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María J Marquine, Jessica L Montoya, Anya Umlauf, Pariya L Fazeli, Ben Gouaux, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Scott L Letendre, Igor Grant, David J Moore
BACKGROUND: The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index, a composite marker of disease severity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, has been associated with concurrent risk for neurocognitive impairment (NCI). The present study examined whether the VACS Index predicts longitudinal neurocognitive change. METHODS: Participants included 655 HIV-infected persons followed for up to 6 years in cohort studies at the University of California, San Diego, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program (mean age at baseline, 42...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
David P Sheppard, Erica Weber, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Gunes Avci, Steven Paul Woods
Prospective memory (PM) is associated with antiretroviral (ARV) adherence in HIV, but little is known about how pill burden and age might affect this association. One hundred seventeen older (≥50 years) and 82 younger (<50 years) HIV-infected adults were administered a measure of PM in the laboratory and subsequently were monitored for ARV adherence for 30 days using the Medication Event Monitoring System. In the older group, better time-based PM performance was associated with higher likelihood of adherence, irrespective of pill burden...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
G Avci, S Loft, D P Sheppard, S P Woods
There is a rising prevalence of older HIV+ adults who are at risk of deficits in higher order neurocognitive functions and associated problems in everyday functioning. The current study applied multiprocess theory to examine the effects of HIV and aging on measures of laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory (PM). Participants included 125 Younger (48 with HIV, age = 32 ± 4.6 years) and 189 Older (112 with HIV, age = 56 ± 4.9 years) adults. Controlling for global neurocognitive functioning, mood, and other demographics, older age and HIV had independent effects on long-delay time-based PM in the laboratory, whereas on a naturalistic PM task older HIV- adults performed better than older HIV+ adults and younger persons...
November 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Katie L Doyle, Steven Paul Woods, Erin E Morgan, Jennifer E Iudicello, Marizela V Cameron, Paul E Gilbert, Jessica Beltran
Individuals living with HIV show moderate decision-making deficits, though no prior studies have evaluated the ability to make optimal health-related decisions across the HIV healthcare continuum. Forty-three HIV+ individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND+), 50 HIV+ individuals without HAND (HAND-), and 42 HIV- participants were administered two measures of health-related decision-making as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery: (1) The Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS), and (2) The Modified UCSD Brief Assessment for Capacity to Consent (UBACC-T)...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Rujvi Kamat, Steven Paul Woods, Marizela V Cameron, Jennifer E Iudicello
HIV infection is associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is influenced by immunovirological factors, negative affect, neurocognitive impairment, and functional dependence. Although apathy is a common neuropsychiatric sequela of HIV infection, emerging findings regarding its unique role in lower HRQoL have been mixed. The present study was guided by Wilson and Cleary's (1995), model in examining the association between apathy and physical and mental HRQoL in 80 HIV+ individuals who completed a neuromedical examination, neuropsychological assessment, structured psychiatric interview, and a series of questionnaires including the SF-36...
October 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Kaitlin B Casaletto, Sara Kwan, Jessica L Montoya, Lisa C Obermeit, Ben Gouaux, Amelia Poquette, Robert K Heaton, J Hampton Atkinson, David J Moore
OBJECTIVE: HIV infection and bipolar disorder are highly comorbid and associated with frontostriatal disruption, emotional dysregulation, and neurocognitive impairment. Psychiatric and cognitive factors have been linked to antiretroviral nonadherence; however, predictors of psychotropic adherence among HIV+ individuals with psychiatric comorbidities have not been explored. We evaluated predictors of psychotropic adherence among individuals with HIV infection and bipolar disorder. METHOD: Psychiatric medication adherence of 50 participants with HIV infection and bipolar disorder was tracked for 30 days using Medication Event Monitoring Systems...
2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
M J Marquine, M Sakamoto, C Dufour, A Rooney, P Fazeli, A Umlauf, B Gouaux, D Franklin, R Ellis, S Letendre, M Cherner, R K Heaton, I Grant, D J Moore
The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index was developed as a risk index for health outcomes in HIV, and it has been consistently associated with mortality. It shows a significant, yet relatively weak, association with neurocognitive impairment, and little is known about its utility among ethnic/racial minority groups. We examined whether the association between the VACS Index and neurocognition differed by ethnic/racial group. Participants included 674 HIV-infected individuals (369 non-Hispanic whites, 111 non-Hispanic blacks, and 194 Hispanics)...
