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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433648/repeated-threat-without-direct-harm-alters-metabolic-capacity-in-select-regions-that-drive-defensive-behavior
#1
D J Kim, A S Lee, A A Yttredahl, R Gómez-Rodríguez, B J Anderson
To understand the behavioral consequences of intermittent anticipatory stress resulting from threats without accompanying physiological challenges, we developed a semi-naturalistic rodent housing and foraging environment that can include threats that are unpredictable in timing. Behavior is automatically recorded while rats forage for food or water. Over three weeks, the threats have been shown to elicit risk assessment behaviors, increase defensive burying and increase adrenal gland weight. To identify brain regions activated by this manipulation, we measured cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is tightly coupled to neural activity...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392964/the-use-of-korean-medicine-to-treat-patients-with-spinobulbar-muscular-atrophy-kennedy-s-disease-a-case-study
#2
Seongjin Lee, Eunhye Cha, Jongcheol Lee, Jongdeok Lee, Inja Song, Sungchul Kim
OBJECTIVES: Studies involving patients with spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), which is often referred to as Kennedy's disease, similar to those involving patients with progressive muscular disease (PMD), are rare. This paper reports a case study involving the use of Korean medicine to treat a patient with SBMA. METHODS: We treated a patient with SBMA with unique symptoms by using various kinds of pharmacopuncture and herbal medicines for about two and a half years...
March 2017: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391726/determinants-of-percent-mammographic-density-in-women-with-premature-ovarian-insufficiency
#3
F R Torelli, M F Brancalion, D A Yela, C L Benetti-Pinto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the determinants of breast density in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 163 women with POI undergoing mammography, percent mammographic density (PMD) was evaluated by digitizing the image. PMD was correlated with age, age at menarche, age at POI, time since POI, body mass index (BMI), gestational history and hormone therapy (HT) use (duration, dose, regimen). RESULTS: POI was diagnosed at a mean age of 32...
April 9, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389395/high-throughput-enzyme-screening-platform-for-the-ipp-bypass-mevalonate-pathway-for-isopentenol-production
#4
Aram Kang, Corey W Meadows, Nicolas Canu, Jay D Keasling, Taek Soon Lee
Isopentenol (or isoprenol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol) is a drop-in biofuel and a precursor for commodity chemicals such as isoprene. Biological production of isopentenol via the mevalonate pathway has been optimized extensively in Escherichia coli, yielding 70% of its theoretical maximum. However, high ATP requirements and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) toxicity pose immediate challenges for engineering bacterial strains to overproduce commodities utilizing IPP as an intermediate. To overcome these limitations, we developed an "IPP-bypass" isopentenol pathway using the promiscuous activity of a mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (PMD) and demonstrated improved performance under aeration-limited conditions...
April 5, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366443/modeling-the-mutational-and-phenotypic-landscapes-of-pelizaeus-merzbacher-disease-with-human-ipsc-derived-oligodendrocytes
#5
Zachary S Nevin, Daniel C Factor, Robert T Karl, Panagiotis Douvaras, Jeremy Laukka, Martha S Windrem, Steven A Goldman, Valentina Fossati, Grace M Hobson, Paul J Tesar
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a pediatric disease of myelin in the central nervous system and manifests with a wide spectrum of clinical severities. Although PMD is a rare monogenic disease, hundreds of mutations in the X-linked myelin gene proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) have been identified in humans. Attempts to identify a common pathogenic process underlying PMD have been complicated by an incomplete understanding of PLP1 dysfunction and limited access to primary human oligodendrocytes. To address this, we generated panels of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and hiPSC-derived oligodendrocytes from 12 individuals with mutations spanning the genetic and clinical diversity of PMD-including point mutations and duplication, triplication, and deletion of PLP1-and developed an in vitro platform for molecular and cellular characterization of all 12 mutations simultaneously...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351570/topical-agents-for-oral-cancer-chemoprevention-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Lucy Chau, Justin T Jabara, Wanda Lai, Peter F Svider, Blake M Warner, Ho-Sheng Lin, S Naweed Raza, Andrew M Fribley
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: We review the use of topical chemoprevention agents in patients with oral potentially malignant disorders (PMD). METHODS: A systematic review of studies on topical chemoprevention agents for oral PMD from 1946 to November 2016 was conducted using the MEDLINE database, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Data were extracted and analyzed from selected studies including study type, sample size, demographics, treatment length, response rate, follow-up time, adverse effects, and recurrence...
