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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730659/myxedema-coma-due-to-hashimoto-thyroiditis-a-rare-but-real-presentation-of-failure-to-thrive-in-infancy
#1
Ryan A Heksch, Rohan K Henry
BACKGROUND: Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is uncommon in infancy, and myxedema coma (MC) is even less common. While prior reports have documented these entities separately, to our knowledge, MC in combination with HT has not been reported before in this age group. METHODS/RESULTS: A 10-month-old female presented with ptosis, lethargy, dysphagia, and failure to thrive (FTT). She developed hypotension, bradycardia, hypothermia, and apnea requiring intubation. Initial thyroid-stimulating hormone was 422 μIU/mL, and free thyroxine was < 0...
May 4, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693950/history-of-tracheal-intubation-5-use-for-resuscitation-in-neonates
#2
Takashi Asai
In the 18th century, tracheal intubation was introduced to clinical practice, mainly in patients with airway obstruction in children due to diphtheria, and in patients who were apparently dead. In this article, I describe the fourth reason for tracheal intubation :a newborn with apnea. Until the mid-18th century, delivery was performed only by midwives, and mouth-to-mouth resuscitation was "secretly" performed by them (midwives' secret). In the mid-18th century, obstetricians started to be involved in the delivery, and in 1750's, Benjamin Pugh (1715-1798) and William Smellie (1697-1763) might have intubated the tracheas of neonates with apnea Since 1790's, Paul Scheel (1773-1811), Frangois Chaussier (1746-1828), James Blundell (1791-1878)...
May 2017: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689584/bedside-ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-needle-aspiration-of-intra-and-extra-axial-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-neonates
#3
Mehmet N Cizmeci, Liesbeth Thewissen, Alexandra Zecic, Peter A Woerdeman, Bart de Boer, Edward Baert, Paul Govaert, Jeroen Dudink, Floris Groenendaal, Maarten Lequin, Linda S de Vries
Intracranial hemorrhage is an important cause of brain injury in the neonatal population and bedside percutaneous needle aspiration has emerged as an alternative due to the major risks that can be caused by standard neurosurgical decompression. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of this minimally invasive bedside technique and conducted a retrospective analysis of all newborn infants with a large extra-axial hemorrhage associated with a parenchymal hemorrhage causing a midline shift, managed at three academic centers over a 15-year period...
April 24, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677057/newborn-resuscitation-skills-in-health-care-providers-at-a-zambian-tertiary-center-and-comparison-to-world-health-organization-standards
#4
Sara C Mistry, Richard Lin, Hazel Mumphansha, Laura C Kettley, Janaki A Pearson, Sonia Akrimi, David J Mayne, Wonder Hangoma, M Dylan Bould
BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is a leading cause of early neonatal death. In 2013, 32% of neonatal deaths in Zambia were attributable to birth asphyxia and trauma. Basic, timely interventions are key to improving outcomes. However, data from the World Health Organization suggest that resuscitation is often not initiated, or is conducted suboptimally. Currently, there are little data on the quality of newborn resuscitation in the context of a tertiary center in a lower-middle income country...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546925/-diagnosis-of-respiratory-sleep-disorders-in-newborns-with-suspected-apneas-comparison-between-nocturnal-saturometry-and-polygraphy
#5
Daniel Zenteno, Aldo Bancalari, Ximena Navarro, Valentina Díaz, Iván Rodríguez-Núñez, Pablo Brockmann
INTRODUCTION: Night Continuous Saturometry (CSO2) is used in Neonatal Units to detect events of hypoxemia in Newborns (NB) with apnea episodes. Polygraphy (PG) has a larger number of measuring channels. Our goal was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CSO2 compared to Polygra phy in NB with suspected sleep apneas. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Results of CSO2 and PG performed simultaneously in RN with suspected apneas were retrospectively analyzed over a three-year period...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501318/epidemiological-trends-among-preterm-infants-with-apnea-a-twelve-year-database-review
#6
Elliot Regenbogen, Shouling Zhang, Jie Yang, Annie Shroyer, Chencan Zhu, Joseph DeCristofaro
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize trends in the diagnosis of apnea, associated comorbidities and complications, and 30-day readmission rates in preterm singleton infants. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study design was a retrospective, longitudinal, observational study. 2003-2014 New York State Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System and New York City Vital Statistics databases were merged identifying preterm live singleton births. Hospitalizations of preterm newborns with and without apnea were compared; multivariable logistic regression and log-linear Poisson regression models applied...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417440/caffeine-protects-against-anticonvulsant-induced-impaired-neurogenesis-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#7
Stefanie Endesfelder, Ulrike Weichelt, Cornelia Schiller, Katja Winter, Clarissa von Haefen, Christoph Bührer
In preterm infants, phenobarbital is the first-line antiepileptic drug for neonatal seizures while caffeine is used for the treatment of apnea. Data from experimental animals suggest that phenobarbital and other anticonvulsants are toxic for the developing brain, while neuroprotective effects have been reported for caffeine both in newborn rodents and preterm human infants. To characterize the interaction of phenobarbital and caffeine in the hippocampus of the developing rodent brain, we examined the effects of both drugs given separately or together on postnatal neurogenesis after administration to neonatal rats throughout postnatal day (P) 4 to P6...
