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Neonatal pneumonia etiology

Alexandre Boulos, Katherine Rand, Josh A Johnson, Jacqueline Gautier, Michael Koster
Infections (including sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and tetanus) stand as a major contributor to neonatal mortality in Haiti (22%). Infants acquire bacteria that cause neonatal sepsis directly from the mother's blood, skin or vaginal tract either before or during delivery. Nosocomial and environmental pathogens introduce further risk after delivery. The absence of cohesive medical systems and methods for collecting information limits the available data in countries such as Haiti. This study seeks to add more information on the burden of severe bacterial infections and their etiology in neonates of Haiti...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Feng Huang, Lianghua Lu, Wujun Jiang, Yongdong Yan, Wei Ji, Bin Yang, Shenglin Yu
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study was aimed to explore the epidemiological and clinical profiles of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in neonates. METHODS: From 2011 to 2014, 1322 hospitalized neonates with lower respiratory tract infections were screened for Mycoplasma pneumoniae by detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies using Serion ELISA classic Mycoplasma pneumoniae kits. RESULTS: Mycoplasma pneumoniae was identified in 89 (6.7%) patients...
July 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ewelina Gowin, Jacek Wysocki, Dirk Avonts, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Michal Michalak
INTRODUCTION: Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most frequent pathogens responsible for meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Aseptic meningitis is a disabling condition, but bacterial meningitis if left untreated is 100% fatal. The aim of the study was to analyze the usefulness of biochemical and hematological parameters in distinguishing between bacterial and non-bacterial meningitis in children with meningitis from a population with low rates of vaccination against S...
April 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
T Sreenivas, A R Nataraj, Anand Kumar, Jagdish Menon
PURPOSE: The study was conducted to evaluate clinical and microbiological profile of neonates with septic arthritis and also to assess changing epidemiology in the microbial etiology. METHODS: Twenty-nine neonates (1-28 days of life) presenting to the Department of Orthopaedics with acute septic arthritis were included in the study. This was a descriptive study, and the data were collected during the time of hospital admission. History and clinical examination of the neonates were taken, and diagnosis was made based on clinical and laboratory parameters...
July 2016: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Christian L Hermansen, Anand Mahajan
Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and delayed transition. Congenital heart defects, airway malformations, and inborn errors of metabolism are less common etiologies...
December 1, 2015: American Family Physician
Shamshul Ansari, Hari Prasad Nepal, Rajendra Gautam, Sony Shrestha, Puja Neopane, Moti Lal Chapagain
Introduction. Neonatal septicemia is defined as infection in the first 28 days of life. Early-onset neonatal septicemia and late-onset neonatal septicemia are defined as illnesses appearing from birth to three days and from four to twenty-eight days postnatally, respectively. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, blood samples from the suspected infants were collected and processed in the bacteriology laboratory. The growth was identified by standard microbiological protocol and the antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
2015: International Journal of Pediatrics
P I Mironov, V A Rudnov
UNLABELLED: The aim of the research was to reduce the risk ventilator-associated infections (VAI) in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: retrospective, observational, single center, historical control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 113 newborns were included in the study. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was diagnosed based on the criteria of VAP CDC/NNIS. Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis was determined on the basis of criteria of Code LRI-BRON proposed CDC National Healthcare Safety Network...
March 2015: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
Azadeh Farzin, Samir K Saha, Abdullah H Baqui, Yoonjoung Choi, Nawshad Uddin Ahmed, Eric A F Simoes, Shams El Arifeen, Hassan M Al-Emran, Sanwarul Bari, Syed M Rahman, Ishtiaq Mannan, Derrick Crook, Habibur Rahman Seraji, Nazma Begum, Robert E Black, Mathuram Santosham, Gary L Darmstadt
BACKGROUND: The etiology of >90% of cases of suspected neonatal infection remains unknown. We conducted community-based surveillance in conjunction with hospital-based surveillance in a rural region in Bangladesh from June 2006 to September 2007 to assess the incidence and etiology of community-acquired viral infections among neonates. METHODS: Community health workers (CHWs) assessed neonates at home on days 0, 2, 5 and 8 after birth and referred cases of suspected illness to the hospital (CHW surveillance)...
