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Physiologic arousal

Ariel B Handy, Amelia M Stanton, Cindy M Meston
Sexual arousal is frequently characterized by both subjective (i.e., mental) and physiological (e.g., genital) components. The nuances of these components, however, are difficult to capture via self-report instruments. Asking women to describe sexual arousal in their own words may therefore enhance our understanding of this construct. In the present study, women with (n = 190) and without (n = 610) arousal concerns were recruited online and wrote about their experience of sexual arousal. Seven clusters of words were extracted using automated text analysis, and the prominence of these clusters was compared between groups of women...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
Andrey Zinchuk, Bradley A Edwards, Sangchoon Jeon, Brian B Koo, John Concato, Scott Sands, Andrew Wellman, Henry K Yaggi
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Determine the prevalence of, and clinical features associated with, a low respiratory arousal threshold (ArTH) among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and to assess whether a low ArTH is associated with reduced long-term CPAP use. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed in an observational study conducted among 940 male veterans with OSA. Data for clinical characteristics, polysomnography characteristics, and long-term (5 ± 2 years) CPAP use were obtained from clinical records...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Jessica S Ellis, Adreanna T M Watts, Norman Schmidt, Edward M Bernat
The feedback negativity (FN) event-related potential (ERP) is widely studied during gambling feedback tasks. However, research on FN and anxiety is minimal and the findings are mixed. To clarify these discrepancies, the current study (N = 238) used time-frequency analysis to disentangle overlapping contributions of delta (0-3 Hz) and theta (3-7 Hz) to feedback processing in a clinically anxious sample, with severity assessed through general worry and physiological arousal scales. Greater general worry showed enhanced delta- and theta-FN broadly across both gain and loss conditions, with theta-FN stronger for losses...
May 2, 2018: Biological Psychology
Allison M Waters, Rachel Kershaw, Ottmar V Lipp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Francisco E Olucha-Bordonau, Héctor Albert-Gascó, Francisco Ros-Bernal, Valeria Rytova, Emma K E Ong-Pålsson, Sherie Ma, Ana M Sánchez-Pérez, Andrew L Gundlach
The nucleus incertus (NI) in the pontine tegmentum sends ascending projections to the midbrain, hypothalamus, amygdala, basal forebrain, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex, and has a postulated role in modulating several forebrain functions. A substantial population of GABAergic NI neurons expresses the neuropeptide, relaxin-3, which acts via the Gi/o -protein-coupled receptor, RXFP3, present throughout the forebrain target regions. Broad and specific manipulations of these systems by activation or inhibition of the NI or modulating RXFP3 signaling have revealed key insights into the likely influence of the NI/relaxin-3/RXFP3 system on modalities including arousal, feeding, stress responses, anxiety and addiction, and attention and memory...
May 2, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Pinar S Özbay, Catie Chang, Dante Picchioni, Hendrik Mandelkow, Thomas M Moehlman, Miranda G Chappel-Farley, Peter van Gelderen, Jacco A de Zwart, Jeff H Duyn
To investigate a potential contribution of systemic physiology to recently reported BOLD fMRI signals in white matter, we compared photo-plethysmography (PPG) and whole-brain fMRI signals recorded simultaneously during long resting-state scans from an overnight sleep study. We found that intermittent drops in the amplitude of the PPG signal exhibited strong and widespread correlations with the fMRI signal, both in white matter (WM) and in gray matter (GM). The WM signal pattern resembled that seen in previous resting-state fMRI studies and closely tracked the location of medullary veins...
April 25, 2018: NeuroImage
Pessi Lyyra, Aki Myllyneva, Jari K Hietanen
Recent research has revealed enhanced autonomic and subjective responses to eye contact only when perceiving another live person. However, these enhanced responses to eye contact are abolished if the viewer believes that the other person is not able to look back at the viewer. We purported to investigate whether this "genuine" eye contact effect can be reproduced with pre-recorded videos of stimulus persons. Autonomic responses, gaze behavior, and subjective self-assessments were measured while participants viewed pre-recorded video persons with direct or averted gaze, imagined that the video person was real, and mentalized that the person could see them or not...
April 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Joseph M Trombello, Diego A Pizzagalli, Myrna M Weissman, Bruce D Grannemann, Crystal M Cooper, Tracy L Greer, Ashley L Malchow, Manish K Jha, Thomas J Carmody, Benji T Kurian, Christian A Webb, Daniel G Dillon, Patrick J McGrath, Gerard Bruder, Maurizio Fava, Ramin V Parsey, Melvin G McInnis, Phil Adams, Madhukar H Trivedi
The current study aimed to characterize the multifaceted nature of anxiety in patients with major depression by evaluating distinct anxiety factors. We then related these derived anxiety factors to performance on a Flanker Task of cognitive control, in order to further validate these factors. Data were collected from 195 patients with nonpsychotic chronic or recurrent major depression or dysthymic disorder. At baseline, participants completed self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and other related symptoms (mania, suicidality) and clinicians administered a structured diagnostic interview and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, including anxiety/somatization items...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Elena M Vazey, Carolina R den Hartog, David E Moorman
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) results from disruption of a number of neural systems underlying motivation, emotion, and cognition. Patients with AUD exhibit not only elevated motivation for alcohol but heightened stress and anxiety, and disruptions in cognitive domains such as decision-making. One system at the intersection of these functions is the central norepinephrine (NE) system. This catecholaminergic neuromodulator, produced by several brainstem nuclei, plays profound roles in a wide range of behaviors and functions, including arousal, attention, and other aspects of cognition, motivation, emotional regulation, and control over basic physiological processes...
