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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652817/selenium-in-radiation-oncology-15-years-of-experiences-in-germany
#1
REVIEW
Ralph Muecke, Oliver Micke, Lutz Schomburg, Jens Buentzel, Klaus Kisters, Irenaeus A Adamietz
Introduction: Se measurement and supplementation in radiation oncology is a controversial issue. The German Working Group Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Oncology (AKTE) has conducted a number of studies on this issue, which are summarized in this review. Strategies have been tested and developed, aiming to stratify the patients with a potential need for supplemental Se and how best to monitor Se supplementation with respect to health effects and risks. Methods: We analyzed blood and tissue Se-levels of different tumor patients ( n = 512)...
April 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650139/follow-up-management-of-cystectomy-patients
#2
REVIEW
Madhumitha Reddy, Karim Kader
Bladder cancer is the sixth leading cancer in the United States. Radical cystectomy is a lifesaving procedure for bladder cancer with or without muscle invasion. Radical cystectomy is performed on 39% of these patients, and 35% will have a life-threatening recurrence. Distant metastases are the most common; local, upper tract, and urethral recurrence can also occur. Surveillance after cystectomy is critical to diagnosing recurrence early. Functional complications after urinary diversion include bowel dysfunction, vitamin B12 deficiency, acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities, osteopenia, nephrolithiasis, urinary tract infections, renal functional decline, and urinary obstruction, which can be reversed when diagnosed early...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617893/serum-cortisol-and-cortisone-as-potential-biomarkers-of-partial-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-2-deficiency
#3
Cristian A Carvajal, Alejandra Tapia-Castillo, Carolina P Valdivia, Fidel Allende, Sandra Solari, Carlos F Lagos, Carmen Campino, Alejandro Martínez-Aguayo, Andrea Vecchiola, Constanza Pinochet, Claudia Godoy, Virginia Iturrieta, Rene Baudrand, Carlos E Fardella
Background: Pathogenic variations in HSD11B2 gene triggers the apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome (AME). There is scarce information regarding the phenotypes of subjects carrying heterozygous pathogenic variants in HSD11B2 gene. We investigated if serum cortisol/cortisone(F/E) ratio and cortisone are useful for identifying partial 11βHSD2 deficiency in those heterozygous subjects. Methods: We studied two patients diagnosed with AME and their families carrying either D223N or R213C mutation...
March 30, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611299/pseudocapacitance-of-tio-2-x-cnt-anodes-for-high-performance-quasi-solid-state-li-ion-and-na-ion-capacitors
#4
Lan-Fang Que, Fu-Da Yu, Zhen-Bo Wang, Da-Ming Gu
It is challenging for flexible solid-state hybrid capacitors to achieve high-energy-high-power densities in both Li-ion and Na-ion systems, and the kinetics discrepancy between the sluggish faradaic anode and the rapid capacitive cathode is the most critical issue needs to be addressed. To improve Li-ion/Na-ion diffusion kinetics, flexible oxygen-deficient TiO2- x /CNT composite film with ultrafast electron/ion transport network is constructed as self-supported and light-weight anode for a quasi-solid-state hybrid capacitor...
