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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551318/anatomical-and-functional-correlates-of-cortical-motor-threshold-of-the-dominant-hand
#1
Charlotte Rosso, Vincent Perlbarg, Romain Valabregue, Mickaël Obadia, Claire Kemlin-Méchin, Eric Moulton, Sara Leder, Sabine Meunier, Jean-Charles Lamy
BACKGROUND: Resting Motor threshold (rMT) provides information about cortical motor excitability. Interestingly, the influences of the structural or functional variability of the motor system on the rMT inter-individual variability have been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate relationships between rMT and measures of brain structures and function of the motor system. The hypothesis is that cortical excitability not only depends on the primary motor cortex (M1) but also on the integration of information originating from its vicinity such as premotor (PMd and SMA) and post-central (S1) cortices...
May 17, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538035/structure-function-analysis-of-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-and-age-related-differences-in-outcome
#2
Ming-Hui Sun, Yaping Joyce Liao
BACKGROUND: The optic nerve head is vulnerable to ischemia leading to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), the most common acute optic neuropathy in those older than 50 years of age. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 55 nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) eyes in 34 patients to assess clinical outcome and perform structure-function correlations. RESULTS: The peak age of NAION onset was between 50 and 55 years...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536271/contrasting-modulatory-effects-from-the-dorsal-and-ventral-premotor-cortex-on-primary-motor-cortex-outputs
#3
Sandrine L Côté, Adjia Hamadjida, Stephan Quessy, Numa Dancause
The dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv) each take part in unique aspects for the planning and execution of hand movements. These premotor areas are components of complex anatomical networks that include the primary motor cortex (M1) of both hemispheres. One way PMd and PMv could play distinct roles for hand movements is by differently modulating the outputs of M1. Yet, patterns of effects from PMd and PMv on the outputs of M1 have not been systematically compared. Our goals were to study how PMd within the same (i...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531783/prototypical-versus-contemporary-mediterranean-diet
#4
W Rizza, L De Gara, R Antonelli Incalzi, C Pedone
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. METHODS: We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525480/a-new-entrance-technique-for-c2-pedicle-screw-placement-and-the-use-in-patients-with-atlantoaxial-instability
#5
Jia-Ming Liu, Jian Jiang, Zhi-Li Liu, Xin-Hua Long, Wen-Zhao Chen, Yang Zhou, Song Gao, Lai-Chang He, Shan-Hu Huang
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study and a technique note. OBJECTIVES: To introduce a new entrance technique for C2 pedicle screw placement and to measure the related linear and angular parameters about the entrance point on computed tomography (CT) images. The safety of this technique for patients with atlantoaxial instability was also evaluated. BACKGROUND DATA: Although earlier studies have introduced different methods for C2 pedicle screw placement, the entry points and the angular parameters may be variable...
June 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515588/placental-mesenchymal-dysplasia-what-every-radiologist-needs-to-know
#6
Disha Mittal, Rama Anand, Neha Sisodia, Smita Singh, Ratna Biswas
Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is an uncommon vascular anomaly of the placenta characterized by placentomegaly with multicystic placental lesion on ultrasonography and mesenchymal stem villous hyperplasia on histopathology. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cases of multicystic placental lesion such as molar pregnancy, chorioangioma, subchorionic hematoma, and spontaneous abortion with hydropic placental changes. However, lack of high-velocity signals inside the lesion and a normal karyotype favor a diagnosis of PMD...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490836/prior-knowledge-of-target-direction-and-intended-movement-selection-improves-indirect-reaching-movement-decoding
#7
Hongbao Li, Yaoyao Hao, Shaomin Zhang, Yiwen Wang, Weidong Chen, Xiaoxiang Zheng
Objective. Previous studies have demonstrated that target direction information presented by the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) during movement planning could be incorporated into neural decoder for achieving better decoding performance. It is still unknown whether the neural decoder combined with only target direction could work in more complex tasks where obstacles impeded direct reaching paths. Methods. In this study, spike activities were collected from the PMd of two monkeys when performing a delayed obstacle-avoidance task...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490472/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-for-very-early-response-evaluation-predicts-ct-response-in-erlotinib-treated-nsclc-patients-a-comparison-of-assessment-methods
#8
Joan Fledelius, Anne Winther-Larsen, Azza Ahmed Khalil, Catharina Mølgaard Bylov, Karin Hjorthaug, Aksel Bertelsen, Jørgen Frøkiær, Peter Meldgaard
The purpose of this study was to determine which method for early response evaluation with (18)F-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with whole body computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) performed most optimal for prediction of response on a later CT-scan in erlotinib treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods:(18)F-FDG-PET/CT scans were performed prior to and after 7-10 days of erlotinib treatment in 50 NSCLC patients. The scans were evaluated using a qualitative approach and various semi-quantitative methods including percentage change in Standardized Uptake values, lean body mass corrected (SUL) SULpeak, SULmax and Total Lesion Glycolysis (TLG)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464481/correlation-of-mammographic-density-and-serum-calcium-levels-in-patients-with-primary-breast-cancer
#9
Carolin C Hack, Martin J Stoll, Sebastian M Jud, Katharina Heusinger, Werner Adler, Lothar Haeberle, Thomas Ganslandt, Felix Heindl, Rüdiger Schulz-Wendtland, Alexander Cavallaro, Michael Uder, Matthias W Beckmann, Peter A Fasching, Christian M Bayer
Percentage mammographic breast density (PMD) is one of the most important risk factors for breast cancer (BC). Calcium, vitamin D, bisphosphonates, and denosumab have been considered and partly confirmed as factors potentially influencing the risk of BC. This retrospective observational study investigated the association between serum calcium level and PMD. A total of 982 BC patients identified in the research database at the University Breast Center for Franconia with unilateral BC, calcium and albumin values, and mammogram at the time of first diagnosis were included...
