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liquid and electrolytes

Ulderico Ulissi, Giuseppe Antonio Elia, Sangsik Jeong, Jakub Reiter, Nikolaos Tsiouvaras, Stefano Passerini, Jusef Hassoun
We report herein cathode configurations alternative to the most diffused ones for application in lithium-oxygen batteries using an ionic liquid-based electrolyte. The electrodes employ high surface area conductive carbon as the reaction host and polytetrafluoroethylene as the binding agent to enhance ORR/OER reversibility. Roll-pressed, self-standing electrodes (SSEs) and thinner, spray deposited electrodes (SDEs) are characterized in lithium-oxygen cells using an ionic liquid (IL) based electrolyte formed by mixing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt in N,N-diethyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)-N-methylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (DEMETFSI)...
December 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jie Yu, Zhichao Zhang, Quanfang Lu, Duixiong Sun, Shuwen Zhu, Xiaomin Zhang, Xing Wang, Wu Yang
An atomic emission spectrometer (AES) based on a novel atmospheric pressure liquid cathode glow discharge (LCGD) as one of the most promising miniaturized excitation sources has been developed, in which the glow discharge is produced between a needle-like Pt anode and the electrolyte (as cathode) overflowing from a quartz capillary. Lower energy consumption (<50 W) and higher excitation efficiency can be realized by point discharge of the needle-like Pt. The miniaturized LCGD seems particularly well suited to rapid and high-sensitivity determination of K, Ca, Na, and Mg in salt mines samples...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Andreas Ermantraut, Valentin Radtke, Niklas Gebel, Daniel Himmel, Thorsten Koslowski, Ivo Leito, Ingo Krossing
An important intermediate goal to evaluate our concept for the assumption-free determination of single ion Gibbs transfer energies ΔtrG°(i, S1 > S2) is presented: We executed the crucial steps a) and b) of the methodology, described in Part I of this treatise, exemplarily for Ag+ and Cl- with S1 being water and S2 being acetonitrile. The experiments showed that virtually all parts of the liquid junction potentials (LJPs) at both ends of a salt bridge cancel, if the bridge electrolyte is an "ideal" ionic liquid - one with nearly identical diffusion of anion and cation...
December 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Masaaki Sadakiyo, Shinichi Hata, Xuedong Cui, Miho Yamauchi
A liquid flow-type electrolyser that continuously produces an alcohol from a carboxylic acid was constructed by employing a polymer electrolyte, named a polymer electrolyte alcohol electrosynthesis cell (PEAEC). Glycolic acid (GC, an alcoholic compound) is generated on anatase TiO2 catalysts via four-electron reduction of oxalic acid (OX, a divalent carboxylic acid), accompanied with water oxidation, which achieves continuous electric power storage in easily stored GC. Porous anatase TiO2 directly grown on Ti mesh (TiO2/Ti-M) or Ti felt (TiO2/Ti-F) was newly fabricated as a cathode having favourable substrate diffusivity...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jochen Friedl, Maria A Lebedeva, Kyriakos Porfyrakis, Ulrich Stimming, Thomas W Chamberlain
Redox flow batteries have the potential to revolutionize our use of intermittent sustainable energy sources such as solar and wind power by storing the energy in liquid electrolytes. Our concept study utilizes a novel electrolyte system, exploiting derivatised fullerenes as both anolyte and catholyte species in a series of battery cells, including a symmetric, single species system which alleviates the common problem of membrane crossover. The prototype multi electron system, utilizing molecular based charge carriers, made from inexpensive, abundant and sustainable materials, principally, C and Fe, demonstrates remarkable current and energy densities and promising long-term cycling stability...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Akhilesh Babu Ganganboina, Ankan Dutta Chowdhury, Ruey-An Doong
The development of fast-response sensing technique for detection of cysteine can provide an analytical platform for pre-screening of disease. Herein, we have developed a fluorescence turn off-on fluorescence sensing platform by combining nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQD) with V2O5 nanosheets for the sensitive and selective detection of cysteine in human serum samples. V2O5 nanosheets with 2 - 4 layers are successfully synthesized via a simple and scalable liquid exfoliation method and then deposited with 2 - 8 nm of N-GQDs as the fluorescence turn off-on nanoprobe for effective detection of cysteine in human serum samples...
