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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161512/trophodynamics-of-organic-pollutants-in-pelagic-and-benthic-food-webs-of-lake-dianchi-importance-of-ingested-sediment-as-uptake-route
#1
Senrong Fan, Beili Wang, Hang Liu, Shixiong Gao, Tong Li, Shuran Wang, Yong Liu, Xueqin Liu, Yi Wan
Habitat is of great importance in determining the trophic transfer of pollutants in freshwater ecosystems; however, the major factors influencing chemical trophodynamics in pelagic and benthic food webs remain unclear. This study investigated the levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and substituted PAHs (s-PAHs) in two plankton species, six invertebrate species, and ten fish species collected from Lake Dianchi in southern China. Relatively high concentrations of PAHs and s-PAHs were detected with total concentrations of 11...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160203/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-hospitals-during-a-4-year-period-in-china
#2
Yun-Bo Chen, Si-Lan Gu, Ping Shen, Tao Lv, Yun-Hui Fang, Ling-Ling Tang, Lan-Juan Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform molecular characterization for and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Clostridium difficile collected from hospitals during a 4-year period (2009-2013) in China. METHODS: Strains of toxigenic C. difficile were isolated from patients with diarrhoea, and this was followed by typing using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and testing for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials by using the E-test. The mechanisms of resistance to moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were investigated by PCR...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158886/noninvasive-evaluation-of-portal-hypertension-using-a-supervised-learning-technique
#3
Mindaugas Marozas, Romanas Zykus, Andrius Sakalauskas, Limas Kupčinskas, Arūnas Lukoševičius
Portal hypertension (PHT) is a key event in the evolution of different chronic liver diseases and leads to the morbidity and mortality of patients. The traditional reliable PHT evaluation method is a hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement, which is invasive and not always available or acceptable to patients. The HVPG measurement is relatively expensive and depends on the experience of the physician. There are many potential noninvasive methods to predict PHT, of which liver transient elastography is determined to be the most accurate; however, even transient elastography lacks the accuracy to be a perfect noninvasive diagnostic method of PHT...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158666/tenofovir-alafenamide-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Eiichi Ogawa, Norihiro Furusyo, Mindie H Nguyen
Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a novel prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), has been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. TAF has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of HBV replication at a low dose, with high intracellular concentration and more than 90% lower systemic TFV concentration than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). In two randomized, double-blind, multinational, Phase 3, non-inferiority trials for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and -negative patients (primary analysis: 48 weeks), TAF 25 mg orally once-daily was not inferior to TDF 300 mg in achieving an HBV DNA level <29 IU/mL at week 48...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157735/validation-a-critical-step-in-bringing-biomarkers-to-clinical-fruition
#5
Sudhir Srivastava, Barnett S Kramer
Screening is vital to reducing morbidity and mortality due to cancer. A primary cause of poor survival is that many cancers are detected late and often after they have metastasized to distant sites. Therapies, therefore, become challenging for late-stage disease and are not successful for nearly all cancer types. The mortality rates from cancers where screening tools are available are lower than from cancers for which no viable screening tools exist. Even for cancers where screening tools currently exist, there is room for improvement, either in the accuracy of the tests or in increasing widespread use of screening by making the tests less invasive...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156385/interaction-with-the-gdf8-11-pathway-reveals-treatment-options-for-adenocarcinoma-of-the-breast
#6
Christoph Wallner, Marius Drysch, Mustafa Becerikli, Henriette Jaurich, Johannes Maximilian Wagner, Stephanie Dittfeld, Julia Nagler, Kamran Harati, Mehran Dadras, Stathis Philippou, Marcus Lehnhardt, Björn Behr
Breast adenocarcinoma continues to be the most frequently diagnosed tumor entity. Despite established therapy options, mortality for breast cancer remains to be as high as 40,000 patients in the US annually. Thus, a need to develop a patient-oriented, targeted therapy exists. In this study, we investigated the interaction of breast adenocarcinoma with the ubiquitously present protein Follistatin and subsequently the GDF8/11 pathway. We analyzed primary histological samples from adenocarcinoma patients for expression of Follistatin and GDF8/11...
November 17, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153162/a-100-year-review-a-century-of-change-in-temperate-grazing-dairy-systems
#7
J R Roche, D P Berry, A M Bryant, C R Burke, S T Butler, P G Dillon, D J Donaghy, B Horan, K A Macdonald, K L Macmillan
From 1917 to 2017, dairy grazing systems have evolved from uncontrolled grazing of unimproved pastures by dual-purpose dairy-beef breeds to an intensive system with a high output per unit of land from a fit-for-purpose cow. The end of World War I signaled significant government investments in agricultural research institutes around the world, which coincided with technological breakthroughs in milk harvesting and a recognition that important traits in both plants and animals could be improved upon relatively rapidly through genetic selection...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151870/elevated-mitochondrial-genome-variation-after-50-generations-of-radiation-exposure-in-a-wild-rodent
#8
Robert J Baker, Benjamin Dickins, Jeffrey K Wickliffe, Faisal A A Khan, Sergey Gaschak, Kateryna D Makova, Caleb D Phillips
Currently, the effects of chronic, continuous low dose environmental irradiation on the mitochondrial genome of resident small mammals are unknown. Using the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) as a model system, we tested the hypothesis that approximately 50 generations of exposure to the Chernobyl environment has significantly altered genetic diversity of the mitochondrial genome. Using deep sequencing, we compared mitochondrial genomes from 131 individuals from reference sites with radioactive contamination comparable to that present in northern Ukraine before the 26 April 1986 meltdown, to populations where substantial fallout was deposited following the nuclear accident...
