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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645479/impact-of-the-nap-1-strain-on-disease-severity-mortality-and-recurrence-of-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
Karri A Bauer, Jessica E W Johnston, Eric Wenzler, Debra A Goff, Charles H Cook, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Preeti Pancholi, Julie E Mangino
OBJECTIVES: Studies are conflicting regarding the association of the North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1 (NAP1) strain in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and outcomes. We evaluated the association of NAP1 with healthcare-associated CDI disease severity, mortality, and recurrence at our academic medical center. METHODS: Healthcare-associated CDI cases were identified from November 1, 2011 through January 31, 2013. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the associations of NAP1 with severe disease (based on the Hines VA severity score index), mortality, and recurrence...
June 20, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641088/application-of-zeolite-hydrous-zirconia-composite-as-a-novel-sediment-capping-material-to-immobilize-phosphorus
#2
Yi Fan, Yiwen Li, Deyi Wu, Chunjie Li, Hainan Kong
A unique sediment-capping agent consisting of a zeolite/hydrous zirconia composite (ZHZ) was developed and tested for P-immobilization in the overlying water and sediment cores from a freshwater pond. In the ZHZ, NaP1 zeolite was covered with hydrous zirconia, which existed as an amorphous phase. Experimental results in pond water indicated that ZHZ could efficiently remove soluble reactive phosphorus. The 28-day sediment incubation experiments showed that capping sediment with ZHZ resulted in a more efficient, rapid and sustained decrease in P concentration when compared with the traditional alum treatment method...
June 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625250/-fulminant-clostridium-difficile-colitis-new-challenges-in-critical-care-medicine
#3
Bin Liu
Fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis (FCDC) means severe Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC), which often manifested with severe diarrhea, fever, abdominal distention, electrolyte disorder, hypoalbuminemia, and it can lead to pseudo membrane colonitis, toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction. Now Clostridium difficile (CD) becomes one of the most important medical institutions related infectious pathogens. In particular, the recently discovered mutant CD strain NAP1/BI/ribotype 027 has high pathogenicity in the global epidemic and its outbreak...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501926/an-outbreak-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-027-in-spain-risk-factors-for-recurrence-and-a-novel-treatment-strategy
#4
E Bouza, L Alcalá, M Marín, M Valerio, E Reigadas, P Muñoz, M González-Del Vecchio, V de Egea
An outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by ribotype 027 (B1/NAP1) began in our hospital in November 2014, and produced 141 episodes in the following months. The aim of this study is to describe this outbreak, assess risk factors for recurrence of CDI-027 and to analyze the implementation of a novel treatment strategy. This is a prospective study of all patients with CDI-027, from November 2014 to November 2015. The epidemiological data were collected daily for each patient. We compared clinical characteristics and treatment between patients with and without recurrence of CDI-027...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482300/recovery-of-nutrients-n-p-k-from-potassium-rich-sludge-anaerobic-digestion-side-streams-by-integration-of-a-hybrid-sorption-membrane-ultrafiltration-process-use-of-powder-reactive-sorbents-as-nutrient-carriers
#5
Mehrez Hermassi, Cèsar Valderrama, Oriol Gibert, Natalia Moreno, Xavier Querol, Narjès Harrouch Batis, Jose Luis Cortina
Here, an alternative nutrient (N-P-K) recovery route from potassium-rich sludge anaerobic digestion side-streams using powder reactive sorbents (PRSs) is presented. In the first step, the optimum PRS system was determined in batch experiments with mixtures of: a) a sodium zeolite (NaP1) to facilitate the NH4(+) and K(+) sorption; b) a Ca-zeolite (CaP1) to facilitate the removal of P by formation of Ca-phosphates (e.g., CaHPO4(s)), and c) caustic magnesia containing mixtures of MgO to facilitate the formation of Mg/NH4/PO4 minerals (e...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402634/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-bile-acid-analogues-inhibitory-to-clostridium-difficile-spore-germination
