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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329918/trends-in-incidence-of-long-term-care-facility-onset-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-10-us-geographic-locations-during-2011-2015
#1
Alice Y Guh, Yi Mu, James Baggs, Lisa G Winston, Wendy Bamberg, Carol Lyons, Monica M Farley, Lucy E Wilson, Stacy M Holzbauer, Erin C Phipps, Zintars G Beldavs, Marion A Kainer, Maria Karlsson, Dale N Gerding, Ghinwa Dumyati
During 2011-2015, the adjusted long-term-care facility onset Clostridium difficile infection incidence rate in persons aged ≥65 years decreased annually by 17.45% (95% confidence interval, 14.53%-20.43%) across 10 US sites. A concomitant decline in inpatient fluoroquinolone use and the C difficile epidemic strain NAP1/027 among persons aged ≥65 years may have contributed to the decrease in long-term-care facility-onset C difficile infection incidence rate.
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290284/oral-cancer-derived-exosomal-nap1-enhances-cytotoxicity-of-natural-killer-cells-via-the-irf-3-pathway
#2
Yingnan Wang, Xing Qin, Xueqin Zhu, Wanjun Chen, Jianjun Zhang, Wantao Chen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of oral cancer-derived exosomes (OCEXs) on natural killer (NK) cells and to explore the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OCEXs were isolated from the cell culture supernatant of oral cancer (OC) cells using ultrafiltration and affinity chromatography and were identified using electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and immunoblotting. The effects of OCEXs on NK cells were analyzed using laser scanning confocal microscopy and several functional assays of NK cells...
January 2018: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209909/biochemical-and-biophysical-characterisation-of-higher-oligomeric-structure-of-rat-nucleosome-assembly-protein-1
#3
Divya Reddy, Saikat Bhattacharya, Vinod Jani, Uddhavesh Sonavane, Rajendra Joshi, Sanjay Gupta
Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) is a histone chaperone that exchanges histone H2A-H2B dimer from chromatin templates. Studies with yeast NAP1 (yNAP1) have revealed its existence as multiple oligomeric species in solution. Here, rat NAP1 (rNAP1), which is 98% identical to the human NAP1 (hNAP1) was used as a model to characterize the oligomeric structures of this protein in higher eukaryotes. Gel filtration chromatography and Dynamic light scattering of recombinant rNAP1 indicated that the protein exists as a complex mixture of multimeric species even at 500 mM ionic strength...
December 5, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193949/-case-series-of-clostridium-difficile-nap1-027-bi-with-novels-treatments
#4
Silvia Esmeralda Pérez-Topete, Tomás Miranda-Aquino, Juan Jacobo Ayala-Gaytan
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming bacterium, producing exotoxins, causing potentially fatal nosocomial diarrhea. They have recently reported outbreaks of C. difficile ribotype 027, which is characterized by a hypervirulent strain and high resistance to standard therapy. CLINICAL CASE: We present three cases of Clostridium difficile NAP1/027/BI associated infection, they were presented with different clinical manifestations. Two of the patients were successfully treated with the combination of vancomycin plus tigecycline...
September 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174729/prevalence-of-the-clostridium-difficile-bi-nap1-027-strain-across-the-united-states-veterans-health-administration
#5
S E Giancola, R J Williams, C A Gentry
OBJECTIVES: The increased incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are thought to result partly from the emergence of the hypervirulent BI/NAP1/027 strain. Limited recent data are available on the prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 in the United States (US). The objective of this study was to assess the recent prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 within the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA). METHODS: Patients with CDI at any Veterans Affairs Medical Center found to routinely test for the presence of BI/NAP1/027 during the study period were included between 1 June 2011 and 30 June 2016 in this retrospective, observational, nationwide study...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161712/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-nephrology-ward
#6
Sylwia Dudzicz, Marcin Adamczak, Andrzej Więcek
Clostridium difficile is currently the most frequently identified pathogen causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea. In recent years, increases incidence of infection, severe infection, recurrent infection and mortality from Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been observed. This may be a consequence of excessive antibiotic use and spread of the hypervirulent epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain of Clostridium difficile. The main risk factors for CDI are: antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalizations and number of comorbid conditions...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151897/community-acquired-infection-with-hypervirulent-clostridium-difficile-isolates-that-carry-different-toxin-and-antibiotic-resistance-loci-a-case-report
#7
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro, Paula Gómez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Juan David Ramírez
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) leads to the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and a wide range of gastrointestinal pathologies. Currently, CDI is one of the most important opportunistic infections at the intrahospital level and an exponential increase in community-acquired infections has been reported. Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125880/mavs-activates-tbk1-and-ikk%C3%AE%C2%B5-through-trafs-in-nemo-dependent-and-independent-manner
#8
Run Fang, Qifei Jiang, Xiang Zhou, Chenguang Wang, Yukun Guan, Jianli Tao, Jianzhong Xi, Ji-Ming Feng, Zhengfan Jiang
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) transmits signals from RIG-I-like receptors after RNA virus infections. However, the mechanism by which MAVS activates downstream components, such as TBK1 and IKKα/β, is unclear, although previous work suggests the involvement of NEMO or TBK1-binding proteins TANK, NAP1, and SINTBAD. Here, we report that MAVS-mediated innate immune activation is dependent on TRAFs, partially on NEMO, but not on TBK1-binding proteins. MAVS recruited TBK1/IKKε by TRAFs that were pre-associated with TBK1/IKKε via direct interaction between the coiled-coil domain of TRAFs and the SDD domain of TBK1/IKKε...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074149/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-st-1-in-buenos-aires-argentina
#9
Daniela Cejas, Néstor Raúl Ríos Osorio, Rodolfo Quirós, Roxana Sadorin, María Alejandra Berger, Gabriel Gutkind, Liliana Fernández Canigia, Marcela Radice
Thirty one C. difficile isolates recovered in 2015 were characterized. Nineteen/31 were positive for tcdA/B, among them, 4 isolates were also positive for CDT coding genes. Two/4 cdtA/B positives isolates corresponded to ST 1 resembling BI/NAP1/027/ST 1 strain, while the others corresponded to ST 226 and ST 377.