May 2, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433648/repeated-threat-without-direct-harm-alters-metabolic-capacity-in-select-regions-that-drive-defensive-behavior
#10
D J Kim, A S Lee, A A Yttredahl, R Gómez-Rodríguez, B J Anderson
To understand the behavioral consequences of intermittent anticipatory stress resulting from threats without accompanying physiological challenges, we developed a semi-naturalistic rodent housing and foraging environment that can include threats that are unpredictable in timing. Behavior is automatically recorded while rats forage for food or water. Over three weeks, the threats have been shown to elicit risk assessment behaviors, increase defensive burying and increase adrenal gland weight. To identify brain regions activated by this manipulation, we measured cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is tightly coupled to neural activity...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392964/the-use-of-korean-medicine-to-treat-patients-with-spinobulbar-muscular-atrophy-kennedy-s-disease-a-case-study
#11
Seongjin Lee, Eunhye Cha, Jongcheol Lee, Jongdeok Lee, Inja Song, Sungchul Kim
OBJECTIVES: Studies involving patients with spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), which is often referred to as Kennedy's disease, similar to those involving patients with progressive muscular disease (PMD), are rare. This paper reports a case study involving the use of Korean medicine to treat a patient with SBMA. METHODS: We treated a patient with SBMA with unique symptoms by using various kinds of pharmacopuncture and herbal medicines for about two and a half years...
March 2017: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391726/determinants-of-percent-mammographic-density-in-women-with-premature-ovarian-insufficiency
#12
F R Torelli, M F Brancalion, D A Yela, C L Benetti-Pinto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the determinants of breast density in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 163 women with POI undergoing mammography, percent mammographic density (PMD) was evaluated by digitizing the image. PMD was correlated with age, age at menarche, age at POI, time since POI, body mass index (BMI), gestational history and hormone therapy (HT) use (duration, dose, regimen). RESULTS: POI was diagnosed at a mean age of 32...
April 9, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389395/high-throughput-enzyme-screening-platform-for-the-ipp-bypass-mevalonate-pathway-for-isopentenol-production
#13
Aram Kang, Corey W Meadows, Nicolas Canu, Jay D Keasling, Taek Soon Lee
Isopentenol (or isoprenol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol) is a drop-in biofuel and a precursor for commodity chemicals such as isoprene. Biological production of isopentenol via the mevalonate pathway has been optimized extensively in Escherichia coli, yielding 70% of its theoretical maximum. However, high ATP requirements and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) toxicity pose immediate challenges for engineering bacterial strains to overproduce commodities utilizing IPP as an intermediate. To overcome these limitations, we developed an "IPP-bypass" isopentenol pathway using the promiscuous activity of a mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (PMD) and demonstrated improved performance under aeration-limited conditions...
April 5, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366443/modeling-the-mutational-and-phenotypic-landscapes-of-pelizaeus-merzbacher-disease-with-human-ipsc-derived-oligodendrocytes
#14
Zachary S Nevin, Daniel C Factor, Robert T Karl, Panagiotis Douvaras, Jeremy Laukka, Martha S Windrem, Steven A Goldman, Valentina Fossati, Grace M Hobson, Paul J Tesar
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a pediatric disease of myelin in the central nervous system and manifests with a wide spectrum of clinical severities. Although PMD is a rare monogenic disease, hundreds of mutations in the X-linked myelin gene proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) have been identified in humans. Attempts to identify a common pathogenic process underlying PMD have been complicated by an incomplete understanding of PLP1 dysfunction and limited access to primary human oligodendrocytes. To address this, we generated panels of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and hiPSC-derived oligodendrocytes from 12 individuals with mutations spanning the genetic and clinical diversity of PMD-including point mutations and duplication, triplication, and deletion of PLP1-and developed an in vitro platform for molecular and cellular characterization of all 12 mutations simultaneously...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351570/topical-agents-for-oral-cancer-chemoprevention-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Lucy Chau, Justin T Jabara, Wanda Lai, Peter F Svider, Blake M Warner, Ho-Sheng Lin, S Naweed Raza, Andrew M Fribley
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: We review the use of topical chemoprevention agents in patients with oral potentially malignant disorders (PMD). METHODS: A systematic review of studies on topical chemoprevention agents for oral PMD from 1946 to November 2016 was conducted using the MEDLINE database, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Data were extracted and analyzed from selected studies including study type, sample size, demographics, treatment length, response rate, follow-up time, adverse effects, and recurrence...
