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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907845/why-do-kenyan-children-live-on-the-streets-evidence-from-a-cross-section-of-semi-rural-maternal-caregivers
#1
Michael L Goodman, Kelli Martinez, Philip H Keiser, Stanley Gitari, Sarah E Seidel
Globally, study of factors contributing to the street-migration of the tens of millions of street-involved children focus almost exclusively on children's perspectives. In this study, we assess household and maternal factors associated with street-migration of children through self-report of 1974 randomly selected women in semi-rural Kenya. Contributing new perspectives on this global phenomenon, data show a statistically significant association between increased maternal childhood adversities and street-migration of children (p<0...
November 28, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890345/prenatal-exposure-to-outdoor-air-pollution-and-child-behavioral-problems-at-school-age-in-japan
#2
Takashi Yorifuji, Saori Kashima, Midory Higa Diez, Yoko Kado, Satoshi Sanada, Hiroyuki Doi
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest positive associations between prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution and neurodevelopment of children, but evidence on the adverse effects of exposure to air pollution on child neurobehavioral development remains limited. We thus examined associations between prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and child behavioral problems at school age, using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan, where participants were recruited in 2001 and are continuously followed...
November 24, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872802/park-use-is-associated-with-less-sedentary-time-among-low-income-parents-and-their-preschool-child-the-net-works-study
#3
Simone A French, Nancy E Sherwood, Nathan R Mitchell, Yingling Fan
INTRODUCTION: Parks are an important component of the neighborhood environment, and their presence is believed to support higher levels of physical activity among residents. The present study examined park use frequency among a sample of 534 low-income parents of preschool aged children. Associations with child and parent physical activity, neighborhood characteristics and physical characteristics of the block immediately surrounding the home were examined. METHODS: Data are from baseline measurements completed in 2012-2014 as part of larger study (NET-Works: Now Everybody Together for Amazing and Healthy Kids) targeting low-income preschool children and their parents (N = 534 parent-child dyads)...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866219/mental-health-of-children-who-work-on-the-streets-in-brazil-after-enrollment-in-a-psychosocial-program
#4
Elis Viviane Hoffmann, Cristiane S Duarte, Victor Fossaluza, Ana Carolina C Milani, Mariana R Maciel, Marcelo F Mello, Andrea F Mello
PURPOSE: To evaluate the mental health status of children working on the streets in Sao Paulo City, Brazil, two years after their participation in a psychosocial program, and to identify factors associated with their mental health status. METHODS: From a total sample of 126 children working on the streets, 107 (85%) were re-evaluated two years after the initiation of a psychosocial program which aimed to cease their work on the streets. The focus was the presence of mental health problems, defined based on a screening instrument (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire)...
November 19, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846881/using-an-audit-tool-maps-global-to-assess-the-characteristics-of-the-physical-environment-related-to-walking-for-transport-in-youth-reliability-of-belgian-data
#5
Griet Vanwolleghem, Ariane Ghekiere, Greet Cardon, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Sara D'Haese, Carrie M Geremia, Matthieu Lenoir, James F Sallis, Hannah Verhoeven, Delfien Van Dyck
BACKGROUND: The aim was to examine inter-rater and alternate-form reliability of the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) Global tool to assess the physical environment along likely walking routes in Belgium. METHODS: For 65 children participating in the BEPAS-children study, routes between their individual homes and the nearest pre-defined destination were defined. Using MAPS Global, physical environmental characteristics of the routes were audited by 4 trained auditors (2 on-site, 2 online using Google Street View)...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833224/risk-factors-for-substance-use-among-street-children-entering-treatment-in-india
#6
Shibendu Bhattacharjee, Rajesh Kumar, Alok Agrawal, Kevin E O'Grady, Hendrée E Jones
BACKGROUND: Although empirical studies have reported on substance use in children in India, multivariable statistical models examining risk factors in children seeking treatment for substance use are largely lacking. The goal of this study was to test a conceptual model predicting age of first use, duration of use of any psychoactive substance, and primary substance of choice from child and family characteristics in a sample of children entering substance use treatment. METHODS: This was a single-sample cross-sectional study of 159 children entering a treatment and rehabilitation center in Delhi that provides substance use treatment and teaches children the skills to allow for their re-integration into society...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828614/hiv-prevalence-in-children-and-youth-living-on-the-street-and-subject-to-commercial-sexual-exploitation-a-systematic-review
#7
Camilo Noreña-Herrera, Carlos Alberto Rojas, Lizeth Cruz-Jiménez
The aim of this review was to describe HIV prevalence in children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation, and the studies' characteristics in terms of place, time, population, and sample design. This was a systematic review, not a meta-analysis, based on an article search in 10 electronic databases: Science Direct, MEDLINE, OVID, LILACS, Wiley InterScience, MD Consult, Springer Link, Embase, Web of Science, and Ebsco. A complementary search was also performed in the libraries of schools of public health and webpages of U...
