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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339471/laminar-recordings-in-frontal-cortex-suggest-distinct-layers-for-maintenance-and-control-of-working-memory
#1
André M Bastos, Roman Loonis, Simon Kornblith, Mikael Lundqvist, Earl K Miller
All of the cerebral cortex has some degree of laminar organization. These different layers are composed of neurons with distinct connectivity patterns, embryonic origins, and molecular profiles. There are little data on the laminar specificity of cognitive functions in the frontal cortex, however. We recorded neuronal spiking/local field potentials (LFPs) using laminar probes in the frontal cortex (PMd, 8A, 8B, SMA/ACC, DLPFC, and VLPFC) of monkeys performing working memory (WM) tasks. LFP power in the gamma band (50-250 Hz) was strongest in superficial layers, and LFP power in the alpha/beta band (4-22 Hz) was strongest in deep layers...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278564/cystic-placentomegaly-on-a-second-trimester-ultrasound
#2
Heather P Adams, Jennifer Malloy
Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare disorder of the placenta characterized by placentomegaly, cystic vesicles, and dilated chorionic blood vessels. Clinically and pathologically, it closely resembles partial molar pregnancy and complete hydatidiform mole with a coexistent healthy fetus, both of which are associated with malignant trophoblastic disease. PMD, however, has no risk of malignant trophoblastic disease and can result in the birth of a normal fetus, highlighting the need for clinician awareness of PMD in order to avoid unnecessary termination of a viable and potentially healthy fetus...
January 2018: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273225/breast-density-why-all-the-fuss
#3
REVIEW
S J Vinnicombe
The term "breast density" or mammographic density (MD) denotes those components of breast parenchyma visualised at mammography that are denser than adipose tissue. MD is composed of a mixture of epithelial and stromal components, notably collagen, in variable proportions. MD is most commonly assessed in clinical practice with the time-honoured method of visual estimation of area-based percent density (PMD) on a mammogram, with categorisation into quartiles. The computerised semi-automated thresholding method, Cumulus, also yielding area-based percent density, is widely used for research purposes; however, the advent of fully automated volumetric methods developed as a consequence of the widespread use of digital mammography (DM) and yielding both absolute and percent dense volumes, has resulted in an explosion of interest in MD recently...
December 19, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246754/thioctic-acid-in-oral-submucous-fibrosis-india-s-disease-a-better-tomorrow
#4
Bhandarkar Gowri Pandarinath, V Shetty Kushal, Kulkarni Arati
Oral submucous fibrosis(OSMF), because of its common occurrence in Indian population is known as India's disease. Regardless of diagnostic and therapeutic developments, oral potentially malignant disorders(PMD) and cancers are disseminating at a distressing rate. There is this prerequisite for unrelenting determination to find out apt treatment options so that malignant transformation may be prevented and more so the prevailing morbidity and mortality. Considering the frequency with which oral submucous fibrosis undergoes malignant transformation with free radicals playing a major part, the role of antioxidants in general and thioctic acid also known as alpha lipoic acid(ALA) in particular need to be studied in these individuals...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234045/soil-biota-in-vineyards-are-more-influenced-by-plants-and-soil-quality-than-by-tillage-intensity-or-the-surrounding-landscape
#5
Jacob Buchholz, Pascal Querner, Daniel Paredes, Thomas Bauer, Peter Strauss, Muriel Guernion, Jennifer Scimia, Daniel Cluzeau, Françoise Burel, Sophie Kratschmer, Silvia Winter, Martin Potthoff, Johann G Zaller
Tillage is known for its adverse effects on soil biota, at least in arable agroecosystems. However, in vineyards effects might differ as tillage is often performed during dry periods or only in every other inter-row allowing species to re-colonise disturbed areas. We examined the response of earthworms (lumbricids), springtails (collembola) and litter decomposition to periodically mechanically disturbed (PMD) and permanently green covered (PGC) vineyard inter-rows and assessed whether site effects are altered by the surrounding landscape...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215600/three-dimensional-shape-measurements-of-specular-objects-using-phase-measuring-deflectometry
#6
REVIEW
Zonghua Zhang, Yuemin Wang, Shujun Huang, Yue Liu, Caixia Chang, Feng Gao, Xiangqian Jiang
The fast development in the fields of integrated circuits, photovoltaics, the automobile industry, advanced manufacturing, and astronomy have led to the importance and necessity of quickly and accurately obtaining three-dimensional (3D) shape data of specular surfaces for quality control and function evaluation. Owing to the advantages of a large dynamic range, non-contact operation, full-field and fast acquisition, high accuracy, and automatic data processing, phase-measuring deflectometry (PMD, also called fringe reflection profilometry) has been widely studied and applied in many fields...
