keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

substitution rate

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329761/somatic-mutations-reveal-asymmetric-cellular-dynamics-in-the-early-human-embryo
#1
Young Seok Ju, Inigo Martincorena, Moritz Gerstung, Mia Petljak, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Raheleh Rahbari, David C Wedge, Helen R Davies, Manasa Ramakrishna, Anthony Fullam, Sancha Martin, Christopher Alder, Nikita Patel, Steve Gamble, Sarah O'Meara, Dilip D Giri, Torril Sauer, Sarah E Pinder, Colin A Purdie, Åke Borg, Henk Stunnenberg, Marc van de Vijver, Benita K T Tan, Carlos Caldas, Andrew Tutt, Naoto T Ueno, Laura J van 't Veer, John W M Martens, Christos Sotiriou, Stian Knappskog, Paul N Span, Sunil R Lakhani, Jórunn Erla Eyfjörd, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Andrea Richardson, Alastair M Thompson, Alain Viari, Matthew E Hurles, Serena Nik-Zainal, Peter J Campbell, Michael R Stratton
Somatic cells acquire mutations throughout the course of an individual's life. Mutations occurring early in embryogenesis are often present in a substantial proportion of, but not all, cells in postnatal humans and thus have particular characteristics and effects. Depending on their location in the genome and the proportion of cells they are present in, these mosaic mutations can cause a wide range of genetic disease syndromes and predispose carriers to cancer. They have a high chance of being transmitted to offspring as de novo germline mutations and, in principle, can provide insights into early human embryonic cell lineages and their contributions to adult tissues...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329725/ammonium-assimilation-an-important-accessory-during-aerobic-denitrification-of-pseudomonas-stutzeri-t13
#2
Yilu Sun, Liang Feng, Ang Li, Xuening Zhang, Jixian Yang, Fang Ma
The present study investigated effect of ammonium utilization on aerobic denitrification by Pseudomonas stutzeri T13. Per nitrogen balance calculation, all consumed ammonium was utilized as nitrogen source for cell propagation by assimilation rather than heterotrophic nitrification. Total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium were necessary substrates to sustain heterotrophic propagation of P. stutzeri T13 at optimum proportion equal to seven. Under aerobic condition, nitrate was utilized as substitute nitrogen source when ammonium was completely exhausted...
March 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327417/appositional-bone-graft-tunneled-technical-note
#3
Roberto Almeida de Azevedo, Felipe Seoane Matos, Leonardo Morais Godoy Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION: A satisfactory positioning of the dental implants is very important in the cosmetic and functional outcome in this treatment for edentulous. Insertion of an endosseous implant in the correct positioning requires sufficient bone volume. Therefore, bone-grafting procedures are becoming increasingly common, especially for the augmentation of horizontally deficient ridges. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Many patients have been treated with this technique of appositional Bone Graft Tunneled at our clinic since 2005...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326131/spectral-and-dft-studies-of-anion-bound-organic-receptors-time-dependent-studies-and-logic-gate-applications
#4
Srikala Pangannaya, Neethu Padinchare Purayil, Shweta Dabhi, Venu Mankad, Prafulla K Jha, Satyam Shinde, Darshak R Trivedi
New colorimetric receptors R1 and R2 with varied positional substitution of a cyano and nitro signaling unit having a hydroxy functionality as the hydrogen bond donor site have been designed, synthesized and characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The receptors R1 and R2 exhibit prominent visual response for F(-) and AcO(-) ions allowing the real time analysis of these ions in aqueous media. The formation of the receptor-anion complexes has been supported by UV-vis titration studies and confirmed through binding constant calculations...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325307/effects-of-coagulation-conditions-on-structure-and-properties-of-cellulose-based-fibers-from-aqueous-naoh-solvent
#5
Wencong Wang, Faxue Li, Jianyong Yu, Jian Zhou, Hongbo Wang
Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) fibers with low degree of substitution were prepared by wet spinning of solutions in 8wt% NaOH solvent, and H2SO4/Na2SO4/ZnSO4 solution was chosen as coagulants. The influence of coagulation temperature and H2SO4 concentration on structure and mechanical properties of resultant HEC fibers was examined by synchrotron X-ray measurements, scanning electron microscope and tensile tests. The results were analyzed from the perspective of coagulation kinetics by determining coagulation rate and mass transfer rate difference...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325169/a-new-substitute-host-and-its-effects-on-some-biological-properties-of-ooencyrtus-kuvanae
