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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647390/neural-synergies-for-controlling-reach-and-grasp-movement-in-macaques
#1
Yaoyao Hao, Shaomin Zhang, Qiaosheng Zhang, Guanglin Li, Weidong Chen, Xiaoxiang Zheng
It has been suggested that the brain adopts a simplified strategy to coordinate a large number of degrees of freedom in motor control. Synergies have been proposed as a strategy to produce movements by recruitment of a small number of fixed modular patterns. However, there is no direct support for a synergistic organization of that brain itself. In this study, we recorded neural activities from the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of monkeys trained to reach and grasp differently shaped objects (grasping task) or the same object in different positions (reaching task)...
June 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630203/bactericidal-and-sterilizing-activity-of-a-novel-regimen-with-bedaquiline-pretomanid-moxifloxacin-and-pyrazinamide-in-a-murine-model-of-tuberculosis
#2
Si-Yang Li, Rokeya Tasneen, Sandeep Tyagi, Heena Soni, Paul J Converse, Khisimuzi Mdluli, Eric L Nuermberger
New regimens based on two or more novel agents are sought to shorten or simplify treatment of tuberculosis (TB), including drug-resistant forms. Prior studies showed that the novel combinations of bedaquiline (BDQ) + pretomanid (PMD) + pyrazinamide (PZA) and of PMD + moxifloxacin (MXF) + PZA shorten the treatment duration necessary to prevent relapse by 2-3 and 1-2 months, respectively, compared with the current first-line regimen in a murine TB model. These 3-drug combinations are now being studied in clinical trials...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611616/differential-functional-connectivity-alterations-of-two-subdivisions-within-the-right-dlpfc-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Julian Caspers, Christian Mathys, Felix Hoffstaedter, Martin Südmeyer, Edna C Cieslik, Christian Rubbert, Christian J Hartmann, Claudia R Eickhoff, Kathrin Reetz, Christian Grefkes, Jochen Michely, Bernd Turowski, Alfons Schnitzler, Simon B Eickhoff
Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) often show impairments in executive function (EF) like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606495/personality-traits-in-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-pnes-and-psychogenic-movement-disorder-pmd-neuroticism-and-perfectionism
#4
Vindhya Ekanayake, Sarah Kranick, Kathrin LaFaver, Arshi Naz, Anne Frank Webb, W Curt LaFrance, Mark Hallett, Valerie Voon
OBJECTIVE: Psychogenic movement disorder (PMD) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are two subtypes of conversion disorder (CD). In this case-control study, we asked whether these subtypes varied as a function of personality and history of childhood abuse. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with PMD from the Human Motor Control Section Clinic at the National Institutes of Health, 43 patients with PNES from the Rhode Island Hospital Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neurology Division, and 26 healthy volunteers (HC) received a battery of neurological, psychiatric and psychological assessments, including the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ)...
June 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606388/the-role-of-dorsal-premotor-cortex-in-mental-rotation-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#5
Giorgia Cona, Giulia Panozzo, Carlo Semenza
Although activation of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) has been consistently observed in the neuroimaging studies of mental rotation, the functional meaning of PMd activation is still unclear and multiple alternative explanations have been suggested. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the role of PMd in mental rotation. Two tasks were used, involving mental rotation of hands and abstract objects, with either matching (same stimuli) or mirror stimuli. Compared to sham stimulation, TMS over right and left PMd regions significantly affected accuracy in the object task, specifically for the same stimuli...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590584/free-water-and-free-water-corrected-fractional-anisotropy-in-primary-and-premotor-corticospinal-tracts-in-chronic-stroke
#6
Derek B Archer, Carolynn Patten, Stephen A Coombes
Measures from diffusion MRI have been used to characterize the corticospinal tract in chronic stroke. However, diffusivity can be influenced by partial volume effects from free-water, region of interest placement, and lesion masking. We collected diffusion MRI from a cohort of chronic stroke patients and controls and used a bitensor model to calculate free-water corrected fractional anisotropy (FAT ) and free water (FW) in the primary motor corticospinal tract (M1-CST) and the dorsal premotor corticospinal tract (PMd-CST)...
