keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

substitution rate

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647389/improving-abnormality-detection-on-chest-radiography-using-game-like-reinforcement-mechanics
#1
Po-Hao Chen, Howard Roth, Maya Galperin-Aizenberg, Alexander T Ruutiainen, Warren Gefter, Tessa S Cook
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Despite their increasing prevalence, online textbooks, question banks, and digital references focus primarily on explicit knowledge. Implicit skills such as abnormality detection require repeated practice on clinical service and have few digital substitutes. Using mechanics traditionally deployed in video games such as clearly defined goals, rapid-fire levels, and narrow time constraints may be an effective way to teach implicit skills. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We created a freely available, online module to evaluate the ability of individuals to differentiate between normal and abnormal chest radiographs by implementing mechanics, including instantaneous feedback, rapid-fire cases, and 15-second timers...
June 21, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647357/biophysical-characterization-of-histone-h3-3-k27%C3%A2-m-point-mutation
#2
Szabolcs Hetey, Beáta Boros-Oláh, Tímea Kuik-Rózsa, Qiuzhen Li, Zsolt Karányi, Zoltán Szabó, Jason Roszik, Nikoletta Szalóki, György Vámosi, Katalin Tóth, Lóránt Székvölgyi
Lysine 27 to methionine (K27 M) mutation of the histone variant H3.3 drives the formation of an aggressive glioblastoma multiforme tumor in infants. Here we analyzed how the methionine substitution alters the stability of H3.3 nucleosomes in vitro and modifies its kinetic properties in live cells. We also determined whether the presence of mutant nucleosomes perturbed the mobility of the PRC2 subunit Ezh2 (enhancer-of-zeste homolog 2). We found that K27 M nucleosomes maintained the wild-type molecular architecture both at the level of bulk histones and single nucleosomes and followed similar diffusion kinetics to wild-type histones in live cells...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645631/outcomes-of-first-generation-egfr-tkis-against-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-harboring-uncommon-egfr-mutations-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-be-positive-study
#3
Sara Pilotto, Antonio Rossi, Tiziana Vavalà, Alessandro Follador, Marcello Tiseo, Domenico Galetta, Alessandro Morabito, Massimo Di Maio, Olga Martelli, Orazio Caffo, Pier Luigi Piovano, Diego Cortinovis, Nicoletta Zilembo, Clelia Casartelli, Giuseppe Luigi Banna, Antonio Ardizzoia, Maria Luisa Barzelloni, Alessandra Bearz, Giovenzio Genestreti, Claudia Mucciarini, Virginio Filipazzi, Jessica Menis, Elisa Rizzo, Fausto Barbieri, Erika Rijavec, Fabiana Cecere, Gianluca Spitaleri, Emilio Bria, Silvia Novello
BACKGROUND: Beyond progression after tyrosine kinase inhibitor in EGFR-positive non-small-cell lung cancer patients (BE-POSITIVE) was the first Italian multicenter observational study that reported the outcomes of first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in a "real-life" Caucasian EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) population. The sharing of multi-institutional experiences represents a crucial strategy to enrich knowledge about uncommon EGFR mutations...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645195/mutational-biases-influence-parallel-adaptation
#4
Arlin Stoltzfus, David M McCandlish
While mutational biases strongly influence neutral molecular evolution, the role of mutational biases in shaping the course of adaptation is less clear. Here we consider the frequency of transitions relative to transversions among adaptive substitutions. Because mutation rates for transitions are higher than those for transversions, if mutational biases influence the dynamics of adaptation, then transitions should be over-represented among documented adaptive substitutions. To test this hypothesis, we assembled 2 sets of data on putatively adaptive amino acid replacements that have occurred in parallel during evolution, either in nature or in the laboratory...
June 22, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644739/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-new-fixed-dose-combinations
#5
Vicente Soriano
The advent of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutic landscape providing cure rates over 90%. However, a subset of patients remains at higher risk for treatment failure, including those infected with: i) genotype 3 and cirrhosis; ii) resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) occurring either as natural polymorphisms or selected after prior DAA failure; and iii) poor drug adherence associated with social disabilities (homeless, psychiatric illnesses, injection drug use, alcoholism, etc...