September 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151863/a-phylogenomic-analysis-of-marek-s-disease-virus-reveals-independent-paths-to-virulence-in-eurasia-and-north-america
#9
Jakob Trimpert, Nicole Groenke, Maria Jenckel, Shulin He, Dusan Kunec, Moriah L Szpara, Stephen J Spatz, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Dino P McMahon
Virulence determines the impact a pathogen has on the fitness of its host, yet current understanding of the evolutionary origins and causes of virulence of many pathogens is surprisingly incomplete. Here, we explore the evolution of Marek's disease virus (MDV), a herpesvirus commonly afflicting chickens and rarely other avian species. The history of MDV in the 20th century represents an important case study in the evolution of virulence. The severity of MDV infection in chickens has been rising steadily since the adoption of intensive farming techniques and vaccination programs in the 1950s and 1970s, respectively...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150153/-dermatologic-surgery-hemophilia-and-von-willebrand-disease
#10
M Say, N Dupin, N Stieltjes, M-F Avril, S Aractingi, J Chanal
BACKGROUND: Von Willebrand disease (VWD) and hemophilia A and B are the most common types of hereditary coagulation-factor deficiencies. The frequency and type of complications of skin surgery in these patients are unknown. The increasing incidence of skin cancer prompted us to reflect upon this issue. While the incidence of skin cancer is increasing, the complications of skin surgery or ablative laser treatment remain unknown in this population. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bleeding complications during and after skin surgery in patients with a hereditary coagulation-factor deficiency (hemophilia or VWD)...
November 14, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149070/placement-stability-cumulative-time-in-care-and-permanency-using-administrative-data-from-cps-to-track-placement-trajectories
#11
Sonia Hélie, Marie-Andrée Poirier, Tonino Esposito, Daniel Turcotte
Objectives: The Quebec Youth Protection Act was amended in 2007. The main goal of this reform was to improve placement stability for children who are removed from their home for their protection. Among several legal provisions introduced was the establishment of maximum age-specific durations of out-of-home care, after which a plan must be established to provide stability for children placed in substitute care by finding permanent homes for them. The purpose of this study is (1) to examine trends in placement use and placement stability since the reform and (2) to document the current frequency of each type of placement setting, the cumulative time in care before the exit to permanency, and the sustainability of the permanency outcome...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145122/the-myo-inositol-proton-symporter-iolt1-contributes-to-d-xylose-uptake-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#12
Christian Brüsseler, Andreas Radek, Niklas Tenhaef, Karin Krumbach, Stephan Noack, Jan Marienhagen
Corynebacterium glutamicum has been engineered to utilize d-xylose as sole carbon and energy source. Recently, a C. glutamicum strain has been optimized for growth on defined medium containing d-xylose by laboratory evolution, but the mutation(s) attributing to the improved-growth phenotype could not be reliably identified. This study shows that loss of the transcriptional repressor IolR is responsible for the increased growth performance on defined d-xylose medium in one of the isolated mutants. Underlying reason is derepression of the gene for the glucose/myo-inositol permease IolT1 in the absence of IolR, which could be shown to also contribute to d-xylose uptake in C...
November 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143302/convergent-selection-pressures-drive-the-evolution-of-rhodopsin-kinetics-at-high-altitudes-via-non-parallel-mechanisms
#13
Gianni M Castiglione, Ryan K Schott, Frances E Hauser, Belinda S W Chang
Convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures is a well-known phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Less well understood is how selection drives convergence in protein function, and the underlying mechanisms by which this can be achieved. Here we investigate functional convergence in the visual system of two distantly related lineages of high-altitude adapted Andean and Himalayan catfishes. Statistical analyses revealed in the two high-altitude lineages, a parallel acceleration of evolutionary rates in rhodopsin, the dim-light visual pigment...
