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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708951/control-of-a-community-outbreak-of-hepatitis-a-in-an-area-of-low-endemicity-wales-2016
#1
J Vaz, C Floyd, B Mason, A G Shankar, H Lewis
Incidence of hepatitis A in Wales is low (average of 0.48/100,000 inhabitants from 2004-2015). We describe a community outbreak of hepatitis A involving 3 schools (primary and secondary) in South Wales between March and June 2016 and reflect on the adequacy of the control measures used. Anyone in South Wales epidemiologically linked to a serological and/or RNA positive confirmed case of hepatitis A during the 15-50 days before onset of symptoms (diarrhoea, vomiting, fever, nausea, AND jaundice, or jaundice-associated symptom) was defined as a case...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707239/microplastic-pollution-in-deposited-urban-dust-tehran-metropolis-iran
#2
Sharareh Dehghani, Farid Moore, Razegheh Akhbarizadeh
Environmental pollutants such as microplastics have become a major concern over the last few decades. We investigated the presence, characteristics, and potential health risks of microplastic dust ingestion. The plastic load of 88 to 605 microplastics per 30 g dry dust with a dominance of black and yellow granule microplastics ranging in size from 250 to 500 μm was determined in 10 street dust samples using a binocular microscope. Fluorescence microscopy was found to be ineffective for detecting and counting plastic debris...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696375/is-the-grass-always-greener-in-suburban-neighborhoods-outdoors-play-in-suburban-and-inner-city-neighborhoods
#3
Mika R Moran, Pnina Plaut, Dafna Merom
Children's outdoors play (OP) is an important source of physical activity that has been decreasing in recent years due to changes in neighborhood design, parent safety concerns and child sedentary leisure. However, few studies examined such determinants from children's perspectives. This study explores environmental and socio-cultural aspects of children's OP using a qualitative and quantitative approach. Data was collected in two phases: (1) a survey on OP and related variables among 5th and 6th graders (10-12 years old) (n = 573); and (2) a mapping activity and semi-structured interview among a subsample of the survey (n = 80)...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679422/prevalence-of-diarrhoea-and-risk-factors-among-children-under-five-years-old-in-mbour-senegal-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Sokhna Thiam, Aminata N Diène, Samuel Fuhrimann, Mirko S Winkler, Ibrahima Sy, Jacques A Ndione, Christian Schindler, Penelope Vounatsou, Jürg Utzinger, Ousmane Faye, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoeal diseases remain an important cause of mortality and morbidity among children, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In Senegal, diarrhoea is responsible for 15% of all deaths in children under the age of five and is the third leading cause of childhood deaths. For targeted planning and implementation of prevention strategies, a context-specific understanding of the determinants of diarrhoeal diseases is needed. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of diarrhoeal diseases in children under the age of five in Mbour, Senegal...
July 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671984/reclaiming-streets-for-outdoor-play-a-process-and-impact-evaluation-of-juega-en-tu-barrio-play-in-your-neighborhood-an-intervention-to-increase-physical-activity-and-opportunities-for-play
#5
Andrea Cortinez-O'Ryan, Andrea Albagli, Kabir P Sadarangani, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias
BACKGROUND: New strategies are required to create supportive physical and social environments for children and promote active free-play. Juega en tu Barrio (JETB; Play in your Neighborhood) was designed and implemented to explore the effectiveness of closing a street in a low-to-middle income neighborhood in order to increase children's outside play and physical activity. METHODS: A pretest-posttest design with control group was employed to investigate the intervention effects in a subsample of 100 children, 51 from the intervention neighborhood and 49 from the control neighborhood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665085/rotavirus-gastroenteritis-is-associated-with-increased-morbidity-and-mortality-in-children-with-inherited-metabolic-disorders
#6
A Smith, M Mannion, P O'Reilly, E Crushell, J Hughes, I Knerr, P Gavin, A Monavari
Rotavirus is the leading cause of infantile diarrhoea worldwide in children <5 years1. Although mortality rates are low in Ireland, certain populations are more susceptible to the associated morbidity and mortality of infection. A retrospective chart review of 14 patients with confirmed IMDs who were admitted to Temple Street Children's Hospital between 2010 to 2015 with rotavirus infection were compared with 14 randomly selected age matched controls. The median length of stay was 7 days (SD25.3) in IMD patients versus 1...
April 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665082/caring-for-obese-children-a-change-in-paradigm
#7
S Doyle, D Cahill, M Smyth, S Murphy
Childhood Obesity is a problem of epidemic proportions. The causes are complex and treatment results are variable with much research ongoing. We analysed the initial assessment forms of a group of patients attending the W82GO! Healthy Lifestyle service at The Children's University Hospital, Temple Street to look at the population and their specific needs. Our analysis revealed a high proportion of emotional and behavioural problems along with bullying. This group of patients are complex and a multi-disciplinary team approach is essential in their treatment...
