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Neonatal pneumonia etiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528140/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-of-respiratory-failure-during-pregnancy
#1
Chen-Yiu Hung, Han-Chung Hu, Li-Chung Chiu, Chih-Hao Chang, Li-Fu Li, Chung-Chi Huang, Chuan-Chi Kao, Po-Jen Cheng, Kuo-Chin Kao
BACKGROUND: Obstetric patients comprise a limited portion of intensive care unit patients, but they often present with unfamiliar conditions and exhibit the potential for catastrophic deterioration. This study evaluated the maternal and neonatal outcomes of respiratory failure during pregnancy. METHODS: Information on 71 patients at >25 weeks gestation in the ICU with respiratory failure was recorded between 2009 and 2013. The characteristics and outcomes of mothers and fetuses were determined through a retrospective chart review and evaluated using Student's t test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272077/changing-trend-in-bacterial-etiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-sepsis-of-intramural-neonates-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#2
M P Roy, M Bhatt, V Maurya, S Arya, R Gaind, H K Chellani
BACKGROUND: Septicemia is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, organized data on causative organisms and their resistant pattern are scanty from developing countries. The changing trend in causative organisms and their antibiotic resistance is yet to be documented in India. The present study examines the trends in bacterial profile and antibiotic resistance of the organisms causing sepsis in hospitalized neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective laboratory-based analysis of blood cultures obtained from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi was done for the period of 1999-2014, divided into five phases...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250116/a-neonatal-murine-model-of-coxsackievirus-a6-infection-for-evaluation-of-antiviral-and-vaccine-efficacy
#3
Zhenjie Zhang, Zhaopeng Dong, Qingjuan Wei, Michael J Carr, Juan Li, Shujun Ding, Yigang Tong, Dong Li, Weifeng Shi
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a global health concern. Family Picornaviridae members, particularly enterovirus A71 (EVA71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), are the primary etiological agents of HFMD; however, a third enterovirus A species, CVA6, has been recently associated with epidemic outbreaks. Study of the pathogenesis of CVA6 infection and development of antivirals and vaccines are hindered by a lack of appropriate animal models. We have developed and characterized a murine model of CVA6 infection that was employed to evaluate the antiviral activities of different drugs and the protective efficacies of CVA6-inactivated vaccines...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108881/diagnostic-performance-of-point-of-care-ultrasonography-in-identifying-the-etiology-of-respiratory-distress-in-neonates
#4
Harish Rachuri, Tejo Pratap Oleti, Srinivas Murki, Sreeram Subramanian, Jayalatha Nethagani
OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic test performance of Point of care ultrasonography (PoC-USG) for identifying the etiology of respiratory distress (RD) in neonates when combination of radiological and clinical criteria is considered as the gold standard. METHODS: A neonate was included in the study if he/she had RD and underwent x-ray chest and ultrasound within 4 h of admission and the age was less than 24 h. The neonates admitted with non-respiratory illness were chosen as controls...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049113/update-on-pediatric-overuse
#5
Eric R Coon, Paul C Young, Ricardo A Quinonez, Daniel J Morgan, Sanket S Dhruva, Alan R Schroeder
As concerns over health care-related harms and costs continue to mount, efforts to identify and combat medical overuse are needed. Although much of the recent attention has focused on health care for adults, children are also harmed by overuse. Using a structured PubMed search and manual tables of contents review, we identified important articles on pediatric overuse published in 2015. These articles were evaluated according to the quality of the methods, the magnitude of clinical effect, and the number of patients potentially affected and were categorized into overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and overutilization...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036314/etiology-of-early-onset-septicemia-among-neonates-at-the-university-college-hospital-ibadan-nigeria
#6
Abimbola Ellen Akindolire, Olukemi Tongo, Hannah Dada-Adegbola, Olusegun Akinyinka
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal septicemia remains a major cause of newborn deaths in developing countries. Its burden is further compounded by the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens, which is related to a lack of antibiotic protocols resulting in unrestricted use of antibiotics. The absence of reliable antibiotic sensitivity testing makes the formulation of antibiotic guidelines and judicious use of antibiotics difficult. This study sought to identify the current bacterial agents associated with early onset septicemia (EOS; age <72 hours) and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns among neonates at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036311/etiological-profile-of-early-neonatal-bacterial-sepsis-by-multiplex-qpcr
