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Race and health

Stephanie H Cook, Robert-Paul Juster, Benjamin J Calebs, Justin Heinze, Alison L Miller
Much of the extant scientific research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning is conducted among White heterosexuals. Very little research examines HPA-axis functioning between different minority groups. Individuals who identify as both sexual and racial minorities may experience increased stigma and discrimination that can affect HPA-axis functioning. In the current study, we examined diurnal cortisol rhythm in young White gay men (WGM) compared to young Black gay men (BGM). The sample consisted of 70 healthy gay men (mean [SD] age=22...
October 13, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Rui Wang, Yan Dong, Jia Weng, Emily Z Kontos, Ronald D Chervin, Carol L Rosen, Carole L Marcus, Susan Redline
RATIONALE: Prior research found that individual-level environmental and social indicators did not explain the racial disparity in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Neighborhood socioeconomic variables, risk factors for a range of adverse behavioral and health outcomes, may better explain this racial disparity and help identify modifiable intervention targets. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic variables with obstructive sleep apnea severity and to assess whether the neighborhood variables explain the association between race and obstructive sleep apnea severity...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Eric J Lammers, Catherine G McLaughlin, Michael Barna
OBJECTIVE: To test for correlation between the growth in adoption of ambulatory electronic health records (EHRs) in the United States during 2010-2013 and hospital admissions and readmissions for elderly Medicare beneficiaries with at least one of four common ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs). DATA SOURCES: SK&A Information Services Survey of Physicians, American Hospital Association General Survey and Information Technology Supplement; and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse Geographic Variation Database for 2010 through 2013...
October 21, 2016: Health Services Research
Parul Agarwal, Thomas K Bias, Usha Sambamoorthi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal patterns of emergency department (ED) visits among adult fee-for-service Medicaid. DATA SOURCES: Data were obtained from the Medicaid analytic eXtract files, Area Health Resource File, and County Health Rankings. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective longitudinal study design, with four observations for each individual was used. The study population consisted of 33,393 Medicaid beneficiaries who met inclusion criteria...
October 21, 2016: Health Services Research
Ajaratu Keshinro, Ioannis Hatzaras, Kenneth Rifkind, Shubhada Dhage, Kathie-Ann Joseph
INTRODUCTION: Cancer screening is a key component of primary care, and access to regular screening mammography (SMG) is highly dependent on recommendation and referral by a primary care provider (PCP). Women with no health insurance or who are underinsured often lack access to a regular PCP and thus access to routine screening. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 173 surgical patients diagnosed between January 2012 and December 2013. The main outcome variables were PCP status, method of cancer detection, and breast cancer stage at diagnosis...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Thomas J Hoffmann, Bronya J Keats, Noriko Yoshikawa, Catherine Schaefer, Neil Risch, Lawrence R Lustig
Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), one of the most common sensory disorders, can be mitigated, but not cured or eliminated. To identify genetic influences underlying ARHI, we conducted a genome-wide association study of ARHI in 6,527 cases and 45,882 controls among the non-Hispanic whites from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. We identified two novel genome-wide significant SNPs: rs4932196 (odds ratio = 1.185, p = 4.0x10-11), 52Kb 3' of ISG20, which replicated in a meta-analysis of the other GERA race/ethnicity groups (1,025 cases, 12,388 controls, p = 0...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Christine Louw, De Wet Swanepoel, Robert H Eikelboom, Hermanus C Myburgh
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of smartphone-based hearing screening with the hearScreen™ application in terms of sensitivity, specificity, referral rates, and time efficiency at two primary health care clinics. DESIGN: Nonprobability purposive sampling was used at both clinics. A total of 1236 participants (mean age: 37.8 ± SD 17.9 and range 3 to 97 years; 71.3% female) were included in the final analysis. Participants were screened using the hearScreen™ application following a two-step screening protocol and diagnostic pure-tone audiometry to confirm hearing status...
