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Erin E Morgan, Steven Paul Woods, Jennifer E Iudicello, Igor Grant, Javier Villalobos
Two factors that influence HIV health behaviors and therefore may contribute to gaps in the HIV treatment continuum are poor health-related self-efficacy and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). However, the relationship between HAND and self-efficacy has not been assessed. In an HIV sample, 91 individuals with intact cognition (HAND-) and 40 individuals with HAND (HAND+) were administered a measure of self-efficacy for healthcare interactions with providers. Participants with HAND had significantly lower scores on this measure, which were correlated with poorer episodic and semantic memory performance, as well as self-reported memory symptoms in daily life...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Jonathan M Grabyan, Erin E Morgan, Marizela V Cameron, Javier Villalobos, Igor Grant, Steven Paul Woods
Objective: Emotion processing has received little research focus in HIV, but emerging evidence suggests that abilities such as facial affect discrimination may be features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The present study hypothesized that individuals with HAND would evidence an emotion processing deficit relative to cognitively unimpaired individuals with HIV and seronegative comparison participants on a task assessing these abilities. Moreover, it was expected that this deficit would be significantly associated with social aspects of everyday functioning...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Steven Paul Woods, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Marizela Verduzco, Tyler V Smith, Clint Cushman
OBJECTIVES: The Internet is a fundamental tool for completing many different instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including shopping and banking. Persons with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) are at heightened risk for IADL problems, but the extent to which HAND interferes with the performance of Internet-based household IADLs is not known. METHODS: Ninety-three individuals with HIV disease, 43 of whom were diagnosed with HAND, and 42 HIV- comparison participants completed Internet-based tests of shopping and banking...
August 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
P L Fazeli, K B Casaletto, S P Woods, A Umlauf, J C Scott, D J Moore
Objective: The prevalence of older adults living with HIV is rising, as is their risk for everyday functioning problems associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Multitasking, the ability to maintain and carry out subgoals in support of a larger goal, is a multidimensional skill ubiquitous during most real-life tasks and associated with prefrontal networks that are vulnerable in HIV. Understanding factors associated with multitasking will improve characterization of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
David P Sheppard, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Rujvi Kamat, Lindsay R Clark, Gunes Avci, Mark W Bondi, Steven Paul Woods
There is debate as to whether the neurocognitive changes associated with HIV infection represent an acceleration of the typical aging process or more simply reflect a greater accentuated risk for age-related declines. We aimed to determine whether accelerated neurocognitive aging is observable in a sample of older HIV-infected individuals compared to age-matched seronegatives and older old (i.e., aged ≥65) seronegative adults. Participants in a cross-sectional design included 48 HIV-seronegative (O-) and 40 HIV-positive (O+) participants between the ages of 50-65 (mean ages = 55 and 56, respectively) and 40 HIV-seronegative participants aged ≥65 (OO-; mean age = 74) who were comparable for other demographics...
June 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
David P Sheppard, Steven Paul Woods, Katie L Doyle, Marizela Verduzco
OBJECTIVE: HIV is associated with frontostriatal dysregulation and executive dysfunction. This study evaluated whether HIV-infected individuals evidence deficits in random number generation (RNG), which is a strategic task requiring paced, rule-guided production of digits. METHOD: In total, 74 HIV+ adults and 54 seronegative comparison participants completed a comprehensive research neuropsychological battery. Participants produced a random digit sequence by avoiding any order and using numbers 1 through 10 for 100 s at a pace of 1 digit/s...
February 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
P L Fazeli, K B Casaletto, E Paolillo, R C Moore, D J Moore, The Hnrp Group
As the HIV+ population ages, the risk for and need to screen for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) increases. The aim of this study is to determine the utility and ecological validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) among older HIV+ adults. A total of 100 HIV+ older adults aged 50 years or over completed a comprehensive neuromedical and neurocognitive battery, including the MoCA and several everyday functioning measures. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicates ≤26 as the optimal cut-off balancing sensitivity (84...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Jessica L Montoya, Jennifer Iudicello, Hannah A Oppenheim, Pariya L Fazeli, Michael Potter, Qing Ma, Paul J Mills, Ronald J Ellis, Igor Grant, Scott L Letendre, David J Moore
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare plasma biomarkers of coagulation between HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls and to assess the impact of disturbances in coagulation on neurocognitive functioning in HIV. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 66 antiretroviral therapy treated, virally suppressed, HIV-infected and 34 HIV-uninfected older (≥50 years of age) adults. METHODS: Participants completed standardized neurobehavioral and neuromedical assessments...
