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Equine recurrent uveitis

Katarzyna Paschalis-Trela, Anna Cywińska, Jan Trela, Michał Czopowicz, Jerzy Kita, Lucjan Witkowski
BACKGROUND: Equine ocular diseases pose a medical challenge due to long-lasting and cost-consuming therapies as well as economic issues associated with potential decrease in value of affected horses. The scale of the problem is significant but difficult to precisely define because epidemiological data is limited and lacks consistency in presentation. To date, no retrospective studies specifically investigating Arabian horses have been published. RESULTS: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of ocular lesions and define the ocular diseases present in Arabian horses from breeding farms in Poland...
November 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Rebecca R Bellone
Advances in equine genetics and genomics resources have enabled the understanding of some inherited ocular disorders and ocular manifestations. These ocular disorders include congenital stationary night blindness, equine recurrent uveitis, multiple congenital ocular anomalies, and squamous cell carcinoma. Genetic testing can identify horses with or at risk for disease and thus can assist in clinical management. In addition, genetic testing can identify horses that are carriers and thus can inform breeding decisions...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Wendy M Townsend
Examination of the lens is critical, particularly when evaluating horses with visual impairment or performing prepurchase examinations. To adequately evaluate the lens, the pupil must be pharmacologically dilated. A cataract is any lens opacity. The size, density, and position of a cataract determine the impact on vision. Cataracts may be congenital or inherited or occur secondary to trauma or equine recurrent uveitis. Surgical removal is the only treatment option for vision impairing cataracts, but careful selection of surgical candidates is critical for successful outcomes...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Richard Joseph McMullen, Britta Maria Fischer
Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is characterized by recurrent bouts of inflammation interrupted by periods of quiescence that vary in duration. There is little consensus on the clinical manifestations, the underlying causes, or the management. The 3 commonly recognized syndromes of ERU (classic, insidious, and posterior) do not accurately separate the clinical manifestations of disease into distinct categories. An accurate diagnosis and early intervention are essential to minimizing the effects of disease and preserving vision...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Stefanie M Hauck, Marlen F Lepper, Michael Hertl, Walter Sekundo, Cornelia A Deeg
Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the only spontaneous model for recurrent autoimmune uveitis in humans, where T cells target retinal proteins. Differences between normal and autoaggressive lymphocytes were identified in this study by analyzing peripheral blood derived lymphocytes (PBL) proteomes from the same case with IRBP-induced uveitis sampled before (day 0), during (day 15) and after uveitic attack (day 23). Relative protein abundances of PBL were investigated in a quantitative, label-free differential proteome analysis in cells that were kept frozen for 14 years since the initial experiment...
August 28, 2017: Proteomics
Lynne S Sandmeyer, Bianca S Bauer, Cindy Xin Feng, Bruce H Grahn
The objectives of this study were to determine the demographics of horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) presenting to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine and to describe and compare the prognosis of ERU in the Appaloosa with that in other breeds. Horses diagnosed with ERU by a veterinary ophthalmologist between 2002 and 2015 were included. Eye lesions were classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on clinical manifestations. Breed, age, severity, blindness, and final outcome were evaluated...
July 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Tsjester Huppes, Hanneke Hermans, Jos M Ensink
BACKGROUND: Implants are often used to improve the cosmetic appearance of horses after enucleation of the eye. When surgical site infection (SSI) occurs, the implant will almost always be lost. The aim of this study is to collect data on the risk factors for SSIs and report long-term follow-up (cosmetic results and return to work) after transpalpebral enucleations. In this retrospective study, records of horses undergoing transpalpebral enucleation were reviewed (2007-2014) and telephone interviews were used to obtain long term follow-up...
June 2, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
F Malalana, R J Blundell, G L Pinchbeck, C M Mcgowan
BACKGROUND: Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a common cause of ocular pain and blindness in horses. Leptospira spp. have been commonly implicated in the pathophysiology of ERU in mainland Europe and the USA. No recent studies have been carried out in the UK, but Leptospira is reported not to be a major factor in the aetiology of ERU in the UK. OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of Leptospira-associated ERU in the UK and to identify the serovars involved in these cases; to compare serum vs...
November 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Roxane L Degroote, Patrizia B Uhl, Barbara Amann, Angela M Krackhardt, Marius Ueffing, Stefanie M Hauck, Cornelia A Deeg
The membrane protein expression repertoire of cells changes in course of activation. In equine recurrent uveitis (ERU), a spontaneous autoimmune disease in horses with relapsing and ultimately blinding inner eye inflammation, CD4+ T lymphocytes are the crucial pathogenic cells activated in the periphery directly prior to an inflammatory episode. In order to find relevant changes in the membrane proteome associated to disease, we sorted CD4+ lymphocytes and compared protein abundance from the generated proteome datasets of both healthy horses and ERU cases...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Elizabeth Curto, Kristen M Messenger, Jacklyn H Salmon, Brian C Gilger
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether horses with clinically diagnosed Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) and those with Leptospirosis infection have a specific cytokine profile in their aqueous humor (AH) and serum that differs from horses with uveitis secondary to other ocular inflammatory processes and from horses with normal eyes. ANIMALS STUDIED: Twenty-five client-owned horses with uveitis that were presented to the North Carolina State University Ophthalmology Service, and four University-owned horses without history or clinical signs of ocular disease...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
V Simbizi, M N Saulez, A Potts, C Lötter, B Gummow
Most leptospiral infections in horses are asymptomatic; however, acute disease manifestations as well as reproductive failure and recurrent uveitis have been reported. In South Africa, the epidemiology of the disease in horses is not well documented. A serosurvey to determine what serovars were present in horses from Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape Provinces and to get an estimate of the seroprevalence of leptospirosis was carried out from January 2013 until April 2014 with the assistance of four large equine hospitals located in these provinces...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kristina J H Kleinwort, Barbara Amann, Stefanie M Hauck, Regina Feederle, Walter Sekundo, Cornelia A Deeg
PURPOSE: Recently, formation of tertiary lymphoid structures was demonstrated and further characterized in the R161H mouse model of spontaneous autoimmune uveitis. In the horse model of spontaneous recurrent uveitis, intraocular lymphoid follicle formation is highly characteristic, and found in all stages and scores of disease, but in depth analyses of immunologic features of these structures are lacking to date. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded eye sections of cases with equine spontaneous recurrent uveitis (ERU) were characterized with immunohistochemistry to gain insight into the distribution, localization, and signaling of immune cells in intraocular tertiary lymphoid tissues...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Elisa Dorrego-Keiter, József Tóth, Lieke Dikker, Jutta Sielhorst, Gerald Fritz Schusser
In the ongoing discussion regarding the aetiopathogenesis of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) it was the aim of the present study to elucidate the relationship of leptospira infection and ERU. In a population of 225 horses leptospira were examined in vitreous humor by culture and leptospira antibody were detected in vitreous humor and serum samples. Preoperative serum samples were collected from 221/225 ERU patients of different age, gender and breed. Undiluted vitreous humor was aseptically taken from 198/225 patients that underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the beginning of surgery and from 27/225 patients' eyeball after enucleation: Serum and vitreous humor were tested for specific leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT)...
