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liquid and electrolytes

Ningning Feng, Xiaowei Mu, Xueping Zhang, Ping He, Haoshen Zhou
Aprotic Li-O2 batteries have attracted worldwide interest owing to their ultra-high theoretical energy density. However, the practical Li-O2 batteries still suffer from high charge overpotential and low energy efficiency resulting from the sluggish kinetics in electrochemically oxidizing the insulating lithium peroxide (Li2O2). Recently, dissolved redox mediators in the electrolyte have enabled the effective catalytic oxidation of Li2O2 at the liquid-solid interface. Here, we report that the incorporation of N-methylphenothiazine (MPT), as a redox shuttle in Li-O2 batteries, provides a dramatic reduction in charge overpotential to 0...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dennis C Prieve, Benjamin A Yezer, Aditya S Khair, Paul J Sides, James W Schneider
After presenting a brief historical overview of the classic contributions of Faraday, Arrhenius, Kohlrausch, Bjerrum, Debye, Hückel and Onsager to understanding the conductivity of true electrolytes in aqueous solutions, we present an in-depth review of the 1933 work of Fuoss & Kraus who explored the effect of the solvent on electrolyte dissociation equilibria in either polar or nonpolar media. Their theory predicts that the equilibrium constant for dissociation decays exponentially with the ratio of the Bjerrum length λB to the ion-pair size a...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Allen Pei, Guangyuan Zheng, Feifei Shi, Yuzhang Li, Yi Cui
Lithium metal has re-emerged as an exciting anode for high energy lithium-ion batteries due to its high specific capacity of 3,860 mAh g(-1) and lowest electrochemical potential of all known materials. However, lithium has been plagued by the issues of dendrite formation, high chemical reactivity with electrolyte, and infinite relative volume expansion during plating and stripping, which present safety hazards and low cycling efficiency in batteries with lithium metal electrodes. There have been a lot of recent studies on Li metal although little work has focused on the initial nucleation and growth behavior of Li metal, neglecting a critical fundamental scientific foundation of Li plating...
January 10, 2017: Nano Letters
Andrew G Seel, Helen Swan, Daniel T Bowron, Jonathan C Wasse, Thomas Weller, Peter P Edwards, Christopher A Howard, Neal T Skipper
Metal-amine solutions provide a unique arena in which to study electrons in solution, and to tune the electron density from the extremes of electrolytic through to true metallic behavior. The existence and structure of a new class of concentrated metal-amine liquid, Li-NH3 -MeNH2 , is presented in which the mixed solvent produces a novel type of electron solvation and delocalization that is fundamentally different from either of the constituent systems. NMR, ESR, and neutron diffraction allow the environment of the solvated electron and liquid structure to be precisely interrogated...
January 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Anthony J D'Angelo, Matthew J Panzer
Lithium-ion solvate ionic liquids (SILs), consisting of complexed Li(+) cations and a weakly basic anion, represent an emergent class of nonvolatile liquid electrolytes suitable for lithium-based electrochemical energy storage. In this report, solid-state, flexible solvate ionogel electrolytes are synthesized via UV-initiated free radical polymerization/cross-linking of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) in situ within the [Li(G4)][TFSI] electrolyte, which is formed by an equimolar mixture of lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and tetraglyme (G4)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Anna Bitner-Michalska, Gene M Nolis, Grażyna Żukowska, Aldona Zalewska, Marcin Poterała, Tomasz Trzeciak, Maciej Dranka, Michał Kalita, Piotr Jankowski, Leszek Niedzicki, Janusz Zachara, Marek Marcinek, Władysław Wieczorek
A new family of fluorine-free solid-polymer electrolytes, for use in sodium-ion battery applications, is presented. Three novel sodium salts withdiffuse negative charges: sodium pentacyanopropenide (NaPCPI), sodium 2,3,4,5-tetracyanopirolate (NaTCP) and sodium 2,4,5-tricyanoimidazolate (NaTIM) were designed andtested in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrix as polymer electrolytes for anall-solid sodium-ion battery. Due to unique, non-covalent structural configurations of anions, improved ionic conductivities were observed...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xinrong Lin, Jennifer Chapman Varela, Mark W Grinstaff
