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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764412/causes-of-death-among-street-connected-children-and-youth-in-eldoret-kenya
#1
Lonnie Embleton, David Ayuku, Dominic Makori, Allan Kamanda, Paula Braitstein
BACKGROUND: Street-connected young people carry a disproportionate burden of morbidities, and engage in a variety of practices that may heighten their risk of premature mortality, yet there are currently no reports in the literature on the rates or risk factors for mortality among them, nor on their causes of death. In low- and middle-income countries they are frequently in situations that violate their human rights, likely contributing to their increased burden of morbidities and vulnerability to mortality...
May 15, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753272/street-dust-from-a-heavily-populated-and-industrialized-city-evaluation-of-spatial-distribution-origins-pollution-ecological-risks-and-human-health-repercussions
#2
R Urrutia-Goyes, N Hernandez, O Carrillo-Gamboa, K D P Nigam, N Ornelas-Soto
Emissions from vehicles include particles from tire and brake wearing that can settle down and join industrial discharges into street dust. Metals present in street dust may create ecological and health threats and their analysis is of great environmental relevance. The city of Monterrey, Mexico is an industrial pillar of the country and shows an increasing fleet during the last years, which has yielded higher traffic and emissions. This study analyzes 44 street dust samples taken across the city for total element concentrations by using X-ray fluorescence...
May 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734712/sedentary-behaviour-in-swiss-children-and-adolescents-disentangling-associations-with-the-perceived-and-objectively-measured-environment
#3
Bettina Bringolf-Isler, Kees de Hoogh, Christian Schindler, Bengt Kayser, L Suzanne Suggs, Alain Dössegger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
Identifying correlates of sedentary behaviour across all levels of the ecological model and understanding their interrelations is a promising method to plan effective interventions. The present study examined whether the objectively assessed and the perceived neighbourhood are associated with children’s sedentary behaviour time (SBT). A comprehensive set of factors at different levels of influence across the ecological model were taken into account and analysed for mediating and modifying effects...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707438/geologic-and-anthropogenic-sources-of-contamination-in-settled-dust-of-a-historic-mining-port-city-in-northern-chile-health-risk-implications
#4
Joseline S Tapia, Jorge Valdés, Rodrigo Orrego, Andrei Tchernitchin, Cristina Dorador, Aliro Bolados, Chris Harrod
Chile is the leading producer of copper worldwide and its richest mineral deposits are found in the Antofagasta Region of northern Chile. Mining activities have significantly increased income and employment in the region; however, there has been little assessment of the resulting environmental impacts to residents. The port of Antofagasta, located 1,430 km north of Santiago, the capital of Chile, functioned as mineral stockpile until 1998 and has served as a copper concentrate stockpile since 2014. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2016 that show elevated concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in street dust and in residents' blood (Pb) and urine (As) samples...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705636/seasonal-spatial-variations-and-risk-assessment-of-heavy-elements-in-street-dust-from-novi-sad-serbia
#5
Biljana D Škrbić, Maja Buljovčić, Grigorije Jovanović, Igor Antić
This is the first study carried out to determine the levels, spatial and temporal variations and risk indices of street dust in Serbia. Sixty street dust samples representing four functional areas: school, recreational, residential and industrial were collected from Novi Sad during summer and winter. The purpose was to obtain the concentration of seven heavy elements, evaluate the possible sources and degree of environmental pollution and human health risks. The average concentration of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb (mg/kg) during winter was: 7...
April 21, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694597/-pregnancy-and-abortion-experience-among-children-adolescents-and-youths-living-on-the-streets
#6
Lucas Neiva-Silva, Lauro Miranda Demenech, Laísa Rodrigues Moreira, Adriano Trassantes Oliveira, Fernanda Torres de Carvalho, Simone Dos Santos Paludo
The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of pregnancy and abortion experience, along with associated factors among street children, adolescents and youths in Porto Alegre and Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. The sampling method in this cross-sectional study was Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS), innovative in research about hidden populations. Interviews were conducted with 307 subjects, aged 10 to 21 years. In multivariate analysis, Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used. Most of this sample were males, with no contact with school and family...