June 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642787/mutational-signatures-are-critical-for-proper-estimation-of-purifying-selection-pressures-in-cancer-somatic-mutation-data-when-using-the-dn-ds-metric
#6
Jimmy Van den Eynden, Erik Larsson
Large cancer genome sequencing initiatives have led to the identification of cancer driver genes based on signals of positive selection in somatic mutation data. Additionally, the identification of purifying (negative) selection has the potential to identify essential genes that may be of therapeutic interest. The most widely used way of quantifying selection pressures in protein-coding genes is the dN/dS metric, which compares non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates. In this study, we examine whether and how this metric is influenced by the mutational processes that have been active during tumor evolution...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642700/pricing-and-reimbursement-of-biosimilars-in-central-and-eastern-european-countries
#7
Paweł Kawalec, Ewa Stawowczyk, Tomas Tesar, Jana Skoupa, Adina Turcu-Stiolica, Maria Dimitrova, Guenka I Petrova, Zinta Rugaja, Agnes Männik, Andras Harsanyi, Pero Draganic
Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the requirements for the reimbursement of biosimilars and to compare the reimbursement status, market share, and reimbursement costs of biosimilars in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 among experts from the following CEE countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania. The requirements for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars were reviewed for each country...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642696/how-accumulated-real-life-stress-experience-and-cognitive-speed-interact-on-decision-making-processes
#8
Eva Friedel, Miriam Sebold, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Stephan Nebe, Ilya M Veer, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Florian Schlagenhauf, Michael N Smolka, Michael Rapp, Henrik Walter, Andreas Heinz
Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative) on one side, and habitual (automatic) decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642345/evolution-of-nonspectral-rhodopsin-function-at-high-altitudes
#9
Gianni M Castiglione, Frances E Hauser, Brian S Liao, Nathan K Lujan, Alexander Van Nynatten, James M Morrow, Ryan K Schott, Nihar Bhattacharyya, Sarah Z Dungan, Belinda S W Chang
High-altitude environments present a range of biochemical and physiological challenges for organisms through decreases in oxygen, pressure, and temperature relative to lowland habitats. Protein-level adaptations to hypoxic high-altitude conditions have been identified in multiple terrestrial endotherms; however, comparable adaptations in aquatic ectotherms, such as fishes, have not been as extensively characterized. In enzyme proteins, cold adaptation is attained through functional trade-offs between stability and activity, often mediated by substitutions outside the active site...
June 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642075/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-different-municipal-solid-waste-management-scenarios-in-china-based-on-carbon-and-energy-flow-analysis
#10
Yili Liu, Weixin Sun, Jianguo Liu
Waste management is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and many opportunities exist to reduce these emissions. To identify the GHG emissions from waste management in China, the characteristics of MSW and the current and future treatment management strategies, five typical management scenarios were modeled by EaseTech software following the principles of life cycle inventory and analyzed based on the carbon and energy flows. Due to the high organic fraction (50-70%) and moisture content (>50%) of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW), the net GHG emissions in waste management had a significant difference from the developed countries...
June 19, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641294/the-impact-of-gender-on-tumour-stage-in-in-house-complications-and-choice-of-urinary-diversion-results-of-the-austrian-cystectomy-registry
#11
Tanja Gschliesser, Klaus Eredics, Ingrid Berger, Michael Szelinger, Hans Christoph Klingler, Thomas Colombo, Anton Ponholzer, Eugen Plas, Karl Grubmüller, Michael Dunzinger, Klaus Jeschke, Erich Würnschimmel, Frens Steffen Krause, Sharokh Shariat, Karl Leeb, Alexandre Pelzer, Claus Riedl, Michael Rauchenwald, Wilhelm Hübner, Clemens Brössner, Stephan Madersbacher
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Bladder cancer is characterized by gender-dependent disparities. To further address this issue, we analysed a prospective, multicentre cystectomy registry. METHODS: An online database was developed that included patient demographics, intra/perioperative data, surgical data and in-house complications. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-eight patients (112 [24.5%] women and 346 [75.5%] men) were analysed. Men and women were comparable regarding age (mean 68 years), body mass index (mean 26...
June 23, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641219/comparison-of-brand-versus-generic-antiepileptic-drug-adverse-event-reporting-rates-in-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration-adverse-event-reporting-system-faers
#12
Md Motiur Rahman, Yasser Alatawi, Ning Cheng, Jingjing Qian, Annya V Plotkina, Peggy L Peissig, Richard L Berg, David Page, Richard A Hansen
OBJECTIVE: Despite the cost saving role of generic anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), debate exists as to whether generic substitution of branded AEDs may lead to therapeutic failure and increased toxicity. This study compared adverse event (AE) reporting rates for brand vs. authorized generic (AG) vs. generic AEDs. Since AGs are pharmaceutically identical to brand but perceived as generics, the generic vs. AG comparison minimized potential bias against generics. METHODS: Events reported to the U...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641024/perinatal-mortality-classification-an-analysis-of-112-cases-of-stillbirth
#13
Ana Paula Reis, Ana Rocha, Andrea Lebre, Umbelina Ramos, Ana Cunha