August 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
David P Sheppard, Steven Paul Woods, Mark W Bondi, Paul E Gilbert, Paul J Massman, Katie L Doyle
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the combined effects of age and HIV infection on the risk of incident neurocognitive disorders. METHOD: A total of 146 neurocognitively normal participants were enrolled at baseline into one of four groups based on age (≤ 40 years and ≥ 50 years) and HIV serostatus resulting in 24 younger HIV-, 27 younger HIV+, 39 older HIV-, and 56 older HIV+ individuals. All participants were administered a standardized clinical neuropsychological battery at baseline and 14...
2015: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Katie L Doyle, Erin E Morgan, Erica Weber, Steven Paul Woods
The ability to accurately perceive the passage of time relies on several neurocognitive abilities, including attention, memory, and executive functions, which are domains commonly affected in persons living with HIV disease. The current study examined time estimation and production and their neurocognitive correlates in a sample of 53 HIV+ individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), 120 HIV+ individuals without HAND, and 113 HIV- individuals. Results revealed a moderate main effect of HAND on time estimation and a trend-level effect on time production, but no interaction between HAND and time interval duration...
February 2015: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Pariya L Fazeli, Maria J Marquine, Catherine Dufour, Brook L Henry, Jessica Montoya, Ben Gouaux, Raeanne C Moore, Scott L Letendre, Steven Paul Woods, Igor Grant, Dilip V Jeste, David J Moore
We examined the association between physical activity (PA), neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among older HIV+ persons. One hundred older HIV+ adults completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, a neurocognitive battery, and IADL scale. Higher levels of moderate PA were associated with lower odds of NCI (p = 0.01), even when covariates were modeled. The association between moderate PA and NCI was driven by executive function (p = 0.04)...
August 2015: AIDS and Behavior
Katie L Doyle, Erica Weber, Erin E Morgan, Shayne Loft, Clint Cushman, Javier Villalobos, Elaine Johnston, Steven Paul Woods
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are associated with deficits in prospective memory (PM). However, most PM research in HIV has used single-event tasks as opposed to habitual PM paradigms, which may be more relevant to clinical populations for whom many health-care behaviors must be performed both frequently and routinely. METHOD: For the current study, we examined habitual PM and its associations with real-world functioning outcomes in 36 HIV+ individuals with HAND (HAND+), 70 HIV+ individuals without HAND (HAND-), and 115 HIV- individuals...
November 2015: Neuropsychology
Rachel D Schrier, Suzi Hong, Melanie Crescini, Ronald Ellis, Josué Pérez-Santiago, Celsa Spina, Scott Letendre
BACKGROUND: HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to affect cognition and everyday functioning despite anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Previous studies focused on mechanisms related to monocyte/macrophage mediated inflammation. However, in the ART era, there is increasing evidence for the involvement of CD8+ T-cells in CNS pathogenesis. METHODS: To investigate the relationship between T-cell responses and neurocognitive impairment (NCI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell intracellular cytokine (IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα) and lytic marker (CD107a) expression were assessed in HIV infected subjects who underwent comprehensive neurocognitive (NC) evaluation and either initiated or changed ART...
2015: PloS One
David J Moore, Amelia Poquette, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Ben Gouaux, Jessica L Montoya, Carolina Posada, Alexandra S Rooney, Jayraan Badiee, Reena Deutsch, Scott L Letendre, Colin A Depp, Igor Grant, J Hampton Atkinson
HIV+ persons with co-occurring bipolar disorder (HIV+/BD+) have elevated rates of medication nonadherence. We conducted a 30-day randomized controlled trial of a two-way, text messaging system, iTAB (n = 25), compared to an active comparison (CTRL) (n = 25) to improve antiretroviral (ARV) and psychotropic (PSY) adherence and dose timing. Both groups received medication adherence psychoeducation and daily texts assessing mood. The iTAB group additionally received personalized medication reminder texts. Participants responded to over 90 % of the mood and adherence text messages...
March 2015: AIDS and Behavior
Kaitlin Blackstone Casaletto, Katie L Doyle, Erica Weber, Steven Paul Woods
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are associated with deficits in prospective memory (PM; "remembering to remember"), conferring risk of daily functioning declines. However, self-perceptions of PM functioning are not reliably associated with PM performance in HIV, suggesting a possible deficit in awareness of PM abilities (meta-PM). Our study examined meta-PM in HAND and its correlates using self-predictions of laboratory-based PM performance. Performance-based PM abilities, self-reported prediction of PM performance, and PM complaints in everyday life were assessed in 49 individuals with HAND, 93 HIV+ without HAND (HIV+ noHAND), and 121 seronegative adults (HIV-)...