December 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214418/choice-of-desflurane-or-propofol-for-the-maintenance-of-general-anesthesia-does-not-affect-the-risk-of-periprocedural-myocardial-damage-in-patients-undergoing-transfemoral-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#7
Kenta Okitsu, Takeshi Iritakenishi, Tatsuyuki Imada, Michioki Kuri, Sho Carl Shibata, Yuji Fujino
PURPOSE: This study aimed to reveal whether the occurrence of periprocedural myocardial damage (PMD) decreases in patients who received volatile anesthetics to maintain general anesthesia compared with those who received propofol during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: We included one hundred and forty adult patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI under general anesthesia from January 2015 to March 2017 in this single-center retrospective review...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210358/computer-aided-assessment-of-breast-density-comparison-of-supervised-deep-learning-and-feature-based-statistical-learning
#8
Songfeng Li, Jun Wei, Heang-Ping Chan, Mark A Helvie, Marilyn A Roubidoux, Yao Lu, Chuan Zhou, Lubomir M Hadjiiski, Ravi K Samala
Breast density is one of the most significant factors that is associated with cancer risk. In this study, our purpose was to develop a supervised deep learning approach for automated estimation of percentage density (PD) on digital mammograms (DM). The input "for processing" DM was first log-transformed, enhanced by a multi-resolution preprocessing scheme, and subsampled to a pixel size of 800µm×800µm from 100µm×100µm. A deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) was trained to estimate a probability map of breast density (PMD) by using a domain adaptation resampling method...
December 6, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193484/network-dynamics-engaged-in-the-modulation-of-motor-behavior-in-stroke-patients
#9
Eva-Maria Pool, Martha Leimbach, Ellen Binder, Charlotte Nettekoven, Simon B Eickhoff, Gereon R Fink, Christian Grefkes
Stroke patients with motor deficits typically feature enhanced neural activity in several cortical areas when moving their affected hand. However, also healthy subjects may show higher levels of neural activity in tasks with higher motor demands. Therefore, the question arises to what extent stroke-related overactivity reflects performance-level-associated recruitment of neural resources rather than stroke-induced neural reorganization. We here investigated which areas in the lesioned brain enable the flexible adaption to varying motor demands compared to healthy subjects...
November 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178463/psychotic-delusional-depression-and-suicidal-attempts-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
R Gournellis, K Tournikioti, G Touloumi, C Thomadakis, P G Michalopoulou, C Christodoulou, A Papadopoulou, A Douzenis
OBJECTIVE: It still remains unclear whether psychotic features increase the risk of suicidal attempts in major depressive disorder. Thus, we attempted, through a systematic review coupled with a meta-analysis, to elucidate further whether unipolar psychotic depression (PMD) compared to non-PMD presents higher levels of suicidal attempts. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO as well as in various databases of the so-called gray literature for all studies providing data on suicidal attempts in PMD compared to non-PMD, and the results were then subjected to meta-analysis...
November 26, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135812/optic-nerve-head-drusen-the-relationship-between-intraocular-pressure-and-optic-nerve-structure-and-function
#11
Kaitlyn W Nolan, Michael S Lee, Rohan A Jalalizadeh, Kevin C Firl, Gregory P Van Stavern, Collin M McClelland
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether at the time of diagnosis, the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) correlates with the perimetric mean deviation (PMD) and the mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: This retrospective chart review included adults with ONHD from 2 academic medical centers. Inclusion criteria were age older than 18 years, definitive diagnosis of ONHD, measurement of IOP, and an automated visual field (VF) within 3 months of diagnosis...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118960/from-the-padua-muscle-days-the-basic-and-applied-myology-and-the-european-journal-of-translational-myology-to-the-a-cm-carraro-foundation-for-translational-myology
#12
Ugo Carraro
As a young researched I had the option to work on skeletal muscle at the University of Padova, Italy. Introduced to the study of muscle denervation/reinnervation, I started a project on long term denervated muscle that still is my primary interest and took me from rodents' models of chronic muscle denervation to human spinal cord injury-related muscle denervation and its managements. On the way, I organized a series of conferences in Euganei Hills, Padua, Italy and an international journal, the Basic and Applied Myology...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106414/cryo-em-structures-of-the-human-endolysosomal-trpml3-channel-in-three-distinct-states
#13
Xiaoyuan Zhou, Minghui Li, Deyuan Su, Qi Jia, Huan Li, Xueming Li, Jian Yang
TRPML3 channels are mainly localized to endolysosomes and play a critical role in the endocytic pathway. Their dysfunction causes deafness and pigmentation defects in mice. TRPML3 activity is inhibited by low endolysosomal pH. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of human TRPML3 in the closed, agonist-activated, and low-pH-inhibited states, with resolutions of 4.06, 3.62, and 4.65 Å, respectively. The agonist ML-SA1 lodges between S5 and S6 and opens an S6 gate. A polycystin-mucolipin domain (PMD) forms a luminal cap...
November 6, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103920/influence-of-the-anteromedial-thalamus-on-social-defeat-associated-contextual-fear-memory
#14
Miguel J Rangel, Marcus Vinicius C Baldo, Newton Sabino Canteras
The ventral part of the anteromedial thalamic nucleus (AMv) is heavily targeted by the dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd), which is the main hypothalamic site that is responsive to both predator and conspecific aggressor threats. This PMd-AMv pathway is likely involved in modulating memory processing, and previous findings from our group have shown that cytotoxic lesions or pharmacological inactivation of the AMv drastically reduced contextual fear responses to predator-associated environments. In the present study, we investigated the role of the AMv in both unconditioned (i...
