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Matthew T Kaufman, Jeffrey S Seely, David Sussillo, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy, Mark M Churchland
Neural activity in monkey motor cortex (M1) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) can reflect a chosen movement well before that movement begins. The pattern of neural activity then changes profoundly just before movement onset. We considered the prediction, derived from formal considerations, that the transition from preparation to movement might be accompanied by a large overall change in the neural state that reflects when movement is made rather than which movement is made. Specifically, we examined "components" of the population response: time-varying patterns of activity from which each neuron's response is approximately composed...
July 2016: ENeuro
Ritu Tiwari, Chaya Manoranjini David, Datturao Ramanand Mahesh, Uma Sambargi, Kademadkal Javaraiah Rashmi, Prabhavati Benakanal
Potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) of oral cavity and oral cancer remain a cause of serious concern despite intensive research and development. Diet and immunity have been identified to play a crucial role as modifying factors in these diseases. Our study intended to explore this relationship by estimating and comparing the serum levels of copper, iron and circulating immune complexes (CICs) in patients diagnosed with PMDs and oral cancer and normal healthy individuals. In this study, 40 histopathologically diagnosed cases of PMDs and oral cancer were included along with 30 healthy controls and 5 ml of venous blood was drawn using venipuncture...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Gordon Parker, Stacey McCraw
BACKGROUND: The CORE measure was designed to assess a central feature of melancholia - signs of psychomotor disturbance (PMD) - and so provide an alternate non-symptom based measure of melancholia or of its probability. This review evaluates development and application studies undertaken over the last 25 years to consider how well it has met its original objectives. METHODS: All studies published using the CORE measure as either the only or an adjunctive measure of melancholia were obtained and are considered in this review...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Caina Xu, Huayu Tian, Ping Wang, Yanbing Wang, Xuesi Chen
A pH-sensitive co-delivery system was designed for the treatment of metastatic lung cancers by pulmonary delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and Survivin siRNA. Conjugates PEI-BMPH-DOX (PMD) of polyethylenimine (PEI) with DOX were developed via a pH-sensitive hydrazine bond (3-maleimidopropionic acid hydrazide, BMPH). Furthermore, the PMD/Survivin siRNA complex nanoparticles were prepared by electrostatic interaction between cationic PMD and anionic Survivin siRNA. The drug release of DOX from PMD conjugates increased with decreasing pH values...
October 18, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Mayur Sharma, Ghaith Habboub, Mandana Behbahani, Danilo Silva, Gene H Barnett, Alireza M Mohammadi
OBJECTIVE Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has been increasingly used to treat deep-seated tumors. Despite its being minimally invasive, there is a risk of LITT damaging adjacent critical structures, including corticospinal tracts (CSTs). In this study, the authors investigated the predictive value of overlap between the hyperthermic field and CSTs in determining postoperative motor deficit (PMDs). METHODS More than 140 patients underwent an LITT procedure in our institution between April 2011 and June 2015...
October 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Kathryn M Camp, Danuta Krotoski, Melissa A Parisi, Katrina A Gwinn, Bruce H Cohen, Christine S Cox, Gregory M Enns, Marni J Falk, Amy C Goldstein, Rashmi Gopal-Srivastava, Gráinne S Gorman, Stephen P Hersh, Michio Hirano, Freddie Ann Hoffman, Amel Karaa, Erin L MacLeod, Robert McFarland, Charles Mohan, Andrew E Mulberg, Joanne C Odenkirchen, Sumit Parikh, Patricia J Rutherford, Shawne K Suggs-Anderson, W H Wilson Tang, Jerry Vockley, Lynne A Wolfe, Steven Yannicelli, Philip E Yeske, Paul M Coates
In December 2014, a workshop entitled "Nutritional Interventions in Primary Mitochondrial Disorders: Developing an Evidence Base" was convened at the NIH with the goals of exploring the use of nutritional interventions in primary mitochondrial disorders (PMD) and identifying knowledge gaps regarding their safety and efficacy; identifying research opportunities; and forging collaborations among researchers, clinicians, patient advocacy groups, and federal partners. Sponsors included the NIH, the Wellcome Trust, and the United Mitochondrial Diseases Foundation...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Antoine Marteyn, Anne Baron-Van Evercooren
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a severe hypomyelinating leukodystrophy resulting from proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1) mutations leading to oligodendrocyte loss. While neuroinflammation has recently become a common feature and actor in neurodegenerative diseases, the involvement of inflammation in PMD physiopathology is still highly debated despite evidence for strong astrogliosis and microglial cell activation. Activation of the innate immune system, and more particularly, of microglia and astrocytes, is mostly associated with the deleterious role of neuroinflammation...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Elizabeth L Stegemöller, David P Allen, Tanya Simuni, Colum D MacKinnon
Premotor areas play a critical role in the control of repetitive movements. While research has shown that movement-related oscillations are abnormal during repetitive movements in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), there is limited research examining the contribution of premotor areas, such as the contralateral dorsal premotor area (PMd) and supplementary motor area (SMA), to this impairment. This study compared movement-related oscillations over premotor regions between participants with PD and control participants...
