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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931803/laminar-differences-in-decision-related-neural-activity-in-dorsal-premotor-cortex
#1
Chandramouli Chandrasekaran, Diogo Peixoto, William T Newsome, Krishna V Shenoy
Dorsal premotor cortex is implicated in somatomotor decisions. However, we do not understand the temporal patterns and laminar organization of decision-related firing rates in dorsal premotor cortex. We recorded neurons from dorsal premotor cortex of monkeys performing a visual discrimination task with reaches as the behavioral report. We show that these neurons can be organized along a bidirectional visuomotor continuum based on task-related firing rates. "Increased" neurons at one end of the continuum increased their firing rates ~150 ms after stimulus onset and these firing rates covaried systematically with choice, stimulus difficulty, and reaction time-characteristics of a candidate decision variable...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905880/mutations-in-rars-cause-a-hypomyelination-disorder-akin-to-pelizaeus-merzbacher-disease
#2
Michael Nafisinia, Nara Sobreira, Lisa Riley, Wendy Gold, Birgit Uhlenberg, Claudia Weiß, Corinne Boehm, Kristina Prelog, Robert Ouvrier, John Christodoulou
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a rare Mendelian disorder characterised by central nervous system hypomyelination. PMD typically manifests in infancy or early childhood and is caused by mutations in proteolipid protein-1 (PLP1). However, variants in several other genes including gap junction protein gamma 2 (GJC2) can also cause a similar phenotype and are referred to PMD-like disease (PMLD). Whole-exome sequencing in two siblings presenting with clinical symptoms of PMD revealed a homozygous variant in the arginyl-tRNA synthetase (RARS) gene: NM_002887...
October 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904061/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-green-tea-extract-supplementation-and-mammographic-density-in-postmenopausal-women-at-increased-risk-of-breast-cancer
#3
Hamed Samavat, Giske Ursin, Tim H Emory, Eunjung Lee, Renwei Wang, Carolyn J Torkelson, Allison M Dostal, Karen Swenson, Chap T Le, Chung S Yang, Mimi C Yu, Douglas Yee, Anna H Wu, Jian-Min Yuan, Mindy S Kurzer
Epidemiological and animal studies suggest a protective role of green tea against breast cancer. However the underlying mechanism is not understood. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial to investigate whether supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) modifies mammographic density (MD), as a potential mechanism, involving 1,075 healthy postmenopausal women. Women assigned to the treatment arm consumed daily 4 decaffeinated GTE capsules containing 1315 mg total catechins including 843 mg epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for 12 months...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891520/neurons-in-dorsal-premotor-cortex-represent-the-switching-of-intended-hand-path-in-a-delayed-reaching-task
#4
Xuan Ma, Chaolin Ma, Peng Zhang, Tao Kang, Jiping He
Dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) is considered to play a crucial role in motor preparation, yet how the variation of neuronal activity affects the generation of different circumstances dependent movements remains unclear. Here we trained two monkeys to perform a delayed reaching task instructed by two sets of cues, one for indicating the target locations and another for indicating a conditionally presented virtual obstacle in the reaching path, which required the monkey to make a bypassing instead of straight reaching...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891106/treatment-resistance-in-potentially-malignant-disorders-nature-or-nurture-%C3%A2
#5
P J Thomson, M L Goodson, D R Smith
BACKGROUND: Contemporary potentially malignant disorder management is based upon provisional histological diagnosis followed by interventional surgery to excise or ablate 'high risk' mucosal lesions. Although the majority of patients achieve disease free status post-treatment, others develop further or persistent disease unresponsive to intervention. METHODS: A detailed, retrospective clinico-pathological review of treatment resistant potentially malignant lesions, from a 590 patient cohort treated by CO2 laser surgery and followed for a mean of 7...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878349/peptide-mediated-delivery-of-donor-mitochondria-improves-mitochondrial-function-and-cell-viability-in-human-cybrid-cells-with-the-melas-a3243g-mutation
#6
Jui-Chih Chang, Fredrik Hoel, Ko-Hung Liu, Yau-Huei Wei, Fu-Chou Cheng, Shou-Jen Kuo, Karl Johan Tronstad, Chin-San Liu
The cell penetrating peptide, Pep-1, has been shown to facilitate cellular uptake of foreign mitochondria but further research is required to evaluate the use of Pep-1-mediated mitochondrial delivery (PMD) in treating mitochondrial defects. Presently, we sought to determine whether mitochondrial transplantation rescue mitochondrial function in a cybrid cell model of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) disease. Following PMD, recipient cells had internalized donor mitochondria after 1 h, and expressed higher levels of normal mitochondrial DNA, particularly at the end of the treatment and 11 days later...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860573/full-field-3d-shape-measurement-of-discontinuous-specular-objects-by-direct-phase-measuring-deflectometry
