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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667182/breathing-regulation-and-blood-gas-homeostasis-after-near-complete-lesions-of-the-retrotrapezoid-nucleus-in-adult-rats
#1
George M P R Souza, Roy Kanbar, Daniel S Stornetta, Stephen B G Abbott, Ruth L Stornetta, Patrice G Guyenet
The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is one of several CNS nuclei that contribute, in various capacities (e.g. CO2 detection, neuronal modulation) to the central respiratory chemoreflex (CRC). Here we test how important the RTN is to PCO2 homeostasis and breathing during sleep or wake. RTN Nmb positive neurons were killed with targeted microinjections of substance-P-saporin conjugate in adult rats. Under normoxia, rats with large RTN lesions (92 ± 4 % cell loss) had normal blood pressure (BP) and arterial pH but were hypoxic (-8 mmHg PaO2 ) and hypercapnic (+10 mmHg PaCO2 )...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667175/first-line-drugs-for-hypertension
#2
REVIEW
James M Wright, Vijaya M Musini, Rupam Gill
BACKGROUND: This is the first update of a review published in 2009. Sustained moderate to severe elevations in resting blood pressure leads to a critically important clinical question: What class of drug to use first-line? This review attempted to answer that question. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the mortality and morbidity effects from different first-line antihypertensive drug classes: thiazides (low-dose and high-dose), beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), and alpha-blockers, compared to placebo or no treatment...
April 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667019/what-is-new-in-heart-failure-management-in-2017-update-on-acc-aha-heart-failure-guidelines
#3
REVIEW
Biykem Bozkurt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to provide a summary of the new recommendations in the most recent 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. The intent is to provide the background and the supporting evidence for the recommendations and to provide practical guidance for management strategies in treatment of heart failure patients...
April 17, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666943/the-gtn-patch-a-simple-and-effective-new-approach-to-cardioprotection
#4
Derek M Yellon, Zhenhe He, Rayomand Khambata, Amrita Ahluwalia, Sean M Davidson
There remains a significant un-met need to reduce the extent of myocardial injury caused by ischaemia and reperfusion injury in patients experiencing an ST-elevation MI. Although nitric oxide is central to many cardioprotective strategies currently undergoing investigation, cardioprotection from the delivery of nitrates/nitrites has been inconsistently observed. The route of administration appears to be a critical variable. The glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) patch is commonly used as a simple and practical means of delivering nitric oxide to patients with ischaemic heart disease, but whether acute cardioprotection can be achieved by application of a GTN patch has not been investigated before...
April 17, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663576/neuroprotection-by-post-stroke-administration-of-an-oral-formulation-of-angiotensin-1-7-in-ischemic-stroke
#5
Douglas M Bennion, Chad H Jones, Lauren L Donnangelo, Justin T Graham, Jacob D Isenberg, Alex N Dang, Vermali Rodriguez, Ruben D M Sinisterra, Frederico B Sousa, Robson A S Santos, Colin Sumners
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Angiotensin-(1-7) decreases cerebral infarct volume and improves neurological function when delivered centrally prior to and during ischemic stroke. Here, we assessed the neuroprotective effects of angiotensin-(1-7) when delivered orally post-stroke. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that oral delivery of angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates cerebral damage induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, without affecting blood pressure or cerebral blood flow...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662306/short-term-vascular-hemodynamic-responses-to-isometric-exercise-in-young-adults-and-in-the-elderly
#6
Renee Hartog, Davide Bolignano, Eric Sijbrands, Giacomo Pucci, Francesco Mattace-Raso
Background: Vascular aging is known to induce progressive stiffening of the large elastic arteries, altering vascular hemodynamics under both rest and stress conditions. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in vascular hemodynamics in response to isometric handgrip exercise across ages. Participants and methods: We included 62 participants, who were divided into three age categories: 20-40 (n=22), 41-60 (n=20), and 61-80 (n=20) years. Vascular hemodynamics were measured using the Mobil-o-Graph® based on the pulsatile pressure changes in the brachial artery...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659080/influence-of-fitness-and-age-on-the-endothelial-response-to-acute-inflammation
#7
Elizabeth C Schroeder, Abbi D Lane-Cordova, Sushant M Ranadive, Tracy Baynard, Bo Fernhall
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age and fitness on the vascular response to acute inflammation in younger and older adults. What is the main finding and its importance? In older adults, cardiorespiratory fitness level has a differential impact on endothelial function following acute inflammation: older moderately fit adults have a greater decrease in endothelial function, similar to that of younger adults...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658630/lumbar-sympathectomy-versus-prostanoids-for-critical-limb-ischaemia-due-to-non-reconstructable-peripheral-arterial-disease
#8
REVIEW
Indrani Sen, Sunil Agarwal, Prathap Tharyan, Rachel Forster
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common circulatory problem that can lead to reduced blood flow to the limbs, which may result in critical limb ischaemia (CLI), a painful manifestation that occurs when a person is at rest. The mainstay of treatment for CLI is surgical or endovascular repair. However, when these means of treatment are not suitable, due to anatomical reasons or comorbidities, treatment for pain is limited. Lumbar sympathectomy and prostanoids have both been shown to reduce pain from CLI in people who suffer from non-reconstructable PAD, but there is currently insufficient evidence to determine if one treatment is superior...