September 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
J Intirach, A Junkum, N Lumjuan, U Chaithong, A Jitpakdi, D Riyong, A Wannasan, D Champakaew, R Muangmoon, A Chansang, B Pitasawat
The increasing and widespread resistance to conventional synthetic insecticides in vector populations has underscored the urgent need to establish alternatives in the mosquito management system. This study was carried out with the aim to investigate the antimosquito property, larvicidal and adulticidal potential, of plant products against both the pyrethroid-susceptible and resistant strains of Aedes aegypti. Seventeen plant products, including essential oils and ethanolic extracts, were obtained by steam distillation and extraction with 95 % ethanol, respectively...
September 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tim Vanbellingen, Manuela Wapp, Katharina Stegmayer, Manuel Bertschi, Eugenio Abela, Stefanie Kübel, Thomas Nyffeler, René Müri, Sebastian Walther, Tobias Nef, Mark Hallett, Stephan Bohlhalter
Dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) is thought to play a role in fine motor control. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inhibitory or excitatory stimulation of PMd would have an impact on manual dexterity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifteen patients with PD participated in this study. High resolution structural MRI was used for neuro-navigated TBS. Participants were targeted with one train of TBS in three experimental sessions: sham stimulation over vertex, continuous TBS (cTBS) over PMd and intermittent TBS (iTBS) over PMd, respectively...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Olle Eriksson, Anders Wall, Ulf Olsson, Ina Marteinsdottir, Maria Holstad, Hans Ågren, Per Hartvig, Bengt Långström, Tord Naessén
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in brain serotonergic activity between women with Premenstrual Dysphoria (PMD) and asymptomatic controls. BACKGROUND: Serotonin-augmenting drugs alleviate premenstrual mood symptoms in the majority of women with PMD while serotonin-depleting diets worsen PMD symptoms, both indicating intrinsic differences in brain serotonergic activity in women with PMD compared to asymptomatic women...
2016: PloS One
I Retama, M P Jonathan, V C Shruti, S Velumani, S K Sarkar, Priyadarsi D Roy, P F Rodríguez-Espinosa
The presence and impacts of plastic marine debris (PMD) have been documented in the oceans worldwide, and they deserve special attention. This study is the first to report the presence of microplastics in tourist beaches located in Huatulco Bay, southern Mexico. A total of 70 beach sediment samples (for 2 distinct seasons) were collected from Huatulco Bay in April 2013 and December 2014. The samples were subsequently extracted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify the fibrous microplastics (diameter<5mm)...
September 8, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
M Harish Kumar, Karpagaselvi Sanjai, Jayalakshmi Kumarswamy, Roopavathi Keshavaiah, Lokesh Papaiah, S Divya
BACKGROUND: Mucins alteration in glycosylation is associated with the development and progression of malignant diseases. Therefore, mucins are used as valuable markers to distinguish normal and disease conditions. Many studies on MUC1 expression have been conducted on variety of neoplastic lesions other than head and neck region. None of the study has made an attempt to show its significance in potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Hence, ours is one of the pioneer studies done to assess and evaluate the same...
