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Physiologic arousal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527019/autonomic-arousal-in-anxious-and-typically-developing-youth-during-a-stressor-involving-error-feedback
#1
Michelle Rozenman, Alexandra Sturm, James T McCracken, John Piacentini
Anxiety has been proposed to influence psychophysiological reactivity in children and adolescents. However, the extant empirical literature has not always found physiological reactivity to be associated with anxiety in youth. Further, most investigations have not examined psychophysiological reactivity in real time over the course of acute stress. To test the impact of anxiety disorder status on autonomic arousal in youth, we compared youth with primary anxiety disorders (N = 24) to typically developing (TD) youth (N = 22) on heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an acute stressor in which youth received error-related feedback...
May 19, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505725/critical-dynamics-of-hopf-bifurcations-in-the-corticothalamic-system-transitions-from-normal-arousal-states-to-epileptic-seizures
#2
Dong-Ping Yang, P A Robinson
A physiologically based corticothalamic model of large-scale brain activity is used to analyze critical dynamics of transitions from normal arousal states to epileptic seizures, which correspond to Hopf bifurcations. This relates an abstract normal form quantitatively to underlying physiology that includes neural dynamics, axonal propagation, and time delays. Thus, a bridge is constructed that enables normal forms to be used to interpret quantitative data. The normal form of the Hopf bifurcations with delays is derived using Hale's theory, the center manifold theorem, and normal form analysis, and it is found to be explicitly expressed in terms of transfer functions and the sensitivity matrix of a reduced open-loop system...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493755/affect-contagion-between-mothers-and-infants-examining-valence-and-touch
#3
Sara F Waters, Tessa V West, Helena R Karnilowicz, Wendy Berry Mendes
Mothers and their babies represent one of the closest dyadic units and thus provide a powerful paradigm to examine how affective states are shared, and result in, synchronized physiologic responses between two people. We recruited mothers and their 12- to 14-month-old infants (Ndyads = 98) to complete a lab study in which mothers were initially separated from their infants and assigned to either a low-arousal positive/relaxation condition, intended to elicit parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) reactivity, or a high-arousal negative/stress task, intended to elicit sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488077/the-physiological-and-psychological-effects-of-ostracism-in-adults-with-asd
#4
Emily Trimmer, Skye McDonald, Michelle Kelly, Jacqueline Ann Rushby
Whilst some form of ostracism is experienced by most people at some point in their lives, it is experienced far more often in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is known about how this social exclusion is interpreted, experienced or managed. This study aimed to explore the psychological (mood and social needs) as well as the physiological (arousal) effects of ostracism using a well-established paradigm, Cyberball. Results demonstrated no differences between groups on social needs, however, mood was rated as more negatively by ASDs overall...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484378/rapid-physiological-fluctuations-in-nucleus-accumbens-oxygen-levels-induced-by-arousing-stimuli-relationships-with-changes-in-brain-glucose-and-metabolic-neural-activation
#5
Ernesto Solis, Keaton T Cameron-Burr, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Proper entry of oxygen from arterial blood into the brain is essential for maintaining brain metabolism under normal conditions and during functional neural activation. However, little is known about physiological fluctuations in brain oxygen and their underlying mechanisms. To address this issue, we employed high-speed amperometry with platinum oxygen sensors in freely moving male rats. Recordings were conducted in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical structure for sensorimotor integration. Rats were exposed to arousing stimuli of different nature (brief auditory tone, a 1-min novel object presentation, a 3-min social interaction with a conspecific, and a 3-min tail-pinch)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476663/a-probabilistic-template-of-human-mesopontine-tegmental-nuclei-from-in-vivo-7-t-mri
#6
REVIEW
Marta Bianciardi, Christian Strong, Nicola Toschi, Brian L Edlow, Bruce Fischl, Emery N Brown, Bruce R Rosen, Lawrence L Wald
Mesopontine tegmental nuclei such as the cuneiform, pedunculotegmental, oral pontine reticular, paramedian raphe and caudal linear raphe nuclei, are deep brain structures involved in arousal and motor function. Dysfunction of these nuclei is implicated in the pathogenesis of disorders of consciousness and sleep, as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. However, their localization in conventional neuroimages of living humans is difficult due to limited image sensitivity and contrast, and a stereotaxic probabilistic neuroimaging template of these nuclei in humans does not exist...
