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Physiologic arousal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334641/do-clinically-anxious-children-cluster-according-to-their-expression-of-factors-that-maintain-child-anxiety
#1
Samantha Pearcey, Anna Alkozei, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Helen Dodd, Kou Murayama, Suzannah Stuijfzand, Cathy Creswell
BACKGROUND: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for childhood anxiety disorders, yet a significant proportion of children do not benefit from it. CBT for child anxiety disorders typically includes a range of strategies that may not all be applicable for all affected children. This study explored whether there are distinct subgroups of children with anxiety disorders who are characterized by their responses to measures of the key mechanisms that are targeted in CBT (i...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334095/gd3-doped-mose2-nanosheets-used-as-a-theranostic-agent-for-bimodal-imaging-and-highly-efficient-photothermal-cancer-therapy
#2
Jiali Pan, Xufeng Zhu, Xu Chen, Yingyu Zhao, Jie Liu
Recently, two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) being used as nanomedicine have aroused great interest because of their unique photothermal properties. A simple liquid-phase method was used to prepare gadolinium (Gd3+)-doped molybdenum selenide (MoSe2) nanosheets, and then using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modification on the surface, MoSe2(Gd3+)-PEG nanosheets were obtained which had high stability in physiological solutions and showed no obvious toxicity in vivo. It revealed that Gd3+ used as a paramagnetic material for MoSe2(Gd3+)-PEG provided a strong contrast effect in magnetic resonance imaging, furthermore, the MoSe2 showed strong absorption in the near infrared region, and therefore, MoSe2(Gd3+)-PEG could be used as contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging (PAI)...
January 15, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329416/automatic-ecg-based-detection-of-autonomic-arousals-and-their-association-with-cortical-arousals-leg-movements-and-respiratory-events-in-sleep
#3
Mads Olsen, Logan Douglas Schneider, Joseph Cheung, Paul E Peppard, Poul J Jennum, Emmanuel Mignot, Helge Bjarup Dissing Sorensen
Study objectives: The current definition of sleep arousals neglects to address the diversity of arousals and their systemic cohesion. Autonomic arousals (AA) are autonomic activations often associated with cortical arousals (CA), but they may also occur in isolation in relation to a respiratory event, a leg movement event or spontaneously, without any other physiological associations. AA should be acknowledged as essential events to understand and explore the systemic implications of arousals...
January 10, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329048/characterizing-anger-related-affect-in-individuals-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-using-ecological-momentary-assessment
#4
Elizabeth E Van Voorhees, Paul A Dennis, Eric B Elbogen, Bernard Fuemmeler, Lydia C Neal, Patrick S Calhoun, Jean C Beckham
This study employed secondary analyses of existing ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data to characterize hostile and irritable affect in the day-to-day experience of 52 smokers with, and 65 smokers without, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). EMA monitoring occurred over a mean of 8.2 days, and participants responded to an average of 2.8 random prompts/day. Analyses included Wilcoxon rank sum tests of group differences, and path analyses of cross-lagged multilevel models. Participants with PTSD endorsed a significantly higher proportion of total EMA entries indicating hostile affect and irritable affect than did individuals without PTSD...
January 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325715/orexin-knockout-mice-exhibit-impaired-spatial-working-memory
#5
Ruozhi Dang, Qiuhan Chen, Jie Song, Chao He, Jun Zhang, Jianxia Xia, Zhian Hu
Orexins play a crucial role in the maintenance of arousal and are involved in the modulation of diverse physiological process, including cognitive function. Recent data have suggested that orexins are involved in learning and memory processes. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of orexin deficiency on working memory. A delayed non-matching-to-place T-maze task was used to evaluate spatial working memory in mice lacking orexin prepro-peptide (orexin knockout; KO) and wild-type controls. We demonstrated that the number of correct choices in the orexin KO mice became lower than that of the controls over training...
