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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049241/evaluation-of-the-reduction-in-central-and-peripheral-arterial-blood-pressure-following-an-oral-glucose-load
#1
Shunsuke Murai, Hiroyuki Takase, Tomonori Sugiura, Sumiyo Yamashita, Nobuyuki Ohte, Yasuaki Dohi
The clinical significance of measuring central arterial blood pressure has been recently discussed. Although the postprandial reduction in blood pressure is well known, postprandial changes in central blood pressure have not been intensively studied. The present study investigated differences in the reduction of central and peripheral arterial blood pressure after administration of an oral glucose load.An oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) was performed in 360 participants in our physical checkup program...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049227/association-of-central-blood-pressure-and-cardiovascular-diseases-in-diabetic-patients-with-hypertension
#2
Lei Yang, Bo Qin, Xiaojuan Zhang, Yanrong Chen, Jian Hou
To evaluate association of central blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetic patients with hypertension.This was a cross-section study and 360 participants were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were collected and indices of central BP including central systolic/diastolic BP (SBP/DBP), augmentation index adjusted for 75 beats per minute of heart rate (AIx@75) were measured. Participants were separated into with and without CVD groups and between-group differences were assessed. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate potential risk factors for increased AIx@75...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049136/comparisons-of-traditional-metabolic-markers-and-compensatory-reserve-as-early-predictors-of-tolerance-to-central-hypovolemia-in-humans
#3
Alicia M Schiller, Jeffrey T Howard, Kristen R Lye, Christian G Magby, Victor A Convertino
Circulatory shock remains a leading cause of death in both military and civilian trauma. Early, accurate and reliable prediction of decompensation is necessary for the most efficient interventions and clinical outcomes. Individual tolerance to reduced central blood volume can serve as a model to assess the sensitivity and specificity of vital sign measurements. The compensatory reserve (CRM) is the measurement of this capacity. Measurements of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), blood lactate and end tidal CO2 (EtCO2) have recently gained attention as prognostic tools for early assessment of the status of patients with progressive hemorrhage, but lack the ability to adequately differentiate individual tolerance to hypovolemia...
October 18, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049074/physiology-and-role-of-intraocular-pressure-in-contemporary-anesthesia
#4
Dermot J Kelly, Sinéad M Farrell
More than 26 million Americans suffer with cataracts, and with 3.6 million cataract extractions performed annually in the United States, it is the most common surgical procedure. The integrity of the delicate structures of the eye that mediate vision is dependent on the intraocular pressure (IOP). Yet, IOP acts to compress the vessels within the globe-akin to a Starling resistor-and is a key component that determines the ocular perfusion pressure, defined as the difference between arterial pressure and IOP...
October 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047374/ideal-cardiovascular-health-and-the-subclinical-impairments-of-cardiovascular-diseases-a-cross-sectional-study-in-central-south-china
#5
Ya-Qin Wang, Chang-Fa Wang, Ling Zhu, Hong Yuan, Liu-Xin Wu, Zhi-Heng Chen
BACKGROUND: Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) is related to a low cardiovascular disease risk profile. This study aimed to investigate CVH metrics with both the biomarkers and markers of subclinical impairments of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in subjects from central south China. METHODS: The ideal CVH score (non-smoking status; ideal body mass index; regular physical activity; healthy diet; and an optimal serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose profile; 1 point for each; total score: 0-7) was collected from 3009 participants without a history of CVDs...
October 18, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046318/central-serotonin-and-the-control-of-arterial-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-infant-rats-influence-of-sleep-state-and-sex
#6
Jennifer L Magnusson, Kevin James Cummings
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is associated with serotonin (5-HT) neuron abnormalities. There is evidence of autonomic dysfunction during sleep in infants eventually succumbing to SIDS, as well as cardiovascular collapse prior to death. Neonatal rodents deficient in central 5-HT display hypotension and bradycardia. We hypothesized that central 5-HT reduces cardiac vagal tone and increases sympathetic vascular tone and, given the firing pattern of 5-HT neurons, that these effects are greater in quiet sleep (QS) than in active sleep (AS)...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046213/-changes-in-blood-oxygen-metabolism-indices-and-their-clinical-significance-in-children-with-septic-shock
#7
Ling-Yang Xu, Ding Xu
The key to the treatment of septic shock is to provide adequate oxygen supply and improve tissue perfusion. Lactate and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) are commonly used as the indices of oxygen metabolism, but tissue hypoxia may still exist even when lactate and ScvO2 are within the normal range. Arteriovenous difference in carbon dioxide partial pressure (CO2 gap) can accurately reflect oxygen delivery when ScvO2 is in the normal range. This article reviews the advantages and shortages of lactate, lactate clearance rate, ScvO2, and CO2 gap in evaluating tissue hypoxia, in order to provide a reference for treatment and severity evaluation of septic shock...
