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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905308/a-case-of-extreme-hypokalaemia
#1
L M Ten Bos, T C Veenstra, B D Westerhof, F H Bosch
Hypokalaemia is a common clinical problem. It can lead to severe disturbances in cardiac, neurological and muscle function. We present the case of a 45-year-old woman who was transported to our hospital with cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation. Blood sampling revealed severe acidosis (pH 7.02) and extreme hypokalaemia (0.9 mmol/l). The low serum potassium level was most likely caused by the combination of a very deficient diet and use of a thiazide diuretic. She never reported any symptoms. An acute intracellular shift of potassium due to epinephrine and perhaps also the cathecholamines in Red Bull may have further decreased the serum potassium concentration...
November 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898465/the-intragraft-microenvironment-as-a-central-determinant-of-chronic-rejection-or-local-immunoregulation-tolerance
#2
Johannes Wedel, Hironao Nakayama, Nora M Kochupurakkal, Josephine Koch, Michael Klagsbrun, Diane R Bielenberg, David M Briscoe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic rejection is associated with persistent mononuclear cell recruitment, endothelial activation and proliferation, local tissue hypoxia and related biology that enhance effector immune responses. In contrast, the tumor microenvironment elicits signals/factors that inhibit effector T cell responses and rather promote immunoregulation locally within the tissue itself. The identification of immunoregulatory check points and/or secreted factors that are deficient within allografts is of great importance in the understanding and prevention of chronic rejection...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860352/impact-of-oxygen-deficiency-on-electrochemical-performance-of-k2nif4-type-la1-xsrx-2nio4-%C3%AE-oxygen-electrodes
#3
Ekaterina Kravchenko, Kiryl Zakharchuk, Alexander Viskup, Jekabs Grins, Gunnar Svensson, Vladimir Pankov, Aleksey A Yaremchenko
Perovskite-related (La1-xSrx)2NiO4-δ (x = 0.5-0.8) phases were explored for possible use as oxygen electrodes of solid electrolyte cells, with major focus on the effect of oxygen deficiency on electrocatalytic activity. (La1-xSrx)2NiO4-δ solid solutions were demonstrated to preserve the K2NiF4-type tetragonal structure under oxidizing conditions. Acceptor-type substitution by strontium is compensated by formation of oxygen vacancies and electron-holes and progressively increases high-temperature oxygen nonstoichiometry which reaches as high as δ = 0...
November 14, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806940/nadph-oxidase-2-mediates-zinc-deficiency-induced-oxidative-stress-and-kidney-damage
#4
Mirandy S Li, Sherry E Adesina, Jennifer L Gooch, Robert S Hoover, Clintoria R Williams
Zn(2+) deficiency (ZnD) is comorbid with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and worsens kidney complications. Oxidative stress is implicated in the detrimental effects of ZnD. However, the sources of oxidative stress continue to be identified. Since NADPH oxidases (Nox) are the primary enzymes that contribute to renal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, this study's objective was to determine the role of these enzymes in ZnD-induced oxidative stress. We hypothesized that ZnD promotes Nox upregulation resulting in oxidative stress and kidney damage...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782437/ionic-profiles-close-to-dielectric-discontinuities-specific-ion-surface-interactions
#5
Tomer Markovich, David Andelman, Henri Orland
We study, by incorporating short-range ion-surface interactions, ionic profiles of electrolyte solutions close to a non-charged interface between two dielectric media. In order to account for important correlation effects close to the interface, the ionic profiles are calculated beyond mean-field theory, using the loop expansion of the free energy. We show that how it is possible to overcome the well-known deficiency of the regular loop expansion close to the dielectric jump and treat the non-linear boundary conditions within the framework of field theory...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765455/evaluating-the-effect-of-comorbidities-on%C3%A2-the-success-risk-and-cost-of-digital%C3%A2-replantation
#6
Joshua W Hustedt, Andrew Chung, Daniel D Bohl, Neil Olmscheid, Scott Edwards
PURPOSE: The clinical decision to replant an amputated digit is driven primarily by surgical indication. However, the extent to which patient comorbidity should play into this decision is less well defined. This study was designed to determine the effect of patient comorbidities on the success, risk, and cost of digital replantation. METHODS: All amputation injuries and digital replantation procedures captured by the National Inpatient Sample during 2001 to 2012 were identified...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754186/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#7
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683787/proposal-of-a-revisional-surgery-to-treat-severe-nutritional-deficiency-post-gastric-bypass
#8
José Sampaio-Neto, Alcides José Branco-Filho, Luis Sérgio Nassif, André Thá Nassif, Flávia David João De Masi, Graciany Gasperin
Background: The gastric bypass has nutritional and electrolyte disturbances rate of approximately 17%. The most common deficits are protein malnutrition, ferric and zinc, in addition to the vitamin. Although rare, some malnutrition stages reach such severity that ends up being necessary hospitalization and sometimes revisional or reversal surgical procedures. Aim: To present a proposal of surgical revision for treatment of severe malnutrition after bariatric surgery...
