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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474815/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-tea-looper-caterpillar-ectropis-obliqua-lepidoptera-geometridae-with-a-phylogenetic-analysis-of-geometridae
#1
Li Qian, Wang Xiaoxi, Chen Xuexin, Han Baoyu
The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Ectropis obliqua (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) was sequenced and compared with other species of Geometridae. The mitochondrial genome of E. obliqua is 15,475 bp long and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an A + T-rich region. Gene cluster trnI-trnQ-trnM rearranged to trnM-trnI-trnQ comparing with the ancestral mitogenome of insects. All tRNA genes have typical cloverleaf secondary structure except for trnS (AGN)...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468429/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-lipase3-gene-family-in-five-plant-species-reveals-distinct-evolutionary-origins
#2
Dan Wang, Lin Zhang, JunFeng Hu, Dianshuai Gao, Xin Liu, Yan Sha
Lipases are physiologically important and ubiquitous enzymes that share a conserved domain and are classified into eight different families based on their amino acid sequences and fundamental biological properties. The Lipase3 family of lipases was reported to possess a canonical fold typical of α/β hydrolases and a typical catalytic triad, suggesting a distinct evolutionary origin for this family. Genes in the Lipase3 family do not have the same functions, but maintain the conserved Lipase3 domain. There have been extensive studies of Lipase3 structures and functions, but little is known about their evolutionary histories...
February 22, 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432191/divergent-and-parallel-routes-of-biochemical-adaptation-in-high-altitude-passerine-birds-from-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#3
Xiaojia Zhu, Yuyan Guan, Anthony V Signore, Chandrasekhar Natarajan, Shane G DuBay, Yalin Cheng, Naijian Han, Gang Song, Yanhua Qu, Hideaki Moriyama, Federico G Hoffmann, Angela Fago, Fumin Lei, Jay F Storz
When different species experience similar selection pressures, the probability of evolving similar adaptive solutions may be influenced by legacies of evolutionary history, such as lineage-specific changes in genetic background. Here we test for adaptive convergence in hemoglobin (Hb) function among high-altitude passerine birds that are native to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and we examine whether convergent increases in Hb-O2 affinity have a similar molecular basis in different species. We documented that high-altitude parid and aegithalid species from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau have evolved derived increases in Hb-O2 affinity in comparison with their closest lowland relatives in East Asia...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421854/allopolyploidization-in-cucumis-contributes-to-delayed-leaf-maturation-with-repression-of-redundant-homoeologous-genes
#4
Xiaqing Yu, Xixi Wang, Benita Hyldgaard, Zaobing Zhu, Rong Zhou, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer, Theoharis Ouzounis, Qunfeng Lou, Ji Li, Qingsheng Cai, Eva Rosenqvist, Carl-Otto Ottosen, Jinfeng Chen
The important role of polyploidy in plant evolution is widely recognized. However, many questions remain to be explored to address how polyploidy affects the phenotype of the plant. To shed light on the phenotypic and molecular impacts of allopolyploidy, we investigated the leaf development of a synthesized allotetraploid (Cucumis ×hytivus), with an emphasis on chlorophyll development. Delayed leaf maturation was identified in C. ×hytivus, based on delayed leaf expansion, initial chlorophyll deficiency in the leaves and disordered sink-source transition...
February 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413881/evolution-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-evidence-of-positive-selection-in-a-penicillin-binding-protein-pbp-2a-coding-gene-meca
#5
Xiao-Yong Zhan, Qing-Yi Zhu
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA) represents more and more S. aureus infections. MecA, the novel coding gene of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2a of MRSA, is the key resistance factor of β-lactam, but little is known about the evolution of this gene. Given the crucial role of mecA in S. aureus physiology and β-lactam resistance, the selective forces may contribute to adaptation of the bacteria to the special environments such as its host or antibiotics. To understand the evolution of this gene, we screened GenBank database and analyzed mecA of 249 S...
January 27, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408286/mitochondrial-phylogeny-divergence-history-and-high-altitude-adaptation-of-grassland-caterpillars-lepidoptera-lymantriinae-gynaephora-inhabiting-the-tibetan-plateau
#6
Ming-Long Yuan, Qi-Lin Zhang, Li Zhang, Cheng-Lin Jia, Xiao-Peng Li, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Run-Qiu Feng
Grassland caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae: Gynaephora) are the most important pests in alpine meadows of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and have well adapted to high-altitude environments. To further understand the evolutionary history and their adaptation to the TP, we newly determined seven complete TP Gynaephora mitogenomes. Compared to single genes, whole mitogenomes provided the best phylogenetic signals and obtained robust results, supporting the monophyly of the TP Gynaephora species and a phylogeny of Arctiinae + (Aganainae + Lymantriinae)...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368655/deleterious-genetic-variants-in-ciliopathy-genes-increase-risk-of-ritodrine-induced-cardiac-and-pulmonary-side-effects
#7
Heewon Seo, Eun Jin Kwon, Young-Ah You, Yoomi Park, Byung Joo Min, Kyunghun Yoo, Han-Sung Hwang, Ju Han Kim, Young Ju Kim
BACKGROUND: Ritodrine is a commonly used tocolytic to prevent preterm labour. However, it can cause unexpected serious adverse reactions, such as pulmonary oedema, pulmonary congestion, and tachycardia. It is unknown whether such adverse reactions are associated with pharmacogenomic variants in patients. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing of 13 subjects with serious ritodrine-induced cardiac and pulmonary side-effects was performed to identify causal genes and variants...