#6
Hilal Tunca, Marine Venard, Etty-Ambre Colombel, Elisabeth Tabone
Lymantia dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), commonly known as the gypsy moth, is a serious forest pest, and beneficial insects are particularly important for reducing its population numbers. Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an arrhenotokous, solitary egg parasitoid of L. dispar. In this study, we evaluated a new substitute host, Philosamia ricini (Danovan) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) for O. kuvanae. We investigated some of the biological effects of O. kuvanae on P. ricini eggs. In this context, the importance of the age of the female parasitoid (1, 3 or 5 days old), host age (1-2 and 3-4 days old) and host number (40, 60 and 80 host eggs) were examined under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity and a 16 : 8 h photoperiod [light : dark])...
March 22, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323715/the-safety-and-strength-of-a-novel-medial-partial-nonthreaded-pedicle-screw-a-cadaveric-and-biomechanical-investigation
#7
Mun Keong Kwan, Chris Yin Wei Chan, Lim Beng Saw, Shanmugam Rukmanikanthan, Lawrence G Lenke
STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric and biomechanical study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and pullout strength of medial, partial nonthreaded thoracic pedicle screws compared with conventional screws. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The perforation rate of the pedicle screws has been reported as high as 41%. Nerve injury and irritation can result from the compression of malpositioned screw on neural structures. METHODS: Ten fresh cadavers were studied...
April 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322919/evaluation-of-preclinical-antimalarial-drugs-which-can-overcome-direct-acting-antivirals-resistant-hepatitis-c-viruses-using-the-viral-reporter-assay-systems
#8
Youki Ueda, Hiromichi Dansako, Shinya Satoh, Hye-Sook Kim, Yusuke Wataya, Hiroyuki Doi, Masanori Ikeda, Nobuyuki Kato
Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a major global health problem. Recently developed treatments with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have largely improved the sustained virologic response rate of patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, this approach is still hindered by its great expense and the problem of drug resistance. Using our cell-based HCV assay systems, we reported that the preclinical antimalarial drugs N-89 and N-251 exhibited potent anti-HCV activities...
March 18, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322046/structure-oxidative-metabolism-relationships-of-substituted-flavones-by-aspergillus-niger
#9
Da-Som Lim, Do-Hyung Lim, Ji-Ho Lee, Eun-Tae Oh, Young Soo Keum
Aspergillus niger is rich source of oxidative enzymes, which are important for many industrial applications. However, systematic evaluation of their metabolic characteristics is limited. In this study, structure-dependent metabolism of flavones by Aspergillus niger were investigated with synthetic substrates. Metabolic inhibitor studies suggested that cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in oxidative metabolism. The reactions include ring hydroxylation, O-demethylation, sulfone/sulfoxide formation, and oxidation of alkyls to carboxy groups...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320406/the-acceptability-and-feasibility-of-a-brief-psychosocial-intervention-to-reduce-blood-borne-virus-risk-behaviours-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-randomised-control-feasibility-trial-of-a-psychosocial-intervention-the-protect-study-versus-treatment-as-usual
#10
Gail Gilchrist, Davina Swan, April Shaw, Ada Keding, Sarah Towers, Noel Craine, Alison Munro, Elizabeth Hughes, Steve Parrott, John Strang, Avril Taylor, Judith Watson
BACKGROUND: While opiate substitution therapy and injecting equipment provision (IEP) have reduced blood-borne viruses (BBV) among people who inject drugs (PWID), some PWID continue to share injecting equipment and acquire BBV. Psychosocial interventions that address risk behaviours could reduce BBV transmission among PWID. METHODS: A pragmatic, two-armed randomised controlled, open feasibility study of PWID attending drug treatment or IEP in four UK regions. Ninety-nine PWID were randomly allocated to receive a three-session manualised psychosocial group intervention and BBV transmission information booklet plus treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 52) or information booklet plus TAU (n = 47)...