December 2014: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Kaitlin B Casaletto, Jordan Cattie, Donald R Franklin, David J Moore, Steven Paul Woods, Igor Grant, Robert K Heaton
BACKGROUND: In order to detect HIV-associated neurocognitive decline, it is important to accurately estimate individuals' premorbid levels of cognitive functioning. Although previous studies have operated under the assumption that word reading tests are valid and stable indicators of premorbid abilities in HIV infection, studies of other populations have found that this is not always the case. Therefore, it is important to empirically examine the validity of word reading tests as estimates of premorbid functioning specifically within the HIV population...
2014: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Fuu-Jen Tsai, Cheng-Wen Lin, Chien-Chen Lai, Yu-Ching Lan, Chih-Ho Lai, Chien-Hui Hung, Kai-Chung Hsueh, Ting-Hsu Lin, Hebron C Chang, Lei Wan, Jim Jinn-Chyuan Sheu, Ying-Ju Lin
Flavonoids are associated with multiple biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-enterovirus activity. An internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) required for viral protein translation is a potential drug target for enterovirus 71 (EV71). Regulation translation initiation requires the interaction of IRES specific trans-acting host factors with viral IRES element. By evaluation of 12 flavonoids against EV71 infection, we found that (a) 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, kaempferol, quercetin, hesperetin and hesperidin exhibited more than 80% of cell survival and inhibition of EV71 infection; however, no anti-oxidative effects were noted from these flavonoids; (b) among them, only 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, kaempferol and hesperetin showed 40% of viral IRES activity; (c) kaempferol interfered with EV71 virus replication and pseudotyped virus production; and (d) FUBP1, FUBP3, HNRPD, HNRH1 and HNRPF proteins are associated with EV71 5'-UTR as shown using RNA affinity pull-down assay coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis...
September 15, 2011: Food Chemistry
Assawin Gongvatana, Erin E Morgan, Jennifer E Iudicello, Scott L Letendre, Igor Grant, Steven Paul Woods
Excessive alcohol use is common among people living with HIV. Given the growing prevalence of older HIV+ adults and observations indicating higher risk for neurocognitive impairment in older adults with either HIV infection or alcoholism, an increased understanding of their combined impact in the context of this increasingly aged population is crucial. We conducted comprehensive neurocognitive assessment in 112 older HIV+ individuals aged 50 to 69 years. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the interaction between age and the presence of lifetime alcohol dependence on neurocognitive measures, controlling for years of education, hepatitis C serostatus, and lifetime non-alcohol substance use disorder...
October 2014: Journal of Neurovirology
Erin E Morgan, Jennifer E Iudicello, Jordan E Cattie, Kaitlin Blackstone, Igor Grant, Steven Paul Woods
This study sought to determine the effects of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) on health literacy, which encompasses the ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply health-related information. Participants included 56 HIV seropositive individuals, 24 of whom met Frascati criteria for HAND, and 24 seronegative subjects who were comparable on age, education, ethnicity, and oral word reading. Each participant was administered a brief battery of well-validated measures of health literacy, including the Expanded Numeracy Scale (ENS), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS)...
January 2015: AIDS and Behavior
Pariya L Fazeli, Katie L Doyle, J Cobb Scott, Jennifer E Iudicello, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Erica Weber, David J Moore, Erin E Morgan, Igor Grant, Steven Paul Woods
Aging and HIV are both risk factors for memory deficits and declines in real-world functioning. However, we know little about the profile of memory deficits driving instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) declines across the lifespan in HIV. This study examined 145 younger (<50 years) and 119 older (≥50 years) adults with HIV who completed the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III LM), and a modified Lawton and Brody ADL questionnaire...
May 2014: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Raeanne C Moore, Pariya L Fazeli, Dilip V Jeste, David J Moore, Igor Grant, Steven Paul Woods
Neurocognitive impairments commonly occur and adversely impact everyday functioning in older adults infected with HIV, but little is known about successful cognitive aging (SCA) and its health-related quality of life (HRQoL) correlates. Seventy younger (≤40 years) and 107 older (≥50 years) HIV+ adults, as well as age-matched seronegative comparison groups of younger (N = 48) and older (N = 77) subjects completed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological, psychiatric, medical, and HRQoL assessments...
June 2014: AIDS and Behavior
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