October 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043559/nonfunctioning-adrenal-incidentaloma-affecting-central-blood-pressure-and-arterial-stiffness-parameters
#8
Tolga Akkan, Mustafa Altay, Yasemin Ünsal, Murat Dağdeviren, Esin Beyan
PURPOSE: Recently, cardiovascular risk is thought to be increased in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI). There are no sufficient studies in the literature to evaluate this situation in NFAI patients without cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study is to compare peripheral and central blood pressure and arterial stiffness between patients with NFAI and healthy volunteers (of a similar age, gender and body mass index as the NFAI group) who have no traditional cardiovascular risk factors and autonomous cortisol secretion, with pulse wave analysis (PWA)...
October 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043396/hypertension-in-coarctation-of-the-aorta-challenges-in-diagnosis-in-children
#9
REVIEW
Trisha V Vigneswaran, Manish D Sinha, Israel Valverde, John M Simpson, Marietta Charakida
Evidence indicates that patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA) suffer from increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in later life despite successful repair of COA in childhood. Systolic arterial hypertension is common, presenting in up to one-third of patients, and is regarded as the main driver of premature cardiovascular events in this group of patients. In this review, we discuss the prevalence and pathophysiology of hypertension in children following successful COA repair with no residual arch obstruction...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042128/impact-of-blood-pressure-cholesterol-and-glucose-in-the-association-between-adiposity-measures-and-coronary-heart-disease-and-stroke-among-iranian-population
#10
Reyhaneh Rajab Boloukat, Azra Ramezankhani, Mitra Hasheminia, Erfan Tasdighi, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
BACKGROUND & AIMS: To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) and central adiposity measures with coronary heart disease (CHD)/stroke, and to quantify the impact of blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose as metabolic mediators on these associations. METHODS: The study population included 4631 Iranian participants (males = 2066) aged ≥40 years. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of BMI and central adiposity measures, using continuous and categorical variables, on CHD/stroke, with and without adjustment for three metabolic mediators, to calculate the attenuation of excess risk after adjustment for mediators...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040222/neurovascular-response-during-exercise-and-mental-stress-in-anabolic-steroid-users
#11
Rafael Armani Porello, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Francis Ribeiro de Souza, Guilherme Wesley Peixoto da Fonseca, Ana Luiza Carrari Sayegh, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, César Abreu Akiho, Maurício Yonamine, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes Alves
PURPOSE: Increased resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and lower forearm blood flow (FBF) were observed in young men who use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). However, the response of MSNA and FBF in AAS users triggered by muscle mechanoreflex and central command has never been tested. Additionally, we evaluated the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses during these maneuvers. METHODS: Nineteen AAS users (AASU) aged 31±6 yr and 18 AAS nonusers (AASNU) aged 29±4 yr were recruited...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038389/association-of-glomerular-filtration-rate-with-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-iranian-adolescents-caspian-iii-study
#12
Ramin Tajbakhsh, Ramin Heshmat, Saeid Safiri, Mahya Vafaeenia, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Morteza Mansourian, Shaghayegh Beshtar, Omid Safari, Hamid Asayesh, Hossein Ansari, Mostafa Qorbani, Roya Kelishadi
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the association of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of the 3rd round of a school-based surveillance system entitled "Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non-communicable Disease (CASPIAN III)" study was used for this study. A sample of 367 adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years was randomly selected. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the original and the updated Schwartz equations...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038201/kinin-b1-receptor-promotes-neurogenic-hypertension-through-activation-of-centrally-mediated-mechanisms
#13
Srinivas Sriramula, Eric Lazartigues
Hypertension is associated with increased activity of the kallikrein-kinin system. Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) activation leads to vasoconstriction and inflammation. Despite evidence supporting a role for the B1R in blood pressure regulation, the mechanisms by which B1R could alter autonomic function and participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain unidentified. We sought to explore whether B1R-mediated inflammation contributes to hypertension and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of B1R in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, using the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt model of neurogenic hypertension in wild-type and B1R knockout mice...