January 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317675/synchrony-and-physiological-arousal-increase-cohesion-and-cooperation-in-large-naturalistic-groups
#6
Joshua Conrad Jackson, Jonathan Jong, David Bilkey, Harvey Whitehouse, Stefanie Zollmann, Craig McNaughton, Jamin Halberstadt
Separate research streams have identified synchrony and arousal as two factors that might contribute to the effects of human rituals on social cohesion and cooperation. But no research has manipulated these variables in the field to investigate their causal - and potentially interactive - effects on prosocial behaviour. Across four experimental sessions involving large samples of strangers, we manipulated the synchronous and physiologically arousing affordances of a group marching task within a sports stadium...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312818/pupillometry-reveals-the-physiological-underpinnings-of-the-aversion-to-holes
#7
Vladislav Ayzenberg, Meghan R Hickey, Stella F Lourenco
An unusual, but common, aversion to images with clusters of holes is known as trypophobia. Recent research suggests that trypophobic reactions are caused by visual spectral properties also present in aversive images of evolutionary threatening animals (e.g., snakes and spiders). However, despite similar spectral properties, it remains unknown whether there is a shared emotional response to holes and threatening animals. Whereas snakes and spiders are known to elicit a fear reaction, associated with the sympathetic nervous system, anecdotal reports from self-described trypophobes suggest reactions more consistent with disgust, which is associated with activation of the parasympathetic nervous system...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311574/lateralized-behavior-and-cardiac-activity-of-dogs-in-response-to-human-emotional-vocalizations
#8
Marcello Siniscalchi, Serenella d'Ingeo, Serena Fornelli, Angelo Quaranta
Over the recent years, the study of emotional functioning has become one of the central issues in dog cognition. Previous studies showed that dogs can recognize different emotions by looking at human faces and can correctly match the human emotional state with a vocalization having a negative emotional valence. However, to this day, little is known about how dogs perceive and process human non-verbal vocalizations having different emotional valence. The current research provides new insights into emotional functioning of the canine brain by studying dogs' lateralized auditory functions (to provide a first insight into the valence dimension) matched with both behavior and physiological measures of arousal (to study the arousal dimension) in response to playbacks related to the Ekman's six basic human emotions...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310889/how-hot-are-they-neural-correlates-of-genital-arousal-an-infrared-thermographic-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-sexual-arousal-in-men-and-women
#9
Mayte Parada, Marina Gérard, Kevin Larcher, Alain Dagher, Yitzchak M Binik
BACKGROUND: The few studies that have examined the neural correlates of genital arousal have focused on men and are methodologically hard to compare. AIM: To investigate the neural correlates of peripheral physiologic sexual arousal using identical methodology for men and women. METHODS: 2 groups (20 men, 20 women) viewed movie clips (erotic, humor) while genital temperature was continuously measured using infrared thermal imaging. Participants also continuously evaluated changes in their subjective arousal and answered discrete questions about liking the movies and wanting sexual stimulation...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305871/resting-heart-rate-a-physiological-predicator-of-lie-detection-ability
#10
Geoffrey Duran, Isabelle Tapiero, George A Michael
This study explored a psychophysiological measure, Resting Heart Rate (RHR), as a predicator of the ability to detect lies. RHR was recorded for 1min and followed by a deception detection task in which participants were required to judge 24 videos of people describing a real-life event (50% truthful, 50% deceptive). Multiple regression analyses showed that, among other individual characteristics, only RHR predicted the ability to distinguish truth from lies. Importantly, the prediction was negative. This result suggests that the higher the RHR, the worse the detection of lies...
January 3, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300141/exercise-induced-physiological-arousal-biases-attention-toward-threatening-scene-details
#11
Tad T Brunyé, Caroline R Mahoney
The present experiment examined whether physiological arousal induced by acute bouts of aerobic exercise would influence attention and memory for scenes depicting or not depicting weapons. In a repeated-measures design, participants exercised at either low or high exertion levels. During exercise, they were presented with images, some of which depicted weapons; immediately following exercise, they completed a recognition test for portions of central and peripheral scene regions. Two primary results emerged...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299712/cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Rosemary S C Horne
A failure of cardiorespiratory control mechanisms, together with an impaired arousal response from sleep, are believed to play an important role in the final event of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The 'triple risk model' describes SIDS as an event that results from the intersection of three overlapping factors: (1) a vulnerable infant, (2) a critical developmental period in homeostatic control and (3) an exogenous stressor. In an attempt to understand how the triple risk hypothesis is related to infant cardiorespiratory physiology, many researchers have examined how the known risk and protective factors for SIDS alter infant cardiovascular control during sleep...
January 3, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291505/the-effects-of-alcohol-on-heartbeat-perception-implications-for-anxiety
#13
Kenneth Abrams, Kate Cieslowski, Stacey Johnson, Sam Krimmel, Gabby Bierlein-De La Rosa, Kirstie Barton, Pombie Silverman
INTRODUCTION: It is well established that some individuals self-medicate their anxiety with alcohol. Though much evidence exists that alcohol consumption can be negatively reinforcing, there remains uncertainty regarding what mediates the relationship between alcohol and anxiety. An unexplored possibility is that, for some, alcohol impairs interoceptive sensitivity (the ability to accurately perceive one's physiological state), thereby decreasing state anxiety. Consistent with this, highly accurate heartbeat perception is a risk factor both for elevated trait anxiety and anxiety disorders...