May 2016: Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
Galina P Simeonova, Svetozar Z Krastev, Radostin S Simeonov
BACKGROUND: The pathogenic mechanism of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is still poorly defined and many variations between experimental animal models and spontaneous disease exist. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate if Th17 cell-mediated response plays role in the pathogenesis of the used experimental model in horses and to reveal its pathological findings. METHODS: Experimental uveitis was induced in 6 healthy horses. The concentrations of retinal autoantigen CRALBP and IL-17 were measured using ELISA in aqueous humor and vitreous body of the 12 inflamed eyes as well as in 12 control non-inflamed eyes taken from 6 horses in slaughter house...
December 2016: Veterinary Research Communications
Lucjan Witkowski, Anna Cywinska, Katarzyna Paschalis-Trela, Mark Crisman, Jerzy Kita
Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) has various etiologies, with Leptospira infection and genetic predisposition being the leading risk factors. Regardless of etiology, expression of ocular proteins associated with maintenance of the blood-ocular barrier is impaired in ERU. The recurring-remitting cycle of ERU repeatedly disrupts the blood-ocular barrier, allowing the previously immune-privileged ocular environment to become the site of a progressive local autoimmune pathology that ultimately results in tissue destruction and vision loss...
February 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Emily H Berryhill, Sara M Thomasy, Philip H Kass, Christopher M Reilly, Kathryn L Good, Steven R Hollingsworth, David J Maggs, K Gary Magdesian, Nicola Pusterla
OBJECTIVE: To compare signalment, presentation, treatment, and outcome in horses diagnosed with corneal degeneration (CD) or calcific band keratopathy (CBK) at a referral hospital. ANIMALS STUDIED: Sixty-nine horses (87 eyes) diagnosed with either CD or CBK. PROCEDURES: Medical records of horses diagnosed with CD or CBK at the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (UCD-VMTH) between 2000 and 2013 were reviewed...
January 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Camila Hamond, Cristiane P Pestana, Cláudio Marcos Rocha-de-Souza, Luis Eduardo R Cunha, Felipe Z Brandão, Marco Alberto Medeiros, Walter Lilenbaum
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance, and has a worldwide distribution. Equine leptospirosis is commonly manifested by recurrent uveitis, reproductive disorders, as abortions, embryonic absorption, stillbirth and the birth of weak foals. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of Leptospira sp or its DNA in genital tract of mares with reproductive problems. A total of 38 mares with reproductive problems were studied. All the mares were sampled for blood (for serology), urine (for culturing and qPCR), vaginal fluid-VF and endometrial biopsy-EB (for culturing, qPCR and indirect immunofluorescence)...
September 30, 2015: Veterinary Microbiology
Fernando Malalana, Amira Stylianides, Catherine McGowan
Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a spontaneous disease characterised by repeated episodes of intraocular inflammation. The epidemiology of ERU has not been fully elucidated, but the condition appears to be much more common in horses than is recurrent uveitis in humans, especially in certain breeds and geographical regions. Both humans and horses show a similarly altered immune response and a marked autoimmune response as the primary disease pathophysiology. However, an inciting cause is not always clear. Potential inciting factors in horses include microbial agents such as Leptospira spp...
October 2015: Veterinary Journal
J C Gerding, B C Gilger
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a leading cause of vision loss in horses. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prognosis and impact of ERU on affected horses and their owners by evaluating the signalment, treatment and outcome (including the loss of use, vision assessment and economic loss). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective impact study. METHODS: Medical records of horses presenting to the North Carolina State University Veterinary Health Complex (NCSU-VHC) with ERU between 1999 and 2014 were reviewed...
May 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Patrizia B Uhl, Barbara Amann, Stefanie M Hauck, Cornelia A Deeg
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) builds the outer blood-retinal barrier of the eye. Since one typical feature of the autoimmune disease, equine recurrent uveitis (ERU), is the breakdown of this barrier, we recently performed comparative analysis of healthy and uveitic RPE. We identified for the first time peripherin 2, which is responsible for visual perception and retina development, to be localized in RPE. The purpose of this study was therefore to validate our findings by characterizing the expression patterns of peripherin 2 in RPE and retina...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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