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M T Harper, A Melgar, J Oh, K Nedelkov, G Sanchez, G W Roth, A N Hristov
Brown midrib brachytic dwarf pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) forage harvested at the flag leaf visible stage and subsequently ensiled was investigated as a partial replacement of corn silage in the diet of high-producing dairy cows. Seventeen lactating Holstein cows were fed 2 diets in a crossover design experiment with 2 periods of 28 d each. Both diets had forage:concentrate ratios of 60:40. The control diet (CSD) was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage, and in the treatment diet, 20% of the corn silage dry matter (corresponding to 10% of the dietary dry matter) was replaced with pearl millet silage (PMD)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Norman Boyd, Hal Berman, Jie Zhu, Lisa J Martin, Martin J Yaffe, Sofia Chavez, Greg Stanisz, Greg Hislop, Anna M Chiarelli, Salomon Minkin, Andrew D Paterson
BACKGROUND: Our purpose is to develop a testable biological hypothesis to explain the known increased risk of breast cancer associated with extensive percent mammographic density (PMD), and to reconcile the apparent paradox that although PMD decreases with increasing age, breast cancer incidence increases. METHODS: We used the Moolgavkar model of carcinogenesis as a framework to examine the known biological properties of the breast tissue components associated with PMD that includes epithelium and stroma, in relation to the development of breast cancer...
March 7, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Christina M Cerkevich, Jon H Kaas
Cortical area 1 is a non-primary somatosensory area in the primate anterior parietal cortex that is critical to tactile discrimination. The corticocortical projections to area 1 in squirrel monkeys were determined by placing multiple injections of anatomical tracers into separate body part representations defined by multiunit microelectrode mapping in area 1. The pattern of labeled cells in the cortex indicated that area 1 has strong intrinsic connections within each body part representation, and has inputs from somatotopically matched regions of areas 3b, 3a, 2, and 5...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Shumaila Javeed, Khurram Saleem Alimgeer, Wajahat Javed, M Atif, Mueen Uddin
Radio refractivity plays a significant role in the development and design of radio systems for attaining the best level of performance. Refractivity in the troposphere is one of the features affecting electromagnetic waves, and hence the communication system interrupts. In this work, a modified artificial neural network (ANN) based model is applied to predict the refractivity. The suggested ANN model comprises three modules: the data preparation module, the feature selection module, and the forecast module...
2018: PloS One
Pablo Martínez-Vázquez, Alexander Gail
Goal-directed behavior requires cognitive control of action, putatively by means of frontal-lobe impact on posterior brain areas. We investigated frontoparietal directed interaction (DI) in monkeys during memory-guided rule-based reaches, to test if DI supports motor-goal selection or working memory (WM) processes. We computed DI between the parietal reach region (PRR) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) with a Granger-causality measure of intracortical local field potentials (LFP). LFP mostly in the beta (12-32 Hz) and low-frequency (f≤10Hz) ranges contributed to DI...
February 22, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
M Joana Osório, Steven A Goldman
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the PLP1 gene, which encodes the proteolipid protein of myelinating oligodendroglia. PMD exhibits phenotypic variability that reflects its considerable genotypic heterogeneity, but all forms of the disease result in central hypomyelination associated with early neurologic dysfunction, progressive deterioration, and ultimately death. PMD has been classified into three major subtypes, according to the age of presentation: connatal PMD, classic PMD, and transitional PMD, combining features of both connatal and classic forms...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Christos Sachpekidis, Hoda Anwar, Julia Winkler, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Lionel Larribere, Uwe Haberkorn, Jessica C Hassel, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the value of interim18 F-FDG PET/CT performed after the first two cycles of ipilimumab treatment in the prediction of the final clinical response to this type of immunotherapy. METHODS: The study group comprised 41 patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma scheduled for ipilimumab therapy. Whole-body18 F-FDG PET/CT was performed before the start of ipilimumab treatment (baseline PET/CT) and after the initial two cycles of ipilimumab treatment (interim PET/CT)...