#7
Yue Liu, Shujun Huang, Zonghua Zhang, Nan Gao, Feng Gao, Xiangqian Jiang
With the advent of intelligent manufacturing, phase measuring deflectometry (PMD) has been widely studied for the measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) shape of specular objects. However, existing PMDs cannot measure objects having discontinuous specular surfaces. This paper presents a new direct PMD (DPMD) method that measures the full-field 3D shape of complicated specular objects. A mathematical model is derived to directly relate an absolute phase map to depth data, instead of the gradient. Two relevant parameters are calibrated using a machine vision-based method...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854966/using-automated-texture-features-to-determine-the-probability-for-masking-of-a-tumor-on-mammography-but-not-ultrasound
#8
Lothar Häberle, Carolin C Hack, Katharina Heusinger, Florian Wagner, Sebastian M Jud, Michael Uder, Matthias W Beckmann, Rüdiger Schulz-Wendtland, Thomas Wittenberg, Peter A Fasching
BACKGROUND: Tumors in radiologically dense breast were overlooked on mammograms more often than tumors in low-density breasts. A fast reproducible and automated method of assessing percentage mammographic density (PMD) would be desirable to support decisions whether ultrasonography should be provided for women in addition to mammography in diagnostic mammography units. PMD assessment has still not been included in clinical routine work, as there are issues of interobserver variability and the procedure is quite time consuming...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836848/evaluation-of-a-portable-media-device-for-use-in-determining-postural-stability-in-standing-horses
#9
Valerie J Moorman, Christopher E Kawcak, Melissa R King
OBJECTIVE To determine the ability of an accelerometer within a commercially available portable media device (PMD) to measure changes in postural stability of standing horses during various stance conditions and to compare these results with data obtained by use of a stationary force platform. ANIMALS 7 clinically normal horses. PROCEDURES A PMD was mounted on a surcingle; the surcingle was placed immediately caudal to the highest point of the shoulders (withers). Each horse was examined while standing on a stationary force platform system in a normal square stance, forelimb base-narrow stance, and normal square stance at 5 and 10 minutes after sedation induced by IV administration of xylazine hydrochloride...
September 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833675/efficacy-of-oral-brush-biopsy-in-potentially-malignant-disorder-management
#10
M L Goodson, D R Smith, P J Thomson
BACKGROUND: Oral potentially malignant disorders (PMD) harbour unpredictable risk for squamous cell carcinoma development. Current management requires tissue biopsy for histopathology characterisation, dysplasia grading and targeted intervention to "high-risk" lesions, although evidence-based guidelines are limited and diagnoses subjective. This study investigated the use of adjunctive oral brush biopsy techniques during the management of PMD in a UK hospital population. METHODS: Retrospective review of a 310 PMD patient cohort presenting to Maxillofacial Surgery in Newcastle upon Tyne with new, single-site lesions between December 2009 and May 2014...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831583/18f-fdg-pet-detects-complete-response-to-pd1-therapy-in-melanoma-patients-two-weeks-after-therapy-start
#11
Ferdinand Seith, Andrea Forschner, Holger Schmidt, Christina Pfannenberg, Brigitte Gückel, Konstantin Nikolaou, Christian la Fougère, Claus Garbe, Nina Schwenzer
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate if 18F-FDG-PET has the potential to detect complete responders to PD1-therapy in patients with unresectable metastasized melanoma two weeks after therapy initiation. METHODS: Between September 2014 and May 2016, ten patients (four females; 65 ± 12 y) received a whole-body 18F-FDG-PET/MRI examination at three time points: Before therapy start (t0, base-line), two weeks (t1, study examination) and three months after treatment initiation (t2, reference standard)...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828694/association-between-mammographic-density-and-pregnancies-relative-to-age-and-bmi-a-breast-cancer-case-only-analysis
#12
Carolin C Hack, Julius Emons, Sebastian M Jud, Katharina Heusinger, Werner Adler, Paul Gass, Lothar Haeberle, Felix Heindl, Alexander Hein, Rüdiger Schulz-Wendtland, Michael Uder, Arndt Hartmann, Matthias W Beckmann, Peter A Fasching, Uwe G Pöhls
PURPOSE: Percentage mammographic density (PMD) is a major risk factor for breast cancer (BC). It is strongly associated with body mass index (BMI) and age, which are themselves risk factors for breast cancer. This analysis investigated the association between the number of full-term pregnancies and PMD in different subgroups relative to age and BMI. METHODS: Patients were identified in the breast cancer database of the University Breast Center for Franconia. A total of 2410 patients were identified, for whom information on parity, age, and BMI, and a mammogram from the time of first diagnosis were available for assessing PMD...