March 21, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320306/strain-specific-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-hypertensive-isiah-rats
#11
N I Ershov, A L Markel, O E Redina
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding and regulatory regions of genes can affect transcription rate and translation efficiency, modify protein function, and, in some cases, cause the development of diseases. In the current study, the RNA-Seq approach has been used to discover strain-specific SNPs in ISIAH (inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension) rats, which are known as a model of stress-induced arterial hypertension. The comparison of the ISIAH SNPs with genome sequencing data available for another 42 rat strains and substrains, 11 of them known as hypertensive, showed a considerable genetic distance between the genotypes of ISIAH and all other rat strains and substrains...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319744/kinetics-and-mechanism-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-chlorination-in-a-pilot-scale-water-distribution-systems
#12
Cong Li, Feilong Dong, John C Crittenden, Feng Luo, Xinbo Chen, Taotao Zhao
The kinetics and mechanisms of 17β-estradiol (E2) chlorination in water distribution systems (WDS) were studied. We examined the impacts of different factors, including pH, temperature, humic acid concentration and type, and flow velocity. The experimental results showed that the rate constants in beaker tests and WDS were described by a pseudo-first-order model. pH had the greatest impact on E2 chlorination in the beaker tests. However, temperature had the greatest impact on E2 chlorination in WDS. Mechanistic analysis of E2 chlorination showed that chlorine attacked E2 in three stages: 1) halogenation of the aromatic ring, 2) cleavage of the benzene moiety and chlorine or bromine substitution formation, and 3) formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and halogenated acetic acids (HAAs) from phenolic intermediates through benzene ring opening with chlorine and/or bromine substitution of hydrogen on the carbon atoms...
March 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318688/impact-of-phenylketonuria-type-meal-on-appetite-thermic-effect-of-feeding-and-postprandial-fat-oxidation
#13
Hani Alfheeaid, Konstantinos Gerasimidis, Ana-Maria Năstase, Mie Elhauge, Barbara Cochrane, Dalia Malkova
BACKGROUND: Dietary management of phenylketonuria (PKU) requires the replacement of natural protein-containing foods with special low protein foods. The effect of a PKU type diet on factors contributing to energy balance requires investigation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a PKU type meal on appetite ratings, gut appetite hormones, thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and fat oxidation. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 24...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317764/cucurbitane-glycosides-from-the-fruit-of-siraitia-grosvenori-and-their-effects-on-glucose-uptake-in-human-hepg2-cells-in-vitro
#14
Fu Li, Fumei Yang, Xin Liu, Lun Wang, Bin Chen, Lianhong Li, Mingkui Wang
The mogrosides in the fruit of Siraitia grosvenori can serve as a sugar substitute for diabetics due to their sweetness, low calorie and positive effects on blood glucose level control. The present study was to purify the mogrosides from the fruit of S. grosvenori and evaluate their enhancement of glucose uptake rate in HepG2 cells in vitro. As a result, eighteen mogrosides were isolated, including six new ones and a known but new naturally occurring compound. The chemical structures of the new compounds were identified by 1D, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques, together with chemical methods...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315836/a-phylogenetic-codon-substitution-model-for-antibody-lineages
#15
Kenneth B Hoehn, Gerton Lunter, Oliver G Pybus
Phylogenetic methods have shown promise in understanding the development of broadly neutralizing antibody lineages (bNAbs). However, the mutational process that generates these lineages -- somatic hypermutation -- is biased by hotspot motifs, which violates important assumptions in most phylogenetic substitution models. Here, we develop a modified GY94-type substitution model that partially accounts for this context-dependency while preserving independence of sites during calculation. This model shows a substantially better fit to three well-characterized bNAb lineages than the standard GY94 model...