February 24, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Lisbeth Hoejkjaer Larsen, Ivan Chrilles Zibrandtsen, Troels Wienecke, Troels Wesenberg Kjaer, Henning Langberg, Jens Bo Nielsen, Mark Schram Christensen
The functional relevance of cortical reorganisation post-stroke is still not well understood. In this study we investigated task-specific modulation of cortical connectivity between neural oscillations in key motor regions during the early phase after stroke. EEG and EMG recordings were examined from 15 patients and 18 controls during a precision grip task using the affected hand. Each patient attended two sessions in the acute and subacute phase (median of 3 & 34 days) post-stroke. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for induced responses was used to investigate task-specific modulations of oscillatory couplings in a bilateral network comprising supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and primary motor cortex (M1)...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yingying Zhang, Zide Zhao, Yanan Yu, Jun Liu, Pengqian Wang, Bing Li, Xiaoxu Zhang, Yinying Chen, Zhong Wang
Identifying the variation of core modules and hubs seems to be critical for characterizing variable pharmacological mechanisms based on topological alteration of disease networks. We firstly identified a total of 8 core modules by using an approach of multiple modular characteristic fusing (MMCF) from different targeted networks in ischemic mice. Interestingly, the value of module disturbance intensity (MDI) increased in drug combination group. Secondly, we redefined a weak allosteric module and a strong allosteric module...
February 21, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
C Dussud, A L Meistertzheim, P Conan, M Pujo-Pay, M George, P Fabre, J Coudane, P Higgs, A Elineau, M L Pedrotti, G Gorsky, J F Ghiglione
Plastic pollution is widespread in ocean ecosystems worldwide, but it is unknown if plastic offers a unique habitat for bacteria compared to communities in the water column and attached to naturally-occurring organic particles. The large set of samples taken during the Tara-Mediterranean expedition revealed for the first time a clear niche partitioning between free-living (FL), organic particle-attached (PA) and the recently introduced plastic marine debris (PMD). Bacterial counts in PMD presented higher cell enrichment factors than generally observed for PA fraction, when compared to FL bacteria in the surrounding waters...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Zhenqi Niu, Nan Gao, Zonghua Zhang, Feng Gao, Xiangqian Jiang
This paper presents an advanced phase measuring deflectometry (PMD) method based on a novel mathematical model to obtain three dimensional (3D) shape of discontinuous specular object using a bi-telecentric lens. The proposed method uses an LCD screen, a flat beam splitter, a camera with a bi-telecentric lens, and a translating stage. The LCD screen is used to display sinusoidal fringe patterns and can be moved by the stage to two different positions along the normal direction of a reference plane. The camera captures the deformed fringe patterns reflected by the measured specular surface...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Shoko Jitsumori, Michihisa Shiro, Fumiyoshi Kojima, Nami Ota, Sawako Minami, Kazuhiko Ino
We report a rare case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) with fetal growth restriction (FGR) in one placenta of a dichorionic diamniotic (DD) twin pregnancy. A 24-year-old woman was referred to our hospital at 24 weeks' gestation due to FGR and ipsilateral placental abnormality in DD twins. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging showed one placenta of the FGR fetus was bulky and had multiple cysts, while the other fetus placenta appeared normal. Cesarean section was performed at 32 weeks' gestation; the first and second neonates weighted 1799 and 1215 g, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
A Esen, E Soganci, E Dolanmaz, D Dolanmaz
Surgically-assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) is commonly used to treat skeletally mature patients with transverse discrepancies. Some osteotomies are made in areas that resist expansion, but there is no clear consensus about the sequence in which the osteotomies are made. Some clinicians do the pterygomaxillary osteotomy last, while others do it before the midpalatal osteotomy. We used the finite element method to measure the stresses on the midface, cranial base and pterygoid plates at the time of midpalatal osteotomy in two models, one with and one without pterygomaxillary dysjunction (PMD)...