October 23, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986313/impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-caused-by-the-nap1-rt027-strain-on-severity-and-recurrence-during-an-outbreak-and-transition-to-endemicity-in-a-mexican-tertiary-care-center
#10
Karla María Tamez-Torres, Pedro Torres-González, Francisco Leal-Vega, Ariana García-Alderete, Norma Irene López García, Raquel Mendoza-Aguilar, Arturo Galindo-Fraga, Miriam Bobadilla-Del Valle, Alfredo Ponce de León, José Sifuentes-Osornio
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to ribotype 027 (RT027) and recurrence, including an outbreak period, with transition to endemicity. METHODS: A case-control study was performed. Clinical and demographic data were collected for patients with CDI during the period January 2008 to December 2015. Ribotyping of the isolates and PCR for toxin A, B, and binary were performed...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978070/abi3-a-component-of-the-wave2-complex-is-potentially-regulated-by-pi3k-akt-pathway
#11
Lais Moraes, Nilson I T Zanchin, Janete M Cerutti
We previously reported that ABI3 expression is lost in follicular thyroid carcinomas and its restoration significantly inhibited cell growth, invasiveness, migration, and reduced tumor growth in vivo. The mechanistic basis by which ABI3 exerts its tumor suppressive effects is not fully understood. In this study, we show that ABI3 is a phosphoprotein. Using proteomic array analysis, we showed that ABI3 modulated distinct cancer-related pathways in thyroid cancer cells. The KEA analysis found that PI3K substrates were enriched and forced expression of ABI3 markedly decreased the phosphorylation of AKT and the downstream-targeted protein pGSK3β...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893366/fidaxomicin-reduces-early-toxin-a-and-b-production-and-sporulation-in-clostridium-difficilein-vitro
#12
Michael J Aldape, Aaron E Packham, Dustin D Heeney, Savannah N Rice, Amy E Bryant, Dennis L Stevens
PURPOSE: Fidaxomicin, a macrocyclic antibiotic, has been approved for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Previous work by our group has demonstrated that some antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations stimulate early toxin production and sporulation by C. difficile. Prior studies revealed that fidaxomicin, when added to late stationary-phase organisms, reduced exotoxin production and spore formation by C. difficile. However, the ability of fidaxomicin to trigger early virulence factor production and spore formation has never been investigated...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883625/redundant-functions-for-nap1-and-chz1-in-h2a-z-deposition
#13
Raghuvar Dronamraju, Srinivas Ramachandran, Deepak K Jha, Alexander T Adams, Julia V DiFiore, Michael A Parra, Nikolay V Dokholyan, Brian D Strahl
H2A.Z is a histone H2A variant that contributes to transcriptional regulation, DNA damage response and limits heterochromatin spreading. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, H2A.Z is deposited by the SWR-C complex, which relies on several histone chaperones including Nap1 and Chz1 to deliver H2A.Z-H2B dimers to SWR-C. However, the mechanisms by which Nap1 and Chz1 cooperate to bind H2A.Z and their contribution to H2A.Z deposition in chromatin is not well understood. Using structural modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, we identify a series of H2A...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733522/abi3-a-component-of-the-wave2-complex-is-potentially-regulated-by-pi3k-akt-pathway
#14
Lais Moraes, Nilson I T Zanchin, Janete M Cerutti
We previously reported that ABI3 expression is lost in follicular thyroid carcinomas and its restoration significantly inhibited cell growth, invasiveness, migration, and reduced tumor growth in vivo. The mechanistic basis by which ABI3 exerts its tumor suppressive effects is not fully understood. In this study, we show that ABI3 is a phosphoprotein. Using proteomic array analysis, we showed that ABI3 modulated distinct cancer-related pathways in thyroid cancer cells. The KEA analysis found that PI3K substrates were enriched and forced expression of ABI3 markedly decreased the phosphorylation of AKT and the downstream-targeted protein pGSK3β...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729205/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-in-israel
#15
Linda Tkhawkho, Orna Nitzan, Nina Pastukh, Diana Brodsky, Karen Jackson, Avi Peretz
OBJECTIVES: An increase of Clostridium difficile isolates with reduced susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents has been observed, including isolates that are non-susceptible to antibiotics that are routinely used for treatment of C. difficile, such as vancomycin and metronidazole. We determined the susceptibility rates of C. difficile isolates from hospitals in northern Israel to various antibiotics including tigecycline, which was not previously reported from Israel. METHODS: A total of 81 stool samples were collected from three hospitals in northern Israel from patients with C...
