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Physiologic arousal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930706/do-reported-effects-of-acute-aerobic-exercise-on-subsequent-higher-cognitive-performances-remain-if-tested-against-an-instructed-self-myofascial-release-training-control-group-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Max Oberste, Wilhelm Bloch, Sven T Hübner, Philipp Zimmer
A substantial body of evidence suggests positive effects of acute aerobic exercise (AAE) on subsequent higher cognitive functions in healthy young adults. These effects are widely understood as a result of the ongoing physiological adaptation processes induced by the preceding AAE. However, designs of published studies do not control for placebo, Hawthorne and subject expectancy effects. Therefore, these studies do not, at a high degree of validity, allow attributing effects of AEE on subsequent cognitive performance to exercise induced physical arousal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929301/the-dark-side-of-the-sublime-distinguishing-a-threat-based-variant-of-awe
#2
Amie M Gordon, Jennifer E Stellar, Craig L Anderson, Galen D McNeil, Daniel Loew, Dacher Keltner
Theoretical conceptualizations of awe suggest this emotion can be more positive or negative depending on specific appraisal processes. However, the emergent scientific study of awe rarely emphasizes its negative side, classifying it instead as a positive emotion. In the present research we tested whether there is a more negative variant of awe that arises in response to vast, complex stimuli that are threatening (e.g., tornadoes, terrorist attack, wrathful god). We discovered people do experience this type of awe with regularity (Studies 1 & 4) and that it differs from other variants of awe in terms of its underlying appraisals, subjective experience, physiological correlates, and consequences for well-being...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923429/effects-of-tiagabine-on-slow-wave-sleep-and-arousal-threshold-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#3
Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Scott A Sands, Bradley A Edwards, Ali Azarbarzin, Melania Marques, Camila de Melo, Danny J Eckert, David P White, Andrew Wellman
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity is markedly reduced during slow wave sleep (SWS) even in patients with a severe disease. The reason for this improvement is uncertain but likely relates to non-anatomical factors (i.e. reduced arousability, chemosensitivity, and increased dilator muscle activity). The anticonvulsant tiagabine produces a dose-dependent increase in SWS in subjects without OSA. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that tiagabine would reduce OSA severity by raising the overall arousal threshold during sleep...
November 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923164/thinking-anxious-feeling-anxious-or-both-cognitive-bias-moderates-the-relationship-between-anxiety-disorder-status-and-sympathetic-arousal-in-youth
#4
Michelle Rozenman, Allison Vreeland, John Piacentini
Cognitive bias and physiological arousal are two putative markers that may underlie youth anxiety. However, data on relationships between cognitive bias and arousal are limited, and typically do not include behavioral measurement of these constructs in order to tap real-time processes. We aimed to examine the relationship between performance-based cognitive bias and sympathetic arousal during stress in clinically anxious and typically-developing youth. The sample included children and adolescents ages 9 to 17 (Mean age=13...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922658/detecting-anxiety-states-when-caring-for-people-with-dementia
#5
Bert Arnrich, Jesús Favela, Darién Miranda
BACKGROUND: Caregiving is a complex, stressful activity, which frequently leads to anxiety and the development of depressive disorders. Recent advances in wearable sensing allows to monitor relevant physiological data of the caregiver for detecting anxiety spans and for enacting coping strategies to reduce their anxiety when needed. OBJECTIVES: This work proposes a method to infer anxiety states of caregivers when caring for people with dementia, by using physiological data...
December 6, 2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918760/risk-factors-protective-factors-and-current-recommendations-to-reduce-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-a-review
#6
Rebecca F Carlin, Rachel Y Moon
Importance: Sudden infant death syndrome remains the leading cause of death in infants aged 1 month to 1 year in the United States. Observations: While its exact cause is unknown, sudden infant death syndrome is believed to be multifactorial, ie, occurs in infants with underlying biological vulnerability who experience an exogenous stressor, such as prone/side sleeping or soft bedding, during a critical developmental period. Much genetic and physiologic evidence points to impaired arousal responses to hypercarbia and hypoxia, which ultimately leads to asphyxia...