December 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shuya Wei, Snehashis Choudhury, Zhengyuan Tu, Kaihang Zhang, Lynden A Archer
Stable electrochemical interphases play a critical role in regulating transport of mass and charge in all electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems. In state-of-the-art rechargeable lithium ion batteries, they are rarely formed by design but instead spontaneously emerge from electrochemical degradation of electrolyte and electrode components. High-energy secondary batteries that utilize reactive metal anodes (e.g., Li, Na, Si, Sn, Al) to store large amounts of charge by alloying and/or electrodeposition reactions introduce fundamental challenges that require rational design in order to stabilize the interphases...
December 11, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Faqian Sun, KeKe Xiao, Wenyu Zhu, Nipuna Withanage, Yan Zhou
In this study, nitrite was added into sludge during freezing process to evaluate its role in waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization and effect on sludge dewatering characteristics. The results showed that the introduction of 100 mg L-1 of nitrite could increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration from 29.5 to 48.8 mg DOC g-1 VSS under freezing conditions. More DOC was released with the increase of nitrite concentration. Freezing temperature, or freezing speed, also played a role in sludge solubilization...
November 30, 2017: Water Research
Nir Gavish, Doron Elad, Arik Yochelis
The increasing number of experimental observations on highly concentrated electrolytes and ionic liquids show qualitative features that are distinct from dilute or moderately concentrated electrolytes, such as self-assembly, multiple-time relaxation, and under-screening, which all impact the emergence of fluid/solid interfaces, and transport in these systems. Since these phenomena are not captured by existing mean field models of electrolytes, there is a paramount need for a continuum framework for highly concentrated electrolytes and ionic liquids...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jun Young Cheong, Joon Ha Chang, Sung Joo Kim, Chanhoon Kim, Hyeon Kook Seo, Jae Won Shin, Jong Min Yuk, Jeong Yong Lee, Il-Doo Kim
We trace Sn nanoparticles (NPs) produced from SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) during lithiation initialized by high energy e-beam irradiation. The growth dynamics of Sn NPs is visualized in liquid electrolytes by graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. The observation reveals that Sn NPs grow on the surface of SnO2 NTs via coalescence and the final shape of agglomerated NPs is governed by surface energy of the Sn NPs and the interfacial energy between Sn NPs and SnO2 NTs. Our result will likely benefit more rational material design of the ideal interface for facile ion insertion...
December 8, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Sang Min Park, Seongsu Eom, Wonkyoung Kim, Dong Sung Kim
Liquid collectors are applicable as ground collectors in electrospinning, which fabricates complex nanofiber architectures. However, the influence of the electrical properties of liquid collectors on the controlled deposition of electrospun nanofiber mats has received little attention. Here we prepare two types of liquid collectors (electrolyte solutions and dielectric liquids) and newly scrutinize their roles in the patterning of electrospun nanofiber mats in experiments and numerical simulations. By simulating the concentrations of the electric fields around the liquid collectors, we indirectly evaluated the patternability of the collectors...
December 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Kui Xu, Zifeng Lin, Céline Merlet, Pierre-Louis Taberna, Ling Miao, Jianjun Jiang, Patrice Simon
We present a molecular dynamics simulation study achieved on two-dimensional (2D) Ti3C2Tx MXenes in an [EMIM]+[TFSI]- ionic liquid electrolyte. Our simulations reproduce the different patterns of volumetric change observed experimentally for both the negative and positive electrodes. The analysis of ionic fluxes and structure rearrangements in the 2D material provide an atomic scale insight into the charge and discharge processes in the layer pore and confirm the existence of two different charge storage mechanisms at the negative and positive electrodes...
December 6, 2017: ChemSusChem
Jian Pan, Houpu Li, Hao Sun, Ye Zhang, Lie Wang, Meng Liao, Xuemei Sun, Huisheng Peng
Driven by the increasing requirements for energy supply in both modern life and the automobile industry, the lithium-air battery serves as a promising candidate due to its high energy density. However, organic solvents in electrolytes are likely to rapidly vaporize and form flammable gases under increasing temperatures. In this case, serious safety problems may occur and cause great harm to people. Therefore, a kind of lithium-air that can work stably under high temperature is desirable. Herein, through the use of an ionic liquid and aligned carbon nanotubes, and a fiber shaped design, a new type of lithium-air battery that can effectively work at high temperatures up to 140 °C is developed...
December 4, 2017: Small
Daniel A Smith, Lucy J Newbury, Guido Drago, Timothy Bowen, James E Redman
Altered serum and plasma microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have been observed in numerous human diseases, with a number of studies describing circulating miRNA biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment, and recruitment to clinical trials for miRNA-based drug therapy already underway. Electrochemical detection of biomarkers in urine has several significant advantages over circulating biomarker analysis including safety, cost, speed and ease of conversion to the point of care environment...