#7
Walter P Silva-Junior, Almir S Martins, Paula C N Xavier, Kelly L A Appel, Silvio A Oliveira Junior, Durval B Palhares
INTRODUCTION: Given the major impact in terms of morbidity and mortality that episodes of early neonatal sepsis (ENS) have on both newborns and health systems, this study aimed to identify the etiological profile of early neonatal bacterial sepsis by a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). METHODOLOGY: Blood samples from newborns diagnosed with clinical ENS and hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) were collected and analyzed using the multiplex qPCR method to detect Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter sp...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924246/adenovirus-and-culture-negative-sepsis-in-a-preterm-neonate
#8
Mohannad Moallem, Eunkyung Song, Preeti Jaggi, Miriam R Conces, Adriana E Kajon, Pablo J Sánchez
Background Respiratory viral infections remain an underrecognized cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Case Report An eight day old, 650 gram birth weight, 23 weeks' gestational age female developed "culture-negative" sepsis manifested by respiratory deterioration, hypoxia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. She was diagnosed with pneumonia and hepatitis due to adenovirus HAdV-D (H29F9) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, but died at the age of 18 days despite treatment with cidofovir and immune globulin intravenous...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917346/neonatal-bacterial-meningitis-in-tikur-anbessa-specialized-hospital-ethiopia-a-10-year-retrospective-review
#9
Melese Abate Reta, Tamrat Abebe Zeleke
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis is still a major public health threat in developing countries. It is an overwhelming infection with a high morbidity and mortality rate, especially in neonates. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and etiological agents that cause bacterial neonatal meningitis at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 1189 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens submitted to the bacteriology laboratory of TASH for culture from 2001 to 2010...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817783/-pancytopenia-and-metabolic-decompensation-in-a-neonate
#10
Jian-Qiang Tan, Da-Yu Chen, Zhen-Qin Mo, Zhe-Tao Li, Ji-Wei Huang, Ren Cai, Ti-Zhen Yan
A 9-day-old male patient was admitted to the hospital because of cough, anhelation, feeding difficulty and lethargy. The diagnostic examinations indicated pulmonary infection, severe metabolic acidosis, hyperglycemia, hyperammonemia and pancytopenia in the patient. Blood and urine screening and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) gene detection for inherited metabolic diseases were performed to clarify the etiology. Tandem mass spectrometric screening for blood showed an elevated isovalerylcarnitine (C5) level...
November 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765888/neonatal-sepsis-in-haiti
#11
Alexandre Boulos, Katherine Rand, Josh A Johnson, Jacqueline Gautier, Michael Koster
Infections (including sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and tetanus) stand as a major contributor to neonatal mortality in Haiti (22%). Infants acquire bacteria that cause neonatal sepsis directly from the mother's blood, skin or vaginal tract either before or during delivery. Nosocomial and environmental pathogens introduce further risk after delivery. The absence of cohesive medical systems and methods for collecting information limits the available data in countries such as Haiti. This study seeks to add more information on the burden of severe bacterial infections and their etiology in neonates of Haiti...
February 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320858/the-epidemiology-and-clinical-features-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-neonates
#12
Feng Huang, Lianghua Lu, Wujun Jiang, Yongdong Yan, Wei Ji, Bin Yang, Shenglin Yu
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study was aimed to explore the epidemiological and clinical profiles of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in neonates. METHODS: From 2011 to 2014, 1322 hospitalized neonates with lower respiratory tract infections were screened for Mycoplasma pneumoniae by detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies using Serion ELISA classic Mycoplasma pneumoniae kits. RESULTS: Mycoplasma pneumoniae was identified in 89 (6.7%) patients...
July 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186188/usefulness-of-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-discriminating-between-bacterial-and-aseptic-meningitis-in-hospitalized-children-from-a-population-with-low-vaccination-coverage
#13
Ewelina Gowin, Jacek Wysocki, Dirk Avonts, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Michal Michalak
INTRODUCTION: Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most frequent pathogens responsible for meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Aseptic meningitis is a disabling condition, but bacterial meningitis if left untreated is 100% fatal. The aim of the study was to analyze the usefulness of biochemical and hematological parameters in distinguishing between bacterial and non-bacterial meningitis in children with meningitis from a population with low rates of vaccination against S...