November 2, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099651/nutritional-interventions-for-mitochondrial-oxphos-deficiencies-mechanisms-and-model-systems
#15
Adam J Kuszak, Michael Graham Espey, Marni J Falk, Marissa A Holmbeck, Giovanni Manfredi, Gerald S Shadel, Hilary J Vernon, Zarazuela Zolkipli-Cunningham
Multisystem metabolic disorders caused by defects in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are severe and often lethal, conditions. Inborn errors of OXPHOS function are termed primary mitochondrial disorders (PMDs), and the use of nutritional interventions is routine in their supportive management. However, detailed mechanistic understanding and evidence for efficacy and safety of these interventions are limited. Preclinical cellular and animal model systems are important tools to investigate PMD metabolic mechanisms and therapeutic strategies...
November 3, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076150/a-phase-1-clinical-trial-evaluating-marizomib-pomalidomide-and-low-dose-dexamethasone-in-relapsed-and-refractory-multiple-myeloma-npi-0052-107-final-study-results
#16
Andrew Spencer, Simon Harrison, Jeffrey Zonder, Ashraf Badros, Jacob Laubach, Krystal Bergin, Amit Khot, Todd Zimmerman, Dharminder Chauhan, Nancy Levin, Ann MacLaren, Steven D Reich, Mohit Trikha, Paul Richardson
Marizomib (MRZ) is an irreversible, pan-subunit proteasome inhibitor (PI) in clinical development for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) and glioma. This study analysed MRZ, pomalidomide (POM) and low-dose dexamethasone (Lo-DEX) [PMD] in RRMM to evaluate safety and determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and/or recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D). Intravenous MRZ (0·3-0·5 mg/m2 ) was administered over 2 h on days 1, 4, 8, 11; POM (3-4 mg) on days 1-21; and Lo-DEX (5 or 10 mg) on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 22 and 23 of every 28-day cycle...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073631/isolated-cleft-lip-and-palate-maxillary-gap-sign-and-palatino-maxillary-diameter-at-11-13-weeks
#17
Robert Lachmann, Uwe Schilling, Detlef Brückmann, Alexander Weichert, Andreas Brückmann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the maxillary gap sign and describe markers for the first-trimester diagnosis of isolated cleft lip and palate (CLP) at 11-13 weeks. METHODS: Firstly, this was a prospective assessment of 1,087 fetuses including 5 cases of isolated CLP in 2 centers which were referred for the 11-13 weeks scan. Secondly, intra- and interobserver variability of the maxillary gap sign was evaluated for observers R.L. and A.B. in 2 sessions (affected cases vs...
October 26, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073280/pea-marker-database-pmd-a-new-online-database-combining-known-pea-pisum-sativum-l-gene-based-markers
#18
Olga A Kulaeva, Aleksandr I Zhernakov, Alexey M Afonin, Sergei S Boikov, Anton S Sulima, Igor A Tikhonovich, Vladimir A Zhukov
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the oldest model object of plant genetics and one of the most agriculturally important legumes in the world. Since the pea genome has not been sequenced yet, identification of genes responsible for mutant phenotypes or desirable agricultural traits is usually performed via genetic mapping followed by candidate gene search. Such mapping is best carried out using gene-based molecular markers, as it opens the possibility for exploiting genome synteny between pea and its close relative Medicago truncatula Gaertn...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060035/an-input-output-linear-time-invariant-model-captures-neuronal-firing-responses-to-external-and-behavioral-events
#19
Raina D'Aleo, Adam Rouse, Marc Schieber, Sridevi V Sarma
Investigating how neurons in different motor regions respond to external stimuli and behavioral events provides insight into motor control. A recent approach to studying neuronal activity is to construct a zero-input linear time invariant (ZI-LTI) state-space model, wherein the state vector consists of firing rate signals for different populations of neurons across motor regions. This approach allows for the populations to influence each other in a dynamical manner given an initial firing rate condition, and the model can accurately reconstruct firing rates within a limited epoch in the motor task during which no event occurs...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052568/genetic-testing-of-the-mucin-1-gene-variable-number-tandem-repeat-single-cytosine-insertion-mutation-in-a-chinese-family-with-medullary-cystic-kidney-disease
#20
Nuo Si, Ke Zheng, Jie Ma, Xiao-Lu Meng, Xue-Mei Li, Xue Zhang
BACKGROUND: Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) is clinically indistinguishable from several other autosomal-dominant renal diseases; thus, molecular genetic testing is needed to establish a definitive diagnosis. A specific type of single cytosine insertion in the variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) of the mucin 1 (MUC1) gene is the only known cause of MCKD1; however, genetic analysis of this mutation is difficult and not yet offered routinely. To identify the causative mutation/s and establish a definitive diagnosis in a Chinese family with chronic kidney disease, clinical assessments and genetic analysis were performed, including using a modified genotyping method to identify the MUC1- VNTR single cytosine insertion...
October 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
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