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Intestinal trophic stimulation

Christopher J Berg, Jonathan D Kaunitz
The ability of humans to sense chemical signals in ingested substances is implicit in the ability to detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Of these, sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are detected by lingual G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, these receptors were also localized to the gut mucosa. In this review, we will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of foregut luminal chemosensing, with special emphasis on cell surface GPCRs such as the sweet and proteinaceous taste receptors (TASRs), short- and long-chain fatty acid (FA) receptors, and bile acid receptors...
2016: F1000Research
Arved Weimann, Thomas W Felbinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of enteral nutrition on gastrointestinal dysmotility in the critically ill remains controversial. RECENT FINDINGS: The mechanisms of gastrointestinal dysmotility during critical illness remain poorly investigated. Low amounts of enteral feeding stimulate motility and have trophic effects. Therefore, enteral feeding is feasible even during gastrointestinal dysmotility as seen in the hemodynamically compromised patient. Rapid 'ramp-up' of administration rate of tube feeding bears the risk of overload and even detrimental ischemic bowel necrosis...
June 23, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Carl Frederik Hansen, Thomas Thymann, Anders Daniel Andersen, Jens Juul Holst, Bolette Hartmann, Linda Hilsted, Louise Langhorn, Jacob Jelsing, Per Torp Sangild
Preterm infants often tolerate full enteral nutrition a few weeks after birth but it is not known how this is related to gut maturation. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that intestinal structure and digestive function are similar in preterm and term individuals at 3-4 wk after birth and that early enteral nutrition promotes maturation. Preterm or term cesarean-delivered pigs were fed total parenteral nutrition, or partial enteral nutrition [Enteral (Ent), 16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1) of bovine colostrum] for 5 days, followed by full enteral milk feeding until day 26 The intestine was collected for histological and biochemical analyses at days 0, 5, and 26 (n = 8-12 in each of 10 treatment groups)...
April 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
David W Lim, Paul W Wales, Justine M Turner, David L Bigam, Patricia L Brubaker
INTRODUCTION: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) occurs more commonly in human neonates than in adults. There are currently no approved therapeutic agents aimed directly at stimulating intestinal adaptation in this population. AREAS COVERED: A brief review of SBS and intestinal adaptation is first presented. We then present candidate peptide growth factors that are suggested to augment intestinal adaptation in SBS, with a particular focus on glucagon-like peptide-2, as well as insulin-like growth factor-1 and epidermal growth factor...
July 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Laurianne Van Landeghem, M Agostina Santoro, Amanda T Mah, Adrienne E Krebs, Jeffrey J Dehmer, Kirk K McNaughton, Michael A Helmrath, Scott T Magness, P Kay Lund
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has potent trophic effects on normal or injured intestinal epithelium, but specific effects on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are undefined. We used Sox9-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter mice that permit analyses of both actively cycling ISCs (Sox9-EGFP(Low)) and reserve/facultative ISCs (Sox9-EGFP(High)) to study IGF1 action on ISCs in normal intestine or during crypt regeneration after high-dose radiation-induced injury. We hypothesized that IGF1 differentially regulates proliferation and gene expression in actively cycling and reserve/facultative ISCs...
July 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Floriane Baraille, Sami Ayari, Véronique Carrière, Céline Osinski, Kevin Garbin, Bertrand Blondeau, Ghislaine Guillemain, Patricia Serradas, Monique Rousset, Michel Lacasa, Philippe Cardot, Agnès Ribeiro
Intestine contributes to energy homeostasis through the absorption, metabolism, and transfer of nutrients to the organism. We demonstrated previously that hepatocyte nuclear receptor-4α (HNF-4α) controls intestinal epithelium homeostasis and intestinal absorption of dietary lipids. HNF-4γ, the other HNF-4 form highly expressed in intestine, is much less studied. In HNF-4γ knockout mice, we detect an exaggerated insulin peak and improvement in glucose tolerance during oral but not intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, highlighting the involvement of intestine...
August 2015: Diabetes
Igor Sukhotnik, Alona Starikov, Arnold G Coran, Yulia Pollak, Rima Sohotnik, Ron Shaoul
BACKGROUND: The positive effects of ozone therapy have been described in many gastrointestinal disorders. The mechanisms of this positive effect of ozone therapy are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the use of ozone may potentiate the gut intestinal mucosal homeostasis in a rat model. METHODS: Adult rats weighing 250-280 g were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups of 8 rats each: 1) Control rats were given 2 mL of water by gavage and intraperitoneally (IP) for 5 days; 2) O3-PO rats were treated with 2 mL of ozone/oxygen mixture by gavage and 2 mL of water IP for 5 days; 3) O3-IP rats were treated with 2 mL of water by gavage and 2 mL of ozone/oxygen mixture IP for 5 days...
January 2015: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Yang Cao, Xun Cao, Xiao-Min Liu
Gastrin is a gastrointestinal hormone secreted by G cells. Hypergastrinemia can improve blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. These positive effects are primarily due to the trophic effects of gastrin on β-cells. In recent years, many receptors that regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) have been identified in enteroendocrine L cell lines. This led us to hypothesize that, in addition to the trophic effects of gastrin on β-cells, L cells also express cholecystokinin2-receptor (CCK2R), which may regulate GLP-1 secretion and have synergistic effects on glucose homeostasis...
March 2015: Acta Histochemica
Loren Pickart, Jessica Michelle Vasquez-Soltero, Anna Margolina
During human aging there is an increase in the activity of inflammatory, cancer promoting, and tissue destructive genes plus a decrease in the activity of regenerative and reparative genes. The human blood tripeptide GHK possesses many positive effects but declines with age. It improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, and boney tissue), increases collagen and glycosaminoglycans, stimulates synthesis of decorin, increases angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells...