September 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708379/chemical-genomics-structure-elucidation-and-in-vivo-studies-of-the-marine-derived-anticlostridial-ecteinamycin
#16
Thomas P Wyche, René F Ramos Alvarenga, Jeff S Piotrowski, Megan N Duster, Simone R Warrack, Gabriel Cornilescu, Travis J De Wolfe, Yanpeng Hou, Doug R Braun, Gregory A Ellis, Scott W Simpkins, Justin Nelson, Chad L Myers, James Steele, Hirotada Mori, Nasia Safdar, John L Markley, Scott R Rajski, Tim S Bugni
A polyether antibiotic, ecteinamycin (1), was isolated from a marine Actinomadura sp., cultivated from the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata. (13)C enrichment, high resolution NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modeling enabled elucidation of the structure of 1, which was validated on the basis of comparisons with its recently reported crystal structure. Importantly, ecteinamycin demonstrated potent activity against the toxigenic strain of Clostridium difficile NAP1/B1/027 (MIC = 59 ng/μL), as well as other toxigenic and nontoxigenic C...
September 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692454/phosphorylation-of-cyfip2-a-component-of-the-wave-regulatory-complex-regulates-dendritic-spine-density-and-neurite-outgrowth-in-cultured-hippocampal-neurons-potentially-by-affecting-the-complex-assembly
#17
Yeunkum Lee, Doyoun Kim, Jae Ryun Ryu, Yinhua Zhang, Shinhyun Kim, Yoonhee Kim, Bokyoung Lee, Woong Sun, Kihoon Han
Actin dynamics is a critical mechanism underlying many cellular processes in neurons. The heteropentameric WAVE-regulatory complex (WRC), consisting of WAVE, CYFIP1/2, Nap, Abi, and HSPC300, is a key regulator of actin dynamics that activates the Arp2/3 complex to initiate actin polymerization and branching. The WRC is basally inactive because of intermolecular interactions among the components, which can be modulated by bindings of phospholipids and Rac1, and phosphorylations of WAVE and Abi. However, the phosphorylation of other components of WRC and their functional significance remain largely unknown...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687276/nap1l1-regulates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-acting-on-anti-apoptotic-mcl-1-gene-expression
#18
Toshiaki Tanaka, Yasukazu Hozumi, Mitsuyoshi Iino, Kaoru Goto
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participates in apoptosis signaling pathway under various pathophysiological conditions. It exerts transcriptional control on the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Mcl-1, which act on the mitochondrial outer membrane. Previously, we described that NF-κB is negatively regulated by diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ), an enzyme that phosphorylates a lipid second messenger diacylglycerol. DGKζ downregulation enhances inhibitors of NF-κB α (IκBα) degradation and p65 subunit phosphorylation, leading to enhanced NF-κB transcriptional activity...
October 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669616/clostridium-difficile-chimeric-toxin-receptor-binding-domain-vaccine-induced-protection-against-different-strains-in-active-and-passive-challenge-models
#19
Jing-Hui Tian, Gregory Glenn, David Flyer, Bin Zhou, Ye Liu, Eddie Sullivan, Hua Wu, James F Cummings, Larry Elllingsworth, Gale Smith
Clostridium difficile is the number one cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in developed countries. Historically, pathogenesis was attributed two homologous glucosylating toxins, toxin-A (TcdA) and toxin-B (TcdB). Over the past decade, however, highly virulent epidemic strains of C. difficile (B1/NAP1/027) have emerged and are linked to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Increased virulence is attributed to multiple factors including: increased production of A- and B-toxins; production of binary toxin (CDT); and the emergence of more toxic TcdB variants (TcdB(027))...
July 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645479/impact-of-the-nap-1-strain-on-disease-severity-mortality-and-recurrence-of-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
Karri A Bauer, Jessica E W Johnston, Eric Wenzler, Debra A Goff, Charles H Cook, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Preeti Pancholi, Julie E Mangino
OBJECTIVES: Studies are conflicting regarding the association of the North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1 (NAP1) strain in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and outcomes. We evaluated the association of NAP1 with healthcare-associated CDI disease severity, mortality, and recurrence at our academic medical center. METHODS: Healthcare-associated CDI cases were identified from November 1, 2011 through January 31, 2013. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the associations of NAP1 with severe disease (based on the Hines VA severity score index), mortality, and recurrence...
June 21, 2017: Anaerobe
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