May 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470361/use-of-biotechnology-devices-to-analyse-fatigue-process-in-swimming-training
#7
V J Clemente-Suárez, J J Arroyo-Toledo
The aim of the present research was to analyze the acute psycho-physiological response during a high intensity interval training (HIIT) session of trained swimmers. We analyzed blood lactate concentration, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), arms isometric strength, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and cortical arousal before and after a HIIT session in 14 trained swimmers (16.2 ± 2.6 years 169.1 ± 10.2 cm 61.3 ± 9.9 kg). HIIT session consisted in: 4 × 10 m tethered swimming resting 90 s between sets, 3 min rest, 16 × 25 m maximum speed swimming resting 30 s between sets...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452564/emotional-processes-in-risky-and-multiattribute-health-decisions
#8
Stephanie M Carpenter, Paula M Niedenthal
OBJECTIVE: Here, we develop an integrative account of the roles of emotion in decision-making. In Part I, we illustrate how emotional inputs into decisions may rely on physiological signals from emotions experienced while making the decision, and we review evidence suggesting that the failure to represent the emotional meaning of options can often reduce decision quality. We propose that health-related decrements in the ability to generate emotional reactions lead people to inaccurately represent emotional responses and compromise decisions, particularly about risk...
April 28, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452286/clock-gene-expression-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-of-hibernating-arctic-ground-squirrels
#9
Tomoko Ikeno, Cory T Williams, C Loren Buck, Brian M Barnes, Lily Yan
Most organisms have a circadian system, entrained to daily light-dark cycles, that regulates 24-h rhythms of physiology and behavior. It is unclear, however, how circadian systems function in animals that exhibit seasonal metabolic suppression, particularly when this coincides with the long-term absence of a day-night cycle. The arctic ground squirrel, Urocytellus parryii, is a medium-sized, semi-fossorial rodent that appears above-ground daily during its short active season in spring and summer before re-entering a constantly dark burrow for 6 to 9 months of hibernation...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451904/anxiety-sensitivity-predicts-increased-perceived-exertion-during-a-1-mile-walk-test-among-treatment-seeking-smokers
#10
Samantha G Farris, Lisa A Uebelacker, Richard A Brown, Lawrence H Price, Julie Desaulniers, Ana M Abrantes
Smoking increases risk of early morbidity and mortality, and risk is compounded by physical inactivity. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety-relevant somatic sensations) is a cognitive factor that may amplify the subjective experience of exertion (effort) during exercise, subsequently resulting in lower engagement in physical activity. We examined the effect of anxiety sensitivity on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physiological arousal (heart rate) during a bout of exercise among low-active treatment-seeking smokers...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444963/the-influence-of-frontal-alpha-asymmetry-on-the-processing-of-approach-and-withdrawal-related-stimuli-a-multichannel-psychophysiology-study
#11
Dirk Adolph, Michael von Glischinski, André Wannemüller, Jürgen Margraf
The approach-withdrawal model of hemispheric activation suggests that left frontal cortical areas mediate approach, while right frontal cortical areas mediate withdrawal motivation. Within this framework, the present study investigates the association of frontal cortical asymmetry with attentional and emotional responses toward approach- and withdrawal-related emotional stimuli. Resting frontal asymmetry was measured from 43 students before they passively viewed negative, neutral, and positive emotional pictures...