January 24, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356095/familial-congenital-methemoglobinemia-in-pomeranian-dogs-caused-by-a-missense-variant-in-the-nadh-cytochrome-b5-reductase-gene
#8
H Shino, Y Otsuka-Yamasaki, T Sato, K Ooi, O Inanami, R Sato, M Yamasaki
BACKGROUND: In veterinary medicine, congenital methemoglobinemia associated with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) deficiency is rare. It has been reported in several breeds of dogs, but little information is available about its etiology. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase gene, CYB5R3, in a Pomeranian dog family with methemoglobinemia suspected to be caused by congenital b5R deficiency. ANIMALS: Three Pomeranian dogs from a family with methemoglobinemia were analyzed...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351740/population-size-may-shape-the-accumulation-of-functional-mutations-following-domestication
#9
Jianhai Chen, Pan Ni, Xinyun Li, Jianlin Han, Ivan Jakovlić, Chengjun Zhang, Shuhong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Population genetics theory predicts an important role of differences in the effective population size (N e ) among species on shaping the accumulation of functional mutations by regulating the selection efficiency. However, this correlation has never been tested in domesticated animals. RESULTS: Here, we synthesized 62 whole genome data in eight domesticated species (cat, dog, pig, goat, sheep, chicken, cattle and horse) and compared domesticates with their wild (or ancient) relatives...
January 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330536/carbon-limitation-drives-gc-content-evolution-of-a-marine-bacterium-in-an-individual-based-genome-scale-model
#10
Ferdi L Hellweger, Yongjie Huang, Haiwei Luo
An important unanswered question in evolutionary genomics is the source of considerable variation of genomic base composition (GC content) even among organisms that share one habitat. Evolution toward GC-poor genomes has been considered a major adaptive pathway in the oligotrophic ocean, but GC-rich bacteria are also prevalent and highly successful in this environment. We quantify the contribution of multiple factors to the change of genomic GC content of Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, a representative and GC-rich member in the globally abundant Roseobacter clade, using an agent-based model...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321311/herpes-simplex-virus-1-mutant-with-point-mutations-in-ul39-is-impaired-for-acute-viral-replication-in-mice-establishment-of-latency-and-explant-induced-reactivation
#11
Heba H Mostafa, Thornton W Thompson, Adam J Konen, Steve D Haenchen, Joshua G Hilliard, Stuart J Macdonald, Lynda A Morrison, David J Davido
In the process of generating HSV-1 mutants in the viral regulatory gene encoding infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), we isolated a viral mutant, termed KOS-NA, that was severely impaired for acute replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia (TG) of mice, defective in establishing a latent infection, and reactivated poorly from explanted TG. To identify the secondary mutation(s) responsible for the impaired phenotypes of this mutant, we sequenced the KOS-NA genome and noted that it contained two nonsynonymous mutations in UL39, which encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, ICP6...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285673/detection-isolation-and-characterization-of-chikungunya-viruses-associated-with-the-pakistan-outbreak-of-2016-2017
#12
Si-Qing Liu, Xiao Li, Ya-Nan Zhang, Ai-Li Gao, Cheng-Lin Deng, Jun-Hua Li, Shoukat Jehan, Nadia Jamil, Fei Deng, Hongping Wei, Bo Zhang
The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, which has infected millions of people in Africa, Asia, Americas, and Europe since it reemerged in India and Indian Ocean regions in 2005-2006. Starting in the middle of November 2016, CHIKV has been widely spread, and more than 4,000 cases of infections in humans were confirmed in Pakistan. Here, we report the first isolation and characterization of CHIKV from the Pakistan outbreak. Eight CHIKV strains were newly isolated from human serum samples using a cell culture procedure...