November 3, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825051/health-risk-implications-of-potentially-toxic-metals-in-street-dust-and-surface-soil-of-tehran-iran
#8
Sharareh Dehghani, Farid Moore, Behnam Keshavarzi, Beverley A Hale
In this study a total of 30 street dusts and 10 surface soils were collected in the central district of Tehran and analyzed for major potentially toxic metals. Street dust was found to be greatly enriched in Sb, Pb, Cu and Zn and moderately enriched in Cr, Mn, Mo and Ni. Contamination of Cu, Sb, Pb and Zn was clearly related to anthropogenic sources such as brake wear, tire dust, road abrasion and fossil fuel combustion. Spatial distribution of pollution load index in street dust suggested that industries located south-west of the city intensify street dust pollution...
November 5, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814445/the-prolonged-neonatal-admission-implications-for-our-national-children-s-hospital
#9
S M McGlacken-Byrne, L Geraghty, J F A Murphy
A significant number of neonates are admitted to tertiary paediatric units for prolonged stays annually, despite limited availability of neonatal beds. As the three Dublin paediatric hospitals merge, this pressure will be transferred to our new National Children's Hospital. We analysed epidemiological trends in prolonged neonatal admissions to the 14-bed neonatal unit in The Children's University Hospital, Temple Street, Dublin. This was with a view to extrapolating this data toward the development of a neonatal unit in the National Children's Hospital that could accommodate for this complex, important, and resource-heavy patient population...
June 10, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809913/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-omnitrope%C3%A2-a-somatropin-biosimilar-in-children-requiring-growth-hormone-treatment-italian-interim-analysis-of-the-patro-children-study
#10
Lorenzo Iughetti, Gianluca Tornese, Maria Elisabeth Street, Flavia Napoli, Claudia Giavoli, Franco Antoniazzi, Stefano Stagi, Caterina Luongo, Sara Azzolini, Letizia Ragusa, Gianni Bona, Clara Zecchino, Tommaso Aversa, Luca Persani, Laura Guazzarotti, Emiliano Zecchi, Alberto Pietropoli, Stefano Zucchini
BACKGROUND: PATRO Children is an ongoing observational, longitudinal, non-interventional, global post-marketing surveillance study, which is investigating the long-term safety and effectiveness of Omnitrope®, a somatropin biosimilar to Genotropin®, in children with growth disturbances. The primary endpoint of PATRO Children is long-term safety and the secondary endpoint is effectiveness, which is assessed by analysing auxological data such as height (HSDS) and height velocity (HVSDS) standard deviation scores...
November 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800177/epidemiological-features-of-pediatric-ocular-trauma-in-egypt
#11
Ebrahim Abdullah Yehia Al Wadeai, Amr Abdellatif Osman, Tamer A Macky, Mahmoud M Soliman
Purpose. To review the epidemiology of serious pediatric ocular trauma presenting to Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo University. Methods. Children with serious ocular trauma during a six-month period were examined and their data was analyzed. Results. Eighty eyes of 75 patients were included in this study, with 64% males (P < 0.001) and average age of 5 years (5 months-15 years). There were 67 (83.75%) open globe injuries, 11 (13.75%) closed globe injuries, and 2 (2.5%) chemical injuries. Of the open globe injuries, 24 (30%) were ruptured globes and 43 (53...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798807/pollution-characteristics-source-apportionment-and-health-risk-of-heavy-metals-in-street-dust-of-suzhou-china
#12
Manli Lin, Herong Gui, Yao Wang, Weihua Peng
To analyze the pollution characteristics, source apportionment, and health risk of heavy metals (HMs) in street dust of Suzhou, China, 23 sampling sites were selected and periodically sampled for 12 months. A total of 276 samples were collected, and the concentrations of selected HMs (e.g., Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn) were examined with an X-ray fluorescence spectrum analyzer. Results showed that the mean concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn in the street dust of Suzhou were 112.9, 27.5, 19941...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794067/social-disparities-in-children-s-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-in-privately-owned-vehicles
#13
Annie Montreuil, Nancy Hanusaik, Michael Cantinotti, Bernard-Simon Leclerc, Yan Kestens, Michèle Tremblay, Joanna Cohen, Jennifer McGrath, Geetanjali D Datta, Jennifer L O'Loughlin
INTRODUCTION: Secondhand smoke (SHS) can quickly attain high concentrations in cars, posing health risks to passengers and especially to children. This paper assesses whether there are social disparities in children's exposure to SHS in privately owned vehicles. METHODS: On weekday mornings and afternoons from September to November 2011, trained observers were stationed at 100 selected street intersections in Montreal, Canada. For each car transporting at least one passenger aged 0-15 years travelling through the intersection, observers recorded the estimated age of the youngest child in the car, whether any occupant was smoking and the licence plate number of the car...