April 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334874/efficient-cnv-breakpoint-analysis-reveals-unexpected-structural-complexity-and-correlation-of-dosage-sensitive-genes-with-clinical-severity-in-genomic-disorders
#16
Ling Zhang, Jingmin Wang, Cheng Zhang, Dongxiao Li, Claudia M B Carvalho, Haoran Ji, Jianqiu Xiao, Ye Wu, Weichen Zhou, Hongyan Wang, Li Jin, Yang Luo, Xiru Wu, James R Lupski, Feng Zhang, Yuwu Jiang
Genomic disorders are the clinical conditions manifested by submicroscopic genomic rearrangements including copy number variants (CNVs). The CNVs can be identified by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), the most commonly used technology for molecular diagnostics of genomic disorders. However, clinical aCGH only informs CNVs in the probe-interrogated regions. Neither orientational information nor the resulting genomic rearrangement structure is provided, which is a key to uncovering mutational and pathogenic mechanisms underlying genomic disorders...
May 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330094/characterization-of-antibiotic-resistant-and-enzyme-producing-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-the-arabian-sea
#17
Preeti N Tallur, Dayanand B Sajjan, Sikandar I Mulla, Manjunatha P Talwar, A Pragasam, Vinayak M Nayak, Harichandra Z Ninnekar, Shivanand S Bhat
Marine bacteria are known to produce many bioactive molecules and extracellular enzymes of commercial importance. We have investigated the bacterial diversity of the coastal area of Karwar, Karnataka State, India. Among these bacterial isolates, five bacterial strains were selected and identified by their morphological, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The identified bacterial isolates, Bacillus toyonensis PNTB1, Lysinibacillus sphaericus PTB, Vibrio vulnificus PMD, Shewanella MPTDBS, and Pseudomonas chlororaphis PNTB were characterized for their tolerance to salt and antibiotics...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328133/an-xq22-1q22-2-nullisomy-in-a-male-patient-with-severe-neurological-impairment
#18
Kentaro Shirai, Yuya Higashi, Keiko Shimojima, Toshiyuki Yamamoto
The proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1) is located on chromosome Xq22.2 and is related to X-linked recessive leukoencephalopathy (Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease: PMD). Compared to PLP1 duplications, which are a major contributor to PMD, chromosomal deletions in this region are rare and only a few PMD patients with small deletions have been reported, suggesting that large deletions of this region would cause embryonic lethality. Previously, we have reported female patients, with chromosomal deletions in this region, who showed severe developmental delays and behavioral abnormalities...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322424/perinatal-mental-disorders-in-switzerland-prevalence-estimates-and-use-of-mental-health-services
#19
Anke Berger, Nicole Bachmann, Andri Signorell, Rebekka Erdin, Stephan Oelhafen, Oliver Reich, Eva Cignacco
BACKGROUND: Perinatal mental disorders (PMDs) are the most common complication of pregnancy and the first postpartum year. Since PMD prevalence and use of mental-health services by perinatal women in Switzerland are unknown, we analysed existing health statistics. METHODS: We used statistics from a large health insurance company, hospitals and freelance midwives. We assessed the annual rates of mental-healthcare use in perinatal women (n = 13 969). We ascertained the annual rates of PMD treatment in obstetric inpatients (n = 89 699), and annual rates of PMD records by freelance midwives (n = 57 951)...
March 21, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320702/actinic-cheilosis-early-intervention-prevents-malignant-transformation
#20
Arvind Muthukrishnan, Laliytha Bijai Kumar
Potentially malignant disorders (PMD) have a high risk of malignant transformation. Habits such as tobacco and alcohol use predispose to PMD and subsequently to an oral carcinoma. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) can occur even without the usage of tobacco. Occupational exposure to actinic rays may predispose to the development of OSCC in the lip. People who are involved in farming or those exposed to an environmental background radiation, such as ultraviolet rays, develop a PMD called actinic cheilosis...
March 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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