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M Hermassi, J Dosta, C Valderrama, E Licon, N Moreno, X Querol, N H Batis, J L Cortina
The use of low-cost inorganic sorbents as a new sustainable strategy to enhance the valorization of nutrients (N-P-K), from the urban water cycle (e.g., side streams from sewage sludge anaerobic digestion), in agriculture applications is presented. The simultaneous recovery and stabilization of ammonium and phosphate by using a mixture of two reactive sorbents (Na and K zeolites and magnesium oxide) was evaluated. The nutrients stabilization process, favoured at alkaline pH values, is carried out by a) the precipitation of phosphate ions with magnesium and/or ammonium ions and b) the sorption of ammonium by Na- and K-zeolites...
February 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Anwar Hussain Phulpoto, Muneer Ahmed Qazi, Ihsan-Ul -Haq, Abdul Rahman Phul, Safia Ahmed, Nisar Ahmed Kanhar
The present study validates the oil-based paint bioremediation potential of Bacillus subtilis NAP1 for ecotoxicological assessment using a three-dimensional multi-species bio-testing model. The model included bioassays to determine phytotoxic effect, cytotoxic effect, and antimicrobial effect of oil-based paint. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of pre- and post-bioremediation samples was also detected to confirm its detoxification. Although, the pre-bioremediation samples of oil-based paint displayed significant toxicity against all the life forms...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rifka Vlijm, Xue Li, Marko Panic, Diana Rüthnick, Shoji Hata, Frank Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas Kuner, Mike Heilemann, Johann Engelhardt, Stefan W Hell, Elmar Schiebel
The centrosome linker proteins C-Nap1, rootletin, and CEP68 connect the two centrosomes of a cell during interphase into one microtubule-organizing center. This coupling is important for cell migration, cilia formation, and timing of mitotic spindle formation. Very little is known about the structure of the centrosome linker. Here, we used stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy to show that each C-Nap1 ring at the proximal end of the two centrioles organizes a rootletin ring and, in addition, multiple rootletin/CEP68 fibers...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sachin K Garg, Kyle Lu, John Duncan, Lance R Peterson, Oliver Liesenfeld
Clostridium difficile infection is a significant health burden, and innovative solutions are needed to shorten time to diagnosis and improve infection control. We evaluated the performance of the cobas® Cdiff test for use on the cobas® Liat® System (cobas® Liat® Cdiff), a single-sample, on-demand, and automated molecular solution with a 20-min turnaround time. The limit of detection was 45-90 colony-forming units (CFUs)/swab for toxigenic strains that covered the most prevalent toxinotypes, including the hyper-virulent epidemic 027/BI/NAP1 strain...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Bhagyashri D Navalkele, Teena Chopra
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common health care-acquired infection associated with high hospital expenditures. The incidence of subsequent recurrent CDI increases with prior episodes of CDI, 15%-35% risk after primary CDI to 35%-65% risk after the first recurrent episode. Recurrent CDI is one of the most challenging and a very difficult to treat infections. Standard guidelines provide recommendations on treatment of primary CDI. However, treatment choices for recurrent CDI are limited. Recent research studies have focused on the discovery of newer alternatives for prevention of recurrent CDI targeting prime virulence factors involved in C...
2018: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
Yingnan Wang, Xing Qin, Xueqin Zhu, Wanjun Chen, Jianjun Zhang, Wantao Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2018: Oral Oncology
Sandra Milena Gualtero, Lina Alejandra Abril, Nathalia Camelo, Susi Daniela Sanchez, Fabián Antonio Davila, Gerson Arias, Edwin Silva, Ingrid Gissel Bustos, Diego Fernando Josa, Isabel Cristina Torres, Luis Carlos Zambrano, María José Pareja
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the main pathogen related to healthcare-associated diarrhea and it is the cause of 20 to 30% of diarrhea cases caused by antibiotics. In Colombia and Latin America, the knowledge about the epidemiological behavior of this infection is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of a series of patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive case series study of patients with C...