June 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574718/calibration-of-1-2-4-triazole-3-thione-an-original-zn-binding-group-of-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-validation-of-a-polarizable-mm-md-potential-by-quantum-chemistry
#7
Karolina Kwapien, Mirna Damergi, Serge Nader, Léa El Khoury, Zeina Hobaika, Richard G Maroun, Jean-Philip Piquemal, Laurent Gavara, Dorothée Berthomieu, Jean-François Hernandez, Nohad Gresh
In the context of the SIBFA polarizable molecular mechanics/dynamics (PMM/PMD) procedure, we report the calibration and a series of validation tests for the 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione (TZT) heterocycle. TZT acts as the chelating group of inhibitors of dizinc metallo-β-lactamases (MBL), an emerging class of Zn-dependent bacterial enzymes, which by cleaving the β-lactam bond of most β-lactam antibiotics are responsible for the acquired resistance of bacteria to these drugs. Such a study is indispensable prior to performing PMD simulations of complexes of TZT-based inhibitors with MBL's, on account of the anchoring role of TZT in the dizinc MBL recognition site...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566463/functional-connectivity-between-somatosensory-and-motor-brain-areas-predicts-individual-differences-in-motor-learning-by-observing
#8
Heather R McGregor, Paul L Gribble
Action observation can facilitate the acquisition of novel motor skills, however, there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. Here we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in brain function or structure can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Subjects underwent an anatomical MRI scan and resting-state fMRI scans to assess pre-observation grey matter volume and pre-observation resting-state functional connectivity (FC), respectively...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558329/risk-stratification-of-women-with-false-positive-test-results-in-mammography-screening-based-on-mammographic-morphology-and-density-a-case-control-study
#9
Rikke Rass Winkel, My von Euler-Chelpin, Elsebeth Lynge, Pengfei Diao, Martin Lillholm, Michiel Kallenberg, Julie Lyng Forman, Michael Bachmann Nielsen, Wei Yao Uldall, Mads Nielsen, Ilse Vejborg
The long-term risk of breast cancer is increased in women with false-positive (FP) mammography screening results. We investigated whether mammographic morphology and/or density can be used to stratify these women according to their risk of future breast cancer METHODS: We undertook a case-control study nested in the population-based screening programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. We included 288 cases and 288 controls based on a cohort of 4743 women with at least one FP-test result in 1991-2005 who were followed up until 17 April 2008...
May 27, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552730/searching-for-behavior-relating-to-grey-matter-volume-in-a-priori-defined-right-dorsal-premotor-regions-lessons-learned
#10
Sarah Genon, Tobias Wensing, Andrew Reid, Felix Hoffstaedter, Svenja Caspers, Christian Grefkes, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat, Simon B Eickhoff
Recently, we showed that the functional heterogeneity of the right dorsal premotor (PMd) cortex could be better understood by dividing it into five subregions that showed different behavioral associations according to task-based activations studies. The present study investigated whether the revealed behavioral profile could be corroborated and complemented by a structural brain behavior correlation approach in two healthy adults cohorts. Grey matter volume within the five volumes of interest (VOI-GM) was computed using voxel-based morphometry...
May 25, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551318/anatomical-and-functional-correlates-of-cortical-motor-threshold-of-the-dominant-hand
#11
Charlotte Rosso, Vincent Perlbarg, Romain Valabregue, Mickaël Obadia, Claire Kemlin-Méchin, Eric Moulton, Sara Leder, Sabine Meunier, Jean-Charles Lamy
BACKGROUND: Resting Motor threshold (rMT) provides information about cortical motor excitability. Interestingly, the influences of the structural or functional variability of the motor system on the rMT inter-individual variability have been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate relationships between rMT and measures of brain structures and function of the motor system. The hypothesis is that cortical excitability not only depends on the primary motor cortex (M1) but also on the integration of information originating from its vicinity such as premotor (PMd and SMA) and post-central (S1) cortices...
May 17, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538035/structure-function-analysis-of-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-and-age-related-differences-in-outcome
#12
Ming-Hui Sun, Yaping Joyce Liao
BACKGROUND: The optic nerve head is vulnerable to ischemia leading to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), the most common acute optic neuropathy in those older than 50 years of age. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 55 nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) eyes in 34 patients to assess clinical outcome and perform structure-function correlations. RESULTS: The peak age of NAION onset was between 50 and 55 years...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536271/contrasting-modulatory-effects-from-the-dorsal-and-ventral-premotor-cortex-on-primary-motor-cortex-outputs
#13
Sandrine L Côté, Adjia Hamadjida, Stephan Quessy, Numa Dancause
The dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv, respectively) each take part in unique aspects for the planning and execution of hand movements. These premotor areas are components of complex anatomical networks that include the primary motor cortex (M1) of both hemispheres. One way that PMd and PMv could play distinct roles in hand movements is by modulating the outputs of M1 differently. However, patterns of effects from PMd and PMv on the outputs of M1 have not been compared systematically. Our goals were to study how PMd within the same (i...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531783/prototypical-versus-contemporary-mediterranean-diet
#14
W Rizza, L De Gara, R Antonelli Incalzi, C Pedone
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. METHODS: We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525480/a-new-entrance-technique-for-c2-pedicle-screw-placement-and-the-use-in-patients-with-atlantoaxial-instability
#15
Jia-Ming Liu, Jian Jiang, Zhi-Li Liu, Xin-Hua Long, Wen-Zhao Chen, Yang Zhou, Song Gao, Lai-Chang He, Shan-Hu Huang
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study and a technique note. OBJECTIVES: To introduce a new entrance technique for C2 pedicle screw placement and to measure the related linear and angular parameters about the entrance point on computed tomography (CT) images. The safety of this technique for patients with atlantoaxial instability was also evaluated. BACKGROUND DATA: Although earlier studies have introduced different methods for C2 pedicle screw placement, the entry points and the angular parameters may be variable...