December 21, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283376/differential-selective-pressures-experienced-by-the-aurora-kinase-gene-family
#13
Joni M Seeling, Alexis A Farmer, Adam Mansfield, Hyuk Cho, Madhusudan Choudhary
Aurora kinases (AKs) are serine/threonine kinases that are essential for cell division. Humans have three AK genes: AKA, AKB, and AKC. AKA is required for centrosome assembly, centrosome separation, and bipolar spindle assembly, and its mutation leads to abnormal spindle morphology. AKB is required for the spindle checkpoint and proper cytokinesis, and mutations cause chromosome misalignment and cytokinesis failure. AKC is expressed in germ cells, and has a role in meiosis analogous to that of AKB in mitosis...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247163/conserved-molecular-structure-of-the-centromeric-histone-cenh3-in-secale-and-its-phylogenetic-relationships
#14
E V Evtushenko, E A Elisafenko, S S Gatzkaya, Y A Lipikhina, A Houben, A V Vershinin
It has been repeatedly demonstrated that the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3), a key component of the centromere, shows considerable variability between species within taxa. We determined the molecular structure and phylogenetic relationships of CENH3 in 11 Secale species and subspecies that possess distinct pollination systems and are adapted to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stresses. The rye (Secale cereale) genome encodes two paralogous CENH3 genes, which differ in intron-exon structure and are transcribed into two main forms of the protein, αCENH3 and βCENH3...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229304/functional-characterization-of-the-g162r-and-d216h-genetic-variants-of-human-cyp17a1
#15
C P Capper, J Liu, L R McIntosh, J M Larios, M D Johnson, P F Hollenberg, Y Osawa, R J Auchus, J M Rae
Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is a dual-function enzyme catalyzing reactions necessary for cortisol and androgen biosynthesis. CYP17A1 is a validated drug target for prostate cancer as CYP17A1 inhibition significantly reduces circulating androgens and improves survival in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Germline CYP17A1 genetic variants with altered CYP17A1 activity manifesting as various endocrinopathies are extremely rare; however, characterizing these variants provides critical insights into CYP17A1 protein structure and function...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228267/the-effects-of-sex-biased-gene-expression-and-x-linkage-on-rates-of-sequence-evolution-in-drosophila
#16
José Luis Campos, Keira Johnston, Brian Charlesworth
A faster rate of adaptive evolution of X-linked genes compared with autosomal genes (the faster-X effect) can be caused by the fixation of recessive or partially recessive advantageous mutations. This effect should be largest for advantageous mutations that affect only male fitness, and least for mutations that affect only female fitness. We tested these predictions in Drosophila melanogaster by using coding and functionally significant non-coding sequences of genes with different levels of sex-biased expression...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212937/experimental-adaptive-evolution-of-sivcpz-to-pandemic-hiv-1-using-a-humanized-mouse-model
#17
Kei Sato, Naoko Misawa, Junko S Takeuchi, Tomoko Kobayashi, Taisuke Izumi, Hirofumi Aso, Shumpei Nagaoka, Keisuke Yamamoto, Izumi Kimura, Yoriyuki Konno, Yusuke Nakano, Yoshio Koyanagi
HIV-1, the causative agent of AIDS, is originated from SIVcpz, the chimpanzee precursor of the human virus, approximately 100 years ago. This indicates that HIV-1 has emerged through the cross-species transmission of SIVcpz from chimpanzees to humans. However, it remains unclear how SIVcpz has evolved into pandemic HIV-1 in humans. To address this question, we inoculated three SIVcpz (MB897, EK505, and MT145), four pandemic HIV-1 (NL4-3, NLCSFV3, JRCSF and AD8) and 2 non-pandemic HIV-1 (YBF30 and DJO0131) strains...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203828/foxp2-variation-in-great-ape-populations-offers-insight-into-the-evolution-of-communication-skills
#18
Nicky Staes, Chet C Sherwood, Katharine Wright, Marc de Manuel, Elaine E Guevara, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Michael Krützen, Michael Massiah, William D Hopkins, John J Ely, Brenda J Bradley
The gene coding for the forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is associated with human language disorders. Evolutionary changes in this gene are hypothesized to have contributed to the emergence of speech and language in the human lineage. Although FOXP2 is highly conserved across most mammals, humans differ at two functional amino acid substitutions from chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas, with an additional fixed substitution found in orangutans. However, FOXP2 has been characterized in only a small number of apes and no publication to date has examined the degree of natural variation in large samples of unrelated great apes...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178647/comprehensive-analysis-of-mutations-in-the-mefv-gene-reveal-that-the-location-and-not-the-substitution-type-determines-symptom-severity-in-fmf
#19
Mike M Moradian, Davit Babikyan, Dion Banoian, Hasmik Hayrapetyan, Hakob Manvelyan, Nareh Avanesian, Tamara Sarkisian
BACKGROUND: Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disorder caused by mutations in the MEFV gene. These mutations appear in different populations with different frequencies and their caused symptom severities vary from mild to moderate to severe depending on the mutation type. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the mutations that have been reported in the MEFV gene from symptomatic FMF patients and compared their frequencies in different populations from the 1000 Genome and the Exome databases, using statistical clustering...
November 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170851/the-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-dodonaea-viscosa-comparative-and-phylogenetic-analyses
#20
Josphat K Saina, Andrew W Gichira, Zhi-Zhong Li, Guang-Wan Hu, Qing-Feng Wang, Kuo Liao
The plant chloroplast (cp) genome is a highly conserved structure which is beneficial for evolution and systematic research. Currently, numerous complete cp genome sequences have been reported due to high throughput sequencing technology. However, there is no complete chloroplast genome of genus Dodonaea that has been reported before. To better understand the molecular basis of Dodonaea viscosa chloroplast, we used Illumina sequencing technology to sequence its complete genome. The whole length of the cp genome is 159,375 base pairs (bp), with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 27,099 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) 87,204 bp, and small single copy (SSC) 17,972 bp...
November 23, 2017: Genetica
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