October 16, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036350/prevalence-of-hypertension-defined-by-central-blood-pressure-measured-using-a-type-ii-device-in-a-nationally-representative-cohort
#14
Shao-Yuan Chuang, Hsing-Yi Chang, Hao-Min Cheng, Wen-Harn Pan, Chen-Huan Chen
Objectives: Central blood pressure (BP) can be used to define hypertension. A central BP approach may be more sensitive than a conventional brachial BP approach in detecting hypertension. We aimed to compare the two approaches in estimating the prevalence hypertension in a nationally representative population. Methods: A total of 2742 adults older than 19 years participated in the 2013-2016 National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Central and brachial BP were simultaneously measured using a cuff-based stand-alone central BP monitor purporting to measure invasive central BP (Type II device)...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035941/arterial-stiffness-and-cardiometabolic-phenotype-of-cameroonian-pygmies-and-bantus
#15
William Ngatchou, Daniel Lemogoum, Christian Mélot, Virginie Guimfacq, Philippe van de Borne, Jean Claude Wautrecht, Michel P Hermans, Luc Van Bortel, Marc Leeman
BACKGROUND: Pygmies living in the Central African rainforest with a traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyle have a low incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Because of progressive loss of traditional habitat and ancestral lands, some Pygmies have migrated to urban areas and adopt specific Bantu lifestyles such as increased salt consumption and a sedentary way of life. We tested the hypothesis that migrant Pygmies could present with hemodynamic and metabolic characteristics different from those of traditional in-situ Pygmies and possibly closer to those of Bantu farmers...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033973/comparison-of-central-ambulatory-home-and-office-blood-pressure-measurement-as-risk-markers-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-hypertensive-patients
#16
Teodora Yaneva-Sirakova, Latchezar Traykov, Julia Petrova, Dobrin Vassilev
AIMS: We compared the role of central blood pressure (BP), ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), home-measured BP (HMBP) and office BP measurement as risk markers for the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: 70 hypertensive patients on combination medical therapy were studied. Their mean age was 64.97 ± 8.88 years. Eighteen (25.71%) were males and 52 (74.28%) females. All of the patients underwent full physical examination, laboratory screening, echocardiography, and office, ambulatory, home and central BP measurement...
May 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033043/in%C3%A2-vivo-lung-perfusion-rehabilitates-sepsis-induced-lung-injury
#17
J Hunter Mehaffey, Eric J Charles, Sarah Schubert, Morgan Salmon, Ashish K Sharma, Dustin Money, Mark H Stoler, Victor E Laubach, Curtis G Tribble, Mark E Roeser, Irving L Kron
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is the leading cause of lung injury in adults and can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Using a novel technique of isolated in vivo lung perfusion (IVLP), we hypothesized that normothermic IVLP will improve oxygenation and compliance in a porcine model of sepsis-induced lung injury. METHODS: Mature adult swine (n = 8) were administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 μg/kg over 2 hours) via the external jugular vein, followed by sternotomy and central extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannulation (right atrium to ascending aorta)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031802/extreme-levels-of-ambient-air-pollution-adversely-impact-cardiac-and-central-aortic-hemodynamics-the-aircmd-china-study
#18
Shuo Liu, Robert D Brook, Wei Huang, Zhongjie Fan, Hongbing Xu, Rongshan Wu, Zhichao Sun, Xiaoyi Zhao, Yanping Ruan, Jianhua Yan, Lixian Sun, Ruijuan Liang, Hui Lian, Dongfeng Gu, Sanjay Rajagopalan
Ambient air pollution is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. We performed a panel study on 65 nonsmoking patients with metabolic syndrome, with four repeated clinical visits between 2012 and 2013 in Beijing, China. Cardiac and central aortic hemodynamic parameters were measured by pulse wave analyses as subendocardial viability ratio, ejection duration, and central aortic pressure. We also calculated rate-pressure product parameter and collected peripheral blood for analyses...
September 28, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030937/changes-in-blood-volume-indicators-and-dynamic-indicators-measured-with-transpulmonary-ultrasound-velocity-during-blood-depletion-and-repletion-in-a-neonatal-swine-model
#19
Manuel Martin-Flores, Alvaro F Cisternas, Robin D Gleed
BACKGROUND: Dynamic indicators such as pulse pressure and stroke volume variations can be measured to track changes in preload during hemorrhage, and evaluate fluid therapy. However, these dynamic indicators require mechanical ventilation, and might be affected by cardiac dysrhythmias and changes in vascular tone. Blood volume indicators may offer alternatives for assessing changes in volume status. AIMS: The aims of this study were to measure changes in blood volume indicators and dynamic indicators during removal of blood in two stages and subsequent blood replacement in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, neonatal pigs...
November 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030342/the-sex-specific-impact-of-aging-on-the-blood-pressure-response-to-exercise
#20
Joel D Trinity, Gwenael Layec, Corey R Hart, Russell S Richardson
An exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about the impact of age and sex on this response. Therefore, this study examined the hemodynamic and skeletal muscle metabolic response to dynamic plantar flexion exercise, at 40% of WRmax, in 40 physical activity-matched young (n=20, 23±1 yr) and old (n=20, 73±2 yr), equally distributed, male and female subjects. Central hemodynamics and BP (finometer), popliteal artery (PA) blood flow (Doppler ultrasound), and skeletal muscle metabolism (phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy, (31)P-MRS) were measured during 5 mins of plantar flexion exercise...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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