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Physiologic arousal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089981/sleep-disturbances-and-neurobehavioral-performance-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#1
Teresa M Ward, Dean W Beebe, Maida Lynn Chen, Carol A Landis, Sarah Ringold, Ken Pike, Carol A Wallace
OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent of polysomnographic (PSG) sleep disturbances [obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI), number of wake bouts, arousals, periodic limb movements] and the effect of OAHI on neurobehavioral performance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), JIA without OSA, and controls without OSA, adjusting for intelligence quotient (IQ), pain, medications, daytime sleepiness, and wake bouts. METHODS: Children 6-11 years, 68 with JIA and 67 controls, underwent 1 night of PSG and completed self-reported daytime sleepiness surveys, multiple sleep latency tests for physiological sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance tests the next day...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089703/to-each-its-own-gender-differences-in-affective-autonomic-and-behavioral-responses-to-same-sex-and-opposite-sex-visual-sexual-stimuli
#2
Michela Sarlo, Giulia Buodo
A large body of research on gender differences in response to erotic stimuli has focused on genital and/or subjective sexual arousal. On the other hand, studies assessing gender differences in emotional psychophysiological responding to sexual stimuli have only employed erotic pictures of male-female couples or female/male nudes. The present study aimed at investigating differences between gynephilic men and androphilic women in emotional responding to visual sexual stimuli depicting female-male, female-female and male-male couples...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077708/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#3
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. However, how changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal remains unknown...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077389/enhanced-oxidative-capacity-of-ground-squirrel-brain-mitochondria-during-hibernation
#4
Mallory A Ballinger, Christine Schwartz, Matthew T Andrews
During hibernation, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) regularly cycle between bouts of torpor and interbout arousal (IBA).  Most of the brain is electrically quiescent during torpor, but regains activity quickly upon arousal to IBA resulting in extreme oscillations in energy demand during hibernation.  We predicted increased functional capacity of brain mitochondria during hibernation compared to spring to accommodate the variable energy demands of hibernation.  To address this hypothesis, we examined mitochondrial bioenergetics in the ground squirrel brain across three time points: spring (SP), torpor (TOR), and IBA...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073304/the-impact-of-stress-on-odor-perception
#5
Matthias Hoenen, Oliver T Wolf, Bettina M Pause
The olfactory system and emotional systems are highly intervened and share common neuronal structures. The current study investigates whether emotional (e.g., anger and fear) and physiological (saliva cortisol) stress responses are associated with odor identification ability and hedonic odor judgments (intensity, pleasantness, and unpleasantness). Nineteen men participated in the modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and a control session (cycling on a stationary bike). The physiological arousal was similar in both sessions...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072452/what-our-eyes-tell-us-about-feelings-tracking-pupillary-responses-during-emotion-regulation-processes
#6
Valerie L Kinner, Lars Kuchinke, Angelika M Dierolf, Christian J Merz, Tobias Otto, Oliver T Wolf
Emotion regulation is essential for adaptive behavior and mental health. Strategies applied to alter emotions are known to differ in their impact on psychological and physiological aspects of the emotional response. However, emotion regulation outcome has primarily been assessed via self-report, and studies comparing regulation strategies with regard to their peripheral physiological mechanisms are limited in number. In the present study, we therefore aimed to investigate the effects of different emotion regulation strategies on pupil dilation, skin conductance responses, and subjective emotional responses...