#6
Kristen L Stoltz, Raymond Erickson, Christopher Staley, Alexa R Weingarden, Erin Romens, Clifford J Steer, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky, Peter I Dosa
Standard antibiotic-based strategies for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections disrupt indigenous microbiota and commonly fail to eradicate bacterial spores, two key factors that allow recurrence of infection. As an alternative approach to controlling C. difficile infection, a series of bile acid derivatives have been prepared that inhibit taurocholate-induced spore germination. These analogues have been evaluated in a highly virulent NAP1 strain using optical density and phase-contrast microscopy assays...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369616/nap1l1-accelerates-activation-and-decreases-pausing-to-enhance-nucleosome-remodeling-by-csb
#7
Ju Yeon Lee, Robert J Lake, Jaewon Kirk, Vilhelm A Bohr, Hua-Ying Fan, Sungchul Hohng
Cockayne syndrome protein B (CSB) belongs to the SWI2/SNF2 ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler family, and CSB is the only ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler essential for transcription-coupled nucleotide excision DNA repair. CSB alone remodels nucleosomes ∼10-fold slower than the ACF remodeling complex. Strikingly, NAP1-like histone chaperones interact with CSB and greatly enhance CSB-mediated chromatin remodeling. While chromatin remodeling by CSB and NAP1-like proteins is crucial for efficient transcription-coupled DNA repair, the mechanism by which NAP1-like proteins enhance chromatin remodeling by CSB remains unknown...
May 5, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351991/the-composition-of-the-arabidopsis-rna-polymerase-ii-transcript-elongation-complex-reveals-the-interplay-between-elongation-and-mrna-processing-factors
#8
Wojciech Antosz, Alexander Pfab, Hans F Ehrnsberger, Philipp Holzinger, Karin Köllen, Simon A Mortensen, Astrid Bruckmann, Thomas Schubert, Gernot Längst, Joachim Griesenbeck, Veit Schubert, Marion Grasser, Klaus D Grasser
Transcript elongation factors (TEFs) are a heterogeneous group of proteins that control the efficiency of transcript elongation of subsets of genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in the chromatin context. Using reciprocal tagging in combination with affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that in Arabidopsis thaliana, the TEFs SPT4/SPT5, SPT6, FACT, PAF1-C, and TFIIS copurified with each other and with elongating RNAPII, while P-TEFb was not among the interactors. Additionally, NAP1 histone chaperones, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors, and some histone-modifying enzymes including Elongator were repeatedly found associated with TEFs...
April 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255536/central-role-of-pi3k-syk-interaction-in-fibrinogen-induced-lamellipodia-and-filopodia-formation-in-platelets
#9
Raghvendra Singh
The WAVE complex-1, a complex of WAVE, Abi1, NAP1, PIR121, HSPC300, RacGTP and Arp2/3 proteins, and WASP complex-1, a complex of WASP, Cdc42, PIP2, and Arp2/3 proteins, are involved in lamellipodia and filopodia formation, respectively. It is known that the two complexes have opposite dynamics. Furthermore, Rac has two guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Vav and Sos, whose role in activating Rac is not well understood. In this work, by the construction of signaling network, analysis, and mathematical modeling, I show that Sos generates a pulse of WAVE complex-1, decreasing the response time of WAVE complex-1 formation upon the stimulation of platelets by fibrinogen...
December 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138017/the-histone-chaperone-nrp1-interacts-with-werewolf-to-activate-glabra2-in-arabidopsis-root-hair-development
#10
Yan Zhu, Liang Rong, Qiang Luo, Baihui Wang, Nana Zhou, Yue Yang, Chi Zhang, Haiyang Feng, Lina Zheng, Wen-Hui Shen, Jinbiao Ma, Aiwu Dong
NUCLEOSOME ASSEMBLY PROTEIN1 (NAP1) defines an evolutionarily conserved family of histone chaperones and loss of function of the Arabidopsis thaliana NAP1 family genes NAP1-RELATED PROTEIN1 (NRP1) and NRP2 causes abnormal root hair formation. Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that NRP1 interacts with the transcription factor WEREWOLF (WER) in vitro and in vivo and enriches at the GLABRA2 (GL2) promoter in a WER-dependent manner. Crystallographic analysis indicates that NRP1 forms a dimer via its N-terminal α-helix...