December 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Alice Y Guh, Yi Mu, James Baggs, Lisa G Winston, Wendy Bamberg, Carol Lyons, Monica M Farley, Lucy E Wilson, Stacy M Holzbauer, Erin C Phipps, Zintars G Beldavs, Marion A Kainer, Maria Karlsson, Dale N Gerding, Ghinwa Dumyati
During 2011-2015, the adjusted long-term-care facility onset Clostridium difficile infection incidence rate in persons aged ≥65 years decreased annually by 17.45% (95% confidence interval, 14.53%-20.43%) across 10 US sites. A concomitant decline in inpatient fluoroquinolone use and the C difficile epidemic strain NAP1/027 among persons aged ≥65 years may have contributed to the decrease in long-term-care facility-onset C difficile infection incidence rate.
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Yingnan Wang, Xing Qin, Xueqin Zhu, Wanjun Chen, Jianjun Zhang, Wantao Chen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of oral cancer-derived exosomes (OCEXs) on natural killer (NK) cells and to explore the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OCEXs were isolated from the cell culture supernatant of oral cancer (OC) cells using ultrafiltration and affinity chromatography and were identified using electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and immunoblotting. The effects of OCEXs on NK cells were analyzed using laser scanning confocal microscopy and several functional assays of NK cells...
January 2018: Oral Oncology
Divya Reddy, Saikat Bhattacharya, Vinod Jani, Uddhavesh Sonavane, Rajendra Joshi, Sanjay Gupta
Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) is a histone chaperone that exchanges histone H2A-H2B dimer from chromatin templates. Studies with yeast NAP1 (yNAP1) have revealed its existence as multiple oligomeric species in solution. Here, rat NAP1 (rNAP1), which is 98% identical to the human NAP1 (hNAP1) was used as a model to characterize the oligomeric structures of this protein in higher eukaryotes. Gel filtration chromatography and Dynamic light scattering of recombinant rNAP1 indicated that the protein exists as a complex mixture of multimeric species even at 500 mM ionic strength...
February 2018: Protein Journal
Silvia Esmeralda Pérez-Topete, Tomás Miranda-Aquino, Juan Jacobo Ayala-Gaytan
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming bacterium, producing exotoxins, causing potentially fatal nosocomial diarrhea. They have recently reported outbreaks of C. difficile ribotype 027, which is characterized by a hypervirulent strain and high resistance to standard therapy. CLINICAL CASE: We present three cases of Clostridium difficile NAP1/027/BI associated infection, they were presented with different clinical manifestations. Two of the patients were successfully treated with the combination of vancomycin plus tigecycline...
September 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
S E Giancola, R J Williams, C A Gentry
OBJECTIVES: The increased incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are thought to result partly from the emergence of the hypervirulent BI/NAP1/027 strain. Limited recent data are available on the prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 in the United States (US). The objective of this study was to assess the recent prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 within the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA). METHODS: Patients with CDI at any Veterans Affairs Medical Center found to routinely test for the presence of BI/NAP1/027 during the study period were included between 1 June 2011 and 30 June 2016 in this retrospective, observational, nationwide study...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Sylwia Dudzicz, Marcin Adamczak, Andrzej Więcek
Clostridium difficile is currently the most frequently identified pathogen causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea. In recent years, increases incidence of infection, severe infection, recurrent infection and mortality from Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been observed. This may be a consequence of excessive antibiotic use and spread of the hypervirulent epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain of Clostridium difficile. The main risk factors for CDI are: antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalizations and number of comorbid conditions...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro, Paula Gómez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Juan David Ramírez
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) leads to the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and a wide range of gastrointestinal pathologies. Currently, CDI is one of the most important opportunistic infections at the intrahospital level and an exponential increase in community-acquired infections has been reported. Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI...