The chemical instability of the traditional electrolyte remains a safety issue in widely used energy storage devices such as Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries for use in devices operating at elevated temperatures require thermally stable and non-flammable electrolytes. Ionic liquids (ILs), which are non-flammable, non-volatile, thermally stable molten salts, are an ideal replacement for flammable and low boiling point organic solvent electrolytes currently used today. We herein describe the procedures to: 1) synthesize mono- and di-phosphonium ionic liquids paired with chloride or bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (TFSI) anions; 2) measure the thermal properties and stability of these ionic liquids by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA); 3) measure the electrochemical properties of the ionic liquids by cyclic voltammetry (CV); 4) prepare electrolytes containing lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide; 5) measure the conductivity of the electrolytes as a function of temperature; 6) assemble a coin cell battery with two of the electrolytes along with a Li metal anode and LiCoO2 cathode; and 7) evaluate battery performance at 100 °C...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chunrui Ma, Rongtao Lu, Guangliang Hu, Jinsheng Han, Ming Liu, Jun Li, Judy Wu
Graphene was inserted into the interface between electric dipole layers from DEME-TFSI ionic liquid (top-gate) and ferroelectric Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT, back-gate) to probe the interface dipole-dipole interaction in response to DC and pulsed gate voltages. A highly complicated behavior of the interface dipole-dipole interaction has been revealed as a combination of electrostatic and electrochemical effects. The interfacial polar molecules in the DEME-TFSI electrical double layer are pinned with assistance from the PLZT back-gate in response to a DC top-gate pump, leading to strong nonlinear electrochemical behavior...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Frederic Aguesse, William Manalastas, Lucienne Buannic, Juan Miguel Lopez Del Amo, Gurpreet Singh, Anna Llordes, John A Kilner
All-solid-state batteries including a garnet ceramic as electrolyte are potential candidates to replace the currently used Li-ion technology as they offer safer operation and higher energy storage performances. However, the development of ceramic electrolyte batteries faces several challenges at the electrode / electrolyte interfaces, which need to withstand high current densities to enable competing C-rates. In this work, we investigate the limits of the anode / electrolyte interface in a full cell that includes a Li metal anode, LiFePO4 cathode and a garnet ceramic electrolyte...
January 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tyler Evans, Daniela Molina Piper, Huaxing Sun, Timothy Porcelli, Seul Cham Kim, Sang Sub Han, Yong Seok Choi, Chixia Tian, Dennis Nordlund, Marca M Doeff, Chunmei Ban, Sung-Jin Cho, Kyu Hwan Oh, Se-Hee Lee
The first-ever demonstration of stabilized Si/lithium-manganese-rich full cells, capable of retaining >90% energy over early cycling and >90% capacity over more than 750 cycles at the 1C rate (100% depth-of-discharge), is made through the utilization of a modified ionic liquid electrolyte capable of forming a favorable cathode-electrolyte interface.
January 5, 2017: Advanced Materials
Fei Chen, Yongyuan Ren, Jiangna Guo, Feng Yan
Thermo- and electro-dual responsive poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) based electrolytes were synthesized by co-polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) with (or without) 3-butyl-1-vinyl-imidazolium bromide ([BVIm][Br]) using diallyl-viologen (DAV) as both the cross-linking agent and electrochromic material.
January 5, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Susanne Sihler, Ulrich Ziener
Water-soluble organic dyes like fluorescein are widely used, mainly for coloration of e.g. biological samples, groundwater tracing etc., and they are not obviously amphiphilic by molecular structure like surfactants. Here, we show that the dyes alone stabilize oil-in-water emulsions. Exemplarily, fluorescein is compared with the classical surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by means of surface/interfacial tension, concentration of stabilizer and electrolyte as well as pH. The principle can be extended to further classes of water-soluble dyes, which keep up with or exceed SDS by efficiency...