March 27, 2017: AIDS
Gunes Avci, Steven P Woods, Marizela Verduzco, David P Sheppard, James F Sumowski, Nancy D Chiaravalloti, John DeLuca
OBJECTIVES: Episodic memory deficits are both common and impactful among persons infected with HIV; however, we know little about how to improve such deficits in the laboratory or in real life. Retrieval practice, by which retrieval of newly learned material improves subsequent recall more than simple restudy, is a robust memory boosting strategy that is effective in both healthy and clinical populations. In this study, we investigated the benefits of retrieval practice in 52 people living with HIV and 21 seronegatives...
March 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Jessica L Montoya, Jennifer Iudicello, Pariya L Fazeli, Suzi Hong, Michael Potter, Ronald J Ellis, Igor Grant, Scott L Letendre, David J Moore
BACKGROUND: HIV is associated with elevated markers of vascular remodeling that may contribute to arterial fibrosis and stiffening and changes in pulse pressure (PP). These changes may, in turn, deleteriously affect autoregulation of cerebral blood flow and neurocognitive function. METHODS: To evaluate these mechanisms, we studied markers of vascular remodeling, PP, and neurocognitive function among older (≥50 years of age) HIV-infected (HIV+, n = 72) and HIV-seronegative (HIV-, n = 36) adults...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
María J Marquine, Jessica L Montoya, Anya Umlauf, Pariya L Fazeli, Ben Gouaux, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Scott L Letendre, Igor Grant, David J Moore
BACKGROUND: The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index, a composite marker of disease severity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, has been associated with concurrent risk for neurocognitive impairment (NCI). The present study examined whether the VACS Index predicts longitudinal neurocognitive change. METHODS: Participants included 655 HIV-infected persons followed for up to 6 years in cohort studies at the University of California, San Diego, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program (mean age at baseline, 42...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
David P Sheppard, Erica Weber, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Gunes Avci, Steven Paul Woods
Prospective memory (PM) is associated with antiretroviral (ARV) adherence in HIV, but little is known about how pill burden and age might affect this association. One hundred seventeen older (≥50 years) and 82 younger (<50 years) HIV-infected adults were administered a measure of PM in the laboratory and subsequently were monitored for ARV adherence for 30 days using the Medication Event Monitoring System. In the older group, better time-based PM performance was associated with higher likelihood of adherence, irrespective of pill burden...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
G Avci, S Loft, D P Sheppard, S P Woods
There is a rising prevalence of older HIV+ adults who are at risk of deficits in higher order neurocognitive functions and associated problems in everyday functioning. The current study applied multiprocess theory to examine the effects of HIV and aging on measures of laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory (PM). Participants included 125 Younger (48 with HIV, age = 32 ± 4.6 years) and 189 Older (112 with HIV, age = 56 ± 4.9 years) adults. Controlling for global neurocognitive functioning, mood, and other demographics, older age and HIV had independent effects on long-delay time-based PM in the laboratory, whereas on a naturalistic PM task older HIV- adults performed better than older HIV+ adults and younger persons...