April 3, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610664/hypomagnesemia-in-critically-ill-patients
#5
REVIEW
Bent-Are Hansen, Øyvind Bruserud
Background: Magnesium (Mg) is essential for life and plays a crucial role in several biochemical and physiological processes in the human body. Hypomagnesemia is common in all hospitalized patients, especially in critically ill patients with coexisting electrolyte abnormalities. Hypomagnesemia may cause severe and potential fatal complications if not timely diagnosed and properly treated, and associate with increased mortality. Main body: Mg deficiency in critically ill patients is mainly caused by gastrointestinal and/or renal disorders and may lead to secondary hypokalemia and hypocalcemia, and severe neuromuscular and cardiovascular clinical manifestations...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595982/li-distribution-heterogeneity-in-solid-electrolyte-li10gep2s12-upon-electrochemical-cycling-probed-by-7li-mri
#6
Po-Hsiu Chien, Xuyong Feng, Mingxue Tang, Jens T Rosenberg, Sean O'Neill, Jin Zheng, Samuel C Grant, Yan-Yan Hu
All-solid-state rechargeable batteries embody the promise for high energy density, increased stability, and improved safety. However, their success is impeded by high resistance for mass and charge transfer at electrode-electrolyte interfaces. Li deficiency has been proposed as a major culprit for interfacial resistance, yet the experimental evidence is elusive due to the challenges associated with non-invasively probing Li distribution in solid electrolytes. In this contribution, three-dimensional 7Li Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is employed to examine Li distribution homogeneity in solid electrolyte Li10GeP2S12 within symmetric Li/Li10GeP2S12/Li batteries...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576868/a-rare-cause-of-primary-adrenal-insufficiency-due-to-a-homozygous-arg188cys-mutation-in-the-star-gene
#7
Lukas Burget, Laura Audí Parera, Monica Fernandez-Cancio, Rolf Gräni, Christoph Henzen, Christa E Flück
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein ( STAR ) is a key protein for the intracellular transport of cholesterol to the mitochondrium in endocrine organs (e.g. adrenal gland, ovaries, testes) and essential for the synthesis of all steroid hormones. Several mutations have been described and the clinical phenotype varies strongly and may be grouped into classic lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH), in which all steroidogenesis is disrupted, and non-classic LCAH, which resembles familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD), which affects predominantly adrenal functions...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571254/er-shen-wan-extract-reduces-diarrhea-and-regulates-aqp-4-and-nhe-3-in-a-rat-model-of-spleen-kidney-yang-deficiency-induced-diarrhea
#8
Rui Xiong, Wenbing Li, Yidan Li, Kaixuan Zheng, Tingting Zhang, Mingyang Gao, Yun Li, Lin Hu, Changjiang Hu
INTRODUCTION: Er Shen Wan (ESW), a traditional Chinese medicinal formula comprised of Psoraleae Fructus (Babchi seeds, from Psoralea corylifolia Linn.) and Myristicae Semen (Nutmeg, from Myristica fragrans Houtt.), is widely used to treat spleen-kidney Yang deficiency (SKYD)-induced diarrhea. Previous studies have demonstrated preliminarily that the petroleum ether extract of ESW (ESWP) exhibits significant anti-diarrheal activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-diarrhea activity of ESWP and to explore the underlying mechanisms with respect to fluid metabolism in a rat model of SKYD-induced diarrhea...
February 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547703/dominant-functional-role-of-the-novel-phosphorylation-site-s811-in-the-human-renal-nacl-cotransporter
#9
Omar A Z Tutakhel, Frans Bianchi, Daniël A Smits, René J M Bindels, Joost G J Hoenderop, Jenny van der Wijst
The NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is essential for electrolyte homeostasis and control of blood pressure. The human SLC12A3 gene, which encodes NCC, gives rise to 3 isoforms, of which only the shortest isoform [NaCl cotransporter isoform 3 (NCC3 )] has been studied extensively. All NCC isoforms share key phosphorylation sites at T55 and T60 that are essential mediators of NCC function. Recently, a novel phosphorylation site at S811 was identified in isoforms 1 and 2 [NaCl cotransporter splice variant (NCCSV )], which are only present in humans and higher primates...