November 16, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142125/emergence-of-double-and-triple-gene-reassortant-g1p-8-rotaviruses-possessing-a-ds-1-like-backbone-post-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-malawi
#14
Khuzwayo C Jere, Chrispin Chaguza, Naor Bar-Zeev, Jenna Lowe, Chikondi Peno, Benjamin Kumwenda, Osamu Nakagomi, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Nigel A Cunliffe, Iturriza-Gomara Miren
To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunisation programmes. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix™) into its immunisation schedule in 2012. Utilising a surveillance platform of hospitalised rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 - 2012) and after (2013 - 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next generation sequencing revealed that all randomly-selected pre-vaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced (n=32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas post-vaccine G1P[8] strains (n=18) had a DS-1-like constellation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141982/a-partial-loss-of-function-variant-in-akt2-is-associated-with-reduced-insulin-mediated-glucose-uptake-in-multiple-insulin-sensitive-tissues-a-genotype-based-callback-positron-emission-tomography-study
#15
Aino Latva-Rasku, Miikka-Juhani Honka, Alena Stančáková, Heikki A Koistinen, Johanna Kuusisto, Li Guan, Alisa K Manning, Heather Stringham, Anna L Gloyn, Cecilia M Lindgren, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Laura J Scott, Tomi Karjalainen, Lauri Nummenmaa, Michael Boehnke, Pirjo Nuutila, Markku Laakso
Rare fully penetrant mutations in AKT2 are an established cause of monogenic disorders of glucose metabolism. Recently, a novel partial loss-of-function AKT2 coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) was identified that is nearly specific to Finns (frequency 1.1%), with the low-frequency allele associated with an increase in fasting plasma insulin level and risk of type 2 diabetes. The effects of p.Pro50Thr on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) in the whole body and in different tissues have not previously been investigated...
November 15, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141701/the-roles-of-word-form-frequency-and-phonological-neighbourhood-density-in-the-acquisition-of-lithuanian-noun-morphology
#16
Eglė Savičiūtė, Ben Ambridge, Julian M Pine
Four- and five-year-old children took part in an elicited familiar and novel Lithuanian noun production task to test predictions of input-based accounts of the acquisition of inflectional morphology. Two major findings emerged. First, as predicted by input-based accounts, correct production rates were correlated with the input frequency of the target form, and with the phonological neighbourhood density of the noun. Second, the error patterns were not compatible with the systematic substitution of target forms by either (a) the most frequent form of that noun or (b) a single morphosyntactic default form, as might be predicted by naive versions of a constructivist and generativist account, respectively...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141345/-comparison-of-results-of-two-immunoassays-for-detection-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-in-pregnant-women
#17
H Y Xiong, Y F Luo, H Y Liu, W H Han, A Q Hu, Y Wang, Y J Zheng
Objective: To evaluate and compare the detection consistency of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by two immunoassays: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA). Methods: A prospective study was conducted among 2 296 pregnant women recruited consecutively from January 1, 2014 to January 31, 2015 in a hospital. Blood samples were collected from them for the detection of HBsAg by using ELISA and ECLIA, Kappa test was performed on the results. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of HBV S gene were also performed in all samples...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140083/a-critical-role-of-ser26-hydrogen-bonding-in-a%C3%AE-42-assembly-and-toxicity
#18
Robin Roychaudhuri, Tien-Phat V Huynh, Taylor R Whitaker, Elisabeth Hodara, Margaret M Condron, David B Teplow
Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) assembly is a seminal process in Alzheimer's disease. Elucidating the mechanistic features of this process is thought to be vital for the design and targeting of therapeutic agents. Com-putational studies of the most pathologic form of Aβ, the 42-residue Aβ42 peptide, have suggested that hydrogen bonding involving Ser 26 may be particularly important in organizing a monomer folding nucleus and in subse-quent peptide assembly. To study this question, we ex-perimentally determined structure-activity relationships among Aβ42 peptides in which Ser 26 was replaced with Gly, Ala, α-aminobutryic acid (Abu), or Cys...
November 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138653/the-incidence-of-first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-changes-and-related-factors-among-hiv-infected-sex-workers-in-nairobi-kenya
#19
Frank Ndaks Ndakala, Julius Otieno Oyugi, Margaret Ng'wono Oluka, Joshua Kimani, Georg Martin Norbert Behrens
Introduction: In many settings, several factors including adverse drug reactions and clinical failure can limit treatment choices for combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of the study was to describe the incidence of first-line cART changes and associated factors in a cohort of Kenyan sex workers. Methods: This was a retrospective review of medical records collected from 2009 to 2013. The review included records of HIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years, who received either stavudine or zidovudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based regimens...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136940/accelerated-removal-of-high-concentration-p-chloronitrobenzene-using-bioelectrocatalysis-process-and-its-microbial-communities-analysis
#20
Xinhong Peng, Xianhui Pan, Xin Wang, Dongyang Li, Pengfei Huang, Guanhua Qiu, Ke Shan, Xizhang Chu
p-Chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) is a persistent refractory and toxic pollutant with a concentration up to 200 mg/L in industrial wastewater. Here, a super-fast removal rate was found at 0.2-0.8 V of external voltage over a p-CNB concentration of 40-120 mg/L when a bioelectrochemical technology is used comparing to the natural biodegradation and electrochemical methods. The reduction kinetics (k) was fitted well according to pseudo-first order model with respect to the different initial concentration, indicating a 1...
October 19, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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