August 21, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821677/disruption-of-m1-activity-during-performance-plateau-impairs-consolidation-of-motor-memories
#13
Raphaël Hamel, Maxime Trempe, Pierre-Michel Bernier
Upon exposure to a new sensorimotor relationship, motor behaviors iteratively change early in adaptation, but eventually stabilize as adaptation proceeds. Behavioral work suggests that motor memory consolidation is initiated upon the attainment of asymptotic levels of performance. Separate lines of evidence point to a critical role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in consolidation. However, a causal relationship between M1 activity during asymptote and consolidation has yet to be demonstrated. The present study investigated this issue in male and female participants using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere with post-movement activity in M1 in two behavioral phases of a ramp-and-hold visuomotor adaptation paradigm...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793351/characterization-of-neurons-in-the-primate-medial-intraparietal-area-reveals-a-joint-representation-of-intended-reach-direction-and-amplitude
#14
Rishi Rajalingham, Sam Musallam
To support accurate memory-guided reaching, the brain must represent both the direction and amplitude of reaches in a movement plan. Several cortical areas have been shown to represent the direction of a planned reaching movement, but the neuronal representation of reach amplitude is still unclear, especially in sensory-motor integration areas. To investigate this, we recorded from neurons in the medial intraparietal area (MIP) of monkeys performing a variable amplitude memory reach task. In one monkey, we additionally recorded from the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) for direct cross-area comparisons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783455/environmental-barriers-to-participation-and-facilitators-for-use-of-three-types-of-assistive-technology-devices
#15
Cathrine Widehammar, Helene Lidström, Liselotte Hermansson
The aim was to compare the presence of environmental barriers to participation and facilitators for assistive technology (AT) use and study the relation between barriers and AT use in three different AT devices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Inclusion criteria were ≥one year of experience as a user of myoelectric prosthesis (MEP), powered mobility device (PMD), or assistive technology for cognition (ATC) and age 20-90 years. Overall, 156 participants answered the Swedish version of the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors and a study-specific questionnaire on facilitating factors...
August 7, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761609/evaluation-of-severe-malaria-case-management-in-mazowe-district-zimbabwe-2014
#16
Bargley Makumbe, Cremence Tshuma, Gerald Shambira, More Mungati, Notion Tafara Gombe, Donewell Bangure, Tsitsi Patience Juru, Mufuta Tshimanga
INTRODUCTION: Malaria is a preventable and curable disease. Mazowe district had been experiencing a lower malaria transmission rate in comparison to other districts in the Mashonaland Central province but it experienced a huge outbreak in the 2013-2014 rainy seasons with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 0.21%. This CFR was the highest in the province and it was twice as much as the national CFR (0.12%) for the same period. We evaluated severe malaria case management in Mazowe district to determine if practice is as per standard treatment guidelines...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761594/case-series-bladder-clot-evacuation-using-a-prostate-morcellation-device
#17
Karen M Doersch, Andrew F Navetta, Erin T Bird, Marawan M El Tayeb
INTRODUCTION: We sought to provide a technical update on the use of a prostate morcellator device (PMD) to manage organized blood clots of the bladder following laser prostatectomy. METHODS: Herein, we describe our experience in using the Wolf Piranha morcellator in managing organized bladder blood clots supplemented with a retrospective chart review of the patients in whom this procedure was performed. RESULTS: Six patients, all male with a mean age of 75 ± 8...
July 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757096/clinical-effects-of-chemical-exposures-on-mitochondrial-function
#18
Zarazuela Zolkipli-Cunningham, Marni J Falk
Mitochondria are critical for the provision of ATP for cellular energy requirements. Tissue and organ functions are dependent on adequate ATP production, especially when energy demand is high. Mitochondria also play a role in a vast array of important biochemical pathways including apoptosis, generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium regulation, steroid hormone and heme synthesis, and lipid metabolism. The complexity of mitochondrial structure and function facilitates its diverse roles but also enhances its vulnerability...
July 27, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755471/mechanical-loading-disrupts-osteocyte-plasma-membranes-which-initiates-mechanosensation-events-in-bone
#19
Kanglun Yu, David P Sellman, Anoosh Bahraini, Mackenzie L Hagan, Ahmed Elsherbini, Kayce T Vanpelt, Peyton L Marshall, Mark W Hamrick, Anna McNeil, Paul L McNeil, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence
Osteocytes sense loading in bone, but their mechanosensation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Plasma membrane disruptions (PMD) develop with loading under physiological conditions in many cell types (e.g., myocytes, endothelial cells). These PMD foster molecular flux across cell membranes that promotes tissue adaptation, but this mechanosensation mechanism had not been explored in osteocytes. Our goal was to investigate whether PMD occur and initiate consequent mechanotransduction in osteocytes during physiological loading...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747921/unreduced-megagametophyte-production-in-lemon-occurs-via-three-meiotic-mechanisms-predominantly-second-division-restitution
#20
Houssem Rouiss, José Cuenca, Luis Navarro, Patrick Ollitrault, Pablo Aleza
Unreduced (2n) gametes have played a pivotal role in polyploid plant evolution and are useful for sexual polyploid breeding in various species, particularly for developing new seedless citrus varieties. The underlying mechanisms of 2n gamete formation were recently revealed for Citrus reticulata but remain poorly understood for other citrus species, including lemon (C. limon [L.] Burm. f.). Here, we investigated the frequency and causal meiotic mechanisms of 2n megagametophyte production in lemon. We genotyped 48progeny plants of two lemon genotypes, "Eureka Frost" and "Fino", using 16 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and 18 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers to determine the genetic origin of the progenies and the underlying mechanisms for 2n gamete formation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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