March 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545907/interface-instability-of-fe-stabilized-li-7-la-3-zr-2-o-12-versus-li-metal
#10
Daniel Rettenwander, Reinhard Wagner, Andreas Reyer, Maximilian Bonta, Lei Cheng, Marca M Doeff, Andreas Limbeck, Martin Wilkening, Georg Amthauer
The interface stability versus Li represents a major challenge in the development of next-generation all-solid-state batteries (ASSB), which take advantage of the inherently safe ceramic electrolytes. Cubic Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 garnets represent the most promising electrolytes for this technology. The high interfacial impedance versus Li is, however, still a bottleneck toward future devices. Herein, we studied the electrochemical performance of Fe3+ -stabilized Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 (LLZO:Fe) versus Li metal and found a very high total conductivity of 1...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544233/-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-state
#11
Christina Schumann, Michael Faust
BACKGROUND:  Diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state are the most serious diabetic emergencies. Before the discovery of insulin in 1921 by Banting and Best the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was fatal ending in diabetic ketoacidosis equivalent to a torturous death. Today, mortality from diabetic ketoacidosis is low at approximately 2 %. But each death from these two acute metabolic complications of diabetes is potentially avoidable by improved patient and healthcare professional education...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510902/acute-liver-failure-in-neonates-with-undiagnosed-hereditary-fructose-intolerance-due-to-exposure-from-widely-available-infant-formulas
#12
Hong Li, Heather M Byers, Alicia Diaz-Kuan, Miriam B Vos, Patricia L Hall, Silvia Tortorelli, Rani Singh, Matthew B Wallenstein, Meredith Allain, David P Dimmock, Ryan M Farrell, Shawn McCandless, Michael J Gambello
Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by aldolase B (ADOLB) deficiency resulting in an inability to metabolize fructose. The toxic accumulation of intermediate fructose-1-phosphate causes multiple metabolic disturbances, including postprandial hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, electrolyte disturbance, and liver/kidney dysfunction. The clinical presentation varies depending on the age of exposure and the load of fructose. Some common infant formulas contain fructose in various forms, such as sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505151/single-center-experience-with-the-use-of-teduglutide-in-adult-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#13
Kwai Lam, Lauren Schwartz, Jennifer Batisti, Kishore R Iyer
BACKGROUND: Teduglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analog that has been approved for the treatment of adult short bowel syndrome (SBS)-associated intestinal failure (IF; SBS-IF). Teduglutide increases villus height and crypt depth in the small bowel mucosa, promoting nutrition absorption and enteral independence from parenteral nutrition (PN). We aim to report our single-center experience with teduglutide in adult patients with SBS to provide real-world context to its use. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective analysis on patients managed within our tertiary-level intestinal rehabilitation program to identify patients with SBS-IF treated with teduglutide from 2009-2015...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445220/association-of-admission-serum-levels-of-vitamin-d-calcium-phosphate-magnesium-and-parathormone-with-clinical-outcomes-in-neurosurgical-icu-patients
#14
Seyed Hossein Ardehali, Salman Dehghan, Ahmad Reza Baghestani, Aynaz Velayati, Zahra Vahdat Shariatpanahi
To evaluate the association of admission serum levels of 25(OH)D, parathormone and the related electrolytes with severity of illness and clinical outcomes in neurosurgical critically ill patients, serum levels of 25(OH)D, parathormone, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, along with APACHE II score were measured for 210 patients upon admission. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 21.1 ± 7.4 ng/mL. 25(OH)D deficiency (less than 20 ng/dL) and elevated serum parathormone level were found in 47.6% and 38% of patients respectively...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428098/pathophysiological-consequences-of-obstructive-jaundice-and-perioperative-management
#15
REVIEW
Efstathios T Pavlidis, Theodoros E Pavlidis
BACKGROUND: Obstructive jaundice is a common problem in daily clinical practice. Understanding completely the pathophysiological changes in obstructive jaundice remains a challenge for planning current and future management. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed was searched for relevant articles published up to August 2016. The effect of obstructive jaundice on proinflammatory cytokines, coagulation status, hemodynamics and organ functions were evaluated. RESULTS: The effects of obstructive jaundice included biliary tree, the hepatic cell and liver function as well as systemic complications...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416274/trend-analysis-of-bacterial-uropathogens-and-their-susceptibility-pattern-a-4-year-2013-2016-study-from-aseer-region-saudi-arabia
#16
Abdulaziz Alamri, Mohamed E Hamid, Muhammad Abid, Abdulrahman M Alwahhabi, Khalid M Alqahtani, Mohammed S Alqarni, Mosleh Abomughaid
Purpose: To analyze the prevalence and resistance rates of bacterial agents causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Aseer, Saudi Arabia (2013-2016). Patients and Methods: This was a 4-year (2013-2016) retrospective study undertaken in Aseer Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia. A total of 49,779 urine and other UT specimens obtained from patients suspected of having a UTI were analyzed. Urine specimens were inoculated onto cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar following standard procedures...