May 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Dmitriy M Niyazov, Stephan G Kahler, Richard E Frye
Mitochondrial disease refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in defective cellular energy production due to abnormal oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos). Primary mitochondrial disease (PMD) is diagnosed clinically and ideally, but not always, confirmed by a known or indisputably pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or nuclear DNA (nDNA) mutation. The PMD genes either encode oxphos proteins directly or they affect oxphos function by impacting production of the complex machinery needed to run the oxphos process...
July 2016: Molecular Syndromology
Sheffali Gulati, Puneet Jain, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Atin Kumar, Neerja Gupta, Madhulika Kabra
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to retrospectively collect and then describe the clinico-radiographical profile of confirmed cases of leukodystrophy who presented over a 5-year period to a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case records of 80 confirmed cases of leukodystrophy were reviewed and the cases have been described in terms of their clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings. RESULTS: The cases have been grouped into five categories: Hypomyelinating, demyelinating, disorders with vacuolization, cystic, and miscellaneous...
July 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Pavan Ramkumar, Brian Dekleva, Sam Cooler, Lee Miller, Konrad Kording
Rewards associated with actions are critical for motivation and learning about the consequences of one's actions on the world. The motor cortices are involved in planning and executing movements, but it is unclear whether they encode reward over and above limb kinematics and dynamics. Here, we report a categorical reward signal in dorsal premotor (PMd) and primary motor (M1) neurons that corresponds to an increase in firing rates when a trial was not rewarded regardless of whether or not a reward was expected...
2016: PloS One
Ana Flávia Schueler de Assumpção Leite, Vagner Gonçalves Bernardo, Luisa Aguirre Buexm, Eliene Carvalho da Fonseca, Licínio Esmeraldo da Silva, Danielle Resende Camisasca Barroso, Simone de Queiroz Chaves Lourenço
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate apoptosis by assessing cleaved caspase-3 immunoexpression in hyperplastic, potentially malignant disorder (PMD), and malignant tumors in intraoral and lower lip sites. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study using paraffin blocks with tissues from patients with inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (IFH), actinic cheilitis, oral leukoplakia, lower lip and intraoral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was performed. The tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis with anti-cleaved caspase-3 antibody...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Ashraf Fakhari, Amir R Jalilian, Hassan Yousefnia, Saeed Shanehsazzadeh, Ali Bahrami Samani, Fariba Johari Daha, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Ali Khalaj
OBJECTIVE: Optimized production and quality control of ytterbium-175 (Yb-175) labeled pamidronate and alendronate complexes as efficient agents for bone pain palliation has been presented. METHODS: Yb-175 labeled pamidronate and alendronate (175Yb-PMD and 175Yb-ALN) complexes were prepared successfully at optimized conditions with acceptable radiochemical purity, stability and significant hydroxyapatite absorption. The biodistribution of complexes were evaluated up to 48 h, which demonstrated significant bone uptake ratios for 175Yb-PAM at all-time intervals...
October 5, 2015: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
J Keller, R Gomez, G Williams, A Lembke, L Lazzeroni, G M Murphy, A F Schatzberg
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a variety of mood and cognitive disorders. Neuroendocrine studies have demonstrated HPA axis overactivity in major depression, a relationship of HPA axis activity to cognitive performance and a potential role of HPA axis genetic variation in cognition. The present study investigated the simultaneous roles HPA axis activity, clinical symptomatology and HPA genetic variation play in cognitive performance. Patients with major depression with psychotic major depression (PMD) and with nonpsychotic major depression (NPMD) and healthy controls (HC) were studied...
August 16, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Jonathan D J Labonne, Tyler D Graves, Yiping Shen, Julie R Jones, Il-Keun Kong, Lawrence C Layman, Hyung-Goo Kim
BACKGROUND: Among the 21 annotated genes at Xq22.2, PLP1 is the only known gene involved in Xq22.2 microdeletion and microduplication syndromes with intellectual disability. Using an atypical microdeletion, which does not encompass PLP1, we implicate a novel gene GLRA4 involved in intellectual disability, behavioral problems and craniofacial anomalies. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a female patient (DGDP084) with a de novo Xq22.2 microdeletion of at least 110 kb presenting with intellectual disability, motor delay, behavioral problems and craniofacial anomalies...
2016: BMC Neurology
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