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Physiologic arousal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736892/anger-can-help-a-transactional-model-and-three-pathways-of-the-experience-and-expression-of-anger
#1
Mark H Butler, Kierea C Meloy-Miller, Ryan B Seedall, J Logan Dicus
Anger is a significant human emotion with far-reaching implications for individuals and relationships. We propose a transactional model of anger that highlights its relational relevance and potentially positive function, in addition to problematic malformations. By evolutionary design, physical, self-concept, or attachment threats all similarly trigger diffuse physiological arousal, psychologically experienced as anger-emotion. Anger is first a signaling and motivational system. Anger is then formed to affirming, productive use or malformed to destructive ends...
July 23, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733210/threat-effects-on-human-oculo-motor-function
#2
E N Naranjo, T W Cleworth, J H J Allum, J T Inglis, J Lea, B D Westerberg, M G Carpenter
Neuro-anatomical evidence supports the potential for threat-related factors, such as fear, anxiety and vigilance, to influence brainstem motor nuclei controlling eye movements, as well as the vestibular nuclei. However, little is known about how threat influences human ocular responses, such as eye saccades (ES), smooth pursuit eye tracking (SP), and optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), and whether these responses can be facilitated above normal baseline levels with a natural source of threat. This study was designed to examine the effects of height-induced postural threat on the gain of ES, SP and OKN responses in humans...
July 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725206/physiological-signal-analysis-for-evaluating-flow-during-playing-of-computer-games-of-varying-difficulty
#3
Yu Tian, Yulong Bian, Piguo Han, Peng Wang, Fengqiang Gao, Yingmin Chen
Flow is the experience of effortless attention, reduced self-consciousness, and a deep sense of control that typically occurs during the optimal performance of challenging tasks. On the basis of the person-artifact-task model, we selected computer games (tasks) with varying levels of difficulty (difficult, medium, and easy) and shyness (personality) as flow precursors to study the physiological activity of users in a flow state. Cardiac and respiratory activity and mean changes in skin conductance (SC) were measured continuously while the participants (n = 40) played the games...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714186/the-pinocchio-effect-and-the-cold-stress-test-lies-and-thermography
#4
A Moliné, G Gálvez-García, J Fernández-Gómez, J De la Fuente, O Iborra, F Tornay, J L Mata Martín, M Puertollano, E Gómez Milán
We applied the use of thermography to cognitive neuropsychology, particularly as an objective marker of subjective experiences, in the context of lying. We conducted three experiments: (a) An important lie was invented by the participants in 3 min, and it was recounted by phone to a significant person while they were recorded by the thermographic camera, obtaining a face and hands map of the lie. (b) A similar methodology was carried out, but adding the Cold Stress Test (CST) of the dominant hand during the phone call, obtaining a second physiologic marker (the percentage of thermal recovery) to detect the lie...
July 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711237/precise-role-of-dermal-fibroblasts-on-melanocyte-pigmentation
#5
REVIEW
Yinjuan Wang, Céline Viennet, Sophie Robin, Jean-Yves Berthon, Li He, Philippe Humbert
Dermal fibroblasts are traditionally recognized as synthesizing, remodeling and depositing collagen and extracellular matrix, the structural framework for tissues, helping to bring thickness and firmness to the skin. However, the role of fibroblasts on skin pigmentation arouses concern recently. More is known about the interactions between epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes. This review highlights the importance of fibroblast-derived melanogenic paracrine mediators in the regulation of melanocyte activities...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708697/simultaneous-physical-and-mental-effort-alters-visual-function
#6
Jesús Vera, Raimundo Jiménez, José Antonio García, David Cárdenas
PURPOSE: Perceptual processing is sensitive to physiological changes. Thus, the homeostatic disturbances during and after exercise may alter the visual function. Here, we investigated the effect of simultaneous physical effort and two levels of cognitive demand on skills related to the visuoperceptual and motor processing. METHODS: Eighteen male regular exercisers performed 60 minutes of simultaneous physical exercise (cycling at 60 ± 5% of reserve heart rate) and cognitive effort (mental workload)...
