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Multiple organ system failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458203/precision-pharmacology-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Harald Hampel, Andrea Vergallo, Lisi Flores Aguilar, Norbert Benda, Karl Broich, A Claudio Cuello, Jeffrey Cummings, Bruno Dubois, Howard J Federoff, Massimo Fiandaca, Remy Genthon, Marion Haberkamp, Eric Karran, Mark Mapstone, George Perry, Lon S Schneider, Lindsay A Welikovitch, Janet Woodcock, Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista
The complex multifactorial nature of polygenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents significant challenges for drug development. AD pathophysiology is progressing in a non-linear dynamic fashion across multiple systems levels - from molecules to organ systems - and through adaptation, to compensation, and decompensation to systems failure. Adaptation and compensation maintain homeostasis: a dynamic equilibrium resulting from the dynamic non-linear interaction between genome, epigenome, and environment. An individual vulnerability to stressors exists on the basis of individual triggers, drivers, and thresholds accounting for the initiation and failure of adaptive and compensatory responses...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454069/recipient-characteristics-and-morbidity-and-mortality-after-liver-transplantation
#2
Sumeet K Asrani, Giovanna Saracino, Jacqueline G O'Leary, Stevan Gonzales, Peter Kim, Greg McKenna, Goran Klintmalm, James Trotter
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, liver transplantation of sicker, older non-hepatitis C cirrhotics with multiple co-morbidities has increased in the United States. METHODS: We sought to identify a parsimonious set of recipient factors among HCV negative adult transplant recipients associated with significant morbidity and mortality within 5 years after liver transplantation using national (n=31,829, 2002-2015) and center specific data. Coefficients of relevant recipient factors were converted to weighted points and scaled from 0-5...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452979/3-piece-inflatable-penile-prosthesis-placement-following-radical-cystoprostatectomy-and-urinary-diversion-technique-and-outcomes
#3
Jeffrey Loh-Doyle, Mukul B Patil, Hari Sawkar, Kevin Wayne, Stuart D Boyd
BACKGROUND: After radical cystoprostatectomy (RC), postoperative erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common consequence with multiple contributing etiologies. The inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) offers patients a definitive treatment option when ED is refractory to medical therapies. Because of the hostile postoperative anatomy of these patients, a careful surgical approach is necessary for successful outcomes and to avoid adjacent organ injury. To date, there is no series describing the outcomes of 3-piece IPP placement in patients with urinary diversions...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444597/an-experimental-model-for-hypertensive-crises-emergencies-long-term-high-fat-diet-followed-by-acute-vasoconstriction-stress-on-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#4
Hong Liu, Wei-Wei Su, Chao-Feng Long, Wei-Jian Zhang, Pei-Bo Li, Zhong Wu, Yin-Yin Liao, Xuan Zeng, Tao-Bin Chen, Yu-Ying Zheng, Zeng-Hao Yan, Cong Bi, Hong-Liang Yao
Currently, the prevention and treatment of hypertensive crises especially when it occurs with serious adverse outcomes have led to worldwide controversy. Despite of clinical possibilities of multiple agents, clinical failures still occur frequently. Therefore, early evaluations and observations of different therapies on appropriate animals should be emphasized. In the present study, an animal model for hypertensive crises emergencies was firstly established and experimentally testified. Five-month-male spontaneously hypertensive rat was consecutively fed with 60%-Kcal fat diet for four, six, and eight weeks with body weight and blood pressure monitored every two weeks, and then followed by an acute vasoconstriction stress of 5-min ice-bath treatment in the 4-h time interval of two adrenaline injections (0...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428098/pathophysiological-consequences-of-obstructive-jaundice-and-perioperative-management
#5
REVIEW
Efstathios T Pavlidis, Theodoros E Pavlidis
BACKGROUND: Obstructive jaundice is a common problem in daily clinical practice. Understanding completely the pathophysiological changes in obstructive jaundice remains a challenge for planning current and future management. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed was searched for relevant articles published up to August 2016. The effect of obstructive jaundice on proinflammatory cytokines, coagulation status, hemodynamics and organ functions were evaluated. RESULTS: The effects of obstructive jaundice included biliary tree, the hepatic cell and liver function as well as systemic complications...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419481/noninvasive-whole-body-imaging-of-phosphatidylethanolamine-as-a-cell-death-marker-using-99mtc-duramycin-during-tnf-induced-sirs
#6
Tinneke Delvaeye, Leonie Wyffels, Steven Deleye, Kelly Lemeire, Amanda Gonçalves, Elke Decrock, Steven Staelens, Luc Leybaert, Peter Vandenabeele, Dmitri Krysko
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body. It is associated with the presence of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). TNF has multiple effects and leads to cytokine production, leukocyte infiltration, blood pressure reduction and coagulation, thereby contributing to tissue damage and organ failure. A sterile mouse model of sepsis, TNF-induced SIRS, was used to visualize the temporal and spatial distribution of damage in susceptible tissues during SIRS...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417291/management-and-survival-analysis-of-elderly-patients-with-a-cancer-in-the-digestive-system-who-refused-to-receive-anticancer-treatments
#7
Jun Wan, Shiping Xu, Yinqiao Wu, Benyan Wu, Dezhong Joshua Liao, Ningzhi Xu, Gangshi Wang
Treatment and management of cancers in elderly patients require some special considerations. A better understanding of how cancers progress in those elderly patients who have not received any anticancer treatments could better help us in treating these patients and in making end-of-life decisions. Over the past years, we had encountered 57 elderly patients, aged 75 to 94 years (87.6 on average), with a cancer in the digestive system, who refused to accept anticancer treatment but who did receive the best available supportive and palliative care...