April 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154290/neonatal-septic-arthritis-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-a-descriptive-study
#14
T Sreenivas, A R Nataraj, Anand Kumar, Jagdish Menon
PURPOSE: The study was conducted to evaluate clinical and microbiological profile of neonates with septic arthritis and also to assess changing epidemiology in the microbial etiology. METHODS: Twenty-nine neonates (1-28 days of life) presenting to the Department of Orthopaedics with acute septic arthritis were included in the study. This was a descriptive study, and the data were collected during the time of hospital admission. History and clinical examination of the neonates were taken, and diagnosis was made based on clinical and laboratory parameters...
July 2016: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26760414/newborn-respiratory-distress
#15
Christian L Hermansen, Anand Mahajan
Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and delayed transition. Congenital heart defects, airway malformations, and inborn errors of metabolism are less common etiologies...
December 1, 2015: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26649057/neonatal-septicemia-in-nepal-early-onset-versus-late-onset
#16
Shamshul Ansari, Hari Prasad Nepal, Rajendra Gautam, Sony Shrestha, Puja Neopane, Moti Lal Chapagain
Introduction. Neonatal septicemia is defined as infection in the first 28 days of life. Early-onset neonatal septicemia and late-onset neonatal septicemia are defined as illnesses appearing from birth to three days and from four to twenty-eight days postnatally, respectively. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, blood samples from the suspected infants were collected and processed in the bacteriology laboratory. The growth was identified by standard microbiological protocol and the antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
2015: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26148359/-prevention-of-ventilator-associated-infection-in-neonates-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#17
P I Mironov, V A Rudnov
UNLABELLED: The aim of the research was to reduce the risk ventilator-associated infections (VAI) in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: retrospective, observational, single center, historical control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 113 newborns were included in the study. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was diagnosed based on the criteria of VAP CDC/NNIS. Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis was determined on the basis of criteria of Code LRI-BRON proposed CDC National Healthcare Safety Network...
March 2015: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25961894/population-based-incidence-and-etiology-of-community-acquired-neonatal-viral-infections-in-bangladesh-a-community-based-and-hospital-based-surveillance-study
#18
Azadeh Farzin, Samir K Saha, Abdullah H Baqui, Yoonjoung Choi, Nawshad Uddin Ahmed, Eric A F Simoes, Shams El Arifeen, Hassan M Al-Emran, Sanwarul Bari, Syed M Rahman, Ishtiaq Mannan, Derrick Crook, Habibur Rahman Seraji, Nazma Begum, Robert E Black, Mathuram Santosham, Gary L Darmstadt
BACKGROUND: The etiology of >90% of cases of suspected neonatal infection remains unknown. We conducted community-based surveillance in conjunction with hospital-based surveillance in a rural region in Bangladesh from June 2006 to September 2007 to assess the incidence and etiology of community-acquired viral infections among neonates. METHODS: Community health workers (CHWs) assessed neonates at home on days 0, 2, 5 and 8 after birth and referred cases of suspected illness to the hospital (CHW surveillance)...
July 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25644040/diffuse-capillary-malformation-in-association-with-fetal-pleural-effusion-report-of-five-patients
#19
Jillian F Rork, Ahmad I Alomari, John B Mulliken, Steven J Fishman, Marilyn G Liang
Capillary malformation (CM) can be a "red flag" for several syndromic vascular anomalies. We identified a subset of patients with diffuse CM and fetal pleural effusion and documented the type of CM, the etiology of the pleural effusion, the potential syndromic diagnosis, and outcome. Patients with a history of CM and fetal pleural effusion were identified by searching the database of patients evaluated at the Vascular Anomalies Center at Boston Children's Hospital. Standardized patient interviews and a retrospective review of records, photographs, and imaging studies were conducted...
January 2015: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25592774/deconstructing-the-differences-a-comparison-of-gbd-2010-and-cherg-s-approach-to-estimating-the-mortality-burden-of-diarrhea-pneumonia-and-their-etiologies
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Stephanie D Kovacs, Kim Mullholland, Julia Bosch, Harry Campbell, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Ibrahim Khalil, Stephen Lim, Li Liu, Stephen N Maley, Colin D Mathers, Alastair Matheson, Ali H Mokdad, Kate O'Brien, Umesh Parashar, Torin T Schaafsma, Duncan Steele, Stephen E Hawes, John T Grove
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia and diarrhea are leading causes of death for children under five (U5). It is challenging to estimate the total number of deaths and cause-specific mortality fractions. Two major efforts, one led by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) and the other led by the World Health Organization (WHO)/Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) created estimates for the burden of disease due to these two syndromes, yet their estimates differed greatly for 2010...
January 16, 2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
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