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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334522/themes-in-literature-related-to-incidence-risk-and-prevention-of-cancer-in-solid-organ-transplantation-recipients-on-immunosuppressive-therapy
#1
Stefanie L Rashti
BACKGROUND: Solid-organ transplants provide a second chance to thousands of critically ill patients with end-organ failure each year. Immunosuppressants are administered to patients to prevent graft rejection of a transplanted organ, such as a heart, kidney, or liver, while placing the recipient at greater risk for infection and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The literature provides evidence of various cancers that have been found to develop in patients' posttransplantation...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334514/monitoring-depression-rates-in-an-urban-community-use-of-electronic-health-records
#2
Arthur J Davidson, Stanley Xu, Carlos Irwin A Oronce, M Josh Durfee, Emily V McCormick, John F Steiner, Edward Havranek, Arne Beck
OBJECTIVES: Depression is the most common mental health disorder and mediates outcomes for many chronic diseases. Ability to accurately identify and monitor this condition, at the local level, is often limited to estimates from national surveys. This study sought to compare and validate electronic health record (EHR)-based depression surveillance with multiple data sources for more granular demographic subgroup and subcounty measurements. DESIGN/SETTING: A survey compared data sources for the ability to provide subcounty (eg, census tract [CT]) depression prevalence estimates...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334499/cognitive-function-and-its-risk-factors-among-older-us-adults-living-at-home
#3
William Dale, Ashwin A Kotwal, Joseph W Shega, L Philip Schumm, David W Kern, Jayant M Pinto, Kelly M Pudelek, Linda J Waite, Martha K McClintock
BACKGROUND: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has not been administered to a representative national sample, precluding comparison of patient scores to the general population and for risk factor identification. METHODS: A validated survey-based adaptation of the MoCA (MoCA-SA) was administered to a probability sample of home-dwelling US adults aged 62 to 90, using the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (n=3129), yielding estimates of prevalence in the United States...
January 12, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334004/examining-residence-status-as-a-risk-factor-for-health-risk-behaviors-among-college-students
#4
Angelo M DiBello, Madeline B Benz, Mary Beth Miller, Jennifer E Merrill, Kate B Carey
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate college student residence as a unique risk factor for a range of negative health behaviors. PARTICIPANTS: We examined data from 63,555 students (66% female) from 157 campuses who completed the National College Health Assessment Survey in Spring 2011. METHODS: Participants answered questions about the frequency of recent use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and illicit drugs as well as sexual risk behavior in the last 30 days...
January 15, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333660/interventions-to-increase-attendance-for-diabetic-retinopathy-screening
#5
REVIEW
John G Lawrenson, Ella Graham-Rowe, Fabiana Lorencatto, Jennifer Burr, Catey Bunce, Jillian J Francis, Patricia Aluko, Stephen Rice, Luke Vale, Tunde Peto, Justin Presseau, Noah Ivers, Jeremy M Grimshaw
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) in reducing the risk of sight loss, attendance for screening is consistently below recommended levels. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the review was to assess the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) interventions that seek to increase attendance for DRS in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Secondary objectives were:To use validated taxonomies of QI intervention strategies and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to code the description of interventions in the included studies and determine whether interventions that include particular QI strategies or component BCTs are more effective in increasing screening attendance;To explore heterogeneity in effect size within and between studies to identify potential explanatory factors for variability in effect size;To explore differential effects in subgroups to provide information on how equity of screening attendance could be improved;To critically appraise and summarise current evidence on the resource use, costs and cost effectiveness...
January 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333643/race-sex-and-discrimination-in-school-settings-a-multilevel-analysis-of-associations-with-delinquency
#6
Brittany D Chambers, Jennifer Toller Erausquin
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical phase of development and experimentation with delinquent behaviors. There is a growing body of literature exploring individual and structural impacts of discrimination on health outcomes and delinquent behaviors. However, there is limited research assessing how school diversity and discrimination impact students' delinquent behaviors. In response, the purpose of this study was to assess if individual- and school-level indicators of discrimination and diversity were associated with student delinquent behaviors among African American and White students...
February 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333640/comparing-mental-health-of-us-children-of-immigrants-and-non-immigrants-in-4-racial-ethnic-groups
#7
JaHun Kim, Semret Nicodimos, Siri E Kushner, Isaac C Rhew, Elizabeth McCauley, Ann Vander Stoep
BACKGROUND: To compare the mental health status of children of immigrant (COI) and non-immigrant (NI) parents and to determine whether differences in mental health status between COI and NI vary across 4 racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: We conducted universal mental health screening of 2374 sixth graders in an urban public school district. To screen, we administered well-validated adolescent depression and disruptive behavior problem questionnaires. We evaluated associations between child mental health, parent immigration status, and race/ethnicity using binomial regression...