February 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373331/the-physiology-of-neonatal-resuscitation
#8
Stuart B Hooper, Marcus J Kitchen, Graeme R Polglase, Charles C Roehr, Arjan B Te Pas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the infant's physiology changes dramatically after birth, modern neonatal resuscitation approaches should detect and be modified in response to these changes. This review describes the changes in respiratory physiology at birth and highlights approaches that can assist these changes. RECENT FINDINGS: To better target assistance given to infants at birth, the changes in lung physiology have been classified into three phases. The first phase involves lung aeration...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295636/caffeine-prevents-bilirubin-induced-cytotoxicity-in-cultured-newborn-rat-astrocytes
#9
Mehmet Deliktaş, Hacer Ergin, Aydın Demiray, Hakan Akça, Özmert M A Özdemir, Mehmet Bülent Özdemir
OBJECTIVE: Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) may cause neurotoxicity in preterm neonates due to immaturity of UGT1A1 leading to bilirubin accumulation in the brain. Caffeine used in the treatment of apnea of prematurity was reported to decrease mechanical ventilation requirement, the frequencies of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, cerebral palsy and neurodevelopmental disorders in very low birth weight infants. However, the effect of caffeine on hyperbilirubinemia was not yet clarified...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278628/perinatal-complications-in-two-cohort-groups-of-preterm-newborns-in-intensive-care-unit-for-children-s-diseases-of-university-clinical-hospital-mostar
#10
Vedran Bjelanović, Marjana Jerković Raguž, Matea Galić, Ana Čuljak, Ivana Bjelanović, Vajdana Tomić
AIM: To determine the frequency and type of complications in two cohort groups of preterm newborns. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The research involved 100 preterm newborns divided into two groups according to their gestational age: newborns from 24 to 33+6/7 weeks GA and newborns from 34 to 36+6/7 weeks GA. Parameters which were observed with mother were: age, number of births, course and complications in pregnancy. Parameters with infant: gestational age, weight, newborn small for gestational age (IUGR), asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, hyperbilirubinemia, apnea, anemia, intracranial hemorrhage and metabolic disorder (hypoglycaemia, hypocalcaemia)...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221695/sleep-disordered-breathing-among-newborns-with-myelomeningocele
#11
Renée A Shellhaas, Payal V Kenia, Fauziya Hassan, John D E Barks, Niko Kaciroti, Ronald D Chervin
In a matched cohort study, we report that the apnea-hypopnea index is significantly higher in neonates with myelomeningocele (34 ± 22) compared with age-matched controls (19 ± 11; P = .021). Assessment of newborns with myelomeningocele for sleep-disordered breathing may facilitate early treatment; the impact on long-term neurodevelopment is unknown.
March 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189671/neural-breathing-pattern-and-patient-ventilator-interaction-during-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-and-conventional-ventilation-in-newborns
#12
Pradeep V Mally, Jennifer Beck, Christer Sinderby, Martha Caprio, Sean M Bailey
OBJECTIVE: To compare neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and conventional ventilation on patient-ventilator interaction and neural breathing patterns, with a focus on central apnea in preterm infants. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cross-over study of intubated and ventilated newborns. Data were collected while infants were successively ventilated with three different ventilator conditions (30 min each period): 1) synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) combined with pressure support at the clinically prescribed, SIMV with baseline settings (SIMVBL), 2) neurally adjusted ventilatory assist, 3) same as SIMVBL, but with an adjustment of the inspiratory time of the mandatory breaths (SIMV with adjusted settings [SIMVADJ]) using feedback from the electrical activity of the diaphragm)...
January 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174411/gestational-intermittent-hypoxia-increases-susceptibility-to-neuroinflammation-and-alters-respiratory-motor-control-in-neonatal-rats
#13
REVIEW
Stephen M Johnson, Karanbir S Randhawa, Jenna J Epstein, Ellen Gustafson, Austin D Hocker, Adrianne G Huxtable, Tracy L Baker, Jyoti J Watters
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during pregnancy are growing health concerns because these conditions are associated with adverse outcomes for newborn infants. SDB/OSA during pregnancy exposes the mother and the fetus to intermittent hypoxia. Direct exposure of adults and neonates to IH causes neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis, and exposure to IH during gestation (GIH) causes long-term deficits in offspring respiratory function. However, the role of neuroinflammation in CNS respiratory control centers of GIH offspring has not been investigated...