November 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Katie L Doyle, Steven Paul Woods, Erin E Morgan, Jennifer E Iudicello, Marizela V Cameron, Paul E Gilbert, Jessica Beltran
Individuals living with HIV show moderate decision-making deficits, though no prior studies have evaluated the ability to make optimal health-related decisions across the HIV healthcare continuum. Forty-three HIV+ individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND+), 50 HIV+ individuals without HAND (HAND-), and 42 HIV- participants were administered two measures of health-related decision-making as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery: (1) The Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS), and (2) The Modified UCSD Brief Assessment for Capacity to Consent (UBACC-T)...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Rujvi Kamat, Steven Paul Woods, Marizela V Cameron, Jennifer E Iudicello
HIV infection is associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is influenced by immunovirological factors, negative affect, neurocognitive impairment, and functional dependence. Although apathy is a common neuropsychiatric sequela of HIV infection, emerging findings regarding its unique role in lower HRQoL have been mixed. The present study was guided by Wilson and Cleary's (1995), model in examining the association between apathy and physical and mental HRQoL in 80 HIV+ individuals who completed a neuromedical examination, neuropsychological assessment, structured psychiatric interview, and a series of questionnaires including the SF-36...
October 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Kaitlin B Casaletto, Sara Kwan, Jessica L Montoya, Lisa C Obermeit, Ben Gouaux, Amelia Poquette, Robert K Heaton, J Hampton Atkinson, David J Moore
OBJECTIVE: HIV infection and bipolar disorder are highly comorbid and associated with frontostriatal disruption, emotional dysregulation, and neurocognitive impairment. Psychiatric and cognitive factors have been linked to antiretroviral nonadherence; however, predictors of psychotropic adherence among HIV+ individuals with psychiatric comorbidities have not been explored. We evaluated predictors of psychotropic adherence among individuals with HIV infection and bipolar disorder. METHOD: Psychiatric medication adherence of 50 participants with HIV infection and bipolar disorder was tracked for 30 days using Medication Event Monitoring Systems...
2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
M J Marquine, M Sakamoto, C Dufour, A Rooney, P Fazeli, A Umlauf, B Gouaux, D Franklin, R Ellis, S Letendre, M Cherner, R K Heaton, I Grant, D J Moore
The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index was developed as a risk index for health outcomes in HIV, and it has been consistently associated with mortality. It shows a significant, yet relatively weak, association with neurocognitive impairment, and little is known about its utility among ethnic/racial minority groups. We examined whether the association between the VACS Index and neurocognition differed by ethnic/racial group. Participants included 674 HIV-infected individuals (369 non-Hispanic whites, 111 non-Hispanic blacks, and 194 Hispanics)...
August 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
David P Sheppard, Steven Paul Woods, Mark W Bondi, Paul E Gilbert, Paul J Massman, Katie L Doyle
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the combined effects of age and HIV infection on the risk of incident neurocognitive disorders. METHOD: A total of 146 neurocognitively normal participants were enrolled at baseline into one of four groups based on age (≤ 40 years and ≥ 50 years) and HIV serostatus resulting in 24 younger HIV-, 27 younger HIV+, 39 older HIV-, and 56 older HIV+ individuals. All participants were administered a standardized clinical neuropsychological battery at baseline and 14...
2015: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Katie L Doyle, Erin E Morgan, Erica Weber, Steven Paul Woods
The ability to accurately perceive the passage of time relies on several neurocognitive abilities, including attention, memory, and executive functions, which are domains commonly affected in persons living with HIV disease. The current study examined time estimation and production and their neurocognitive correlates in a sample of 53 HIV+ individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), 120 HIV+ individuals without HAND, and 113 HIV- individuals. Results revealed a moderate main effect of HAND on time estimation and a trend-level effect on time production, but no interaction between HAND and time interval duration...
February 2015: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Pariya L Fazeli, Maria J Marquine, Catherine Dufour, Brook L Henry, Jessica Montoya, Ben Gouaux, Raeanne C Moore, Scott L Letendre, Steven Paul Woods, Igor Grant, Dilip V Jeste, David J Moore
We examined the association between physical activity (PA), neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among older HIV+ persons. One hundred older HIV+ adults completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, a neurocognitive battery, and IADL scale. Higher levels of moderate PA were associated with lower odds of NCI (p = 0.01), even when covariates were modeled. The association between moderate PA and NCI was driven by executive function (p = 0.04)...
August 2015: AIDS and Behavior
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