April 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691784/contamination-characteristics-of-trace-metals-in-dust-from-different-levels-of-roads-of-a-heavily-air-polluted-city-in-north-china
#7
Zhiguo Cao, Qiaoying Chen, Xiaoying Wang, Yajie Zhang, Shihua Wang, Mengmeng Wang, Leicheng Zhao, Guangxuan Yan, Xin Zhang, Ziyang Zhang, Tianfang Yang, Mohai Shen, Jianhui Sun
Concentrations of eight trace metals (TMs) in road dust (RD) (particles < 25 μm) from urban areas of Xinxiang, China, were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The geometric mean concentrations of Zn, Mn, Pb, As, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd were 489, 350, 114, 101, 60.0, 39.7, 31.6, and 5.1 mg kg-1 , respectively. When compared with TM levels in background soil, the samples generally display elevated TM concentrations, except for Cr and Mn, and for Cd the enrichment value was 69.6. Spatial variations indicated TMs in RD from park path would have similar sources with main roads, collector streets and bypasses...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685056/individual-and-parental-risk-factors-for-sexual-exploitation-among-high-risk-youth-in-uganda
#8
Shannon Self-Brown, Rachel Culbreth, Rebecca Wilson, Lisa Armistead, Rogers Kasirye, Monica H Swahn
This study examined risk factors to determine associations with commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth (CSEC) in a convenience sample of adolescents living in the slums in Kampala, Uganda. Individual-level factors included demographic, adverse experiences (ever living on the streets; victim of dating violence, parental abuse, or rape), and behavioral risk (social media, alcohol use, age at first intercourse). Parental-risk factors included parent alcohol use and approval attitudes toward youth sex...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664674/associations-between-neighborhood-walkability-and-incident-and-ongoing-asthma-in-children
#9
Elinor Simons, Sharon D Dell, Rahim Moineddin, Teresa To
RATIONALE: Childhood asthma has shown variable associations with children's physical activity. Neighborhood walkability captures community features that promote walking and is protective against some chronic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated associations between home neighborhood walkability and incident and ongoing childhood asthma. METHODS: This population-based cohort study used prospectively-collected administrative healthcare data for the province of Ontario housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences...
April 17, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625692/young-drivers-perception-of-adult-and-child-pedestrians-in-potential-street-crossing-situations
#10
Līva Ābele, Sonja Haustein, Mette Møller
Despite overall improvements in road traffic safety, pedestrian accidents continue to be a serious public health problem. Due to lack of experience, limited cognitive and motoric skills, and smaller size, children have a higher injury risk as pedestrians than adults. To what extent drivers adjust their driving behaviour to children's higher vulnerability is largely unknown. To determine whether young male drivers' behaviour and scanning pattern differs when approaching a child and an adult pedestrian in a potential street-crossing situation, sixty-five young (18-24) male drivers' speed, lateral position and eye movements were recorded in a driving simulator...
April 3, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605433/epidemiological-profile-of-pediatric-ocular-trauma-in-a-tertiary-hospital-of-northern-india
#11
Shazia Qayum, Rashid Anjum, Shagufta Rather
PURPOSE: Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of acquired blindness in children. It measures about 8%-14% of total childhood injuries. This study aims to determine the epidemiological profile of ocular trauma in the pediatric age group attending a tertiary hospital in northern India. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in our hospital between June 2014 to July 2015 and all the children aged 0-16 years presenting with ocular trauma in eye outpatient department and emergency were enrolled in the study...
March 3, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581182/pediatric-hoverboard-and-skateboard-injuries
#12
Sean Bandzar, Daniel G Funsch, Rex Hermansen, Seema Gupta, Andrew Bandzar
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the characteristics of hoverboard injuries compared with skateboard injuries in children presenting to US emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: Data regarding hoverboard and skateboard injuries in children <18 years of age were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for calendar years 2015 and 2016. Data included demographics, body regions injured, and ED disposition. RESULTS: There were an estimated 26 854 hoverboard and 121 398 skateboard injuries treated in US EDs between 2015 and 2016...
March 26, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577654/flea-market-finds-and-global-exports-four-multistate-outbreaks-of-human-salmonella-infections-linked-to-small-turtles-united-states-2015
#13
K Gambino-Shirley, L Stevenson, J Concepción-Acevedo, E Trees, D Wagner, L Whitlock, J Roberts, N Garrett, S Van Duyne, G McAllister, B Schick, L Schlater, V Peralta, R Reporter, L Li, H Waechter, T Gomez, J Fernández Ordenes, S Ulloa, C Ragimbeau, J Mossong, M Nichols
Zoonotic transmission of Salmonella infections causes an estimated 11% of salmonellosis annually in the United States. This report describes the epidemiologic, traceback and laboratory investigations conducted in the United States as part of four multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections linked to small turtles. Salmonella isolates indistinguishable from the outbreak strains were isolated from a total of 143 ill people in the United States, pet turtles, and pond water samples collected from turtle farm A, as well as ill people from Chile and Luxembourg...