April 26, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443015/cross-subject-eeg-feature-selection-for-emotion-recognition-using-transfer-recursive-feature-elimination
#12
Zhong Yin, Yongxiong Wang, Li Liu, Wei Zhang, Jianhua Zhang
Using machine-learning methodologies to analyze EEG signals becomes increasingly attractive for recognizing human emotions because of the objectivity of physiological data and the capability of the learning principles on modeling emotion classifiers from heterogeneous features. However, the conventional subject-specific classifiers may induce additional burdens to each subject for preparing multiple-session EEG data as training sets. To this end, we developed a new EEG feature selection approach, transfer recursive feature elimination (T-RFE), to determine a set of the most robust EEG indicators with stable geometrical distribution across a group of training subjects and a specific testing subject...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432961/diurnal-patterns-and-relationships-between-physiological-and-self-reported-stress-in-patients-with-epilepsy-and-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#13
Barbora Novakova, Peter R Harris, Markus Reuber
PURPOSE: Patients with epilepsy and those with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) experience high levels of stress and stress is one of the most frequently self-identified seizure precipitants. Although stress is a multifaceted phenomenon, few studies have systematically examined its different components in patients with seizures. The aim of this study was therefore to describe diurnal patterns of psychological and physiological measures of stress in patients with epilepsy and patients with PNES, and explore their relationships to each other in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stress and seizure occurrence in these patients...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426378/ostracism-and-physiological-arousal-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Michelle Kelly, Skye McDonald, Jacqueline Rushby
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the psychological and physiological effects of ostracism in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). RESEARCH DESIGN: A within-subject, counterbalanced design was used. The two conditions, inclusion and ostracism, were examined across two groups (between subjects). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A group of 21 adults with TBI and 17 matched controls participated in the Cyberball paradigm. This task is a computerised task that exposes participants to a game of catch and throw...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421015/music-and-its-inductive-power-a-psychobiological-and-evolutionary-approach-to-musical-emotions
#15
Mark Reybrouck, Tuomas Eerola
The aim of this contribution is to broaden the concept of musical meaning from an abstract and emotionally neutral cognitive representation to an emotion-integrating description that is related to the evolutionary approach to music. Starting from the dispositional machinery for dealing with music as a temporal and sounding phenomenon, musical emotions are considered as adaptive responses to be aroused in human beings as the product of neural structures that are specialized for their processing. A theoretical and empirical background is provided in order to bring together the findings of music and emotion studies and the evolutionary approach to musical meaning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420079/how-hyperarousal-and-sleep-reactivity-are-represented-in-different-adult-age-groups-results-from-a-large-cohort-study-on-insomnia
#16
Ellemarije Altena, Ivy Y Chen, Yannick Daviaux, Hans Ivers, Pierre Philip, Charles M Morin
Hyperarousal is a 24-h state of elevated cognitive and physiological activation, and is a core feature of insomnia. The extent to which sleep quality is affected by stressful events-so-called sleep reactivity-is a vulnerability factor for developing insomnia. Given the increasing prevalence of insomnia with age, we aimed to investigate how hyperarousal and sleep reactivity were related to insomnia severity in different adult age groups. Data were derived from a large cohort study investigating the natural history of insomnia in a population-based sample (n = 1693)...
April 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414741/effects-of-music-on-arousal-during-imagery-in-elite-shooters-a-pilot-study
#17
Garry Kuan, Tony Morris, Peter Terry
Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412613/intensified-emotion-perception-in-depression-differences-in-physiological-arousal-and-subjective-perceptions
#18
Sofia Wenzler, Marleen Hagen, Mika P Tarvainen, Marietheres Hilke, Naddy Ghirmai, Ann-Caitlin Huthmacher, Marco Trettin, Rolf van Dick, Andreas Reif, Viola Oertel-Knöchel
People suffering from depression perceive themselves and their surroundings as more negative than healthy ones. An explanation might be that depressed individuals experience negative information as more stressful than non-depressed subjects and, consequently, respond in an amplified manner on a subjective and physiological level. To test this proposition, we presented 41 patients with recurrent depressive episodes and 42 controls with stimuli from the International Affective Picture System split into three valence categories while different parameters of physiological arousal (e...
April 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409438/emotional-intelligence-buffers-the-effect-of-physiological-arousal-on-dishonesty
#19
Andrea Pittarello, Beatrice Conte, Marta Caserotti, Sara Scrimin, Enrico Rubaltelli
We studied the emotional processes that allow people to balance two competing desires: benefitting from dishonesty and keeping a positive self-image. We recorded physiological arousal (skin conductance and heart rate) during a computer card game in which participants could cheat and fail to report a certain card when presented on the screen to avoid losing their money. We found that higher skin conductance corresponded to lower cheating rates. Importantly, emotional intelligence regulated this effect; participants with high emotional intelligence were less affected by their physiological reactions than those with low emotional intelligence...
April 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408300/%C3%AE-9-nachr-knockout-mice-exhibit-dysregulation-of-stress-responses-affect-and-reward-related-behaviour
#20
Sarasa A Mohammadi, Thomas J Burton, MacDonald J Christie
The α9α10-subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has recently garnered interest in biomedicine and is being pursued as an analgesic target. However, the receptor exhibits diverse tissue distribution, the function of which is known to varying degrees, and targeting this receptor for clinical treatments without a broad understanding of its function may have adverse consequences. The α9α10-nAChR is expressed in the adrenal and pituitary glands, suggesting a potential role in the stress response, but little is known about its function in this tissue...
April 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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