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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769315/characterization-of-additional-components-of-the-environmental-ph-sensing-complex-in-the-pathogenic-fungus-cryptococcus-neoformans
#1
Kaila M Pianalto, Kyla S Ost, Hannah E Brown, J Andrew Alspaugh
Pathogenic microorganisms must adapt to changes in their immediate surroundings, including alterations in pH, to survive the shift from the external environment to that of the infected host. In the basidiomycete fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans , these pH changes are primarily sensed by the fungal-specific, alkaline pH-sensing Rim/Pal pathway. The C. neoformans Rim pathway has diverged significantly from that described in ascomycete fungi. We recently identified the C. neoformans putative pH sensor Rra1, which activates the Rim pathway in response to elevated pH...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718797/cep250-mutations-associated-with-mild-cone-rod-dystrophy-and-sensorineural-hearing-loss-in-a-japanese-family
#2
Daiki Kubota, Kiyoko Gocho, Sachiko Kikuchi, Keiichiro Akeo, Masahiro Miura, Kunihiko Yamaki, Hiroshi Takahashi, Shuhei Kameya
BACKGROUND: CEP250 encodes the C-Nap1 protein which belongs to the CEP family of proteins. C-Nap1 has been reported to be expressed in the photoreceptor cilia and is known to interact with other ciliary proteins. Mutations of CEP250 cause atypical Usher syndrome which is characterized by early-onset sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and a relatively mild retinitis pigmentosa. This study tested the hypothesis that the mild cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) and SNHL in a non-consanguineous Japanese family was caused by CEP250 mutations...
May 2, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694026/directed-evolution-of-heterologous-trnas-leads-to-reduced-dependence-on-post-transcriptional-modifications
#3
Kevin C Baldridge, Manasses Jora, Andre C Maranhao, Matthew M Quick, Balasubrahmanyam Addepalli, Jennifer S Brodbelt, Andrew D Ellington, Patrick A Limbach, Lydia M Contreras
Heterologous tRNA:aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs are often employed for noncanonical amino acid incorporation in the quest for an expanded genetic code. In this work, we investigated one possible mechanism by which directed evolution can improve orthogonal behavior for a suite of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii ( Mj) tRNATyr -derived amber suppressor tRNAs. Northern blotting demonstrated that reduced expression of heterologous tRNA variants correlated with improved orthogonality. We suspected that reduced expression likely minimized nonorthogonal interactions with host cell machinery...
April 25, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676825/histone-chaperones-play-crucial-roles-in-maintenance-of-stem-cell-niche-during-plant-root-development
#4
Jing Ma, Yuhao Liu, Wangbin Zhou, Yan Zhu, Aiwu Dong, Wen-Hui Shen
Stem cells in both plant and animal kingdoms reside in a specialized cellular context called stem-cell niche (SCN). SCN integrity is crucial for organism development. Here we show that the H3/H4 histone chaperone CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY FACTOR-1 (CAF-1) and the H2A/H2B histone chaperone NAP1-RELATED PROTEIN1/2 (NRP1/2) play synergistic roles in Arabidopsis root SCN maintenance. Compared to either the m56-1 double mutant deprived of NRP1 and NRP2 or the fas2-4 mutant deprived of CAF-1, the combined m56-1fas2-4 triple mutant displayed a much more severe short-root phenotype...
April 20, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617810/two-groups-of-cocirculating-epidemic-clostridiodes-difficile-strains-microdiversify-through-different-mechanisms
#5
Tatiana Murillo, Gabriel Ramírez-Vargas, Thomas Riedel, Jörg Overmann, Joakim M Andersen, Caterina Guzmán-Verri, Esteban Chaves-Olarte, César Rodríguez
Clostridiodes difficile strains from the NAPCR1/ST54 and NAP1/ST01 types have caused outbreaks despite of their notable differences in genome diversity. By comparing whole genome sequences of 32 NAPCR1/ST54 isolates and 17 NAP1/ST01 recovered from patients infected with C. difficile we assessed whether mutation, homologous recombination (r) or nonhomologous recombination (NHR) through lateral gene transfer (LGT) have differentially shaped the microdiversification of these strains. The average number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding sequences (NAPCR1/ST54 = 24; NAP1/ST01 = 19) and SNP densities (NAPCR1/ST54 = 0...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567127/poor-yield-of-clostridium-difficile-testing-algorithms-using-glutamate-dehydrogenase-antigen-and-c-difficile-toxin-enzyme-immunoassays-in-a-pediatric-population-with-declining-prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-strain-bi-nap1-027
#6
Emily J Gomez, Sandra Montgomery, Kevin Alby, Diana P Robinson, Sylvester S Roundtree, Deborah Blecker-Shelly, Kaede V Sullivan
We compared the performance of algorithmic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis with four molecular tests in children. Stool samples in patients 1-18 years old were tested with an algorithm (C. Diff Quik Chek Complete (QCC) reflexed to illumigene C. difficile); AmpliVue C. difficile (ACD); Lyra Direct C. difficile (Lyra); BD MAX C diff (BDM); and Xpert C. difficile (XCD). The gold standard was positivity by two tests. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 85%, 99%, 93%, 97% for the algorithm; 21%, 99%, 78%, 87% for QCC's toxin component; 94%, 99%, 94%, 99% for ACD; 88%, 99%, 94%, 98% for Lyra; 94%, 100%, 100%, 99% for BDM, and 94%, 99%, 94% and 99% for XCD...