December 2017: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
Pieter Geysens, Vijay Shankar Rangasamy, Savitha Thayumanasundaram, Koen Robeyns, Luc Van Meervelt, Jean-Pierre Locquet, Jan Fransaer, Koen Binnemans
Electrolytes consisting of sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (NaFSI) dissolved in glymes (monoglyme, diglyme and triglyme) were characterized by FT-Raman spectroscopy and 13C, 17O and 23Na NMR spectroscopy. The glyme:NaFSI molar ratio was varied from 50:1 to 1:1 and it was observed that in the dilute electrolytes, the sodium salt is completely dissociated into solvent separated ion pairs (SSIPs). However, contact ion pairs (CIPs) and aggregates (AGGs) become the predominant species in more concentrated solutions...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Kadi L Saar, Yingbo Zhang, Thomas Müller, Challa P Kumar, Sean Devenish, Andrew Lynn, Urszula Łapińska, Xiaoting Yang, Sara Linse, Tuomas P J Knowles
The ability to apply highly controlled electric fields within microfluidic devices is valuable as a basis for preparative and analytical processes. A challenge encountered in the context of such approaches in conductive media, including aqueous buffers, is the generation of electrolysis products at the electrode/liquid interface which can lead to contamination, perturb fluid flows and generally interfere with the measurement process. Here, we address this challenge by designing a single layer microfluidic device architecture where the electric potential is applied outside and downstream of the microfluidic device while the field is propagated back to the chip via the use of a co-flowing highly conductive electrolyte solution that forms a stable interface at the separation region of the device...
December 1, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Farheen Sayed, Marco-Tulio F Rodrigues, Kaushik Kalaga, Hemtej Gullapalli, Pulickel M Ajayan
In the evaluation of compatibility of different components of electrochemical cells for high energy and extreme conditions energy storage applications, positive and negative electrodes and their interaction with electrolyte assume importance. However, for high temperature application, the other components in the cell are also of significant influence and contributes towards the total health of the device such as a Li-ion battery. In the present study, we have investigated the behavior of aluminum, the most common current collector used for positive electrode materials in Li-ion battery for its electrochemical and temperature stability...
November 28, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Faiz Ullah Shah, Oleg I Gnezdilov, Rashi Gusain, Andrei Filippov
Ion transport behaviour of halogen-free hybrid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries based on phosphonium bis(salicylato)borate [P4,4,4,8][BScB] ionic liquid mixed with diethylene glycol dibutyl ether (DEGDBE) is investigated. The Li[BScB] salt is dissolved at different concentrations in the range from 0.15 mol kg-1 to 1.0 mol kg-1 in a mixture of [P4,4,4,8][BScB] and DEGDBE in 1:5 molar ratio. The ion transport properties of the resulting electrolytes are investigated using viscosity, electrical impedance spectroscopy and pulsed-Field Gradient (PFG) NMR...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mihail T Georgiev, Krassimir D Danov, Peter A Kralchevsky, Theodor D Gurkov, Denitsa P Krusteva, Luben N Arnaudov, Simeon D Stoyanov, Eddie G Pelan
HYPOTHESIS: Particle/water/oil three-phase capillary suspensions possess the remarkable property to solidify upon the addition of minimal amount of the second (dispersed) liquid. The hardening of these suspensions is due to capillary bridges, which interconnect the particles (pendular state). Electrostatic repulsion across the oily phase, where Debye screening by electrolyte is missing, could also influence the hardness of these suspensions. EXPERIMENTS: We present data for oil-continuous suspensions with aqueous capillary bridges between hydrophilic SiO2 particles at particle volume fractions 35-45%...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ziqi Wang, Rui Tan, Hongbin Wang, Luyi Yang, Jiangtao Hu, Haibiao Chen, Feng Pan
Solid-state batteries (SSBs) are promising for safer energy storage, but their active loading and energy density have been limited by large interfacial impedance caused by the poor Li+ transport kinetics between the solid-state electrolyte and the electrode materials. To address the interfacial issue and achieve higher energy density, herein, a novel solid-like electrolyte (SLE) based on ionic-liquid-impregnated metal-organic framework nanocrystals (Li-IL@MOF) is reported, which demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties, including a high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3...
November 27, 2017: Advanced Materials
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