December 5, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914166/trauma-related-dissociation-psychological-features-and-psychophysiological-responses-to-script-driven-imagery-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#7
Dana Bichescu-Burian, Jürgen Steyer, Tilman Steinert, Benjamin Grieb, Stefan Tschöke
Defense reactions to threatening situations are vital adaptations to stress that protect organisms from injury and ensure survival. We retrospectively investigated the role of peritraumatic dissociation (PD) in the occurrence of severe psychopathology and dissociative patterns of reactions in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We recruited 28 patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD and 15 healthy controls. The BPD group was divided according to the level of PD (low vs. high): BPD and PD (n = 15) and BPD only (n = 13)...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911798/stretchable-multichannel-antennas-in-soft-wireless-optoelectronic-implants-for-optogenetics
#8
Sung Il Park, Gunchul Shin, Jordan G McCall, Ream Al-Hasani, Aaron Norris, Li Xia, Daniel S Brenner, Kyung Nim Noh, Sang Yun Bang, Dionnet L Bhatti, Kyung-In Jang, Seung-Kyun Kang, Aaron D Mickle, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price, Robert W Gereau, Michael R Bruchas, John A Rogers
Optogenetic methods to modulate cells and signaling pathways via targeted expression and activation of light-sensitive proteins have greatly accelerated the process of mapping complex neural circuits and defining their roles in physiological and pathological contexts. Recently demonstrated technologies based on injectable, microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes (μ-ILEDs) with wireless control and power delivery strategies offer important functionality in such experiments, by eliminating the external tethers associated with traditional fiber optic approaches...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909095/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#9
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. How changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal, however, remains unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#10
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
November 11, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899398/feasibility-qualitative-findings-and-satisfaction-of-a-brief-tai-chi-mind-body-programme-for-veterans-with-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#11
Barbara L Niles, DeAnna L Mori, Craig P Polizzi, Anica Pless Kaiser, Annie M Ledoux, Chenchen Wang
OBJECTIVE: To examine feasibility, qualitative feedback and satisfaction associated with a 4-session introduction to Tai Chi for veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms. DESIGN: We observed and reported recruitment and retention rates, participant characteristics, adherence, and satisfaction across 2 cohorts. We also examined qualitative feedback provided by questionnaires, focus groups and individual interviews. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of recruitment and retention, focus group and individual feedback interviews, self-reported satisfaction...
November 29, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895607/caffeine-enhances-memory-performance-in-young-adults-during-their-non-optimal-time-of-day
#12
Stephanie M Sherman, Timothy P Buckley, Elsa Baena, Lee Ryan
Many college students struggle to perform well on exams in the early morning. Although students drink caffeinated beverages to feel more awake, it is unclear whether these actually improve performance. After consuming coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), college-age adults completed implicit and explicit memory tasks in the early morning and late afternoon (Experiment 1). During the morning, participants ingesting caffeine demonstrated a striking improvement in explicit memory, but not implicit memory. Caffeine did not alter memory performance in the afternoon...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890138/individual-differences-in-cardiorespiratory-measures-of-mental-workload-an-investigation-of-negative-affectivity-and-cognitive-avoidant-coping-in-pilot-candidates
#13
Mariel Grassmann, Elke Vlemincx, Andreas von Leupoldt, Omer Van den Bergh
Cardiorespiratory measures provide useful information in addition to well-established self-report measures when monitoring operator capacity. The purpose of our study was to refine the assessment of operator load by considering individual differences in personality and their associations with cardiorespiratory activation. Physiological and self-report measures were analyzed in 115 pilot candidates at rest and while performing a multiple task covering perceptual speed, spatial orientation, and working memory...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876453/-i-can-t-tell-whether-it-s-my-hand-a-pilot-study-of-the-neurophenomenology-of-body-representation-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion-in-trauma-related-disorders
#14
Daniela Rabellino, Sherain Harricharan, Paul A Frewen, Dalila Burin, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: Early traumatic experiences are thought to be causal factors in the development of trauma-related dissociative experiences, including depersonalization and derealization. The rubber hand illusion (RHI), a well-known paradigm that measures multi-sensorial integration of a rubber hand into one's own body representation, has been used to investigate alterations in the experience of body ownership and of body representation. Critically, however, it has never been studied in individuals with trauma-related disorders...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865628/the-genesis-and-presentation-of-anxiety-in-disorders-of-autonomic-overexcitation
#15
Andrew P Owens, David A Low, Valeria Iodice, Hugo D Critchley, Christopher J Mathias
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the genesis and presentation of previously-reported anxiety in disorders of autonomic overexcitation in relation to interoception, body vigilance and trauma to test our hypothesis that patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), vasovagal syncope (VVS) and essential hyperhidrosis (EH) represent atypical anxiety phenotypes in whom affective symptoms are more related to apprehension and vigilance of physiological (interoceptive) feedback than neurotic or trauma-related factors...