March 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315798/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-in-anterior-cervical-fusion-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Shayan Abdollah Zadegan, Aidin Abedi, Seyed Behnam Jazayeri, Hirbod Nasiri Bonaki, Seyed Behzad Jazayeri, Alexander R Vaccaro, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
OBJECTIVE: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been commonly used as a graft substitute in spinal fusion. Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued warning on life-threatening complications of recombinant human BMPs (rhBMPs) in cervical spine fusion in 2008, their off-label use has been continued. This investigation aimed to review the evidence for the use of rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 in anterior cervical spine fusions. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed through Ovid (MEDLINE), PubMed and Embase...
March 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306261/asymmetric-synthesis-of-the-major-metabolite-of-a-cgrp-receptor-antagonist-and-mechanism-of-epoxide-hydrogenolysis
#17
Guanglin Luo, Ling Chen, Charles M Conway, Walter Kostich, Benjamin M Johnson, Alicia Ng, John E Macor, Gene M Dubowchik
An asymmetric synthesis of the major metabolite of the CGRP recepotor antagonist BMS-846372 is presented. The variously substituted cyclohepta[b]pyridine ring system represents an under-explored ring system, and showed some unexpected chemistry. Reactivities of epoxide and ketone functional groups on cycloheptane ring were greatly controlled by a remote bulky TIPS group. The rate difference of the hydrogenolysis between two diastereomeric epoxide intermediates shed some light on the mechanism of epoxide hydrogenolysis, and further deuterium labeling studies unravelled more mechanistic details on this well known chemical transformation for the first time...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304144/efficacy-of-dermal-substitute-on-deep-dermal-to-full-thickness-burn-injury-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Winy Widjaja, Juen Tan, Peter K M Maitz
BACKGROUND: The study aims to systematically examine the efficacy of dermal regeneration templates (DRTs) in comparison to split thickness skin grafting (STSG) in the management of acute burn injuries post-excision and debridement. METHODS: Systematic literature search was conducted by two independent reviewers from the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library with selection criteria set a priori. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included...
March 17, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303947/exposure-to-selenomethionine-causes-selenocysteine-misincorporation-and-protein-aggregation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Pierre Plateau, Cosmin Saveanu, Roxane Lestini, Marc Dauplais, Laurence Decourty, Alain Jacquier, Sylvain Blanquet, Myriam Lazard
Selenomethionine, a dietary supplement with beneficial health effects, becomes toxic if taken in excess. To gain insight into the mechanisms of action of selenomethionine, we screened a collection of ≈5900 Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants for sensitivity or resistance to growth-limiting amounts of the compound. Genes involved in protein degradation and synthesis were enriched in the obtained datasets, suggesting that selenomethionine causes a proteotoxic stress. We demonstrate that selenomethionine induces an accumulation of protein aggregates by a mechanism that requires de novo protein synthesis...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303423/theory-of-mind-predominantly-associated-with-the-quality-not-quantity-of-pretend-play-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Shu-Kai Lin, Ching-Hong Tsai, Hsing-Jung Li, Chien-Yu Huang, Kuan-Lin Chen
This study aimed to clarify the relationships between theory of mind and pretend play in children with autism spectrum disorder, using refined assessments of theory of mind and pretend play while controlling for autistic behaviors and verbal comprehension. A total of 92 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-10 years were enrolled. In two visits, the children were assessed with the Theory of Mind Task Battery, the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Verbal Comprehension Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, respectively, for their theory of mind, pretend play performance, autistic behaviors, and verbal comprehension...
March 16, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
keyword
keyword
71105
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"