April 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334874/efficient-cnv-breakpoint-analysis-reveals-unexpected-structural-complexity-and-correlation-of-dosage-sensitive-genes-with-clinical-severity-in-genomic-disorders
#7
Ling Zhang, Jingmin Wang, Cheng Zhang, Dongxiao Li, Claudia M B Carvalho, Haoran Ji, Jianqiu Xiao, Ye Wu, Weichen Zhou, Hongyan Wang, Li Jin, Yang Luo, Xiru Wu, James R Lupski, Feng Zhang, Yuwu Jiang
Genomic disorders are the clinical conditions manifested by submicroscopic genomic rearrangements including copy number variants (CNVs). The CNVs can be identified by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), the most commonly used technology for molecular diagnostics of genomic disorders. However, clinical aCGH only informs CNVs in the probe interrogated regions. Neither orientational information nor the resulting genomic rearrangement structure is provided, which is a key to uncovering mutational and pathogenic mechanisms underlying genomic disorders...
March 14, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330094/characterization-of-antibiotic-resistant-and-enzyme-producing-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-the-arabian-sea
#8
Preeti N Tallur, Dayanand B Sajjan, Sikandar I Mulla, Manjunatha P Talwar, A Pragasam, Vinayak M Nayak, Harichandra Z Ninnekar, Shivanand S Bhat
Marine bacteria are known to produce many bioactive molecules and extracellular enzymes of commercial importance. We have investigated the bacterial diversity of the coastal area of Karwar, Karnataka State, India. Among these bacterial isolates, five bacterial strains were selected and identified by their morphological, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The identified bacterial isolates, Bacillus toyonensis PNTB1, Lysinibacillus sphaericus PTB, Vibrio vulnificus PMD, Shewanella MPTDBS, and Pseudomonas chlororaphis PNTB were characterized for their tolerance to salt and antibiotics...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328133/an-xq22-1q22-2-nullisomy-in-a-male-patient-with-severe-neurological-impairment
#9
Kentaro Shirai, Yuya Higashi, Keiko Shimojima, Toshiyuki Yamamoto
The proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1) is located on chromosome Xq22.2 and is related to X-linked recessive leukoencephalopathy (Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease: PMD). Compared to PLP1 duplications, which are a major contributor to PMD, chromosomal deletions in this region are rare and only a few PMD patients with small deletions have been reported, suggesting that large deletions of this region would cause embryonic lethality. Previously, we have reported female patients, with chromosomal deletions in this region, who showed severe developmental delays and behavioral abnormalities...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322424/perinatal-mental-disorders-in-switzerland-prevalence-estimates-and-use-of-mental-health-services
#10
Anke Berger, Nicole Bachmann, Andri Signorell, Rebekka Erdin, Stephan Oelhafen, Oliver Reich, Eva Cignacco
BACKGROUND: Perinatal mental disorders (PMDs) are the most common complication of pregnancy and the first postpartum year. Since PMD prevalence and use of mental-health services by perinatal women in Switzerland are unknown, we analysed existing health statistics. METHODS: We used statistics from a large health insurance company, hospitals and freelance midwives. We assessed the annual rates of mental-healthcare use in perinatal women (n = 13 969). We ascertained the annual rates of PMD treatment in obstetric inpatients (n = 89 699), and annual rates of PMD records by freelance midwives (n = 57 951)...
March 21, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320702/actinic-cheilosis-early-intervention-prevents-malignant-transformation
#11
Arvind Muthukrishnan, Laliytha Bijai Kumar
Potentially malignant disorders (PMD) have a high risk of malignant transformation. Habits such as tobacco and alcohol use predispose to PMD and subsequently to an oral carcinoma. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) can occur even without the usage of tobacco. Occupational exposure to actinic rays may predispose to the development of OSCC in the lip. People who are involved in farming or those exposed to an environmental background radiation, such as ultraviolet rays, develop a PMD called actinic cheilosis...
March 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299610/pharmacovigilance-of-regenerative-medicine-under-the-amended-pharmaceutical-affairs-act-in-japan
#12
Yasuko Inokuma
Two Japanese regulatory agencies, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency announced the implementation of a new review system called 'Conditional Approval,' specifically for the emerging field of regenerative medicine, in an amendment to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act in 2014. Regenerative medicine was regulated in the category of 'Medical Devices' prior to the amendment and was not covered by the Relief Service, a system that provides financial aid to people who have experienced an adverse drug reaction and developed serious side effects as a result...