February 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128545/single-molecule-investigations-on-histone-h2a-h2b-dynamics-in-the-nucleosome
#11
Jaehyoun Lee, Tae-Hee Lee
Nucleosomes impose physical barriers to DNA-templated processes, playing important roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. DNA is packaged into nucleosomes by histone proteins mainly through strong electrostatic interactions that can be modulated by various post-translational histone modifications. Investigating the dynamics of histone dissociation from the nucleosome and how it is altered upon histone modifications is important for understanding eukaryotic gene regulation mechanisms. In particular, histone H2A-H2B dimer displacement in the nucleosome is one of the most important and earliest steps of histone dissociation...
February 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125650/development-of-a-novel-vaccine-containing-binary-toxin-for-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-disease-with-enhanced-efficacy-against-nap1-strains
#12
Susan Secore, Su Wang, Julie Doughtry, Jinfu Xie, Matt Miezeiewski, Richard R Rustandi, Melanie Horton, Rachel Xoconostle, Bei Wang, Catherine Lancaster, Adam Kristopeit, Sheng-Ching Wang, Sianny Christanti, Salvatore Vitelli, Marie-Pierre Gentile, Aaron Goerke, Julie Skinner, Erica Strable, David S Thiriot, Jean-Luc Bodmer, Jon H Heinrichs
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the developed world. The main virulence factors of the bacterium are the large clostridial toxins (LCTs), TcdA and TcdB, which are largely responsible for the symptoms of the disease. Recent outbreaks of CDI have been associated with the emergence of hypervirulent strains, such as NAP1/BI/027, many strains of which also produce a third toxin, binary toxin (CDTa and CDTb). These hypervirulent strains have been associated with increased morbidity and higher mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122580/identification-of-small-molecule-modulators-of-hiv-1-tat-and-rev-protein-accumulation
#13
Ahalya Balachandran, Raymond Wong, Peter Stoilov, Sandy Pan, Benjamin Blencowe, Peter Cheung, P Richard Harrigan, Alan Cochrane
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 replication is critically dependent upon controlled processing of its RNA and the activities provided by its encoded regulatory factors Tat and Rev. A screen of small molecule modulators of RNA processing identified several which inhibited virus gene expression, affecting both relative abundance of specific HIV-1 RNAs and the levels of Tat and Rev proteins. RESULTS: The screen for small molecules modulators of HIV-1 gene expression at the post-transcriptional level identified three (a pyrimidin-7-amine, biphenylcarboxamide, and benzohydrazide, designated 791, 833, and 892, respectively) that not only reduce expression of HIV-1 Gag and Env and alter the accumulation of viral RNAs, but also dramatically decrease Tat and Rev levels...
January 26, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100636/centriole-splitting-caused-by-loss-of-the-centrosomal-linker-protein-c-nap1-reduces%C3%A2-centriolar-satellite-density-and-impedes%C3%A2-centrosome-amplification
#14
Anne-Marie Flanagan, Elena Stavenschi, Shivakumar Basavaraju, David Gaboriau, David A Hoey, Ciaran G Morrison
Duplication of the centrosomes is a tightly regulated process. Abnormal centrosome numbers can impair cell division and cause changes in how cells migrate. Duplicated centrosomes are held together by a proteinaceous linker made up of rootletin filaments anchored to the centrioles by C-NAP1. This linker is removed in a NEK2A kinase-dependent manner as mitosis begins. To explore C-NAP1 activities in regulating centrosome activities, we used genome editing to ablate it. C-NAP1-null cells were viable and had an increased frequency of premature centriole separation, accompanied by reduced density of the centriolar satellites, with reexpression of C-NAP1 rescuing both phenotypes...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974641/proper-cytoskeletal-architecture-beneath-the-plasma-membrane-of-red-blood-cells-requires-ttll4
#15
Faryal Ijaz, Yasue Hatanaka, Takahiro Hatanaka, Koji Tsutsumi, Takayuki Iwaki, Kazuo Umemura, Koji Ikegami, Mitsutoshi Setou