July 14, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702882/near-misses-and-stop-buttons-in-slot-machine-play-an-investigation-of-how-they-affect-players-and-may-foster-erroneous-cognitions
#7
Mike J Dixon, Chanel J Larche, Madison Stange, Candice Graydon, Jonathan A Fugelsang
In modern casinos, multiline slot machines are becoming increasingly popular compared to traditional, three-reel slot machines. A paucity of research has examined how the unique presentation of near-misses and the use of a stop button in multiline slot machines impact erroneous cognitions related to the perception of skill and agency during play. Our goal therefore was to determine the prevalence of erroneous cognitions pertaining to near-miss outcomes and the usage of a stop button and then to see whether the stop button affected players' experiences of winning, losing and near-miss outcomes...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694775/yoga-meditation-and-mind-body-health-increased-bdnf-cortisol-awakening-response-and-altered-inflammatory-marker-expression-after-a-3-month-yoga-and-meditation-retreat
#8
B Rael Cahn, Matthew S Goodman, Christine T Peterson, Raj Maturi, Paul J Mills
Thirty-eight individuals (mean age: 34.8 years old) participating in a 3-month yoga and meditation retreat were assessed before and after the intervention for psychometric measures, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), circadian salivary cortisol levels, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Participation in the retreat was found to be associated with decreases in self-reported anxiety and depression as well as increases in mindfulness. As hypothesized, increases in the plasma levels of BDNF and increases in the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were also observed...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690558/blue-enriched-white-light-enhances-physiological-arousal-but-not-behavioral-performance-during-simulated-driving-at-early-night
#9
Beatriz Rodríguez-Morilla, Juan A Madrid, Enrique Molina, Angel Correa
Vigilance usually deteriorates over prolonged driving at non-optimal times of day. Exposure to blue-enriched light has shown to enhance arousal, leading to behavioral benefits in some cognitive tasks. However, the cognitive effects of long-wavelength light have been less studied and its effects on driving performance remained to be addressed. We tested the effects of a blue-enriched white light (BWL) and a long-wavelength orange light (OL) vs. a control condition of dim light on subjective, physiological and behavioral measures at 21:45 h...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685685/hemicellulose-from-plant-biomass-in-medical-and-pharmaceutical-application-a-critical-review
#10
Xinxin Liu, Qixuan Lin, Yuhuan Yan, Fenf Peng, Runcang Sung, Junli Ren
Hemicellulose is the second most abundant plant polysaccharides after cellulose. Due to the non-toxicity, abundance and biodegradability, recently more and more attention has been focused on the exploration of hemicellulose as the potential substrate for the production of liquid fuels and other value-added chemicals and materials in different fields. Especially in the pharmaceutical and medical field, hemicellulose currently has aroused growing concern in immune regulation, bacteria inhibition, drug release, anti-caries, scaffold materials and anti-tumor because of its unique special physiological characteristics including biocompatibility, inhibiting cell mutation and anti-cancer effect, etc...
July 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674771/a-review-of-the-physiology-of-a-survival-expert-of-big-freeze-deep-snow-and-an-empty-stomach-the-boreal-raccoon-dog-nyctereutes-procyonoides
#11
REVIEW
Anne-Mari Mustonen, Petteri Nieminen
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an invasive canid originating from eastern Asia. Here, we review its physiological adaptations to wintering, with an emphasis on northern Europe, where the raccoon dog spends the coldest part of the year in winter sleep. The timing of physiological changes related to wintering is connected to photoperiod by melatonin. In preparation to winter, raccoon dogs display autumnal hyperphagia and fattening probably regulated by the interaction of several peptide hormones...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674695/minor-immediate-effects-of-a-dog-on-children-s-reading-performance-and-physiology
#12
Lisa Schretzmayer, Kurt Kotrschal, Andrea Beetz
Literacy is a key factor in occupational success and social integration. However, an increasing number of children lack appropriate reading skills. There is growing evidence that dogs have positive effects on reading performance. We investigated the short-term effects of dogs on reading performance in 36 third-graders and monitored physiological parameters [heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and salivary cortisol] as well as behavioral variables. Each child took part in two test sessions at the presence of a tutor, in one of which a dog and its handler were present...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672367/pupil-dilation-to-illusory-motion-in-peripheral-drift-images-perception-versus-reality
#13
Steve Beukema, Jay A Olson, Ben J Jennings, Frederick A A Kingdom
Peripheral drift is a specific type of illusory motion that causes observers to perceive motion in a static image. We aimed to determine whether pupil dilation occurs during the perception of illusory motion. In three experiments investigating pupil-size changes to peripheral drift, pupil response differences were observed between symmetric patterns (SPs) that elicited no impression of motion and repeated asymmetric patterns (RAPs) that did. All participants reported the perception of motion in the RAP condition and showed significantly greater pupil dilation to these stimuli as compared with viewing stimuli in the SP condition...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666771/physicians-psychophysiological-stress-reaction-in-medical-communication-of-bad-news-a-critical-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Regina Katharina Studer, Brigitta Danuser, Patrick Gomez