January 4, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Shiguo Zhang, Jiaheng Zhang, Yan Zhang, Youquan Deng
Ionic liquids (ILs) have been widely investigated as novel solvents, electrolytes, and soft functional materials. Nevertheless, the widespread applications of ILs in most cases have been hampered by their liquid state. The confinement of ILs into nanoporous hosts is a simple but versatile strategy to overcome this problem. Nanoconfined ILs constitute a new class of composites with the intrinsic chemistries of ILs and the original functions of solid matrices. The interplay between these two components, particularly the confinement effect and the interactions between ILs and pore walls, further endows ILs with significantly distinct physicochemical properties in the restricted space compared to the corresponding bulk systems...
December 29, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Ming Liu, Yuxun Ren, Dong Zhou, Haoran Jiang, Feiyu Kang, Tianshou Zhao
The low density associated with low sulfur areal loading in the solid-state sulfur cathode of current Li-S batteries is an issue hindering the development of this type of battery. Polysulfide catholyte as a recyclable liquid fuel was proven to enhance both the energy density and power density of the battery. However, a critical barrier with this lithium (Li)/polysulfide battery is that the shuttle effect, which is the crossover of polysulfides and side deposition on the Li anode, becomes much more severe than that in conventional Li-S batteries with a solid-state sulfur cathode...
January 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wei Liu, Dingchang Lin, Jie Sun, Guangmin Zhou, Yi Cui
Solid Li-ion electrolytes used in all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are being considered to replace conventional liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability, and poor chemical stability issues, which represents one major challenge and opportunity for next-generation high-energy-density batteries. However, the low mobility of lithium ions in solid electrolytes limits their practical applications. Here, we report a solid composite polymer electrolyte with Y2O3-doped ZrO2 (YSZ) nanowires that are enriched with positive-charged oxygen vacancies...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
Mei Qi Chui, Lee Yien Thang, Hong Heng See
A new approach based on the integration of the free liquid membrane (FLM) into electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) was demonstrated to be a new powerful tool used in order to enhance online preconcentration efficiency in capillary electrophoresis (CE). A small plug of water immiscible organic solvent was used as a membrane interface during the electrokinetic sample injection step in EKS in order to significantly enhance the analyte stacking efficiency. The new online preconcentration strategy was evaluated for the determination of paraquat and diquat present in the environmental water samples...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Hongduo Lu, Bin Li, Sture Nordholm, Clifford E Woodward, Jan Forsman
An asymmetric restricted primitive model (ARPM) of electrolytes is proposed as a simple three parameter (charge q, diameter d, and charge displacement b) model of ionic liquids and solutions. Charge displacement allows electrostatic and steric interactions to operate between different centres, so that orientational correlations arise in ion-ion interactions. In this way the ionic system may have partly the character of a simple ionic fluid/solid and of a polar fluid formed from ion pairs. The present exploration of the system focuses on the ion pair formation mechanism, the relative concentration of paired and free ions and the consequences for the cohesive energy, and the tendency to form fluid or solid phase...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Thomas Kadyk, David Bruce, Michael Eikerling
This article presents a structure-based modeling approach to optimize gas evolution at an electrolyte-flooded porous electrode. By providing hydrophobic islands as preferential nucleation sites on the surface of the electrode, it is possible to nucleate and grow bubbles outside of the pore space, facilitating their release into the electrolyte. Bubbles that grow at preferential nucleation sites act as a sink for dissolved gas produced in electrode reactions, effectively suctioning it from the electrolyte-filled pores...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marc Steichen, João C Malaquias, Monika Arasimowicz, Rabie Djemour, Neil R Brooks, Luc Van Meervelt, Jan Fransaer, Koen Binnemans, Phillip J Dale
Cu2ZnSnSe4-based solar cells with 5.5% power conversion efficiency were fabricated from Cu/Sn/Zn stacks electrodeposited from liquid metal salts. These electrolytes allow metal deposition rates one order of magnitude higher than those of other deposition methods.
December 23, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Le Shi, Ao Xu, Tianshou Zhao
An issue with the use of metallic lithium as an anode material for lithium-based batteries is dendrite growth, causing a periodic breaking and repair of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Adding 2D atomic crystals, such as h-BN, as an interfacial layer between the lithium metal anode and liquid electrolyte has been demonstrated to be effective to mitigate dendrite growth, thereby enhancing the Columbic efficiency of lithium metal batteries. But the underlying mechanism leading to the reduced dendrite growth remains unknown...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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