October 28, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770403/characterising-the-premonitory-stage-of-migraine-in-children-a-clinic-based-study-of-100-patients-in-a-specialist-headache-service
#14
N Karsan, P Prabhakar, P J Goadsby
BACKGROUND: The premonitory stage of migraine attacks, when symptomatology outside of pain can manifest hours to days before the onset of the headache, is well recognised. Such symptoms have been reported in adults in a number of studies, and have value in predicting an impending headache. These symptoms have not been extensively studied in children. We aimed to characterise which, if any, of these symptoms are reported in children seen within a Specialist Headache Service. METHODS: We reviewed clinic letters from the initial consultation of children and adolescents seen within the Specialist Headache Service at Great Ormond Street Hospital between 1999 and 2015 with migraine in whom we had prospectively assessed clinical phenotype data...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747547/epidemiology-of-skateboarding-related-injuries-sustained-by-children-and-adolescents-5-19-years-of-age-and-treated-in-us-emergency-departments-1990-through-2008
#15
Lara B McKenzie, Erica Fletcher, Nicolas G Nelson, Kristin J Roberts, Elizabeth G Klein
BACKGROUND: The goal was to examine the patterns and trends of skateboarding-related injuries sustained by children and adolescents in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for children and adolescents 5-19 years of age treated in emergency departments for injuries associated with skateboards from 1990 through 2008. RESULTS: An estimated 1 226 868 children/adolescents (95 % CI: 948 733-1 505 003) were treated in emergency departments for skateboarding-related injuries from 1990 through 2008, an average of 64,572 cases per year...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747454/non-invasive-imaging-cannot-replace-formal-angiography-in-the-diagnosis-of-renovascular-hypertension
#16
Agnes Trautmann, Derek J Roebuck, Clare A McLaren, Eileen Brennan, Stephen D Marks, Kjell Tullus
OBJECTIVES: Renovascular disease (RVD) is found in about 10 % of secondary childhood hypertension. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the gold standard to diagnose RVD. Non-invasive imaging methods like Doppler ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and computed tomography angiography (CTA) are increasingly used. Our aim was to evaluate the role and accuracy of US, MRA, and CTA compared to DSA in diagnosing RVD in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 127 children with suspected renovascular hypertension was performed in children referred to Great Ormond Street Hospital between 2006 and 2014 due to clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension and/or findings on US and/or MRA or CTA...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737017/identification-of-novel-rosavirus-species-that-infects-diverse-rodent-species-and-causes-multisystemic-dissemination-in-mouse-model
#17
Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo, Kenneth S M Li, Hao-Ji Zhang, Rachel Y Y Fan, Anna J X Zhang, Brandon C C Chan, Carol S F Lam, Cyril C Y Yip, Ming-Chi Yuen, Kwok-Hung Chan, Zhi-Wei Chen, Kwok-Yung Yuen
While novel picornaviruses are being discovered in rodents, their host range and pathogenicity are largely unknown. We identified two novel picornaviruses, rosavirus B from the street rat, Norway rat, and rosavirus C from five different wild rat species (chestnut spiny rat, greater bandicoot rat, Indochinese forest rat, roof rat and Coxing's white-bellied rat) in China. Analysis of 13 complete genome sequences showed that "Rosavirus B" and "Rosavirus C" represent two potentially novel picornavirus species infecting different rodents...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736214/variation-in-vaccination-data-available-at-school-entry-across-the-united-states
#18
Timothy F Leslie, Erica J Street, Paul L Delamater, Y Tony Yang, Kathryn H Jacobsen
OBJECTIVES: To compile substate-level data on US school-age children's vaccination rates. METHODS: For states that did not have suitable data online, in 2015 we submitted information requests to the state health department and followed up with the state's Freedom of Information Act when necessary. RESULTS: The accessibility, scale, and types of vaccination data varied considerably. Whereas 26 states provided data online, 14 released data only after a Freedom of Information Act request...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729958/inpatient-opioid-withdrawal-management-of-street-children-and-adolescents-admitted-to-child-and-adolescent-psychiatric-ward-a-preliminary-case-series
#19
Mahboubeh Firouzkouhi Moghadam, Seyed-Sepehr Hashemian, Masoud Pishjoo, Sanaz Ghasemi, Ahmad Hajebi, Alireza Noroozi
BACKGROUND: About 10 million children worldwide live or work on the street. International reports estimate the prevalence of substance use among street children to be between 25% - 90%, which is who were referredntal disorders and high-risk behaviors. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to report the outcomes of assisted withdrawal of opioid-dependent vulnerable children and adolescents who were referred to child and adolescent psychiatric ward of Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospital, an academic hospital in Zahedan city...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711037/vaccination-coverage-among-children-in-kindergarten-united-states-2015-16-school-year
#20
Ranee Seither, Kayla Calhoun, Jenelle Mellerson, Cynthia L Knighton, Erica Street, Vance Dietz, J Michael Underwood
State-mandated vaccination requirements for school entry protect children and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). Each school year, federally funded immunization programs (e.g., states, territories, jurisdictions) collect and report kindergarten vaccination data to CDC. This report describes vaccination coverage estimates in all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), and the estimated number of kindergartners with at least one vaccine exemption in 47 states and DC, during the 2015-16 school year...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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