January 30, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Tomohiko Tokunaga, Takashi Ando, Miki Suzuki-Karasaki, Tomohisa Ito, Asuka Onoe-Takahashi, Toyoko Ochiai, Masayoshi Soma, Yoshihiro Suzuki-Karasaki
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and cold plasma-stimulated medium (PSM) have been shown to exhibit tumor-selective cytotoxicity and have emerged as promising new tools for cancer treatment. However, to date, at least to the best of our knowledge, no data are available as to which substance is more potent in killing cancer cells. Thus, in this study, we systematically compared their abilities to kill human malignant cells from different origins. We found that PSM dose-dependently killed TRAIL-resistant melanoma, osteosarcoma and neuroblastoma cells...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Vidya Kadashetti, K M Shivakumar, Minal Chaudhary, Swati Patil, Madhuri Gawande, Alka Hande
Background: Tobacco use can alone lead to death worldwide, especially in developing and underdeveloped countries. China and Brazil are the world's largest producer of tobacco. India holds the third place in producing, and it is the fourth largest consumer of tobacco and its products in the world. Objectives: A case-control study was carried out to assess the influence of risk factors on patients with potentially malignant disorders (PMD) and oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases diagnosed with PMD and oral cancer patients were selected for the study...
September 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Noriyuki Higo, Akira Sato, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Takao Oishi, Yukio Nishimura, Yumi Murata, Hirotaka Onoe, Tadashi Isa, Toshio Kojima
The present study aimed to assess the molecular bases of cortical compensatory mechanisms following spinal cord injury in primates. To accomplish this, comprehensive changes in gene expression were investigated in the bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) after a unilateral lesion of the lateral corticospinal tract (l-CST). At 2 weeks after the lesion, a large number of genes exhibited altered expression levels in the contralesional M1, which is directly linked to the lesioned l-CST...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
André M Bastos, Roman Loonis, Simon Kornblith, Mikael Lundqvist, Earl K Miller
All of the cerebral cortex has some degree of laminar organization. These different layers are composed of neurons with distinct connectivity patterns, embryonic origins, and molecular profiles. There are little data on the laminar specificity of cognitive functions in the frontal cortex, however. We recorded neuronal spiking/local field potentials (LFPs) using laminar probes in the frontal cortex (PMd, 8A, 8B, SMA/ACC, DLPFC, and VLPFC) of monkeys performing working memory (WM) tasks. LFP power in the gamma band (50-250 Hz) was strongest in superficial layers, and LFP power in the alpha/beta band (4-22 Hz) was strongest in deep layers...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Heather P Adams, Jennifer Malloy
Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare disorder of the placenta characterized by placentomegaly, cystic vesicles, and dilated chorionic blood vessels. Clinically and pathologically, it closely resembles partial molar pregnancy and complete hydatidiform mole with a coexistent healthy fetus, both of which are associated with malignant trophoblastic disease. PMD, however, has no risk of malignant trophoblastic disease and can result in the birth of a normal fetus, highlighting the need for clinician awareness of PMD in order to avoid unnecessary termination of a viable and potentially healthy fetus...
January 2018: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
S J Vinnicombe
The term "breast density" or mammographic density (MD) denotes those components of breast parenchyma visualised at mammography that are denser than adipose tissue. MD is composed of a mixture of epithelial and stromal components, notably collagen, in variable proportions. MD is most commonly assessed in clinical practice with the time-honoured method of visual estimation of area-based percent density (PMD) on a mammogram, with categorisation into quartiles. The computerised semi-automated thresholding method, Cumulus, also yielding area-based percent density, is widely used for research purposes; however, the advent of fully automated volumetric methods developed as a consequence of the widespread use of digital mammography (DM) and yielding both absolute and percent dense volumes, has resulted in an explosion of interest in MD recently...
December 19, 2017: Clinical Radiology
Bhandarkar Gowri Pandarinath, V Shetty Kushal, Kulkarni Arati
Oral submucous fibrosis(OSMF), because of its common occurrence in Indian population is known as India's disease. Regardless of diagnostic and therapeutic developments, oral potentially malignant disorders(PMD) and cancers are disseminating at a distressing rate. There is this prerequisite for unrelenting determination to find out apt treatment options so that malignant transformation may be prevented and more so the prevailing morbidity and mortality. Considering the frequency with which oral submucous fibrosis undergoes malignant transformation with free radicals playing a major part, the role of antioxidants in general and thioctic acid also known as alpha lipoic acid(ALA) in particular need to be studied in these individuals...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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