April 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662944/skeletal-muscle-channelopathies-rare-disorders-with-common-pediatric-symptoms
#8
Emma Matthews, Arpana Silwal, Richa Sud, Michael G Hanna, Adnan Y Manzur, Francesco Muntoni, Pinki Munot
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the presenting symptoms of children with skeletal muscle channelopathies to promote early diagnosis and treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review of 38 children with a skeletal muscle channelopathy attending the specialist pediatric neuromuscular service at Great Ormond Street Hospital over a 15-year period. RESULTS: Gait disorder and leg cramps are a frequent presentation of myotonic disorders (19 of 29). Strabismus or extraocular myotonia (9 of 19) and respiratory and/or bulbar symptoms (11 of 19) are common among those with sodium channelopathy...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619408/children-crossing-streets-the-cognitive-task-of-pedestrians-across-nations
#9
David C Schwebel
BACKGROUND: About 100,000 children die worldwide in pedestrian crashes, more than 90% of whom live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, most existing research on children's ability to cross the street is conducted in high-income countries (HICs). OBJECTIVE: The present study discusses 4 ways pedestrian behavior in LMICs differs from that in HICs, influencing both children's ability to cross streets safely and adult efforts to train children in pedestrian safety...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613286/geographical-distribution-and-cluster-detection-of-childhood-leukemia-in-the-metropolitan-area-of-guadalajara-mexico
#10
Alberto Tlacuilo-Parra, Roberto Garibaldi-Covarrubias, Hugo Romo-Rubio, Leonardo Soto-Sumuano, Carlos Fernando Ruiz-Chávez, Mijail Suárez-Arredondo, Fernando Sánchez-Zubieta, Sergio Gallegos-Castorena
BACKGROUND: Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in childhood. Analyzing the spatial distribution of acute leukemia may generate the identification of risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence rate of acute leukemia, its geographic distribution, and cluster detection in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico. METHODS: We included children under 15 years of age diagnosed with acute leukemia during the period 2010-2014 in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara...
May 2017: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609379/pediatric-moped-related-injuries-in-the-u-s-from-2002-2014-age-related-comparisons-of-mechanisms-and-outcomes
#11
Nathaniel K Johnson, Brandon M Johnson, Gerene M Denning, Charles A Jennissen
INTRODUCTION: Mopeds are a popular means of transportation, especially in urban areas. However, few studies have investigated moped-related injuries in the United States. This study's goal was to compare the crash mechanisms and injuries suffered in moped-related crashes involving youth versus adults, as well as between younger and older children. METHODS: Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed using National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data and additional variables coded from injury narratives...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600726/the-influence-of-physicochemical-parameters-on-bioaccessibility-adjusted-hazard-quotients-for-copper-lead-and-zinc-in-different-grain-size-fractions-of-urban-street-dusts-and-soils
#12
Sharareh Dehghani, Farid Moore, Luba Vasiluk, Beverley A Hale
When the hazard quotient for ingestion (HQI) of a trace element in soil and dust particles is adjusted for the element's bioaccessibility, the HQI is typically reduced as compared to its calculation using pseudo-total element concentration. However, those studies have mostly used bulk particles (<2 mm or <250 µm), and the reduction in HQI when expressed as bioaccessible metal may not be similar among particle size fractions, the possibility probed by the present study of street dusts and soils collected in Tehran...
June 9, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596800/a-comparative-study-of-the-prevalence-and-correlates-of-psychiatric-disorders-in-almajiris-and-public-primary-school-pupils-in-zaria-northwest-nigeria
#13
Aishatu Abubakar-Abdullateef, Babatunde Adedokun, Olayinka Omigbodun
BACKGROUND: 'Almajiris' are children and adolescents sent far away from their homes to study in Islamic schools under the care of Muslim scholars. Over the years, there has been a decline in the capacity of the scholars to cater to these pupils. Consequently, Almajiris spend significant periods of time on the streets begging and carrying out menial jobs to earn a living thereby increasing their risk for physical and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Almajiris and public primary school pupils in Zaria...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596067/architecture-and-functioning-of-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-services-a-28-country-survey-in-europe
#14
Giulia Signorini, Swaran P Singh, Vlatka Boricevic-Marsanic, Gwen Dieleman, Katarina Dodig-Ćurković, Tomislav Franic, Suzanne E Gerritsen, James Griffin, Athanasios Maras, Fiona McNicholas, Lesley O'Hara, Diane Purper-Ouakil, Moli Paul, Ulrike Schulze, Cathy Street, Sabine Tremmery, Helena Tuomainen, Frank Verhulst, Jane Warwick, Giovanni de Girolamo
The WHO Child and Adolescent Mental Health Atlas, published in 2005, reported that child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in Europe differed substantially in their architecture and functioning. We assessed the characteristics of national CAMHS across the European Union (EU), including legal aspects of adolescent care. Using an online mapping survey aimed at expert(s) in each country, we obtained data for all 28 countries in the EU. The characteristics and activities of CAMHS (ie, availability of services, inpatient beds, and clinicians and organisations, and delivery of specific CAMHS services and treatments) varied considerably between countries, as did funding sources and user access...