January 2018: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413007/malnutrition-in-gastrointestinal-disorders-detection-and-nutritional-assessment
#17
REVIEW
Khursheed N Jeejeebhoy, Donald R Duerksen
All patients with significant gastrointestinal disease should be clinically assessed for protein calorie malnutrition by using the Subjective Global Assessment. Blood tests for anemia, electrolytes, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, ferritin, vitamin B12 , and folate should be considered for assessment of major micronutrients. Where malabsorption or inflammatory bowel disease is diagnosed, bone mineral density using dual beam x-ray absorptiometry, 25-OH vitamin D levels, and measurement of other vitamins and trace elements should be considered...
March 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373541/effect-of-cation-ordering-on-the-performance-and-chemical-stability-of-layered-double-perovskite-cathodes
#18
Carlos Bernuy-Lopez, Laura Rioja-Monllor, Takashi Nakamura, Sandrine Ricote, Ryan O'Hayre, Koji Amezawa, Mari-Ann Einarsrud, Tor Grande
The effect of A-site cation ordering on the cathode performance and chemical stability of A-site cation ordered LaBaCo₂O5+δ and disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3-δ materials are reported. Symmetric half-cells with a proton-conducting BaZr0.9Y0.1O3-δ electrolyte were prepared by ceramic processing, and good chemical compatibility of the materials was demonstrated. Both A-site ordered LaBaCo₂O5+δ and A-site disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3-δ yield excellent cathode performance with Area Specific Resistances as low as 7...
January 26, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363324/chronic-nicotine-exposure-reduces-klotho-expression-and-triggers-different-renal-and-hemodynamic-responses-in-klotho-haploinsufficient-mice
#19
Fernanda Oliveira Coelho, Lecticia Barbosa Jorge, Ana Carolina de Bragança Viciana, Talita Rojas Sanches, Fernando Dos Santos, Claudia Maria B Helou, Maria Claudia Irigoyen, Makoto Kuro-O, Lucia Andrade
The klotho gene, which encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and a secreted protein, is expressed predominantly by the distal renal tubules and is related to calcium-phosphorus metabolism, ion channel regulation, intracellular signaling pathways, and longevity. Klotho deficiency aggravates acute kidney injury and renal fibrosis. Exposure to nicotine also worsens kidney injury. Here, we investigated renal klotho expression in a mouse model of chronic (28-day) nicotine exposure, in which mice received nicotine or vehicle (saccharine) in drinking water, comparing wild-type (klotho+/+) mice, klotho-haploinsufficient (klotho+/-) mice, and their respective controls, in terms of the effects of that exposure...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323234/caveolin-1-promotes-renal-water-and-salt-reabsorption
#20
Yan Willière, Aljona Borschewski, Andreas Patzak, Tatiana Nikitina, Carsten Dittmayer, Anna L Daigeler, Markus Schuelke, Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig
Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is essential for the formation of caveolae. Little is known about their functional role in the kidney. We tested the hypothesis that caveolae modulate renal salt and water reabsorption. Wild-type (WT) and Cav1-deficient (Cav1-/-) mice were studied. Cav1 expression and caveolae formation were present in vascular cells, late distal convoluted tubule and principal connecting tubule and collecting duct cells of WT but not Cav1-/- kidneys. Urinary sodium excretion was increased by 94% and urine flow by 126% in Cav1-/- mice (p < 0...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
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