October 19, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854467/parental-management-of-peers-and-autonomic-nervous-system-reactivity-in-predicting-adolescent-peer-relationships
#16
Kelly M Tu, Stephen A Erath, Mona El-Sheikh
The present study examined sympathetic and parasympathetic indices of autonomic nervous system reactivity as moderators of the prospective association between parental management of peers via directing of youths' friendships and peer adjustment in a sample of typically developing adolescents. Participants included 246 adolescents at Time 1 (T1) [47% boys; 66% European American (EA), 34% African American (AA)] and 226 adolescents at Time 2 (T2; 45% boys; 67% EA, 33% AA). Adolescents were approximately 16 and 17 years old at T1 and T2, respectively...
November 17, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853604/hibernation-in-a-primate-does-sleep-occur
#17
Marina B Blanco, Kathrin H Dausmann, Sheena L Faherty, Peter Klopfer, Andrew D Krystal, Robert Schopler, Anne D Yoder
During hibernation, critical physiological processes are downregulated and thermogenically induced arousals are presumably needed periodically to fulfil those physiological demands. Among the processes incompatible with a hypome tabolic state is sleep. However, one hibernating primate, the dwarf lemur Cheirogaleus medius, experiences rapid eye movement (REM)-like states during hibernation, whenever passively reaching temperatures above 30°C, as occurs when it hibernates in poorly insulated tree hollows under tropical conditions...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832609/postural-threat-influences-vestibular-evoked-muscular-responses
#18
Shannon B Lim, Taylor W Cleworth, Brian C Horslen, Jean-Sebastien Blouin, J Timothy Inglis, Mark Gregory Carpenter
Standing balance is significantly influenced by postural threat. While this effect has been well-established, the underlying mechanisms of the effect are less understood. The involvement of the vestibular system is under current debate and recent studies that investigate the effects of height-induced postural threat on vestibular-evoked responses provide conflicting results based on kinetic (Horlsen et al. 2014) and kinematic (Osler et al. 2013) data. We examined the effect of threat of perturbation, a different form of postural threat, on coupling (cross-correlation, coherence and gain) of the vestibulo-muscular relationship in 25 participants who maintained standing balance...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832595/psychosocial-stress-alters-the-strength-of-reticulospinal-input-to-the-human-upper-trapezius
#19
Ryan J Marker, Serge Campeau, Katrina Shaun Maluf
Psychosocial stress has been shown to influence several aspects of human motor control associated with the fight-or-flight response, including augmentation of upper trapezius muscle activity. Given the established role of the reticular formation in arousal, this study investigated the contribution of reticulospinal activation to trapezius muscle activity during exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor. Twenty-five healthy adults were exposed to startling acoustic stimuli (SAS) while performing a motor task during periods of low and high psychosocial stress...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826016/attention-and-driving-performance-modulations-due-to-anger-state-contribution-of-electroencephalographic-data
#20
Franck Techer, Christophe Jallais, Yves Corson, Fabien Moreau, Daniel Ndiaye, Bruno Piechnick, Alexandra Fort
Driver internal state, including emotion, can have negative impacts on road safety. Studies have shown that an anger state can provoke aggressive behavior and impair driving performance. Apart from driving, anger can also influence attentional processing and increase the benefits taken from auditory alerts. However, to our knowledge, no prior event-related potentials study assesses this impact on attention during simulated driving. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anger on attentional processing and its consequences on driving performance...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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