October 19, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Michelle M Van Handel, Charles E Rose, Elaine J Hallisey, Jessica L Kolling, Jon E Zibbell, Brian Lewis, Michele K Bohm, Christopher M Jones, Barry E Flanagan, Azfar-E-Alam Siddiqi, Kashif Iqbal, Andrew L Dent, Jonathan H Mermin, Eugene McCray, John W Ward, John T Brooks
OBJECTIVE: A recent HIV outbreak in a rural network of persons who inject drugs (PWID) underscored the intersection of the expanding epidemics of opioid abuse, unsterile injection drug use (IDU), and associated increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We sought to identify US communities potentially vulnerable to rapid spread of HIV, if introduced, and new or continuing high rates of HCV infections among PWID. DESIGN: We conducted a multistep analysis to identify indicator variables highly associated with IDU...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Christina Ludema, Stephen R Cole, Joseph J Eron, Andrew Edmonds, G Mark Holmes, Kathryn Anastos, Jennifer Cocohoba, Mardge Cohen, Hannah L F Cooper, Elizabeth T Golub, Seble Kassaye, Deborah Konkle-Parker, Lisa Metsch, Joel Milam, Tracey E Wilson, Adaora A Adimora
BACKGROUND: Implementation of the Affordable Care Act motivates assessment of health insurance and supplementary programs, such as the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) on health outcomes of HIV-infected people in the United States. We assessed the effects of health insurance, ADAP, and income on HIV viral load suppression. METHODS: We used existing cohort data from the HIV-infected participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the time from 2006 to unsuppressed HIV viral load (>200 copies/mL) among those with Medicaid, private, Medicare, or other public insurance, and no insurance, stratified by the use of ADAP...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Andrew C Patterson, Gerry Veenstra
OBJECTIVES: Intersectionality theory proposes that each combination of social categories derived from gender, race and nationality, such as immigrant White man or native-born Black woman, is associated with unique social experiences. We tested the potential of intersectionality theory for explicating racial inequalities in Canada by investigating whether Black-White health inequalities are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way. METHODS: Our dataset comprised 10 cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Michael A Woodley Of Menie, Joseph A Schwartz, Kevin M Beaver
Utilizing a newly released cognitive Polygenic Score (PGS) from Wave IV of Add Health (n = 1,886), structural equation models (SEMs) examining the relationship between PGS and fertility (which is approximately 50% complete in the present sample), employing measures of verbal IQ and educational attainment as potential mediators, were estimated. The results of indirect pathway models revealed that verbal IQ mediates the positive relationship between PGS and educational attainment, and educational attainment in turn mediates the negative relationship between verbal IQ and a latent fertility measure...
October 20, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Carolyn M Reyes-Guzman, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Jay Lubin, Neal D Freedman, Sean D Cleary, Paul H Levine, Neil E Caporaso
BACKGROUND: Light and/or intermittent smokers have been the fastest growing segment of cigarette smokers in the U.S. over the past two decades. Defining their behavioral characteristics is a critical public health priority. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our sample included 78,229 U.S. adults from three pooled contemporary population-based surveys: the 2012 NHIS, 2012 NSDUH, and 2011-2012 NHANES. We classified current smokers into four categories (light and intermittent [LITS], light-daily, heavier-intermittent and heavier-daily) and assessed smoking behaviors, illicit drug use, and mental health indicators using weighted analyses...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Carmela Alcántara, Luciana Andrea Giorgio Cosenzo, Weijia Fan, David Matthew Doyle, Jonathan A Shaffer
Although Blacks sleep between 37 and 75min less per night than non-Hispanic Whites, research into what drives racial differences in sleep duration is limited. We examined the association of anxiety sensitivity, a cognitive vulnerability, and race (Blacks vs. White) with short sleep duration (<7h of sleep/night), and whether anxiety sensitivity mediated race differences in sleep duration in a nationally representative sample of adults with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 1289 adults (115 Black, 1174 White) with a self-reported physician/health professional diagnosis of ≥1 myocardial infarction completed an online survey...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Patrick W Sullivan, Vahram H Ghushchyan, Gary Globe, Brandon Sucher
BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids (SCS) are commonly used but are associated with adverse effects. Given their prevalent use, the potential impact of SCS use on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important to characterize. OBJECTIVE: To assess the HRQoL of patients taking SCS. METHODS: The 2000-2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was used to examine EQ-5D and SF-6D scores associated with SCS use in adults. The study sample was restricted to those with a condition for which SCS are prescribed...