March 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540607/rates-and-risk-factors-for-arterial-ischemic-stroke-recurrence-in-children
#14
Arthur Stacey, Claire Toolis, Vijeya Ganesan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recurrent ischemic events are common in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and put patients at risk for further neurological impairment. This study sought to identify rates and risk factors for recurrent AIS or transient ischemic attack in a cohort of children seen after index AIS and uniformly investigated and managed using contemporary clinical guidelines. METHODS: Case note and radiology review of children >28 days and <18 years of age who presented to Great Ormond Street Hospital from 2005 to 2015 with index AIS...
April 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537180/seven-essential-elements-for-creating-effective-children-s-media-to-promote-peacebuilding-lessons-from-international-coproductions-of-sesame-street-and-other-children-s-media-programs
#15
REVIEW
Charlotte F Cole, June H Lee, Abigail Bucuvalas, Yasemin Sırali
Children's media have the capacity to prepare young learners to develop the knowledge, attitudes, and skills they need to contribute to a more peaceful world. Research suggests international coproductions of Sesame Street and other children's media efforts are linked to positive impact on how viewers perceive themselves and their own cultures, as well as how they perceive others. Creating such media, however, relies on a commitment to a complex development process where the educational needs of children are considered alongside intra- and intergroup dynamics and political realities...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531502/using-smartphone-technology-to-deliver-a-virtual-pedestrian-environment-usability-and-validation
#16
David C Schwebel, Joan Severson, Yefei He
Various programs effectively teach children to cross streets more safely, but all are labor- and cost-intensive. Recent developments in mobile phone technology offer opportunity to deliver virtual reality pedestrian environments to mobile smartphone platforms. Such an environment may offer a cost- and labor-effective strategy to teach children to cross streets safely. This study evaluated usability, feasibility, and validity of a smartphone-based virtual pedestrian environment. A total of 68 adults completed 12 virtual crossings within each of two virtual pedestrian environments, one delivered by smartphone and the other a semi-immersive kiosk virtual environment...
September 2017: Virtual Reality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523206/effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-humanistic-counselling-in-schools-for-young-people-with-emotional-distress-ethos-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Megan Rose Stafford, Mick Cooper, Michael Barkham, Jeni Beecham, Peter Bower, Karen Cromarty, Andrew J B Fugard, Charlie Jackson, Peter Pearce, Rebekah Ryder, Cathy Street
BACKGROUND: One in ten children in Britain have been identified as experiencing a diagnosable mental health disorder. School-based humanistic counselling (SBHC) may help young people identify, address, and overcome psychological distress. Data from four pilot trials suggest that SBHC may be clinically effective. However, a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) is needed to provide a robust test of its effectiveness, to assess its cost-effectiveness, and to determine the process of change...
March 9, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506218/a-survey-of-healthcare-seeking-practices-and-related-stigma-among-community-and-street-based-children-in-cambodia
#18
Joshua Rivenbark, Lily Martyn, Kathryn Whetten, Lavanya Vasudevan
Background: Globally, street children comprise a growing population of vulnerable children. Understanding how they interact with healthcare systems is fundamental to efforts to improve their health and well-being. Methods: We surveyed 75 street- and community-based children in Battambang, Cambodia regarding their healthcare-seeking practices and related stigma. Results: For demographically similar street and community children, hospitals and pharmacies were preferred healthcare institutions, with this choice being motivated by the caretaker's decision or cost...
May 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492825/heads-up-phones-down-a-pedestrian-safety-intervention-on-distracted-crosswalk-behavior
#19
Erica N Barin, Cory M McLaughlin, Mina W Farag, Aaron R Jensen, Jeffrey S Upperman, Helen Arbogast
Cell phone use has been implicated in driver distraction and motor vehicle crashes, and more recently has been associated with distracted pedestrians. There are limited data on interventions aimed at this important public health issue. We hypothesized that the use of a visual intervention near street crossings would decrease the frequency of distracted behaviors of pedestrians. We performed a prospective observational cohort study examining painted sidewalk stencils reading, "Heads Up, Phones Down" as an intervention to decrease cell phone distractions amongst pedestrians...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470512/association-between-hiv-status-and-depressive-symptoms-among-children-and-adolescents-in-the-southern-highlands-zone-tanzania-a-case-control-study
#20
Abraham Lwidiko, Stephen Matthew Kibusi, Azan Nyundo, Bonaventura C T Mpondo
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents continue to have HIV/AIDS in southern Saharan Africa. Scaling up of HIV services has significantly improved access to ARV and consequently improved on morbidity and mortality related to HIV/AIDS including opportunistic infection. Despite the above efforts, non-communicable conditions including mental disorders such as depression have been observed to contribute to the burden of disabilities about which little is documented. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the magnitude of depressive symptoms and the associated factors among HIV-infected children and adolescents...
2018: PloS One
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