December 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289376/one-session-of-autogenic-training-increases-acute-subjective-sexual-arousal-in-premenopausal-women-reporting-sexual-arousal-problems
#14
Amelia M Stanton, J Gregory Hixon, Lindsey M Nichols, Cindy M Meston
BACKGROUND: Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. AIM: To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months...
January 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289375/differences-in-perceived-and-physiologic-genital-arousal-between-women-with-and-without-sexual-dysfunction
#15
Ariel B Handy, Amelia M Stanton, Carey S Pulverman, Cindy M Meston
BACKGROUND: Many sexual psychophysiologic studies have failed to find differences in physiologic genital arousal between women with and those without sexual dysfunction. However, differences in self-reported (ie, perceived) measures of genital responses between these 2 groups of women have been noted. AIMS: To determine whether women with and without sexual dysfunction differ on measures of physiologic and perceived genital arousal based on type of analytic technique used, to explore differences in perceived genital arousal, and to assess the relation between physiologic and perceived genital arousal...
January 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285879/autonomic-and-subjective-responsivity-to-emotional-images-in-people-with-dissociative-seizures
#16
Susannah Pick, John D C Mellers, Laura H Goldstein
People with dissociative seizures (DS) report a range of difficulties in emotional functioning and exhibit altered responding to emotional facial expressions in experimental tasks. We extended this research by investigating subjective and autonomic reactivity (ratings of emotional valence, arousal and skin conductance responses, and SCRs) to general emotional images in 39 people with DS relative to 42 healthy control participants, whilst controlling for anxiety, depression, cognitive functioning and, where relevant, medication use...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282019/validation-of-the-farsi-version-of-the-revised-adolescent-sleep-hygiene-scale-ashsr-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Azita Chehri, Habibolah Khazaie, Soudabeh Eskandari, Sepideh Khazaie, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand, Markus Gerber
BACKGROUND: Restoring sleep is associated with a broad variety of favorable cognitive, emotional, social and behavioral benefits during the day. This holds particularly true for adolescents, as maturational, social, cognitive, emotional and behavioral changes might unfavorably impact on adolescents' sleep. Among adolescents, poor sleep hygiene practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that can be addressed via appropriate interventions. Accordingly, having reliable and valid self-report measures to assess sleep hygiene practices is essential to gauge individual responses to behavioral interventions and evaluate sleep hygiene recommendations...
December 28, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261031/alterations-of-emotional-reactivity-following-righttemporal-lobectomy
#18
Mary K Morris, Dawn Bowers, John Williamson, Kenneth M Heilman
To learn if a right temporal lobectomy altered a patient's autonomic and cognitive responses to aversive and appetitive pictures, we investigated a man whose right anterior temporal lobe and amygdala had been resected to remove an arteriovenous malformation. This patient revealed unusually low self-reports of arousal with a lack of heightened skin conductance responses to aversive pictures. For pleasant pictures, his self-reports of arousal and his physiological responses were similar to healthy men. This patient's responses are consistent with a bivalent model of emotional processing, with a right temporal lobectomy compromising the activation of his defensive action response system...
December 20, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260437/time-perception-is-not-for-the-faint-hearted-physiological-arousal-does-not-influence-duration-categorisation
#19
Valérie Dormal, Alexandre Heeren, Mauro Pesenti, Pierre Maurage
Distortions of duration perception provoked by emotion-induced arousal changes are explained by modifications of an internal clock pace. Yet, uncertainty still abounds regarding whether changes of arousal induced by physical exercise yield such temporal distortions. Here, we report two experiments aiming to test separately the impact of, on the one hand, a physical induction of arousal and, on the other hand, a task delay on duration categorisation. In Experiment 1, participants performed a duration categorisation task before and after heart-rate manipulation (increase, decrease, or no change)...
December 20, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251846/neurobiology-of-substance-use-in-adolescents-and-potential-therapeutic-effects-of-exercise-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-substance-use-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Nora L Nock, Sonia Minnes, Jay L Alberts
Substance use (e.g., alcohol, marijuana, opioids, cocaine., etc,) use often initiates during adolescence, a critical period of physiological and social development marked by an increase in risk-taking due, in part, to heightened motivation to obtain arousal from rewards. Substance use during adolescence has been associated with a greater risk of substance use disorders (SUD) in adulthood. Although use rates for most substances have remained relatively stable, the frequency of marijuana use and the perception that regular marijuana use is not harmful has increased in adolescents...
December 1, 2017: Birth defects research
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