April 24, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Bradey Alcock, Caitlyn Gallant, Dawn Good
Introduction: This study investigated concussion as a potential risk factor for increased alcohol consumption in university athletes. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, 41 university students (37% with a history of concussion) completed self-report measures, while electrodermal activation (EDA) was recorded for each participant to capture baseline physiological arousal. Results: As expected, concussion status significantly predicted alcohol consumption over and above athletic status, b  = 0...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Elizabeth H Andersen, Gregory F Lewis, Aysenil Belger
Autonomic dysfunction represents a core domain of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SCZ), with aberrant physiologic arousal underlying maladaptive social and cognitive behaviors. Antagonistic parasympathetic and sympathetic systems support autonomic flexibility to appropriately regulate arousal and respond to environmental challenges, which can be modeled using physiologic measures. SCZ patients consistently show heightened basal stress, however, their parasympathetic reactivity to an acute psychosocial stressor is poorly understood...
April 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Madeline Sprajcer, Sarah M Jay, Grace E Vincent, Andrew Vakulin, Leon Lack, Sally A Ferguson
On-call work is used to manage around the clock working requirements in a variety of industries. Often, tasks that must be performed while on-call are highly important, difficult and/or stressful by nature and, as such, may impact the level of anxiety that is experienced by on-call workers. Heightened anxiety is associated with poor sleep, which affects next-day cognitive performance. Twenty-four male participants (20-35 years old) spent an adaptation, a control and two counterbalanced on-call nights in a time-isolated sleep laboratory...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Kathleen J Lumb, Jennifer M Schneider, Thowfique Ibrahim, Anita Rigaux, Shabih U Hasan
KEY POINTS: Evidence at whole animal, organ-system, and cellular and molecular levels suggests that afferent volume feedback is critical for establishment of adequate ventilation at birth. Due to the irreversible nature of vagal ablation studies to date, it was difficult to quantify the roles of afferent volume input, arousal and changes in blood gas tensions on neonatal respiratory control. During reversible perineural vagal block, profound apneas, and hypoxemia and hypercarbia were observed necessitating termination of perineural blockade...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Aliza Rizwan, Abdulghani Sankari, Amy T Bascom, Sarah Vaughan, M Safwan Badr
Respiratory complications are potential causes of death in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Nocturnal swallowing could be related to transient arousals, and lead to fragmented sleep in SCI patients. However, the impact of nocturnal swallowing on breathing and sleep physiology in SCI is unknown. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether nocturnal swallowing is more common in SCI than in able-bodied subjects, (2) to determine the role of nocturnal swallowing on arousal threshold in SCI individuals with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), (3) to determine the effect of CPAP treatment on nocturnal swallowing...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Svetlana Postnova, Steven W Lockley, Peter A Robinson
A model of arousal dynamics is applied to predict objective performance and subjective sleepiness measures, including lapses and reaction time on a visual Performance Vigilance Test (vPVT), performance on a mathematical addition task (ADD), and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). The arousal dynamics model is comprised of a physiologically based flip-flop switch between the wake- and sleep-active neuronal populations and a dynamic circadian oscillator, thus allowing prediction of sleep propensity. Published group-level experimental constant routine (CR) and forced desynchrony (FD) data are used to calibrate the model to predict performance and sleepiness...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Takuro Otsuka, Mitsuyoshi Mizutani, Akihiro Yagi, Jun'ichi Katayama
The concealed information test (CIT), a psychophysiological detection of deception test, compares physiological responses between crime-related and crime-unrelated items. In previous studies, whether the act of answering questions affected physiological responses was unclear. This study examined effects of both question-related and answer-related processes on physiological responses. Twenty participants received a modified CIT, in which the interval between presentation of questions and answering them was 27 s...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Elisa Maseroli, Irene Scavello, Linda Vignozzi
INTRODUCTION: Although basic science and clinical research indicate that the vascular physiopathology of male and female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is similar, to date the association between FSD and cardiovascular (CV) diseases has been only marginally explored. AIM: To discuss the potential reasons for differences in the role of CV diseases and risk factors in sexual function in women vs men in the 2nd part of a 2-part review. METHODS: A thorough literature search of peer-reviewed publications on the topic was performed using the PubMed database...
April 13, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
The hippocampus is a functionally heterogeneous structure with the cognitive and emotional signal processing ascribed to the dorsal (DH) and the ventral hippocampus (VH) respectively. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Noradrenaline is released in hippocampus during emotional arousal modulating synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation through activation of β adrenergic receptors (β-ARs). Using recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from the CA1 field of adult rat hippocampal slices we demonstrate that long-term potentiation (LTP) induced either by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) that mimics a physiological firing pattern of hippocampal neurons or by high-frequency stimulation is remarkably more sensitive to β-AR activation in VH than in DH...
April 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ming Lui, Ming Hsu
Erotic imagery is one highly salient emotional signal that exists everywhere in daily life. The impact of sexual stimuli on human decision-making, however, has rarely been investigated. This study examines the impact of sexual stimuli on financial decision-making under risk. In each trial, either a sexual or neutral image was presented in a picture categorization task before a gambling task. Thirty-four men made gambling decisions while their physiological arousal, measured by skin conductance responses (SCRs), was recorded...
2018: PloS One
Henrik Bringmann
Sleep is crucial for survival and well-being. This behavioral and physiological state has been studied in all major genetically accessible model animals, including rodents, fish, flies, and worms. Genetic and optogenetic studies have identified several neurons that control sleep, making it now possible to compare circuit mechanisms across species. The "motor" of sleep across animal species is formed by neurons that depolarize at the onset of sleep to actively induce this state by directly inhibiting wakefulness...
April 2018: Genetics
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