February 25, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499536/simultaneous-ammonium-and-phosphate-recovery-and-stabilization-from-urban-sewage-sludge-anaerobic-digestates-using-reactive-sorbents
#7
M Hermassi, J Dosta, C Valderrama, E Licon, N Moreno, X Querol, N H Batis, J L Cortina
The use of low-cost inorganic sorbents as a new sustainable strategy to enhance the valorization of nutrients (N-P-K), from the urban water cycle (e.g., side streams from sewage sludge anaerobic digestion), in agriculture applications is presented. The simultaneous recovery and stabilization of ammonium and phosphate by using a mixture of two reactive sorbents (Na and K zeolites and magnesium oxide) was evaluated. The nutrients stabilization process, favoured at alkaline pH values, is carried out by a) the precipitation of phosphate ions with magnesium and/or ammonium ions and b) the sorption of ammonium by Na- and K-zeolites...
July 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497939/ecotoxicological-assessment-of-oil-based-paint-using-three-dimensional-multi-species-bio-testing-model-pre-and-post-bioremediation-analysis
#8
Anwar Hussain Phulpoto, Muneer Ahmed Qazi, Ihsan-Ul -Haq, Abdul Rahman Phul, Safia Ahmed, Nisar Ahmed Kanhar
The present study validates the oil-based paint bioremediation potential of Bacillus subtilis NAP1 for ecotoxicological assessment using a three-dimensional multi-species bio-testing model. The model included bioassays to determine phytotoxic effect, cytotoxic effect, and antimicrobial effect of oil-based paint. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of pre- and post-bioremediation samples was also detected to confirm its detoxification. Although, the pre-bioremediation samples of oil-based paint displayed significant toxicity against all the life forms...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463719/sted-nanoscopy-of-the-centrosome-linker-reveals-a-cep68-organized-periodic-rootletin-network-anchored-to-a-c-nap1-ring-at-centrioles
#9
Rifka Vlijm, Xue Li, Marko Panic, Diana Rüthnick, Shoji Hata, Frank Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas Kuner, Mike Heilemann, Johann Engelhardt, Stefan W Hell, Elmar Schiebel
The centrosome linker proteins C-Nap1, rootletin, and CEP68 connect the two centrosomes of a cell during interphase into one microtubule-organizing center. This coupling is important for cell migration, cilia formation, and timing of mitotic spindle formation. Very little is known about the structure of the centrosome linker. Here, we used stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy to show that each C-Nap1 ring at the proximal end of the two centrioles organizes a rootletin ring and, in addition, multiple rootletin/CEP68 fibers...
March 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403660/equivalent-performance-of-the-cobas-%C3%A2-cdiff-test-for-use-on-the-cobas-%C3%A2-liat-%C3%A2-system-and-the-cobas-%C3%A2-4800-system
#10
Sachin K Garg, Kyle Lu, John Duncan, Lance R Peterson, Oliver Liesenfeld
Clostridium difficile infection is a significant health burden, and innovative solutions are needed to shorten time to diagnosis and improve infection control. We evaluated the performance of the cobas® Cdiff test for use on the cobas® Liat® System (cobas® Liat® Cdiff), a single-sample, on-demand, and automated molecular solution with a 20-min turnaround time. The limit of detection was 45-90 colony-forming units (CFUs)/swab for toxigenic strains that covered the most prevalent toxinotypes, including the hyper-virulent epidemic 027/BI/NAP1 strain...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403263/bezlotoxumab-an-emerging-monoclonal-antibody-therapy-for-prevention-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#11
REVIEW
Bhagyashri D Navalkele, Teena Chopra
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common health care-acquired infection associated with high hospital expenditures. The incidence of subsequent recurrent CDI increases with prior episodes of CDI, 15%-35% risk after primary CDI to 35%-65% risk after the first recurrent episode. Recurrent CDI is one of the most challenging and a very difficult to treat infections. Standard guidelines provide recommendations on treatment of primary CDI. However, treatment choices for recurrent CDI are limited. Recent research studies have focused on the discovery of newer alternatives for prevention of recurrent CDI targeting prime virulence factors involved in C...
2018: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396179/corrigendum-to-oral-cancer-derived-exosomal-nap1-enhances-cytotoxicity-of-natural-killer-cells-via-the-irf-3-pathway-oral-oncol-76-2018-34-41
#12
Yingnan Wang, Xing Qin, Xueqin Zhu, Wanjun Chen, Jianjun Zhang, Wantao Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373767/-characteristics-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-high-complexity-hospital-and-report-of-the-circulation-of-the-nap1-027-hypervirulent-strain-in-colombia
#13
Sandra Milena Gualtero, Lina Alejandra Abril, Nathalia Camelo, Susi Daniela Sanchez, Fabián Antonio Davila, Gerson Arias, Edwin Silva, Ingrid Gissel Bustos, Diego Fernando Josa, Isabel Cristina Torres, Luis Carlos Zambrano, María José Pareja
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the main pathogen related to healthcare-associated diarrhea and it is the cause of 20 to 30% of diarrhea cases caused by antibiotics. In Colombia and Latin America, the knowledge about the epidemiological behavior of this infection is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of a series of patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive case series study of patients with C...