2017: Gut Pathogens
Run Fang, Qifei Jiang, Xiang Zhou, Chenguang Wang, Yukun Guan, Jianli Tao, Jianzhong Xi, Ji-Ming Feng, Zhengfan Jiang
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) transmits signals from RIG-I-like receptors after RNA virus infections. However, the mechanism by which MAVS activates downstream components, such as TBK1 and IKKα/β, is unclear, although previous work suggests the involvement of NEMO or TBK1-binding proteins TANK, NAP1, and SINTBAD. Here, we report that MAVS-mediated innate immune activation is dependent on TRAFs, partially on NEMO, but not on TBK1-binding proteins. MAVS recruited TBK1/IKKε by TRAFs that were pre-associated with TBK1/IKKε via direct interaction between the coiled-coil domain of TRAFs and the SDD domain of TBK1/IKKε...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Daniela Cejas, Néstor Raúl Ríos Osorio, Rodolfo Quirós, Roxana Sadorin, María Alejandra Berger, Gabriel Gutkind, Liliana Fernández Canigia, Marcela Radice
Thirty one C. difficile isolates recovered in 2015 were characterized. Nineteen/31 were positive for tcdA/B, among them, 4 isolates were also positive for CDT coding genes. Two/4 cdtA/B positives isolates corresponded to ST 1 resembling BI/NAP1/027/ST 1 strain, while the others corresponded to ST 226 and ST 377.
October 23, 2017: Anaerobe
Karla María Tamez-Torres, Pedro Torres-González, Francisco Leal-Vega, Ariana García-Alderete, Norma Irene López García, Raquel Mendoza-Aguilar, Arturo Galindo-Fraga, Miriam Bobadilla-Del Valle, Alfredo Ponce de León, José Sifuentes-Osornio
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to ribotype 027 (RT027) and recurrence, including an outbreak period, with transition to endemicity. METHODS: A case-control study was performed. Clinical and demographic data were collected for patients with CDI during the period January 2008 to December 2015. Ribotyping of the isolates and PCR for toxin A, B, and binary were performed...
December 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Lais Moraes, Nilson I T Zanchin, Janete M Cerutti
We previously reported that ABI3 expression is lost in follicular thyroid carcinomas and its restoration significantly inhibited cell growth, invasiveness, migration, and reduced tumor growth in vivo. The mechanistic basis by which ABI3 exerts its tumor suppressive effects is not fully understood. In this study, we show that ABI3 is a phosphoprotein. Using proteomic array analysis, we showed that ABI3 modulated distinct cancer-related pathways in thyroid cancer cells. The KEA analysis found that PI3K substrates were enriched and forced expression of ABI3 markedly decreased the phosphorylation of AKT and the downstream-targeted protein pGSK3β...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Michael J Aldape, Aaron E Packham, Dustin D Heeney, Savannah N Rice, Amy E Bryant, Dennis L Stevens
PURPOSE: Fidaxomicin, a macrocyclic antibiotic, has been approved for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Previous work by our group has demonstrated that some antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations stimulate early toxin production and sporulation by C. difficile. Prior studies revealed that fidaxomicin, when added to late stationary-phase organisms, reduced exotoxin production and spore formation by C. difficile. However, the ability of fidaxomicin to trigger early virulence factor production and spore formation has never been investigated...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Raghuvar Dronamraju, Srinivas Ramachandran, Deepak K Jha, Alexander T Adams, Julia V DiFiore, Michael A Parra, Nikolay V Dokholyan, Brian D Strahl
H2A.Z is a histone H2A variant that contributes to transcriptional regulation, DNA damage response and limits heterochromatin spreading. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, H2A.Z is deposited by the SWR-C complex, which relies on several histone chaperones including Nap1 and Chz1 to deliver H2A.Z-H2B dimers to SWR-C. However, the mechanisms by which Nap1 and Chz1 cooperate to bind H2A.Z and their contribution to H2A.Z deposition in chromatin is not well understood. Using structural modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, we identify a series of H2A...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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