July 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jillian F Rork, Ahmad I Alomari, John B Mulliken, Steven J Fishman, Marilyn G Liang
Capillary malformation (CM) can be a "red flag" for several syndromic vascular anomalies. We identified a subset of patients with diffuse CM and fetal pleural effusion and documented the type of CM, the etiology of the pleural effusion, the potential syndromic diagnosis, and outcome. Patients with a history of CM and fetal pleural effusion were identified by searching the database of patients evaluated at the Vascular Anomalies Center at Boston Children's Hospital. Standardized patient interviews and a retrospective review of records, photographs, and imaging studies were conducted...
January 2015: Pediatric Dermatology
Stephanie D Kovacs, Kim Mullholland, Julia Bosch, Harry Campbell, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Ibrahim Khalil, Stephen Lim, Li Liu, Stephen N Maley, Colin D Mathers, Alastair Matheson, Ali H Mokdad, Kate O'Brien, Umesh Parashar, Torin T Schaafsma, Duncan Steele, Stephen E Hawes, John T Grove
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia and diarrhea are leading causes of death for children under five (U5). It is challenging to estimate the total number of deaths and cause-specific mortality fractions. Two major efforts, one led by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) and the other led by the World Health Organization (WHO)/Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) created estimates for the burden of disease due to these two syndromes, yet their estimates differed greatly for 2010...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Phan Le Thanh Huong, Pham Thu Hien, Nguyen Thi Phong Lan, Tran Quang Binh, Dao Minh Tuan, Dang Duc Anh
BACKGROUND: Atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila are increasingly recognized as important causes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) worldwide. Such etiological data for Vietnam is scarce and clinical doctors lack accurate information on which to base their diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia. This study identifies the prevalence and risk factors of severe community acquired pneumonia due to these atypical pathogens (severe-ApCAP) in children aged 1-15 years with CAP in a pediatric hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam...
2014: BMC Public Health
Jun Tashiro, Leopoldo Malvezzi, Ajay Kasi, Cathy A Burnweit
A 17-year-old girl presented with episodic vomiting associated with chest pain, a 20-pound weight loss over the past year, and multiple hospitalizations for pneumonia. She was bradycardic, cachectic (<3rd percentile), pale, and had anterior cervical lymphadenopathy. CT angiography suggested an obstructive vascular ring (formed by a right aortic arch with an aberrant left subclavian artery), diverticulum of Kommerell, and a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). She underwent left thoracotomy with ligation and division of the ligamentum arteriosum to relieve the vascular ring...
November 2014: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Maria Prośniewska, Jarosław Kalinka, Monika Bigos, Małgorzata Gołab-Lipińska
UNLABELLED: Since the 1950s, beta hemolytic streptococcus group B have constituted the major etiological factor of perinatal infections. GBS colonization of the genital tract among pregnant women is diagnosed between 35 and 37 weeks of gestation, and is associated with approximately 25% risk of neonatal early-onset infections (EOD). The infection is severe among 1-3% of the newborns, and usually results in sepsis or pneumonia. beta-lactam antibiotics are drugs of choice to prevent vertical infection of group B streptococcus...
September 2014: Ginekologia Polska
Milena M McLaughlin, Erik Skoglund, Zachary Pentoney, Marc H Scheetz
INTRODUCTION: The number of drug shortages in the United States has increased in recent years. While some literature exists on factors that contribute to antimicrobial shortages, the need remains to accurately gage the level of patient harm incurred as a result of realized antimicrobial shortages. Furthermore, current methods of reporting adverse drug events are known to under-report instances of patient harm. We sought to develop an ongoing and accurate method of reporting patient harm due to antimicrobial shortages, which was convenient, anonymous, and allowed clinicians to estimate the causality due to a shortage...