November 22, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976322/medical-devices-for-pediatric-apnea-monitoring-and-therapy-past-and-new-trends
#14
Salvatore Andrea Pullano, Ifana Mahbub, Maria Giovanna Bianco, Samira Shamsir, Syed Kamrul Islam, Mark S Gaylord, Vichien Lorch, Antonino S Fiorillo
Apnea in the pediatric population is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in a large number of developed as well as developing countries. It is even more prominent in preterm newborn infants and is commonly referred to as apnea of prematurity. Its current diagnosis and therapy involve the use of traditional technologies, which often result in discomfort to the infants due to the use of invasive devices attached to their sensitive skin, especially in overnight clinical sleep analysis (for over a 12- or 24-h period)...
2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947027/skeletal-dysplasia-respiratory-management-during-infancy
#15
REVIEW
Deepthi Alapati, Thomas H Shaffer
BACKGROUND: Skeletal dysplasia encompasses a variety of developmental disorders of the bone and cartilage that manifest as disproportionate shortening of limbs and trunk in the neonate. Many types of skeletal dysplasia are complicated by respiratory failure at or soon after birth and require intensive care and prolonged hospitalization. Respiratory complications in these infants are complex and are characterized by airway anomalies, restrictive lung disease due to a narrow and abnormally compliant chest wall, pulmonary hypoplasia, and central apnea...
October 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926830/a-distinctive-ictal-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalography-pattern-in-newborns-with-neonatal-epilepsy-associated-with-kcnq2-mutations
#16
Ana Vilan, José Mendes Ribeiro, Pasquale Striano, Sarah Weckhuysen, Lauren C Weeke, Eva Brilstra, Linda S de Vries, Maria Roberta Cilio
BACKGROUND: Recurrent and prolonged seizures are harmful for the developing brain, emphasizing the importance of early seizure recognition and effective therapy. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) has become a valuable tool to diagnose epileptic seizures, and, in parallel, genetic etiologies are increasingly being recognized, changing the paradigm of the workup and management of neonatal seizures. OBJECTIVE: To report the ictal aEEG pattern in neonates with KCNQ2-related epilepsy...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802630/infantile-hypophosphatasia-combined-with-vitamin-b6-responsive-seizures-and-reticular-formation-lesions-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-case-report
#17
Mitsuharu Fukazawa, Junichiro Tezuka, Momoko Sasazuki, Natsuko Masumoto, Haruhisa Baba, Takehiko Doi, Yasushi Tsutsumi, Yuji Mizuno, Futoshi Mihara, Hideki Nakayama
BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by rachitic bone manifestations and a low serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level. It is caused by mutations in the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene, which encodes the tissue non-specific isozyme of ALP. HPP patients exhibit various presentations depending on their age at onset, such as infantile HPP combined with vitamin B6-responsive seizures. CASE PRESENTATION: A newborn with infantile HPP presented with tonic convulsions from day 5 after birth and received intravenous vitamin B6 (10mg/kg/day pyridoxal phosphate)...
February 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739361/gender-affects-long-term-neurological%C3%A2-outcome-of-neonates
#18
Amir Freud, Eyal Sheiner, Tamar Wainstock, Daniella Landau, Asnat Walfisch
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the possible association between fetal gender and long-term pediatric neurological morbidity. METHODS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort analysis comparing the risk of long-term neurological morbidity (up to age 18 years) of children born during the years 1991 to 2013 according to their gender. Neurological morbidity evaluated included hospitalizations in childhood involving pervasive developmental disorder, obstructive sleep apnea, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and infantile spasms and disorders of eating as recorded in the hospital files...
September 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707987/neonatal-caffeine-treatment-and-respiratory-function-at-11-years-in-children-under-1-251-g-at-birth
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lex W Doyle, Sarath Ranganathan, Jeanie L Y Cheong
RATIONALE: Caffeine in the newborn period shortens the duration of assisted ventilation and reduces the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but its effects on respiratory function in later childhood are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if children born with birth weight less than 1,251 g who were treated with neonatal caffeine had improved respiratory function at 11 years of age compared with children treated with placebo. METHODS: Children enrolled in the CAP (Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity) randomized controlled trial and assessed at the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne at 11 years of age had expiratory flow rates measured according to the standards of the American Thoracic Society...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689383/-apnea-of-prematurity-characteristic-and-treatment
#20
Aleksandra Goryniak, Angelika Szczęśniak, Daria Śleboda, Barbara Dołęgowska
Apnea of prematurity (AOP) can affect even 85-100% of premature newborns and is related to lack of full maturity of organs. AOP is manifesting by 15-20 seconds cessations of breathing accompanied by bradycardia and oxygen desaturation, what can lead to hypoxia or death. Therefore it is very important to implement the effective and safe treatment immediately after birth. Widely used caffeine citrate, which stimulates the respiratory system, improving the working of the respiratory muscles. However the metabolism of caffeine citrate is difficult in preterm infants due to the immaturity of the hepatic enzyme system, what can lead to the occurrence of side effects and toxicity...
2017: Postepy Biochemii
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