2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681558/vasopressin-lowers-renal-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-levels-by-activating-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase
#9
Christin Boldt, Tom Röschel, Nina Himmerkus, Allein Plain, Markus Bleich, Robert Labes, Maximilian Blum, Hans Krause, Ahmed Magheli, Torsten Giesecke, Kerim Mutig, Michael Rothe, Steven M Weldon, Duska Dragun, Wolf-Hagen Schunck, Sebastian Bachmann, Alexander Paliege
Activation of the thick ascending limb (TAL) Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) by the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is an essential mechanism of renal urine concentration and contributes to extracellular fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. AVP effects in the kidney are modulated by locally and/or by systemically produced epoxyeicosatrienoic acid derivates (EET). The relation between AVP and EET metabolism has not been determined. Here, we show that chronic treatment of AVP-deficient Brattleboro rats with the AVP V2 receptor analog desmopressin (dDAVP; 5 ng/h, 3 days) significantly lowered renal EET levels (-56 ± 3% for 5,6-EET, -50 ± 3...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643143/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#10
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635095/relationship-between-serum-total-magnesium-and-serum-potassium-in-emergency-surgical-patients-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ghana
#11
Robert Djagbletey, Brenda Phillips, Frank Boni, Christian Owoo, Ebenezer Owusu-Darkwa, Papa Kobina Gyakye deGraft-Johnson, Alfred E Yawson
INTRODUCTION: Potassium and magnesium are the two most abundant intra-cellular cations. They play pivotal roles in many essential biological processes. Deficiencies of these electrolytes are of clinical importance in hospitalised patients. AIM: To determine the relationship between serum total magnesium and potassium levels in adult patients requiring an emergency intra-abdominal surgery and the clinical utility of this relationship in the care of patients. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted over a five month period at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital...
June 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627103/cation-deficient-spinel-znmn2o4-cathode-in-zn-cf3so3-2-electrolyte-for-rechargeable-aqueous-zn-ion-battery
#12
Ning Zhang, Fangyi Cheng, Yongchang Liu, Qing Zhao, Kaixiang Lei, Chengcheng Chen, Xiaosong Liu, Jun Chen
Rechargeable aqueous Zn-ion batteries are attractive cheap, safe and green energy storage technologies but are bottlenecked by limitation in high-capacity cathode and compatible electrolyte to achieve satisfactory cyclability. Here we report the application of nonstoichiometric ZnMn2O4/carbon composite as a new Zn-insertion cathode material in aqueous Zn(CF3SO3)2 electrolyte. In 3 M Zn(CF3SO3)2 solution that enables ∼100% Zn plating/stripping efficiency with long-term stability and suppresses Mn dissolution, the spinel/carbon hybrid exhibits a reversible capacity of 150 mAh g(-1) and a capacity retention of 94% over 500 cycles at a high rate of 500 mA g(-1)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606644/urinary-levels-of-early-kidney-injury-molecules-in-children-with-vitamin-b12-deficiency
#13
Ali Güneş, Fesih Aktar, İlhan Tan, Murat Söker, Ünal Uluca, Hasan Balık, Nuriye Mete
The aim of this study was to investigate urine early kidney injury molecules, including human kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase A (NAG), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in children with vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency (CD). Twelve children with vitamin B12 deficiency and 20 healthy matched controls were included. Hematologic parameters, serum urea, creatinine (Cr), electrolytes, B12 and folate levels were recorded...