December 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329918/trends-in-incidence-of-long-term-care-facility-onset-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-10-us-geographic-locations-during-2011-2015
#14
Alice Y Guh, Yi Mu, James Baggs, Lisa G Winston, Wendy Bamberg, Carol Lyons, Monica M Farley, Lucy E Wilson, Stacy M Holzbauer, Erin C Phipps, Zintars G Beldavs, Marion A Kainer, Maria Karlsson, Dale N Gerding, Ghinwa Dumyati
During 2011-2015, the adjusted long-term-care facility onset Clostridium difficile infection incidence rate in persons aged ≥65 years decreased annually by 17.45% (95% confidence interval, 14.53%-20.43%) across 10 US sites. A concomitant decline in inpatient fluoroquinolone use and the C difficile epidemic strain NAP1/027 among persons aged ≥65 years may have contributed to the decrease in long-term-care facility-onset C difficile infection incidence rate.
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290284/oral-cancer-derived-exosomal-nap1-enhances-cytotoxicity-of-natural-killer-cells-via-the-irf-3-pathway
#15
Yingnan Wang, Xing Qin, Xueqin Zhu, Wanjun Chen, Jianjun Zhang, Wantao Chen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of oral cancer-derived exosomes (OCEXs) on natural killer (NK) cells and to explore the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OCEXs were isolated from the cell culture supernatant of oral cancer (OC) cells using ultrafiltration and affinity chromatography and were identified using electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and immunoblotting. The effects of OCEXs on NK cells were analyzed using laser scanning confocal microscopy and several functional assays of NK cells...
January 2018: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209909/biochemical-and-biophysical-characterisation-of-higher-oligomeric-structure-of-rat-nucleosome-assembly-protein-1
#16
Divya Reddy, Saikat Bhattacharya, Vinod Jani, Uddhavesh Sonavane, Rajendra Joshi, Sanjay Gupta
Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) is a histone chaperone that exchanges histone H2A-H2B dimer from chromatin templates. Studies with yeast NAP1 (yNAP1) have revealed its existence as multiple oligomeric species in solution. Here, rat NAP1 (rNAP1), which is 98% identical to the human NAP1 (hNAP1) was used as a model to characterize the oligomeric structures of this protein in higher eukaryotes. Gel filtration chromatography and Dynamic light scattering of recombinant rNAP1 indicated that the protein exists as a complex mixture of multimeric species even at 500 mM ionic strength...
February 2018: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193949/-case-series-of-clostridium-difficile-nap1-027-bi-with-novels-treatments
#17
Silvia Esmeralda Pérez-Topete, Tomás Miranda-Aquino, Juan Jacobo Ayala-Gaytan
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming bacterium, producing exotoxins, causing potentially fatal nosocomial diarrhea. They have recently reported outbreaks of C. difficile ribotype 027, which is characterized by a hypervirulent strain and high resistance to standard therapy. CLINICAL CASE: We present three cases of Clostridium difficile NAP1/027/BI associated infection, they were presented with different clinical manifestations. Two of the patients were successfully treated with the combination of vancomycin plus tigecycline...
September 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174729/prevalence-of-the-clostridium-difficile-bi-nap1-027-strain-across-the-united-states-veterans-health-administration
#18
S E Giancola, R J Williams, C A Gentry
OBJECTIVES: The increased incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are thought to result partly from the emergence of the hypervirulent BI/NAP1/027 strain. Limited recent data are available on the prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 in the United States (US). The objective of this study was to assess the recent prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 within the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA). METHODS: Patients with CDI at any Veterans Affairs Medical Center found to routinely test for the presence of BI/NAP1/027 during the study period were included between 1 June 2011 and 30 June 2016 in this retrospective, observational, nationwide study...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161712/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-nephrology-ward
#19
Sylwia Dudzicz, Marcin Adamczak, Andrzej Więcek
Clostridium difficile is currently the most frequently identified pathogen causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea. In recent years, increases incidence of infection, severe infection, recurrent infection and mortality from Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been observed. This may be a consequence of excessive antibiotic use and spread of the hypervirulent epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain of Clostridium difficile. The main risk factors for CDI are: antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalizations and number of comorbid conditions...
2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151897/community-acquired-infection-with-hypervirulent-clostridium-difficile-isolates-that-carry-different-toxin-and-antibiotic-resistance-loci-a-case-report
#20
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro, Paula Gómez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Juan David Ramírez
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) leads to the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and a wide range of gastrointestinal pathologies. Currently, CDI is one of the most important opportunistic infections at the intrahospital level and an exponential increase in community-acquired infections has been reported. Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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