2014: BioMed Research International
Allan Walker
Initial bacterial colonization of the gut is a vital component of the development of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly mucosal immune protection, during the neonatal period. Newborn infants in their protected intrauterine environment are suddenly thrust into a highly contaminated extrauterine state. Although mucosal host defenses have developed in utero during fetal maturation because of the stimulation of ingested trophic factors in amniotic fluid, actual active protection only occurs when colonizing bacteria stimulate the gut mucosal barrier...
November 2014: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Kelly A Tappenden
Intestinal adaptation is a natural compensatory process that occurs following extensive intestinal resection, whereby structural and functional changes in the intestine improve nutrient and fluid absorption in the remnant bowel. In animal studies, postresection structural adaptations include bowel lengthening and thickening and increases in villus height and crypt depth. Functional changes include increased nutrient transporter expression, accelerated crypt cell differentiation, and slowed transit time. In adult humans, data regarding adaptive changes are sparse, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain to be fully elucidated...
May 2014: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
V M Bondarenko, E V Riabichenko
Mutually directed connections between intestine and brain are implemented by endocrine, neural and immune systems and nonspecific natural immunity. Intestine micro flora as an active participant of intestine-brain axis not only influences intestine functions but also stimulates the development of CNS in perinatal period and interacts with higher nervous centers causing depression and cognitive disorders in pathology. A special role belongs to intestine microglia. Apart from mechanic (protective) and trophic functions for intestine neurons, glia implements neurotransmitter, immunologic, barrier and motoric functions in the intestine...
March 2013: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
Elaine de Heuvel, Laurie Wallace, Keith A Sharkey, David L Sigalet
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an enteroendocrine hormone trophic for intestinal mucosa; it has been shown to increase enteric neuronal expression of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in vivo. We hypothesized that GLP-2 would regulate VIP expression in enteric neurons via a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-γ (PI3Kγ) pathway. The mechanism of action of GLP-2 was investigated using primary cultures derived from the submucosal plexus (SMP) of the rat and mouse colon. GLP-2 (10(-8) M) stimulation for 24 h increased the proportion of enteric neurons expressing VIP (GLP-2: 40 ± 6% vs...
October 15, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Brian D Gulbransen, Keith A Sharkey
Enteric glia are a unique class of peripheral glial cells within the gastrointestinal tract. Major populations of enteric glia are found in enteric ganglia in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses of the enteric nervous system (ENS); these cells are also found outside of the ENS, within the circular muscle and in the lamina propria of the mucosa. These different populations of cells probably represent unique classes of glial cells with differing functions. In the past few years, enteric glia have been found to be involved in almost every gut function including motility, mucosal secretion and host defence...
November 2012: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Yalin Liao, Rulan Jiang, Bo Lönnerdal
Postnatal modeling of the intestinal epithelium has long-term impacts on the healthy development of infants and relies largely on nutrient composition of the diet. Lactoferrin (Lf) is among the various human milk trophic factors that facilitate the infant intestinal adaptation. Hydrolysis of Lf is minimal at the prevailing postprandial pH of infants, and Lf may therefore have greater biological potential in infants than in adults. Lf bidirectionally stimulates concentration-dependent proliferation and differentiation of small intestinal epithelial cells, and therefore affects small intestinal mass, length, and epithelial digestive enzyme expression...
June 2012: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
P Guilloteau, L Martin, V Eeckhaut, R Ducatelle, R Zabielski, F Van Immerseel
Butyrate is a natural substance present in biological liquids and tissues. The present paper aims to give an update on the biological role of butyrate in mammals, when it is naturally produced by the gastrointestinal microbiota or orally ingested as a feed additive. Recent data concerning butyrate production delivery as well as absorption by the colonocytes are reported. Butyrate cannot be detected in the peripheral blood, which indicates fast metabolism in the gut wall and/or in the liver. In physiological conditions, the increase in performance in animals could be explained by the increased nutrient digestibility, the stimulation of the digestive enzyme secretions, a modification of intestinal luminal microbiota and an improvement of the epithelial integrity and defence systems...
December 2010: Nutrition Research Reviews
E Im, C Pothoulakis
This review summarizes the probiotic mechanisms of action of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) against inflammatory and non-inflammatory diarrheal conditions. S. boulardii is distributed in lyophilized form in many countries and used for the prevention of diarrhea in children and adults, including Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) associated infection. The main mechanisms of action of S. boulardii include inhibition of activities of bacterial pathogenic products, trophic effects on the intestinal mucosa, as well as modification of host signaling pathways involved in inflammatory and non-inflammatory intestinal diseases...
September 2010: Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique
Wolfgang H Hartl, David H Alpers
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We reviewed the literature that has specifically investigated the effects of nutritional support on the preservation of small bowel mucosal mass in humans or large mammals. METHODS: We searched various databases (up to March 2009) for experimental studies which addressed intestinal protein metabolism of living organisms (humans or large mammals). RESULTS: In adults, luminal proteins are of central importance for maintaining the intestinal protein content most likely by stimulating protein synthesis...
February 2011: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Esmaeel Taqi, Laurie E Wallace, Elaine de Heuvel, Prasanth K Chelikani, Huiyuan Zheng, Hans-Rudolph Berthoud, Jens J Holst, David L Sigalet
PURPOSE: The signals that govern the upregulation of nutrient absorption (adaptation) after intestinal resection are not well understood. A Gastric Roux-en-Y bypass (GRYB) model was used to isolate the relative contributions of direct mucosal stimulation by nutrients, biliary-pancreatic secretions, and systemic enteric hormones on intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. METHODS: Male rats (350-400 g; n = 8/group) underwent sham or GRYB with pair feeding and were observed for 14 days...
May 2010: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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