December 2014: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Jane Eire Urzedo, Maria Margarida Morena Domingos Levenhagen, Reginaldo Santos Pedroso, Vânia Olivetti Steffen Abdallah, Sebastiana Silva Sabino, Denise Von Dolinger Brito
INTRODUCTION: Surveillance of nosocomial infections (NIs) is an essential part of quality patient care; however, there are few reports of National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and none in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of NIs, causative organisms, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in a large cohort of neonates admitted to the NICU during a 16-year period. METHODS: The patients were followed 5 times per week from birth to discharge or death, and epidemiological surveillance was conducted according to the NHSN...
May 2014: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Masayoshi Shinjoh, Satoshi Iwata, Tatsuhiko Yagihashi, Yoshitake Sato, Hironobu Akita, Takao Takahashi, Keisuke Sunakawa
To investigate the trends in incidence and the characteristics of bacterial meningitis in Japan where Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in 2008 and 2010, respectively, which was 5-20 years after their introduction in western countries. The nationwide Japanese survey of pediatric and neonatal bacterial meningitis was performed in 2011 and 2012. We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical data, and compared the information obtained in the previous nationwide survey database...
August 2014: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
L A Liubasovskaia, M A Kornienko, T V Priputnevich, E N Il'ina, A I Shchegolev
The problem of hospital-acquired infections due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in neonatal intensive care units is crucial over the last 20 years in the world. Neonates with very low or extremely low body weight belong to a special group of risks by the CoNS infection. However, in Russia CoNS up to now are frequently considered as contaminants and not as the main etiologic factors of pneumonia and sepsis in extremely premature infants. It was shown that hospital strains of CoNS causing fatal infections in extremely premature infants are always present in intensive care units...
2013: Antibiotiki i Khimioterapii︠a︡, Antibiotics and Chemoterapy [sic]
Olivia Swann, Dean B Everett, Jeremry S Furyk, Ewen M Harrison, Malango T Msukwa, Robert S Heyderman, Elizabeth M Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Neonatal meningitis is an important cause of morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa and requires urgent empiric treatment with parenteral administered antibiotics. Here we describe the etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and suitability of the World Health Organization first-line recommended antibiotics (penicillin and gentamicin) for bacterial meningitis in young infants in Malawi. METHODS: We reviewed all cerebrospinal fluid samples received from infants ≤2 months of age with clinically suspected meningitis between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2008, at the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi...
June 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
María Cernada, María Brugada, Sergio Golombek, Máximo Vento
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication related to mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period. However, lack of a specific definition and difficulties obtaining noncontaminated samples of the lower respiratory airway render microbiological diagnosis and etiological treatment extremely difficult. Thus far, only few studies have approached VAP using accepted Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria and reliable sampling techniques. In recent years, however, the blind-protected bronchoalveolar lavage technique with protected specimen brush and the development of validated biomarkers have attempted to overcome the diagnostic difficulties and assess the response to therapy...
2014: Neonatology
Ewa Helwich, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach, Maria Borszewska-Kornacka, Janusz Gadzinowski, Ewa Gulczyńska, Agnieszka Kordek, Dorota Pawlik, Jerzy Szczapa, Joanna Domańska, Jerzy Klamka, Piotr B Heczko
AIM OF STUDY: 1. prospective record of infections; 2. prevention of nosocomial infections by providing current data about infections, which are significant for making therapeutic decisions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Recorded infections: early-onset sepsis (congenital), late-onset sepsis (acquired in hospital), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), pneumonia. Infections were diagnosed and qualified on the basis of definitions of infections based on the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) criteria, developed by CDC, USA, including modifications of German Neo-KISS programme...
July 2013: Medycyna Wieku Rozwojowego
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