Mammalian red blood cells (RBCs) circulate through blood vessels, including capillaries, for tens of days under high mechanical stress. RBCs tolerate this mechanical stress while maintaining their shape because of their elastic membrane skeleton. This membrane skeleton consists of spectrin-actin lattices arranged as quasi-hexagonal units beneath the plasma membrane. In this study, we found that the organization of the RBC cytoskeleton requires tubulin tyrosine ligase-like 4 (Ttll4). RBCs from Ttll4-knockout mice showed larger average diameters in smear test...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897206/the-incidence-and-drug-resistance-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-mainland-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Chenjie Tang, Lunbiao Cui, Yuqiao Xu, Le Xie, Pengfei Sun, Chengcheng Liu, Wenying Xia, Genyan Liu
It has been widely reported that the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased dramatically in North America and Europe. However, little is known about CDI in Mainland China. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of CDI and the main epidemic and drug-resistant strains of C. difficile in Mainland China through meta-analysis of related studies published after the year 2010. A total of 51 eligible studies were included. The pooled incidence of toxigenic C. difficile among patients with diarrhoea was 14% (95% CI = 12-16%)...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876241/recycling-of-typical-difficult-to-treat-e-waste-synthesize-zeolites-from-waste-cathode-ray-tube-funnel-glass
#17
Zhitong Yao, Daidai Wu, Jie Liu, Weihong Wu, Hongting Zhao, Junhong Tang
The disposal of waste cathode ray-tubes (CRTs) from old televisions and discarded computer monitors has become a major environmental concern worldwide. In this work, an open-loop recycling method was developed to synthesize zeolites using CRT funnel glass as the raw material. The effects of hydrothermal temperatures and pressure, n(SiO2/Al2O3) molar ratios and hydrothermal time on the resulting products were investigated. The results indicated that hydrothermal temperatures and pressure played critical roles in zeolite synthesis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818179/spatial-control-of-primary-ciliogenesis-by-subdistal-appendages-alters-sensation-associated-properties-of-cilia
#18
Gregory Mazo, Nadine Soplop, Won-Jing Wang, Kunihiro Uryu, Meng-Fu Bryan Tsou
Vertebrate cells can initiate ciliogenesis from centrioles at the cell center, near the Golgi, forming primary cilia confined or submerged in a deep narrow pit created by membrane invagination. How or why cells maintain submerged cilia is unclear. Here, by characterizing centriole subdistal appendages (sDAP) in cells exclusively growing submerged cilia, we found that a group of sDAP components localize to the centriole proximal end through the cohesion factor C-Nap1 and that sDAP function redundantly with C-Nap1 for submerged cilia maintenance...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648685/purification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-alginate-lyase-from-the-marine-bacterium-cobetia-sp-nap1-isolated-from-brown-algae
#19
Hisashi Yagi, Asako Fujise, Narumi Itabashi, Takashi Ohshiro
The application of marine resources, instead of fossil fuels, for biomass production is important for building a sustainable society. Seaweed is valuable as a source of marine biomass for producing biofuels such as ethanol, and can be used in various fields. Alginate is an anionic polysaccharide that forms the main component of brown algae. Various alginate lyases (e.g. exo- and endo-types and oligoalginate lyase) are generally used to degrade alginate. We herein describe a novel alginate lyase, AlgC-PL7, which belongs to the polysaccharide lyase 7 family...
December 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633064/reprofiled-anthelmintics-abate-hypervirulent-stationary-phase-clostridium-difficile
#20
Major Gooyit, Kim D Janda
Prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics disrupts the indigenous gut microbiota, which consequently enables toxigenic Clostridium difficile species to proliferate and cause infection. The burden of C. difficile infections was exacerbated with the outbreak of hypervirulent strains that produce copious amounts of enterotoxins and spores. In recent past, membrane-active agents have generated a surge of interest due to their bactericidal property with a low propensity for resistance. In this study, we capitalized on the antimicrobial property and low oral bioavailability of salicylanilide anthelmintics (closantel, rafoxanide, niclosamide, oxyclozanide) to target the gut pathogen...
2016: Scientific Reports
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