February 7, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406049/hypocomplementemic-urticarial-vasculitis-syndrome-with-crescentic-glomerulonephritis
#8
Sohail Abdul Salim, Tauqeer Yousuf, Asha Patel, Tibor Fülöp, Mohit Agarwal
Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ system involvement, including renal disease, with low complement levels. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman who presented with nonspecific symptoms including fatigue, diarrhea, macular rash and abdominal pain with acute renal failure leading to end-stage kidney disease. Laboratory results showed hematuria, nephrotic range proteinuria, worsening creatinine and low C1q levels. Left kidney biopsy showed proliferative glomerulonephritis with crescent formation...
February 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404872/acute-inflammation-and-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
Miguel Lourenço Varela, Mihail Mogildea, Ignacio Moreno, Ana Lopes
Inflammation is an adaptive process to the noxious stimuli that the human body is constantly exposed to. From the local inflammatory response to a full-blown systemic inflammation, a wide complex sequence of events occurs. Persistent immunosuppression and catabolism may ensue, until multiple organ failure finally sets in. And since clinically useful and specific biomarkers are lacking, diagnosis may come late. A thorough understanding of these events (how they begin, how they evolve, and how to modulate them) is imperative, but as yet poorly studied...
February 5, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396757/epidemiology-of-open-tibia-fractures-in-a-population-based-database-update-on-current-risk-factors-and-clinical-implications
#10
Christian David Weber, Frank Hildebrand, Philipp Kobbe, Rolf Lefering, Richard M Sellei, Hans-Christoph Pape
BACKGROUND: Open tibia fractures usually occur in high-energy mechanisms and are commonly associated with multiple traumas. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of open tibia fractures in severely injured patients and to evaluate risk factors for major complications. METHODS: A cohort from a nationwide population-based prospective database was analyzed (TraumaRegister DGU®). Inclusion criteria were: (1) open or closed tibia fracture, (2) Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 16 points, (3) age ≥ 16 years, and (4) survival until primary admission...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390408/asymptomatic-solitary-bladder-plasmocytoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Luigi Cormio, Vito Mancini, Beppe Calò, Oscar Selvaggio, Teobaldo Mazzilli, Francesca Sanguedolce, Giuseppe Carrieri
RATIONALE: Solitary extramedullary plasmocytoma may arise in any organ, either as a primary tumor or as part of a systemic myeloma; if it rarely affects bladder, it presents with urinary symptoms. We describe the first case of asymptomatic BP occasionally diagnosed in a patient with ascites. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 74-year-old woman with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis presented with ascites and no urinary or other symptoms. DIAGNOSES: Routine blood tests were within normal ranges, except for mild elevation of transaminases due to chronic hepatitis...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386434/-from-a-ph-d-thesis-understanding-the-past-predicting-the-future
#12
Kenichi Watanabe
 Posey et al. have reported multiple molecular diagnoses in 4.5% of cases (101/2076) in which whole-exome sequencing was informative. Distinct disease phenotypes affect different organ systems, whereas overlapping disease phenotypes are more likely to be caused by two genes encoding proteins that interact within the same pathway. My research projects at the Niigata University of Pharmacy have investigated underlying mechanisms involved in human disease, including fatty acid metabolism, diabetic cardiomyopathy, atopic dermatitis, colitis, hepatitis, etc...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364732/improving-practice-guideline-adherence-through-peer-feedback-impact-of-an-ambulatory-cardiology-curriculum
#13
Karl M Richardson, Jai Singh, Dan Muñoz, Julie B Damp, Lisa A Mendes
PROBLEM: Graduate medical trainees must be prepared to practice in a quality-driven system that values adherence to and documentation of evidence-based care. Few validated approaches exist to teach these skills. Our objective was to develop, implement, and evaluate an ambulatory practice improvement curriculum capitalizing on peer feedback aimed at improving cardiology fellow guideline knowledge, adherence, and chart documentation. INTERVENTION: Four outpatient topics were reviewed in dedicated 1-hour sessions: stable ischemic heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and aortic valvular disease...