January 10, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053003/melanin-concentrating-hormone-in-peripheral-circulation-in-the-human
#7
Jane Naufahu, Fawaz Alzaid, Marcela Fiuza Brito, Barbora Doslikova, Tania Marcela Valencia, Adam Cunliffe, Joanne F Murray
Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide with a well-characterised role in energy homeostasis and emergent roles in diverse physiologic functions such as arousal, mood and reproduction. Work to date has predominantly focused on its hypothalamic functions using animal models however little attention has been paid to its role in circulation in humans. The aims of this study were to a) develop a radioimmunoassay for the detection of MCH in human plasma; b) establish reference ranges for circulating MCH; and c) characterize the pattern of expression of circulating MCH in humans...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044450/caffeine-and-theanine-exert-opposite-effects-on-attention-under-emotional-arousal
#8
Grace E Giles, Caroline R Mahoney, Tad T Brunyé, Holly A Taylor, Robin B Kanarek
Tea is perceived as more relaxing than coffee, even though both contain caffeine. L-theanine in tea may account for the difference. Consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, in that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses. We evaluated whether caffeine and theanine influenced cognition under emotional arousal. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 36 participants received 4 treatments (200 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 200 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine) on separate days...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043034/oxidative-stress-biomarkers-cholinesterase-activity-and-biotransformation-enzymes-in-the-liver-of-dice-snake-natrix-tessellata-laurenti-during-pre-hibernation-and-post-hibernation-a-possible-correlation-with-heavy-metals-in-the-environment
#9
Jelena Gavrić, Marko Anđelković, Ljiljana Tomović, Marko Prokić, Svetlana Despotović, Branka Gavrilović, Tijana Radovanović, Slavica Borković-Mitić, Slađan Pavlović, Zorica Saičić
We investigated in the liver of dice snakes during pre- and post-hibernation changes in the following antioxidant parameters: total, manganese and copper zinc containing superoxide dismutases (Tot SOD, MnSOD, CuZn SOD, respectively), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and the concentrations of total glutathione (GSH) and sulfhydryl groups (-SH). In addition, we examined the expression of phase I biotransformation enzyme cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and the activity of phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathioneS-transferase (GST), the level of lipid peroxidation (by measuring the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)), cholinesterase activity (ChE) and metallothionein expression (MT)...
December 30, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041911/disinhibition-of-the-intergeniculate-leaflet-network-in-the-wag-rij-rat-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#10
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus, Jagoda Stanislawa Jeczmien-Lazur, Anna Chrzanowska, Mariusz Kepczynski, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the thalamus is a retinorecipient structure implicated in orchestrating circadian rhythmicity. The IGL network is highly GABAergic and consists mainly of neuropeptide Y-synthesising and enkephalinergic neurons. A high density of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes has been observed in the IGL, with a probable function in guarding neuronal inhibition. Interestingly, putatively enkephalinergic IGL neurons generate action potentials with an infra-slow oscillatory (ISO) pattern in vivo in urethane anesthetised Wistar rats, under light-on conditions only...
December 30, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013478/increased-urge-to-gamble-following-near-miss-outcomes-may-drive-purchasing-behaviour-in-scratch-card-gambling
#11
Madison Stange, Candice Graydon, Mike J Dixon
Previous research into scratch card gambling has highlighted the effects of these games on players' arousal and affective states. Specifically, near-miss outcomes in scratch cards (uncovering 2 of 3 needed jackpot symbols) have been associated with high levels of physiological and subjective arousal and negative emotional evaluations, including increased frustration. We sought to extend this research by examining whether near-misses prompted increases in gambling urge, and the subsequent purchasing of additional scratch cards...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012091/hypocretins-and-arousal
#12
Shi-Bin Li, William J Giardino, Luis de Lecea
How the brain controls vigilance state transitions remains to be fully understood. The discovery of hypocretins, also known as orexins, and their link to narcolepsy has undoubtedly allowed us to advance our knowledge on key mechanisms controlling the boundaries and transitions between sleep and wakefulness. Lack of function of hypocretin neurons (a relatively simple and non-redundant neuronal system) results in inappropriate control of sleep states without affecting the total amount of sleep or homeostatic mechanisms...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012089/orexin-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Claudio Liguori
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent age-related dementia. It prevalently causes cognitive decline, although it is frequently associated with secondary behavioral disturbances. AD neurodegeneration characteristically produces a remarkable destruction of the sleep-wake cycle, with diurnal napping, nighttime arousals, sleep fragmentation, and REM sleep impairment. It was recently hypothesized that the orexinergic system was involved in AD pathology. Accordingly, recent papers showed the association between orexinergic neurotransmission dysfunction, sleep impairment, and cognitive decline in AD...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010995/profiling-subjective-symptoms-and-autonomic-changes-associated-with-cybersickness
#14
Alireza Mazloumi Gavgani, Keith V Nesbitt, Karen L Blackmore, Eugene Nalivaiko
Our aim was to expand knowledge of cybersickness - a subtype of motion sickness provoked by immersion into a moving computer-generated virtual reality. Fourteen healthy subjects experienced a 15-min rollercoaster ride presented via a head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), for 3 consecutive days. Heart rate, respiration, finger and forehead skin conductance were measured during the experiment; this was complemented by a subjective nausea rating during the ride and by Motion Sickness Assessment Questionnaire before, immediately after and then 1, 2 and 3h post-ride...