February 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333335/recommendations-for-contraception-examining-the-role-of-patients-age-and-race
#8
Amanda Williams, Kasey Kajiwara, Reni Soon, Jennifer Salcedo, Mary Tschann, Jennifer Elia, Kristin Pauker, Bliss Kaneshiro
The literature suggests that women of different races are more or less likely to use certain contraceptive methods and patient race can influence which contraceptive recommendations a provider makes. To explore whether health care providers treat individuals of different races differently, we conducted a preliminary investigation on whether medical students recommended different contraceptive methods for hypothetical patients presenting with the same clinical features who only varied by race. Third- and fourth-year medical students (n=103) at the University of Hawai'i completed an online survey...
January 2018: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332684/racial-ethnic-sleep-disparities-in-us-school-aged-children-and-adolescents-a-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Dana Guglielmo, Julie A Gazmararian, Joon Chung, Ann E Rogers, Lauren Hale
Sleep is essential for optimal health, well-being, and cognitive functioning, and yet nationwide, youth are not obtaining consistent, adequate, or high-quality sleep. In fact, more than two-thirds of US adolescents are sleeping less than 8 hours nightly on school nights. Racial and ethnic minority children and adolescents are at an increased risk of having shorter sleep duration and poorer sleep quality than their white peers. In this review, we critically examined and compared results from 23 studies that have investigated racial/ethnic sleep disparities in American school-aged children and adolescents ages 6-19 years...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330310/social-determinants-of-community-level-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-coverage-in-a-school-based-vaccination-programme
#10
Stephen Jean, Malak Elshafei, Alison Buttenheim
OBJECTIVE: To assess social patterns in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in a school-based, government-funded vaccination programme located within a single-payer universal healthcare system. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of HPV vaccine uptake data for the 2013-2014 school year for 131 local authorities in England, and then evaluated the association between vaccine uptake and socioeconomic status at the aggregate level. DATA SOURCES: HPV vaccination coverage data from Public Health England's vaccine uptake guidance and the UK's March 2011 Census...
January 12, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329213/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-association-between-infant-hepatitis-b-vaccine-exposure-in-boys-and-the-risk-of-adverse-effects-as-measured-by-receipt-of-special-education-services
#11
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Kristin G Homme, Mark R Geier
The National Center for Education Statistics reported that between 1990-2005 the number of children receiving special education services (SES) rose significantly, and then, from 2004-2012, the number declined significantly. This coincided with the introduction of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine in 1991, and the subsequent introduction of Thimerosal-reduced hepatitis B vaccine in the early 2000s. This study examined the potential relationship between infant exposure to mercury from three doses of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of boys being adversely affected (as measured by receipt of SES)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329201/population-reference-values-for-serum-methylmalonic-acid-concentrations-and-its-relationship-with-age-sex-race-ethnicity-supplement-use-kidney-function-and-serum-vitamin-b12-in-the-post-folic-acid-fortification-period
#12
Vijay Ganji, Mohammad R Kafai
Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999-2000, 2001-2002 and 2003-2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569)...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328880/relative-roles-of-race-versus-socioeconomic-position-in-studies-of-health-inequalities-a-matter-of-interpretation
#13
Amani M Nuru-Jeter, Elizabeth K Michaels, Marilyn D Thomas, Alexis N Reeves, Roland J Thorpe, Thomas A LaVeist
An abundance of research has documented health inequalities by race and socioeconomic position (SEP) in the United States. However, conceptual and methodological challenges complicate the interpretation of study findings, thereby limiting progress in understanding health inequalities and in achieving health equity. Fundamental to these challenges is a lack of clarity about what race is and the implications of that ambiguity for scientific inquiry. Additionally, there is wide variability in how SEP is conceptualized and measured, resulting in a lack of comparability across studies and significant misclassification of risk...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326315/plasma-n-3-and-n-6-fatty-acids-are-differentially-related-to-carotid-plaque-and-its-progression-mesa-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#14
Brian T Steffen, Weihua Guan, James H Stein, Mathew C Tattersall, Joel D Kaufman, Veit Sandfort, Moyses Szklo, Michael Y Tsai
OBJECTIVE: ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) have long been considered healthful dietary components, yet recent clinical trials have questioned their cardiovascular benefits. By contrast, the ω-6 (n-6) FAs have been considered harmful, proatherogenic macronutrients, despite an absence of empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis. We aimed to determine whether plasma n-3 and n-6 FAs are related to risk of carotid plaque and its progression in 3327 participants of the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis)...