INTRODUCTION: Stress is a common phenomenon in medical professions. Breaking bad news (BBN) is reported to be a particularly distressing activity for physicians. Traditionally, the stress experienced by physicians when BBN was assessed exclusively using self-reporting. Only recently, the field of difficult physician-patient communication has used physiological assessments to better understand physicians' stress reactions. METHOD: This paper's goals are to (a) review current knowledge about the physicians' psychophysiological stress reactions in BBN situations, (b) discuss methodological aspects of these studies and (c) suggest directions for future research...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654301/an-integrative-review-of-scientific-evidence-for-reconnective-healing
#15
Ann L Baldwin, Natalie L Trent
BACKGROUND: Biofield therapies offer a novel, non-invasive approach to treating chronic diseases based on assessing and adjusting an individual's physiological and emotional responses through their bio-energetic field. Reconnective Healing(™) (RH) is defined as: "…not just energy healing, but instead a more comprehensive spectrum of healing composed of energy, light, and information." OBJECTIVES: Several biofield therapies, such as Reiki, Therapeutic Touch and Johrei, have already been reviewed in the literature but RH has received little attention even though it is taught and practiced worldwide...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649101/-aging-and-homeostasis-circadian-rhythms-and-aging
#16
Megumi Hatori
Daily rhythms of physiological and behavioral processes such as sleep and arousal are controlled by the circadian clock. The expression of the clock genes oscillate rhythmically in daily manner, and this clock oscillator resides in almost all of the cells in the body. The circadian clock entrains to diurnal environmental changes by using light and food intake as external time cues. Timing of feeding and fasting strongly affects daily rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes and key regulators of nutrient homeostasis...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646388/skin-conductance-reactivity-to-standardized-virtual-reality-combat-scenes-in-veterans-with-ptsd
#17
Mascha van 't Wout, Christopher M Spofford, William S Unger, Elizabeth B Sevin, M Tracie Shea
Interest in virtual reality (VR) as a clinical tool to augment posttraumatic stress (PTSD) treatment has grown substantially in recent years due to advances in VR technology. Moreover, its potential assisted use in the PTSD diagnostic process has been recognized. In this study we examined physiological responding, skin conductance, to a standardized presentation of non-personalized combat-related VR events (e.g. encountering enemy fire; explosions) as compared to non-combat classroom VR events in 19 Veterans with and 24 Veterans without combat-related PTSD who had been deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan...
June 23, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644698/sleep-disturbance-after-hospitalization-and-critical-illness-a-systematic-review
#18
Marcus T Altman, Melissa P Knauert, Margaret A Pisani
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance during intensive care unit (ICU) admission is common and severe. Sleep disturbance has been observed in survivors of critical illness even after transfer out of the ICU. Not only is sleep important to overall health and well-being, but patients after critical illness are also in a physiologically vulnerable state. Understanding how sleep disturbance impacts recovery from critical illness after hospital discharge is therefore clinically meaningful. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to summarize studies that identify the prevalence of and risk factors for sleep disturbance after hospital discharge for critical illness survivors...
June 23, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641938/administration-of-a-leptin-antagonist-during-the-neonatal-leptin-surge-induces-alterations-in-the-redox-and-inflammatory-state-in-peripubertal-adolescent-rats
#19
Virginia Mela, Oskarina Hernandez, Caroline Hunsche, Francisca Diaz, Julie A Chowen, Mónica De la Fuente
The importance of the neonatal leptin surge in rodents in neurodevelopmental processes has aroused curiosity in its implication in other physiological systems. Given the role of leptin in neuro-immune interactions, we hypothesized that the neonatal leptin surge could have an effect on the oxidative and inflammatory stress situations of both systems. We blocked the neonatal leptin surge by a leptin antagonist and measured several parameters of oxidative and inflammatory stress in the spleen, hypothalamus and adipose tissue of peripubertal/adolescent rats...
June 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641050/thrifty-females-frisky-males-winter-energetics-of-hibernating-bats-from-a-cold-climate
#20
Zenon J Czenze, Kristin A Jonasson, Craig K R Willis
Mammalian hibernation consists of energy-saving torpor bouts (periods of controlled reduction in body temperature [Tb]) interspersed with brief arousals to normothermic Tb. Frequency and duration of torpor bouts and arousals can affect winter survival and are thought to be influenced by an optimization balancing the energetic benefits of prolonged torpor against the physiological and ecological costs (e.g., accumulation of metabolic wastes). Female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) spend their fat reserves more slowly than males during winter, presumably so they can emerge from hibernation in good condition to initiate pregnancy...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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