January 24, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353893/organ-dysfunctions-among-deaths-in-critically-ill-patients
#14
Leison Maharjan, Aarzoo Shah, Udaya Bajracharya, Gambhir Shrestha
BACKGROUND: Multiple organ failure is recognized as the final pathway preceding majority of deaths in intensive care unit. This study aims to find out the prevalence of organ dysfunctions/ failures in patients at the time of their demise irrespective of the underlying diseases in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: This study was done in medical intensive care unit of Blue Cross Hospital. Medical records of all deceased patients in two years period were thoroughly reviewed retrospectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331736/dysfunctional-telomeres-and-hematological-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Elena Fiorini, Andrea Santoni, Simona Colla
Telomere biology disorders, which are characterized by telomerase activity haploinsufficiency and accelerated telomere shortening, most commonly manifest as degenerative diseases. Tissues with high rates of cell turnover, such as those in the hematopoietic system, are particularly vulnerable to defects in telomere maintenance genes that eventually culminate in bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes, in which the BM cannot produce sufficient new blood cells. Here, we review how telomere defects induce degenerative phenotypes across multiple organs, with particular focus on how they impact the hematopoietic stem and progenitor compartment and affect hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation...
January 4, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331171/the-genotypic-and-phenotypic-spectrum-of-mto1-deficiency
#16
James J O'Byrne, Maja Tarailo-Graovac, Aisha Ghani, Michael Champion, Charu Deshpande, Ali Dursun, Riza K Ozgul, Peter Freisinger, Ian Garber, Tobias B Haack, Rita Horvath, Ivo Barić, Ralf A Husain, Leo A J Kluijtmans, Urania Kotzaeridou, Andrew A Morris, Colin J Ross, Saikat Santra, Jan Smeitink, Mark Tarnopolsky, Saskia B Wortmann, Johannes A Mayr, Michaela Brunner-Krainz, Holger Prokisch, Wyeth W Wasserman, Ron A Wevers, Udo F Engelke, Richard J Rodenburg, Teck Wah Ting, Robert McFarland, Robert W Taylor, Ramona Salvarinova, Clara D M van Karnebeek
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases, a group of multi-systemic disorders often characterized by tissue-specific phenotypes, are usually progressive and fatal disorders resulting from defects in oxidative phosphorylation. MTO1 (Mitochondrial tRNA Translation Optimization 1), an evolutionarily conserved protein expressed in high-energy demand tissues has been linked to human early-onset combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, often referred to as combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-10 (COXPD10)...
January 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322466/using-rt-qpcr-for-quantifying-mycobacteria-marinum-from-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in-vivo-samples
#17
Han Xaio, Stephen H Gillespie
Mycobacterium marinum, the causative agent of fish tuberculosis, is rarely a human pathogen causing a chronic skin infection. It is now wildely used as a model system in animal models, especially in zebra fish model, to study the pathology of tuberculosis and as a means of screening new anti-tuberculosis agent. To facilitate such research, quantifying the viable count of M. marinum bacteria is a crucial step. The main approach used currently is still by counting the number of colony forming units (cfu), a method that has been in place for almost 100 years...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301855/gene-editing-as-a-promising-approach-for-respiratory-diseases
#18
Yichun Bai, Yang Liu, Zhenlei Su, Yana Ma, Chonghua Ren, Runzhen Zhao, Hong-Long Ji
Respiratory diseases, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world, are dysfunctions of the nasopharynx, the trachea, the bronchus, the lung and the pleural cavity. Symptoms of chronic respiratory diseases, such as cough, sneezing and difficulty breathing, may seriously affect the productivity, sleep quality and physical and mental well-being of patients, and patients with acute respiratory diseases may have difficulty breathing, anoxia and even life-threatening respiratory failure. Respiratory diseases are generally heterogeneous, with multifaceted causes including smoking, ageing, air pollution, infection and gene mutations...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284338/catastrophic-antiphospholipid-syndrome-and-pregnancy-clinical-report
#19
J Khizroeva, V Bitsadze, A Makatsariya
We have observed the development of a catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) in a pregnant woman hospitalized at 28 weeks of gestation with a severe preeclampsia. On the same day, an eclampsia attack developed, and an emergency surgical delivery was performed. On the third day, multiorgan failure developed. Examination showed a persistent circulation of lupus anticoagulant, high level of antibodies to cardiolipin, b2-glycoprotein I, and prothrombin. The usual diagnosis of the severe preeclampsia masked a catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, exacerbated by the coincident presence of several types of antiphospholipid antibodies...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282040/case-report-atypical-presentation-of-vancomycin-induced-dress-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Olivia Wilcox, Mohamed Hassanein, John Armstrong, Nader Kassis
BACKGROUND: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe hypersensitivity drug reaction involving the skin and multiple internal organ systems. The symptoms typically present with fever and skin rash, and rapidly progress to multiple organ failures. Vancomycin is a rare drug to cause DRESS syndrome with 23 cases reported to date. CASE PRESENTATION: We described a case of a 39 year-old man who was treated with vancomycin for osteomyelitis of the foot...
December 28, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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