October 18, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Rosette J Chakkalakal, Justin P Fox, Jeremy C Green, Marcella Nunez-Smith, Brahmajee K Nallamothu, Romana Hasnain-Wynia
Concerns about the quality of race/ethnicity data collected by hospitals have limited our understanding of healthcare disparities affecting ethnic minorities in the United States. Using data from the New Jersey State Inpatient Databases and the American Community Survey, we calculated age-adjusted AMI hospitalization rates for Asian-American subgroups before (2005-2006) and after (2008-2009) New Jersey hospitals implemented standardized practices to collect more accurate granular race/ethnicity data from patients...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Cristina R Lammers, Polly A Hulme, Howard Wey, Jennifer Kerkvliet, Shivaram P Arunachalam
Despite evidence of the benefits of preconception health care (PCHC), little is known about awareness and access to PCHC for rural, reproductive-aged women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of PCHC conversations between rural reproductive-age women and health care providers, PCHC interventions received in the past year, and ascertain predictors of PCHC conversations and interventions. Women (n = 868; 18-45 years) completed a questionnaire including reproductive history, health care services utilization, and interest in PCHC...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Eric M Nordstrom, Angela Keniston, Fafa Baouchi, Alvaro Martinez-Camacho
AIMS: This study assesses the efficacy, accessibility, and safety of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in a safety net hospital population. METHODS: Patients at Denver Health receiving pegylated interferon for HCV infection between 2008 and 2012 were included in this retrospective study. Sociodemographic, biochemical, and virologic data were collected on each patient. The primary outcomes were the rate of sustained virologic response and early treatment discontinuation, with reason for discontinuation documented...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
James Sapontis, Steven P Marso, David J Cohen, William Lombardi, Dimitri Karmpaliotis, Jeffrey Moses, William J Nicholson, Ashish Pershad, R Michael Wyman, Anthony Spaedy, Stephen Cook, Parag Doshi, Robert Federici, Craig R Thompson, Karen Nugent, Kensey Gosch, John A Spertus, J Aaron Grantham
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic total occlusions of a coronary artery represent a complex, yet common, clinical conundrum among patients with ischemic heart disease. Chronic total occlusion angioplasty is increasingly being used as a treatment for these complex lesions. There is a compelling need to better quantify the safety, efficacy, benefits, and costs of the procedure. METHODS: To address these gaps in knowledge, we designed the Outcomes, Patient Health Status, and Efficiency IN Chronic Total Occlusion Hybrid Procedures (OPEN CTO) study, an investigator-initiated multicenter, single-arm registry including 12 centers with a planned enrollment of 1000 patients...
October 13, 2016: Coronary Artery Disease
David J Brennan, Greta R Bauer, Kaitlin Bradley, Oth Vilaythong Tran
OBJECTIVES: Research on sexual minority men (gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men) was examined with regard to the measures of sexual orientation used, the methods of research, and the main health outcomes under study. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of English-language quantitative studies of the health of sexual minority men published in 2010 (n = 250). RESULTS: This snapshot of the literature revealed that research on sexual minority men overwhelmingly focused on HIV, STIs, and sexual health for which sexual orientation was most commonly defined behaviorally...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Kristi Reynolds, Daichi Shimbo, C Barrett Bowling, Luqin Deng, Adam Bress, John Sim, Paul Muntner
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for serious fall injuries following initiation of antihypertensive medication among older adults. DESIGN AND METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a 5% random sample of people with Medicare health insurance, a government program for older US adults. The analysis was restricted to patients with a diagnosis of hypertension who initiated antihypertensive medication between 2007 and 2011. Initiation was defined by the first antihypertensive medication fill in this time period preceded by 365 days with no antihypertensive medication fills...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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