston, Ilkka Antero Kilpeläinen
Recent developments in ionic liquid electrolytes for cellulose or biomass dissolution has also allowed for high-resolution1 H and13 C NMR on very high molecular weight cellulose. This permits the development of advanced liquid-state quantitative NMR methods for characterization of unsubstituted and low degree of substitution celluloses, e.g. surface-modified nanocelluloses, which are insoluble in all molecular solvents. As such, we present the use of the tetrabutylphosphonium acetate ([P4444 ][OAc]):DMSO-d6 electrolyte in the 1D and 2D NMR characterization of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)-grafted cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs)...
April 3, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Hongli Wan, Jean Pierre Mwizerwa, Xingguo Qi, Xiaoxiong Xu, Hong Li, Qiang Zhang, Liangting Cai, Yong-Sheng Hu, Xiayin Yao
Nano-sized Na3PS4 solid electrolyte with an ionic conductivity of 8.44×10-5 S cm-1 at room temperature is synthesized by a liquid-phase reaction. The resultant all-solid-state FeS2/Na3PS4/Na batteries show an extraordinary high initial Coulombic efficiency of 95% and demonstrate high energy density of 611 Wh kg-1 at current density of 20 mA g-1 at room temperature. The outstanding performances of the battery can be ascribed to good interface compatibility and intimate solid-solid contact at FeS2 electrode/nanosized Na3PS4 solid electrolytes interface...
April 2, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michael Rawlence, Alejandro Nicolas Filippin, Aneliia Waeckerlin, Tzu-Ying Lin, Eduardo Cuervo-Reyes, Arndt Remhof, Corsin Battaglia, Jennifer Rupp, Stephan Buecheler
Replacing the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries with thin film solid state lithium ion conductors is a promising approach for increasing energy density, lifetime, and safety. In particular, Li7La3Zr2O12 is appealing due to its high lithium ion conductivity, and wide electrochemical stability window. Further insights into thin film processing of this material are required for its successful integration into solid state batteries. In this work we investigate the phase evolution of Li7La3Zr2O12 in thin films with various amounts of Li and Ga for stabilizing the cubic phase...
April 2, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kento Kasahara, Hirofumi Sato
Time-dependent pair distribution function characterizes the diffusion of pairs of molecules in liquids. In the diffusion regime, the function is described with three-dimensional Smoluchowski equation. We propose a scheme to numerically calculate the function between polyatomic and monoatomic species based on the Smoluchowski equation. The present scheme is successfully applied to the diffusion of Ar-Ar pair in liquid Ar and ethylene carbonate (EC)-Li+ pair in 1 M LiPF6 /EC electrolyte solution. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Wen-Li Yuan, Xiao Yang, Ling He, Ying Xue, Song Qin, Guo-Hong Tao
The instructive structure-property relationships of ionic liquids (ILs) can be put to task-specific design of new functionalized ILs. The dicyanamide (DCA) ILs are typical CHN type ILs which are halogen free, chemical stable, low-viscous, and fuel-rich. The transport properties of DCA ionic liquids are significant for their applications as solvents, electrolytes, and hypergolic propellants. This work systematically investigates several important transport properties of four DCA ILs ([C4 mim][N(CN)2 ], [C4 m2 im][N(CN)2 ], N4442 [N(CN)2 ], and N8444 [N(CN)2 ]) including viscosity, conductivity, and electrochemical property at different temperatures...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
E V Gorbacheva, G S Ganchenko, E A Demekhin
The stability of the electroosmotic flow of electrolyte-dielectric viscous liquids under the influence of the DC and AC electric fields along with the external pressure gradient is studied theoretically. Liquids are bounded by two infinite parallel plates. The lower wall bordering the electrolyte is assumed to be a charged surface, and the upper wall is electrically isolated. The charge at the lower boundary is assumed to be immobile, while the surface charge at the free surface is assumed to be mobile. In this paper, we study the micro- and nanosized liquid layers...
March 27, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Y Zhang, C Pozo-Gonzalo
Increasing energy demands call for new energy storage technologies with high energy density to meet current and future needs. Metal-air batteries are especially attractive due to their superior specific energy, which is as much as 8 times that of today's best Li-ion batteries. However, the practical values achieved to date are far from the theoretical one and require further research to enhance the battery performance. The electrolyte plays an important role in the performance of the battery whose properties can be tuned by varying the chemical composition and through the use of additives...
March 28, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Beatriz Eugenia Sanabria Arenas, Alberto Strini, Luca Schiavi, Andrea Li Bassi, Valeria Russo, Barbara Del Curto, Maria Vittoria Diamanti, MariaPia Pedeferri
The availability of immobilized nanostructured photocatalysts is of great importance in the purification of both polluted air and liquids (e.g., industrial wastewaters). Metal-supported titanium dioxide films with nanotubular morphology and good photocatalytic efficiency in both environments can be produced by anodic oxidation, which avoids release of nanoscale materials in the environment. Here we evaluate the effect of different anodizing procedures on the photocatalytic activity of TiO₂ nanostructures in gas and liquid phases, in order to identify the most efficient and robust technique for the production of TiO₂ layers with different morphologies and high photocatalytic activity in both phases...
March 24, 2018: Materials
Sechan Lee, Giyun Kwon, Kyojin Ku, Kyungho Yoon, Sung-Kyun Jung, Hee-Dae Lim, Kisuk Kang
Organic rechargeable batteries, which use organics as electrodes, are excellent candidates for next-generation energy storage systems because they offer design flexibility due to the rich chemistry of organics while being eco-friendly and potentially cost efficient. However, their widespread usage is limited by intrinsic problems such as poor electronic conductivity, easy dissolution into liquid electrolytes, and low volumetric energy density. New types of organic electrode materials with various redox centers or molecular structures have been developed over the past few decades...
March 27, 2018: Advanced Materials
Shuya Wei, Zhu Cheng, Pooja Nath, Mukul D Tikekar, Gaojin Li, Lynden A Archer
Electrodeposition is a widely practiced method for creating metal, colloidal, and polymer coatings on conductive substrates. In the Newtonian liquid electrolytes typically used, the process is fundamentally unstable. The underlying instabilities have been linked to failure of microcircuits, dendrite formation on battery electrodes, and overlimiting conductance in ion-selective membranes. We report that viscoelastic electrolytes composed of semidilute solutions of very high-molecular weight neutral polymers suppress these instabilities by multiple mechanisms...
March 2018: Science Advances
Chun-Lan Wu, Hongtao Yuan, Yanbin Li, Yongji Gong, Harold Y Hwang, Yi Cui
Electric double layer (EDL) gating with liquid electrolyte has been a powerful tool widely used to explore emerging interfacial electronic phenomena. Due to the large EDL capacitance, a high carrier density up to 1014 cm-2 can be induced, directly leading to the realization of field-induced insulator to metal (or superconductor) transition. However, the liquid nature of the electrolyte has created technical issues including possible side electrochemical reactions or intercalation, and the potential for huge strain at the interface during cooling...
March 26, 2018: Nano Letters
Jungwoo Z Lee, Thomas A Wynn, Ying Shirley Meng, Dhamodaran Santhanagopalan
Solid-state electrolytes are a promising replacement for current organic liquid electrolytes, enabling higher energy densities and improved safety of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. However, a number of setbacks prevent their integration into commercial devices. The main limiting factor is due to nanoscale phenomena occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces, ultimately leading to degradation of battery operation. These key problems are highly challenging to observe and characterize as these batteries contain multiple buried interfaces...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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