April 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653402/long-term-exposure-to-airborne-particulate-matter-and-no-2-and-prevalent-and-incident-metabolic-syndrome-results-from-the-heinz-nixdorf-recall-study
#9
Clara Matthiessen, Sarah Lucht, Frauke Hennig, Simone Ohlwein, Hermann Jakobs, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Susanne Moebus, Barbara Hoffmann
INTRODUCTION: Recently, epidemiological studies have found a link between air pollution (AP) and individual components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a condition predisposing to cardiometabolic diseases. However, very few studies have explored a possible association between air pollution and MetS. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the effects of long-term exposure to airborne particulate matter and NO2 on prevalence and incidence of MetS. METHODS: We used data of the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (baseline 2000-2003) to investigate the association(s) between AP exposure and MetS prevalence at baseline (n = 4457) and MetS incidence at first follow-up visit (n = 3074; average follow-up: 5...
April 10, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652273/assessment-of-the-effect-of-two-regimens-of-milrinone-infusion-in-pediatric-patients-undergoing-fontan-procedure-a-randomized-study
#10
Rabie Soliman, Adel Ragheb
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two different regimens of milrinone on hemodynamics and oxygen saturation in pediatric patients undergoing Fontan procedure. Design: This was a randomized study. Setting: Cardiac centers. Patients: This study included 116 patients undergoing Fontan procedure. Material and Methods: Group E: Milrinone was started as infusion 0.5 μg/kg/min without a loading dose at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) followed by infusion 0...
April 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651954/forward-and-backward-aortic-components-and-reflection-indexes-in-children-and-adolescents-determinants-and-role-in-high-pressure-states
#11
Yanina Zocalo, Juan M Castro, Victoria Garcia-Espinosa, Santiago Curcio, Pedro Chiesa, Gustavo Giachetto, Edmundo I Cabrera-Fischer, Daniel Bia
High blood pressure states (HBP) would differ in wave components and reflections indexes, which could associate clinical and prognostic implications. AIMS: 1) to characterize the association of aortic wave components and reflection parameters (backward [Pb], forward [Pf], Pb/Pf ratio and augmentation index [AIx]) with demographic, anthropometric, hemodynamic and arterial parameters in healthy children and adolescents; 2) to generate multivariate prediction models for the associations, to contribute to understand main determinants of Pf, Pb, Pb/Pf and AIx; 3) to identify if differences in wave reflection indexes observed in HBP could be explained by differences in the analyzed parameters...
April 12, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651953/comparison-between-supervised-and-partly-supervised-cardiac-rehabilitation-protocols-in-hypertensive-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Larissa Barreto Parreira, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira Vitorino, Paulo Cesar Brandao Veiga Jardim, Ana Luiza Lima Sousa, Thiago Veiga Jardim, Watila de Moura Sousa, Alberto Fenrando Oliveira Justo, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso
BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN) is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases accounting for one third of global mortality. Physical exercise reduces the incidence and prevalence of HTN and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exercises recommended for hypertensive patients include supervised cardiac rehabilitation, which occurs in rehabilitation centers, and partly supervised rehabilitation, with individual prescription of exercises conducted at patients' residences. OBJECTIVE: Compare clinical and functional parameters of hypertensive patients subjected to two cardiac rehabilitation protocols: supervised and partly supervised...