June 5, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584070/the-natural-history-of-prenatally-diagnosed-congenital-cystic-lung-lesions-long-term-follow-up-of-119-cases
#15
James Cook, Lyn S Chitty, Paolo De Coppi, Michael Ashworth, Colin Wallis
BACKGROUND: A paucity of evidence regarding the natural history of congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAMs) and pulmonary sequestration (PS) has resulted in a divergence in management strategy of asymptomatic cases. METHODS: We describe the long-term clinical course of 119 children diagnosed with these lesions treated at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH). Cases were identified via the GOSH patient database. Study entry required the identification of a cystic lung lesion on prenatal ultrasound and confirmation of CPAM/PS on postnatal CT imaging...
June 5, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550599/rare-earth-elements-in-street-dust-and-associated-health-risk-in-a-municipal-industrial-base-of-central-china
#16
Guangyi Sun, Zhonggen Li, Ting Liu, Ji Chen, Tingting Wu, Xinbin Feng
The content levels, distribution characteristics, and health risks associated with 15 rare earth elements (REEs) in urban street dust from an industrial city, Zhuzhou, in central China were investigated. The total REE content (∑REE) ranged from 66.1 to 237.4 mg kg(-1), with an average of 115.9 mg kg(-1), which is lower than that of Chinese background soil and Yangtze river sediment. Average content of the individual REE in street dust decreased in the order Ce > La > Nd > Y > Pr > Sm > Gd > Dy > Er > Yb > Eu > Ho > Tb > Tm > Lu...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550406/statistical-shape-modelling-to-aid-surgical-planning-associations-between-surgical-parameters-and-head-shapes-following-spring-assisted-cranioplasty
#17
Naiara Rodriguez-Florez, Jan L Bruse, Alessandro Borghi, Herman Vercruysse, Juling Ong, Greg James, Xavier Pennec, David J Dunaway, N U Owase Jeelani, Silvia Schievano
PURPOSE: Spring-assisted cranioplasty is performed to correct the long and narrow head shape of children with sagittal synostosis. Such corrective surgery involves osteotomies and the placement of spring-like distractors, which gradually expand to widen the skull until removal about 4 months later. Due to its dynamic nature, associations between surgical parameters and post-operative 3D head shape features are difficult to comprehend. The current study aimed at applying population-based statistical shape modelling to gain insight into how the choice of surgical parameters such as craniotomy size and spring positioning affects post-surgical head shape...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545823/novel-molecular-subgroups-for-clinical-classification-and-outcome-prediction-in-childhood-medulloblastoma-a-cohort-study
#18
Edward C Schwalbe, Janet C Lindsey, Sirintra Nakjang, Stephen Crosier, Amanda J Smith, Debbie Hicks, Gholamreza Rafiee, Rebecca M Hill, Alice Iliasova, Thomas Stone, Barry Pizer, Antony Michalski, Abhijit Joshi, Stephen B Wharton, Thomas S Jacques, Simon Bailey, Daniel Williamson, Steven C Clifford
BACKGROUND: International consensus recognises four medulloblastoma molecular subgroups: WNT (MBWNT), SHH (MBSHH), group 3 (MBGrp3), and group 4 (MBGrp4), each defined by their characteristic genome-wide transcriptomic and DNA methylomic profiles. These subgroups have distinct clinicopathological and molecular features, and underpin current disease subclassification and initial subgroup-directed therapies that are underway in clinical trials. However, substantial biological heterogeneity and differences in survival are apparent within each subgroup, which remain to be resolved...
July 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533873/wrestling-game-injuries-among-children-in-dakar-a-report-on-172-cases
#19
Gabriel Ngom, Azhar Salim Mohamed, Papa Alassane Mbaye, Mbaye Fall, Oumar Ndour, Aimé Lakh Faye, Zakaria El-Hasnaoui
INTRODUCTION: The objective was to report epidemiological and lesional features among children practicing wrestling as a game in Dakar, Senegal. METHODS: It was a retrospective study including all patients under 16, victims of wrestling game injuries. We studied epidemiological and lesional aspects in children: frequency of wrestling game injuries among all games, age, sex, geographic origin, place of injury, parent's socioeconomic status, nature of the injury and location...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516826/fatalities-from-firearm-related-injuries-in-selected-governorates-of-iraq-2010-2013
#20
Maximilian P Nerlander, Eva Leidman, Ahmed Hassan, Abdul-Salam Saleh Sultan, Syed Jaffar Hussain, Lauren B Browne, Oleg O Bilukha
BACKGROUND: In Iraq, where Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and other groups have contributed to escalating violence in recent years, understanding the epidemiology of intentional firearm-related fatalities is essential for public health action. METHODS: The Iraqi Ministry of Health (MoH; Baghdad, Iraq) compiles surveillance of fatal injuries in eight of Iraq's 18 governorates (Baghdad, Al-Anbar, Basrah, Erbil, Kerbala, Maysan, Ninevah, and Al-Sulaimaniya)...
May 18, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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