June 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515588/placental-mesenchymal-dysplasia-what-every-radiologist-needs-to-know
#16
Disha Mittal, Rama Anand, Neha Sisodia, Smita Singh, Ratna Biswas
Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is an uncommon vascular anomaly of the placenta characterized by placentomegaly with multicystic placental lesion on ultrasonography and mesenchymal stem villous hyperplasia on histopathology. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cases of multicystic placental lesion such as molar pregnancy, chorioangioma, subchorionic hematoma, and spontaneous abortion with hydropic placental changes. However, lack of high-velocity signals inside the lesion and a normal karyotype favor a diagnosis of PMD...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490836/prior-knowledge-of-target-direction-and-intended-movement-selection-improves-indirect-reaching-movement-decoding
#17
Hongbao Li, Yaoyao Hao, Shaomin Zhang, Yiwen Wang, Weidong Chen, Xiaoxiang Zheng
Objective. Previous studies have demonstrated that target direction information presented by the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) during movement planning could be incorporated into neural decoder for achieving better decoding performance. It is still unknown whether the neural decoder combined with only target direction could work in more complex tasks where obstacles impeded direct reaching paths. Methods. In this study, spike activities were collected from the PMd of two monkeys when performing a delayed obstacle-avoidance task...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490472/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-for-very-early-response-evaluation-predicts-ct-response-in-erlotinib-treated-nsclc-patients-a-comparison-of-assessment-methods
#18
Joan Fledelius, Anne Winther-Larsen, Azza Ahmed Khalil, Catharina Mølgaard Bylov, Karin Hjorthaug, Aksel Bertelsen, Jørgen Frøkiær, Peter Meldgaard
The purpose of this study was to determine which method for early response evaluation with (18)F-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with whole body computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) performed most optimal for prediction of response on a later CT-scan in erlotinib treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods:(18)F-FDG-PET/CT scans were performed prior to and after 7-10 days of erlotinib treatment in 50 NSCLC patients. The scans were evaluated using a qualitative approach and various semi-quantitative methods including percentage change in Standardized Uptake values, lean body mass corrected (SUL) SULpeak, SULmax and Total Lesion Glycolysis (TLG)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464481/correlation-of-mammographic-density-and-serum-calcium-levels-in-patients-with-primary-breast-cancer
#19
Carolin C Hack, Martin J Stoll, Sebastian M Jud, Katharina Heusinger, Werner Adler, Lothar Haeberle, Thomas Ganslandt, Felix Heindl, Rüdiger Schulz-Wendtland, Alexander Cavallaro, Michael Uder, Matthias W Beckmann, Peter A Fasching, Christian M Bayer
Percentage mammographic breast density (PMD) is one of the most important risk factors for breast cancer (BC). Calcium, vitamin D, bisphosphonates, and denosumab have been considered and partly confirmed as factors potentially influencing the risk of BC. This retrospective observational study investigated the association between serum calcium level and PMD. A total of 982 BC patients identified in the research database at the University Breast Center for Franconia with unilateral BC, calcium and albumin values, and mammogram at the time of first diagnosis were included...
June 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433648/repeated-threat-without-direct-harm-alters-metabolic-capacity-in-select-regions-that-drive-defensive-behavior
#20
D J Kim, A S Lee, A A Yttredahl, R Gómez-Rodríguez, B J Anderson
To understand the behavioral consequences of intermittent anticipatory stress resulting from threats without accompanying physiological challenges, we developed a semi-naturalistic rodent housing and foraging environment that can include threats that are unpredictable in timing. Behavior is automatically recorded while rats forage for food or water. Over three weeks, the threats have been shown to elicit risk assessment behaviors, increase defensive burying and increase adrenal gland weight. To identify brain regions activated by this manipulation, we measured cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is tightly coupled to neural activity...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
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