April 13, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651914/inflammatory-pathways-are-central-to-posterior-cerebrovascular-artery-remodelling-prior-to-the-onset-of-congenital-hypertension
#13
Dawid Walas, Karol Nowicki-Osuch, Dominic Alibhai, Eva von Linstow Roloff, Jane Coghill, Christy Waterfall, Julian Fr Paton
Cerebral artery hypoperfusion may provide the basis for linking ischemic stroke with hypertension. Brain hypoperfusion may induce hypertension that may serve as an auto-protective mechanism to prevent ischemic stroke. We hypothesised that hypertension is caused by remodelling of the cerebral arteries, which is triggered by inflammation. We used a congenital rat model of hypertension and examined age-related changes in gene expression of the cerebral arteries using RNA sequencing. Prior to hypertension, we found changes in signalling pathways associated with the immune system and fibrosis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651834/efficacy-of-anthropometric-measures-for-identifying-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-adolescents-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Michael Lichtenauer, Sean D Wheatley, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Michael J Duncan, Fernanda Cobayashi, Gabriela Berg, Carla Musso, Mabel Graffigna, Jimena Soutelo, Pascal Bovet, Anastasios Kollias, George S Stergiou, Evangelos Grammatikos, Claire Griffiths, Lee Ingle, Christian Jung
BACKGROUND: To compare the ability of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) to estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk levels in adolescents. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed after a database search for relevant literature (Cochrane, Centre for Review and Dissemination, PubMed, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, BIOSIS citation index, ChildData, metaRegister). RESULTS: 117 records representing 96 studies with 994,595 participants were included in the systematic review, 14 of which (13 studies, n=14,610) were eligible for the meta-analysis...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651418/role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-and-its-modulation-in-renal-hypertension
#15
REVIEW
Yusuke Sata, Geoffrey A Head, Kate Denton, Clive N May, Markus P Schlaich
The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651342/factors-related-to-a-right-left-difference-in-visual-field-defect-in-the-eyes-with-untreated-normal-tension-glaucoma
#16
Haruka Moroi, Ayako Anraku, Kyoko Ishida, Goji Tomita
Purpose: To investigate factors related to a right-left difference in visual field defect in untreated normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods: The medical records of 92 patients with untreated NTG were reviewed. Ocular blood flow was evaluated with laser speckle flowgraphy, and the mean blur rate (MBR) at the optic nerve head was analyzed. Relationships between right-left differences in mean deviation (MD), intraocular pressure, MBR, spherical equivalent, central corneal thickness, and mean ocular perfusion pressure were evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651339/comparison-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-and-laser-speckle-flowgraphy-for-the-diagnosis-of-normal-tension-glaucoma
#17
Asuka Takeyama, Kyoko Ishida, Ayako Anraku, Masahiro Ishida, Goji Tomita
Purpose: To compare optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) for the diagnosis of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods: Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients with NTG and 25 eyes of 25 normal subjects matched for age, refractive errors, systemic blood pressure, and central corneal thickness were evaluated. OCT-A was used to measure whole image vessel density, inside disc vessel density, and peripapillary vessel density; using LSFG, mean blur rate (MBR) inside the whole optic nerve head (ONH) area (MBRA ), and MBR of the vessel area (MBRV ) and tissue area (MBRT ) inside the ONH, were determined...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649341/how-does-your-piccompare-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-various-picc-materials-in-pediatrics
#18
Tricia Kleidon, Amanda J Ullman, Li Zhang, Gabor Mihala, Brett Chaseling, Jason Schoutrop, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Despite the popularity of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), recent literature highlights their potential injurious complications. Innovative PICC materials have been developed to prevent thrombosis and infection formation (Endexo®) and antireflux valves to prevent occlusion (pressure-activated safety valve®). No large randomized controlled trial has assessed these technologies. Our primary aim was to evaluate the feasibility of a large randomized controlled efficacy trial of PICC materials and design to reduce PICC complication in pediatrics...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648664/how-does-the-association-of-general-and-central-adiposity-with-glycaemia-and-blood-pressure-differ-by-gender-and-area-of-residence-in-a-malawian-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Kathleen Mudie, Debbie A Lawlor, Neil Pearce, Amelia Crampin, Laurie Tomlinson, Terence Tafatatha, Crispin Musicha, Dorothea Nitsch, Liam Smeeth, Moffat J Nyirenda
Background: In high-income settings, body mass index (BMI) and measures of central adiposity, such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic risk, but evidence from low-income settings, particularly sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), is limited. We assessed whether there are differences between central and general adiposity in their associations with fasting glucose, diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and hypertension, and whether these associations differ with gender or rural/urban setting in Malawi...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648479/dietary-intervention-and-health-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#20
Marília Cristina Santos de Medeiros, Jussara Cristina Alves Medeiros, Humberto Jefferson de Medeiros, José Carlos Gomes de Carvalho Leitão, Maria Irany Knackfuss
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the scientific evidence of dietary intervention, either through diet or supplementation, and its effects on the health of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted using Scopus, PubMed, BioMed Central and Science Direct databases. The terms used for the search were diet, nutritional support, nutrition therapy and systemic lupus erythematosus. RESULTS: Eleven studies with interventions related to supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D and turmeric, as well as changes in diet composition, such as low glycaemic index diet were identified...
April 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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