December 18, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003962/cortical-arousal-in-children-and-adolescents-with-functional-neurological-symptoms-during-the-auditory-oddball-task
#15
Kasia Kozlowska, Dmitriy Melkonian, Chris J Spooner, Stephen Scher, Russell Meares
OBJECTIVE: Stress, pain, injury, and psychological trauma all induce arousal-mediated changes in brain network organization. The associated, high level of arousal may disrupt motor-sensory processing and result in aberrant patterns of motor function, including functional neurological symptoms. We used the auditory oddball paradigm to assess cortical arousal in children and adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder. METHOD: Electroencephalogram (EEG) data was collected in fifty-seven children and adolescents (41 girls; 16 boys, aged 8...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990636/factitious-disorder-in-a-patient-claiming-to-be-a-sexually-sadistic-serial-killer
#16
Christopher A Fischer, Mace Beckson, Park Dietz
Factitious disorder involves the conscious simulation of psychological or physiological symptoms of illness, for the purpose of fulfilling the unconscious desire to be taken care of or to assume the "sick role." Typically patients with factitious disorder simulate conditions that are designed to arouse feelings of empathy in care providers with the intention to engage them in caretaking. However, patients might also simulate conditions that arouse revulsion or rejection and still meet full diagnostic criteria for factitious disorder...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988979/anaesthetic-management-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-adults
#17
REVIEW
David R Hillman, Frances Chung
Anaesthesia and sleep are different states of unconsciousness with considerable physiological common ground. Because of their shared depressant effects on muscle activation and ventilatory drive, patients with anatomically compromised airways will tend to obstruct in either state and those with impaired ventilatory capacity will tend to hypoventilate. Breathing behaviour in one state is predictive of that in the other. An essential difference is that while arousal responses are preserved during sleep, they are depressed during sedation and abolished by anaesthesia...
December 17, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987373/circadian-regulation-of-mouse-scn-neuronal-states-shapes-responses-to-orexin
#18
Mino D C Belle, Hugh D Piggins
Our knowledge of how circadian and homeostatic brain circuits interact to temporally organize physiology and behavior is limited. Progress has been made with the determination that lateral hypothalamic orexin (OXA) neurons control arousal and appetitive states, while suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) neurons function as the master circadian clock. During the day, SCN neurons exhibit heterogeneity in spontaneous resting membrane potential (RMP), with some neurons becoming severely depolarized (hyperexcited) and ceasing to fire action potentials (APs), while other neurons rest at moderate RMP and fire APs...
December 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977219/speaking-about-feelings-further-evidence-for-multidirectional-age-differences-in-anger-and-sadness
#19
Ute Kunzmann, Margund Rohr, Cornelia Wieck, Cathleen Kappes, Carsten Wrosch
This study investigated age differences in anger and sadness in a sample of 82 younger (Mage = 26, SDage = 4.05) and 80 older (Mage = 70, SDage = 3.95) adults. Participants were instructed to first relive a personal memory that was characterized by either anger or sadness and to subsequently think aloud about this memory. Across different emotional response systems (i.e., subjective feelings, verbal expressions, facial behaviors, physiological arousal), older adults reacted with less anger than did their younger counterparts, whereas age differences in sadness were less pronounced...
December 15, 2016: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976921/clash-of-the-primary-motivations-motivated-processing-of-emotionally-experienced-content-in-fear-appeals-about-obesity-prevention
#20
Rachel L Bailey, Tianjiao Grace Wang, C Kit Kaiser
This study examined individuals' physiological and cognitive responses to different types of emotionally experienced content located in obesity prevention fear appeals. Results suggested that experienced valence impacted individuals' attention and memory as a function of experienced arousal level. Local content that created coactive highly arousing experiences received the most attention, though visual recognition suggested these messages were more difficult to encode. Local content that created negative moderately arousing experiences was best encoded...
December 15, 2016: Health Communication
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