January 11, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325815/intersectionality-and-the-lgbt-cancer-patient
#15
REVIEW
Penny Damaskos, Beau Amaya, RuthAnn Gordon, Chasity Burrows Walters
OBJECTIVES: To present the ways in which race, ethnicity, class, gender, and sexual orientation interact in the context of cancer risk, access to care, and treatment by health care providers. Cancer risk factors, access to care, and treatment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients are discussed within the context of intersectionality and cultural humility. DATA SOURCES: Peer reviewed articles, cancer organizations, and clinical practice. CONCLUSION: LGBT patients have multiple identities that intersect to create unique experiences...
January 8, 2018: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325431/persons-living-with-diagnosed-hiv-in-new%C3%A2-york-city-over-50-over-50-years-old
#16
Qiang Xia, Emily Westheimer, Rebekkah S Robbins, Lucia V Torian
Using NYC HIV surveillance data, we estimated the annual median age of persons living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) and the proportion of PLWDH over 50 years old in NYC between 2008 and 2015, and described the characteristics, retention in care and viral suppression status among PLWDH in NYC in 2015, by age (<50 vs. ≥50 years old). The median age of PLWDH in NYC increased from 46.4 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 39.4, 53.2) in 2008 to 50.2 years (IQR: 39.8, 57.5) in 2015, and the proportion of PLWDH over 50 years old increased from 35...
January 11, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324730/quickstats-age-adjusted-percentages-of-current-smokers%C3%A2-among-adults-aged-%C3%A2-18-years-by-sex-race-and-hispanic-origin%C3%A2-national-health-interview-survey-2016%C3%A2
#17
(no author information available yet)
In 2016, men aged ≥18 years were more likely to be current smokers than women (17.5% compared with 13.6%). Non-Hispanic black men (20.1%) and non-Hispanic white men (18.4%) were more likely to be current smokers than Hispanic men (13.8%). Non-Hispanic white women (16.2%) were more likely to be current smokers than non-Hispanic black women (13.2%) and Hispanic women (6.9%).
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324613/racial-disparities-in-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-psychosocial-stress
#18
William A Grobman, Corette B Parker, Marian Willinger, Deborah A Wing, Robert M Silver, Ronald J Wapner, Hyagriv N Simhan, Samuel Parry, Brian M Mercer, David M Haas, Alan M Peaceman, Shannon Hunter, Pathik Wadhwa, Michal A Elovitz, Tatiana Foroud, George Saade, Uma M Reddy
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationships between self-reported psychosocial stress and preterm birth, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth and to assess the extent to which these relationships account for racial and ethnic disparities in these adverse outcomes. METHODS: Self-reported measures of psychosocial stress (perceived stress, depression, racism, anxiety, resilience, and social support) were collected during pregnancy among a racially and ethnically diverse cohort of women enrolled in a prospective observational study of nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, from eight clinical sites across the United States, between October 2010 and May 2014...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324605/estimating-the-hospital-delivery-costs-associated-with-severe-maternal-morbidity-in-new-york-city-2008-2012
#19
Renata E Howland, Meghan Angley, Sang Hee Won, Wendy Wilcox, Hannah Searing, Tsu-Yu Tsao
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the average and total hospital delivery costs associated with severe maternal morbidity in excess of nonsevere maternal morbidity deliveries over a 5-year period in New York City adjusting for other sociodemographic and clinical factors. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using linked birth certificates and hospital discharge data for New York City deliveries from 2008 to 2012. Severe maternal morbidity was defined using a published algorithm of International Classification of Diseases, 9 Revision, Clinical Modification disease and procedure codes...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324604/preterm-birth-and-gestational-length-in-four-race-nativity-groups-including-somali-americans
#20
Emily A Oliver, Mark Klebanoff, Lina Yossef-Salameh, Reena Oza-Frank, Soheil Moosavinasab, Patricia Reagan, Louis Muglia, Catalin S Buhimschi, Irina A Buhimschi
OBJECTIVE: To compare preterm birth rates and gestational length in four race-nativity groups including Somali Americans. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort study design of Ohio birth certificates, we analyzed all singleton births between 2000 and 2015 from four groups of women categorized as U.S.-born, non-Hispanic white (USBW), U.S.-born, non-Hispanic black (USBB), African-born black (ABB, primarily of West African birth country), and Somalia-born (SB). An algorithm trained on maternal names was used to confirm Somali ethnicity...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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