March 15, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286750/cellular-pathology-of-pelizaeus-merzbacher-disease-involving-chaperones-associated-with-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#13
REVIEW
Ken Inoue
Disease-causing mutations in genes encoding membrane proteins may lead to the production of aberrant polypeptides that accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These mutant proteins have detrimental conformational changes or misfolding events, which result in the triggering of the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR is a cellular pathway that reduces ER stress by generally inhibiting translation, increasing ER chaperones levels, or inducing cell apoptosis in severe ER stress. This process has been implicated in the cellular pathology of many neurological disorders, including Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286476/decoding-movement-goals-from-the-fronto-parietal-reach-network
#14
Hanna Gertz, Angelika Lingnau, Katja Fiehler
During reach planning, fronto-parietal brain areas need to transform sensory information into a motor code. It is debated whether these areas maintain a sensory representation of the visual cue or a motor representation of the upcoming movement goal. Here, we present results from a delayed pro-/anti-reach task which allowed for dissociating the position of the visual cue from the reach goal. In this task, the visual cue was combined with a context rule (pro vs. anti) to infer the movement goal. Different levels of movement goal specification during the delay were obtained by presenting the context rule either before the delay together with the visual cue (specified movement goal) or after the delay (underspecified movement goal)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277114/interdisciplinary-consensus-on-management-of-premenstrual-disorders-in-switzerland
#15
Petra Stute, Christine Bodmer, Ulrike Ehlert, Roger Eltbogen, Ankica Ging, Isabelle Streuli, Michael von Wolff
Premenstrual disorders (PMD) can affect women throughout their entire reproductive years. In 2016, an interdisciplinary expert meeting of general gynecologists, gynecological endocrinologists, psychiatrists and psychologists from Switzerland was held to provide an interdisciplinary algorithm on PMD management taking reproductive stages into account. The Swiss PMD algorithm differentiates between primary and secondary PMD care providers incorporating different levels of diagnostic and treatment. Treatment options include cognitive behavioral therapy, alternative therapy, antidepressants, ovulation suppression and diuretics...
March 2, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253075/the-contribution-of-different-cortical-regions-to-the-control-of-spatially-decoupled-eye-hand-coordination
#16
Patricia F Sayegh, Diana J Gorbet, Kara M Hawkins, Kari L Hoffman, Lauren E Sergio
Our brain's ability to flexibly control the communication between the eyes and the hand allows for our successful interaction with the objects located within our environment. This flexibility has been observed in the pattern of neural responses within key regions of the frontoparietal reach network. More specifically, our group has shown how single-unit and oscillatory activity within the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and the superior parietal lobule (SPL) change contingent on the level of visuomotor compatibility between the eyes and hand...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252958/mixed-probe-simulation-and-probe-derived-surface-topography-map-analysis-for-ligand-binding-site-identification
#17
Abdallah Sayyed-Ahmad, Alemayehu A Gorfe
Membrane proteins represent a considerable fraction of pharmaceutical drug targets. A computational technique to identify ligand binding pockets in these proteins is therefore of great importance. We recently reported such a technique called pMD-membrane that utilizes small molecule probes to detect ligand binding sites and surface hotspots on membrane proteins based on probe-based molecular dynamics simulation. The current work extends pMD-membrane to a diverse set of small organic molecular species that can be used as cosolvents during simulation of membrane proteins...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241660/on-the-limits-of-digital-back-propagation-in-the-presence-of-transceiver-noise
#18
Lidia Galdino, Daniel Semrau, Domaniç Lavery, Gabriel Saavedra, Cristian B Czegledi, Erik Agrell, Robert I Killey, Polina Bayvel
This paper investigates the impact of transceiver noise on the performance of digital back-propagation (DBP). A generalized expression to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained using DBP in the presence of transceiver noise is described. This new expression correctly accounts for the nonlinear beating between the transceiver noise and the signal in the optical fiber transmission link. The transceiver noise-signal nonlinear beating has been identified as the main reason for the discrepancy between predicted and practical performance of DBP; which has not been previously suggested...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219983/neural-representation-and-causal-models-in-motor-cortex
#19
Kris S Chaisanguanthum, Helen H Shen, Philip N Sabes
Dorsal premotor (PMd) and primary motor (M1) cortices play a central role in mapping sensation to movement. Many studies of these areas have focused on correlation-based tuning curves relating neural activity to task or movement parameters, but the link between tuning and movement generation is unclear. We recorded motor preparatory activity from populations of neurons in PMd/M1 as macaque monkeys performed a visually guided reaching task and show that tuning curves for sensory inputs (reach target direction) and motor outputs (initial movement direction) are not typically aligned...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213119/the-heterogeneity-of-the-left-dorsal-premotor-cortex-evidenced-by-multimodal-connectivity-based-parcellation-and-functional-characterization
#20
Sarah Genon, Andrew Reid, Hai Li, Lingzhong Fan, Veronika I Müller, Edna C Cieslik, Felix Hoffstaedter, Robert Langner, Christian Grefkes, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Tianzi Jiang, Katrin Amunts, Simon B Eickhoff
Despite the common conception of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) as a single brain region, its diverse connectivity profiles and behavioral heterogeneity argue for a differentiated organization of the PMd. A previous study revealed that the right PMd is characterized by a rostro-caudal and a ventro-dorsal distinction dividing it into five subregions: rostral, central, caudal, ventral and dorsal. The present study assessed whether a similar organization is present in the left hemisphere, by capitalizing on a multimodal data-driven approach combining connectivity-based parcellation (CBP) based on meta-analytic modeling, resting-state functional connectivity, and probabilistic diffusion tractography...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
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