This was a retrospective cohort analysis of stillbirths that occurred from January 2004 to December 2013 in our institution. We compared Tulip and Wigglesworth classification systems on a cohort of stillbirths and analysed the main differences between these two classifications. In this period, there were 112 stillbirths of a total of 31,758 births (stillbirth rate of 3.5 per 1000 births). There were 99 antepartum deaths and 13 intrapartum deaths. Foetal autopsy was performed in 99 cases and placental histopathological examination in all of the cases...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641002/mechanistic-study-of-smi2-h2o-and-smi2-amine-h2o-promoted-chemoselective-reduction-of-aromatic-amides-primary-secondary-tertiary-to-alcohols-via-aminoketyl-radicals
#14
Syed R Huq, Shicheng Shi, Ray Diao, Michal Szostak
Samarium(II) iodide-water and samarium(II) iodide-water-amine complexes have been recognized as valuable reagents for the selective generation of aminoketyl radicals from amides and derivatives. The resulting aminoketyl radicals can undergo reduction or reductive cyclization pathways, providing a powerful method for (i) direct synthesis of alcohols from amides by the challenging N-C bond scission and (ii) synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles via polarity reversal of the amide bond. This report describes mechanistic investigation into samarium(II) iodide-water and samarium(II) iodide-water-amine-mediated generation of benzylic aminoketyl radicals from aromatic primary, secondary, and tertiary amides (benzamides)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640677/constant-lethality-of-gunshot-injuries-from-firearm-assault-united-states-2003-2012
#15
Philip J Cook, Ariadne E Rivera-Aguirre, Magdalena Cerdá, Garen Wintemute
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity of the apparent downward trend in the national case-fatality rate for gunshot wounds from assault. METHODS: We reanalyzed the estimated annual number of nonfatal firearm injuries the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System reported from 2003 to 2012. We adjusted the estimates for discontinuities created by the substitution of 1 hospital for another in the sample and for a downward trend in the percentage of gunshot injuries classified as "unknown circumstance...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640076/efficacy-of-methylphenidate-for-the-treatment-of-mental-sequelae-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Wei-Tao Zhang, Ya-Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of methylphenidate for treating mental sequelae after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Thirty-six patients with TBI were randomly divided into the intervention group and placebo group. The participants in the intervention group received methylphenidate, while subjects in the placebo group were administered a placebo. This study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2016. The outcome measurements included Mental Fatigue Scale, Choice Reaction Time, Compensatory Tracking Task, Mental Arithmetic Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639642/cleavage-of-ethers-in-an-ionic-liquid-enhancement-selectivity-and-potential-application
#17
William E S Hart, Leigh Aldous, Jason B Harper
The cleavage of a series of ethers was examined in an ionic liquid containing hydrogen bromide. Reactions that did not proceed in either water or DMSO were found to proceed readily in this system, with notable selectivity between the cleavage of the different ether types examined herein. Increasing the proportion of water in the reaction mixture dramatically decreased the rate constant of ether cleavage; this could, in part, be attributed to a decrease in the solvent stabilisation of the transition state. Through analysis of the electronic requirements of the reaction (using substrates containing substituents with different Hammett parameters) and observation of rate enhancements for an ortho substituted system, the importance of the extent of protonation of the ether prior to nucleophilic attack was demonstrated...
June 22, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637758/genome-wide-analysis-of-eighteen-epstein-barr-viruses-isolated-from-primary-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-biopsies
#18
Chaofeng Tu, Zhaoyang Zeng, Peng Qi, Xiayu Li, Zhengyuan Yu, Can Guo, Fang Xiong, Bo Xiang, Ming Zhou, Zhaojian Gong, Qianjin Liao, Jianjun Yu, Yi He, Wenling Zhang, Xiaoling Li, Yong Li, Guiyuan Li, Wei Xiong
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous gamma-herpesvirus that is highly prevalent in almost all human populations, and is associated with many human cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), Hodgkin's disease, and gastric carcinoma. However, in these EBV-associated cancers, only NPC exhibits remarkable ethnic and geographic distribution. We hypothesized that EBV genomic variations might contribute to the pathogenesis of different human cancers in different geographic areas. In this study, we collected 18 NPC biopsies from the Hunan Province in Southern China and de novo assembled 18 NPC biopsy specimen-derived EBV (NPC-EBV) genomes, designated as HN1 to HN18...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637293/conserved-non-exonic-elements-a-novel-class-of-marker-for-phylogenomics
#19
Scott V Edwards, Alison Cloutier, Allan J Baker
Noncoding markers have a particular appeal as tools for phylogenomic analysis because, at least in vertebrates, they appear less subject to strong variation in GC content among lineages. Thus far, ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and introns have been the most widely used noncoding markers. Here we analyze and study the evolutionary properties of a new type of noncoding marker, conserved non-exonic elements (CNEEs), which consists of noncoding elements that are estimated to evolve slower than the neutral rate across a set of species...
June 16, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637120/is-tutobone-an-efficient-alternative-to-other-implants-used-in-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-surgeries
#20
Savithru Kumar Prakash, Nitin Mukerji, Fredrik Prem Nath
BACKGROUND: The graft site morbidity following iliac crest harvesting is significant. To overcome this, different bone substitutes like coral dowels, solvent dissolved bovine/human bone substitutes, and carbon fiber/titanium cages have been used. This study was undertaken to assess the postoperative radiological fusion rates and symptom relief in patients who had Tutobone used as an interbody spacer compared to autologous bone graft (ABG), cages, surgibone and coral dowels. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study...
March 6, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
keyword
keyword
71105
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"