October 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603344/electrolyte-and-mineral-disturbances-in-septic-acute-kidney-injury-patients-undergoing-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#14
Su-Young Jung, Hyunwook Kim, Seohyun Park, Jong Hyun Jhee, Hae-Ryong Yun, Hyoungnae Kim, Youn Kyung Kee, Chang-Yun Yoon, Hyung Jung Oh, Tae Ik Chang, Jung Tak Park, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Hajeong Lee, Dong Ki Kim, Seung Hyeok Han
Electrolyte and mineral disturbances remain a major concern in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT); however, it is not clear whether those imbalances are associated with adverse outcomes in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) undergoing CRRT. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of data from a prospective randomized controlled trial. A total of 210 patients with a mean age of 62.2 years (136 [64.8%] males) in 2 hospitals were enrolled. Levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate measured before (0 hour) and 24 hours after CRRT initiation...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592085/all-payer-analysis-of-heart-failure-hospitalization-30-day-readmission-comorbidities-matter
#15
Jonathan D Davis, Margaret A Olsen, Kerry Bommarito, Shane J LaRue, Mohammed Saeed, Michael W Rich, Justin M Vader
BACKGROUND: Thirty-day readmission following heart failure hospitalization impacts hospital performance measures and reimbursement. We investigated readmission characteristics and the magnitude of 30-day hospital readmissions after hospital discharge for heart failure using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases (SID). METHODS: Adults aged ≥ 40 years hospitalized with a primary discharge diagnosis of heart failure from 2007-2011 were identified in the California, New York, and Florida SIDs...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528422/vhl-deletion-in-renal-epithelia-causes-hif-1%C3%AE-dependent-hif-2%C3%AE-independent-angiogenesis-and-constitutive-diuresis
#16
Désirée Schönenberger, Michal Rajski, Sabine Harlander, Ian J Frew
One of the earliest requirements for the formation of a solid tumor is the establishment of an adequate blood supply. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) are highly vascularized tumors in which the earliest genetic event is most commonly the biallelic inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene, leading to constitutive activation of the HIF-1α and HIF-2α transcription factors, which are known angiogenic factors. However it remains unclear whether either or both HIF-1α or HIF-2α stabilization in normal renal epithelial cells are necessary or sufficient for alterations in blood vessel formation...
August 12, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499405/clinical-awareness-for-health-care-professionals-fatal-encephalopathy-complicating-persistent-vomiting-in-pregnancy
#17
Nnabuike Chibuoke Ngene, Jack Moodley
Women with persistent vomiting during pregnancy need early referral to appropriate health facilities. Delayed referral and inappropriate management may lead to metabolic encephalopathy from a variety of causes, including electrolyte derangements or thiamine deficiency (Wernicke's encephalopathy) (WE). We present a case of persistent vomiting in pregnancy in which there was delayed referral, inappropriate treatment and failure to associate neurological signs such as terminal neck stiffness with WE, resulting in poor fetomaternal outcomes...
August 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497940/the-challenges-of-managing-and-following-up-a-case-of-short-bowel-in-eastern-europe
#18
Henry Ifeanyi Osakwe, Cristina Dragomir, Cristian Nicolescu, Eugen Sorin Boia
INTRODUCTION: This article reflects on the plight of patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) in developing countries. SBS is life threatening, rare, complex and often not considered a priority by healthcare planners in the developing countries because of the high cost of treatment. Data was collected and analyzed from 3 different hospitals in two different countries (Romania and Austria) from November 2013 to February 2016 CASE PRESENTATION: The patient had an emergency surgery for volvulus as a result of an extensive ischemic necrosis, with just 80cm of the bowel left and no ileocecal valve after enterectomy...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489567/multiple-syntrophic-interactions-drive-biohythane-production-from-waste-sludge-in-microbial-electrolysis-cells
#19
Qian Liu, Zhiyong Jason Ren, Cong Huang, Bingfeng Liu, Nanqi Ren, Defeng Xing
BACKGROUND: Biohythane is a new and high-value transportation fuel present as a mixture of biomethane and biohydrogen. It has been produced from different organic matters using anaerobic digestion. Bioenergy can be recovered from waste activated sludge through methane production during anaerobic digestion, but energy yield is often insufficient to sludge disposal. Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is also a promising approach for bioenergy recovery and waste sludge disposal as higher energy efficiency and biogas production...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485500/congenital-primary-adrenal-insufficiency-and-selective-aldosterone-defects-presenting-as-salt-wasting-in-infancy-a-single-center-10-year-experience
#20
Carla Bizzarri, Nicole Olivini, Stefania Pedicelli, Romana Marini, Germana Giannone, Paola Cambiaso, Marco Cappa
BACKGROUND: Salt-wasting represents a relatively common cause of emergency admission in infants and may result in life-threatening complications. Neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the distal nephron leading to reduced ability to concentrate urine. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted for infants hospitalized in a single Institution from 1(st) January 2006 to 31(st) December 2015. The selection criterion was represented by the referral to the Endocrinology Unit for hyponatremia (serum sodium <130 mEq/L) of suspected endocrine origin at admission...
2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
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