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Physiologic arousal

Karina R O'Malley, Allison M Waters
Exposure therapy is a key component of efficacious treatment for anxiety. Biases in the allocation of attention towards versus away from threat assessed prior to exposure-based treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy differentially predict treatment outcomes. However, it is unclear whether monitoring versus avoiding threat stimuli influences learning during exposure. Extinction paradigms are the experimental analogue of exposure therapy. Therefore, manipulating attention towards versus away from threat during extinction trials may shed light on the role of attention during exposure therapy...
March 6, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Rebecca Jürgens, Julia Fischer, Annekathrin Schacht
Emotional expressions provide strong signals in social interactions and can function as emotion inducers in a perceiver. Although speech provides one of the most important channels for human communication, its physiological correlates, such as activations of the autonomous nervous system (ANS) while listening to spoken utterances, have received far less attention than in other domains of emotion processing. Our study aimed at filling this gap by investigating autonomic activation in response to spoken utterances that were embedded into larger semantic contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Andreas Venhorst, Dominic P Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
INTRODUCTION: A three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour emphasised the integration of distinct sensory-discriminatory, affective-motivational and cognitive-evaluative dimensions that underpin perceived fatigability. This study aimed to capture the complex interdependencies and temporal dynamics in these processes, their interrelations with observed pacing behaviour, performance and biochemical variables as well as their performance level- and competition outcome-dependent variances...
March 12, 2018: Sports Medicine
J F Tornero-Aguilera, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Previous studies have shown that actuate stress have a negative effect on working memory, visio-spatial ability and symptoms of disassociation. We conducted the present research with the aim of to analyse the effect of experience and training in psychophysiological response, attention and memory of soldiers in combat. Variables of blood lactate, blood glucose, blood oxygen saturation, body temperature, heart rate, lower body muscular strength manifestation, autonomic modulation, cortical arousal, cognitive and somatic anxiety, and memory by a post mission questionnaire were analysed before and after a combat simulation in 49 soldiers of Spanish Army...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Elena Makovac, Jonathan Smallwood, David R Watson, Frances Meeten, Hugo D Critchley, Cristina Ottaviani
Background: The Cognitive Avoidance Theory of Worry argues that worry is a cognitive strategy adopted to control the physiological arousal associated with anxiety. According to this theory, pathological worry, as in Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), is verbal in nature, negative and abstract, rather than concrete. Neuroimaging studies link the expression of worry to characteristic modes of brain functional connectivity, especially in relation to the amygdala. However, the distinctive features of worry (verbal, abstract, negative), and their relationship to physiological arousal, have not so far been mapped to brain function...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
F Vitale, A Capozzo, P Mazzone, E Scarnati
The interest in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), a structure located in the brainstem at the level of the pontomesencephalic junction, has greatly increased in recent years because it is involved in the regulation of physiological functions that fail in Parkinson's disease and because it is a promising target for deep brain stimulation in movement disorders. The PPTg is highly interconnected with the main basal ganglia nuclei and relays basal ganglia activity to thalamic and brainstem nuclei and to spinal effectors...
March 7, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Marco Aurélio Vinhosa Bastos, Paulo Roberto Haidamus de Oliveira Bastos, Igraíne Helena Scholz Osório, Sérgio Augusto Monteiro Pinheiro, Décio Iandoli, Giancarlo Lucchetti
Mediumship and spirit possession are cultural phenomena found in many societies worldwide. In Brazil, Spiritism (a tradition in which mediumship is emphasized) is the third largest religious denomination. The present study aimed to investigate physiologic correlates of nonpathological dissociative experiences by comparing 20 female spiritist mediums with several years of socially sanctioned practice to 20 female nonmedium control subjects from the same religious context. We measured plasma levels of hormones and neuroactive substances, as well as vital signs and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, before and immediately after spirit communication...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Andrew P Owens, David A Low, Hugo D Critchley, Christopher J Mathias
Cognitive and emotional processes are influenced by interoception (homeostatic somatic feedback), particularly when physiological arousal is unexpected and discrepancies between predicted and experienced interoceptive signals may engender anxiety. Due to the vulnerability for comorbid psychological symptoms in forms of orthostatic intolerance (OI), this study investigated psychophysiological contributions to emotional symptomatology in 20 healthy control participants (13 females, mean age 36 ± 8 years), 20 postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS) patients (18 females, mean age 38 ± 13 years) and 20 vasovagal syncope (VVS) patients (15 females, mean age 39 ± 12 years)...
January 31, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Mallory A Ballinger, Matthew T Andrews
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a unique thermogenic tissue in mammals that rapidly produces heat via nonshivering thermogenesis. Small mammalian hibernators have evolved the greatest capacity for BAT because they use it to rewarm from hypothermic torpor numerous times throughout the hibernation season. Although hibernator BAT physiology has been investigated for decades, recent efforts have been directed toward understanding the molecular underpinnings of BAT regulation and function using a variety of methods, from mitochondrial functional assays to 'omics' approaches...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Craig A Marquardt, Daniel J Goldman, Bruce N Cuthbert, Shmuel Lissek, Scott R Sponheim
Emotional dysfunction is evident in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet it is unclear what aspects of the disorder most directly relate to aberrant emotional responding. Also, the frequent co-occurrence of blast-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) among recently deployed U.S. military personnel complicates efforts to understand the basis for emotional disruption. We studied a cross-sectional sample (enriched for PTSD and mTBI) of 123 U.S. veterans of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. We measured subjective affective evaluations and peripheral psychophysiological responses to images with pleasant, neutral, unpleasant, and combat-related aversive content...
February 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Carlos Iglesias-Merchan, Fernando Horcajada-Sánchez, Luis Diaz-Balteiro, Gema Escribano-Ávila, Carlos Lara-Romero, Emilio Virgós, Aimara Planillo, Isabel Barja
Anthropogenic noise is a growing ubiquitous and pervasive pollutant as well as a recognised stressor that spreads throughout natural ecosystems. However, there is still an urgent need for the assessment of noise impact on natural ecosystems. This article presents a multidisciplinary study which made it possible to isolate noise due to road traffic to evaluate it as a major driver of detrimental effects on wildlife populations. A new indicator has been defined: AcED (the acoustic escape distance) and faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) were extracted from roe deer faecal samples as a validated indicator of physiological stress in animals moving around in two low-traffic roads that cross a National Park in Spain...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Ellen Laan, Yvette Zimmerman, Rik H W van Lunsen, Hanneke M M Termeer, Nicole Appels, Bart C J M Fauser, Herjan J T Coelingh Bennink
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) on sexual function, either alone or together with DHEA. STUDY DESIGN: An exploratory randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparative, crossover study was conducted in 81 OC users. Subjects discontinued their OC for one cycle before being randomized for 10cycles to a 30μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) OC or a 30μg EE/drospirenone (DRSP) OC, along with daily use of 50mg dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or placebo during 5 OC cycles before crossing over from DHEA to placebo or the reverse for another 5cycles...
February 25, 2018: Contraception
Jing Lu, Sijia Guo, Mingming Chen, Weixia Wang, Hua Yang, Daqing Guo, Dezhong Yao
Many methods have been developed to translate a human electroencephalogram (EEG) into music. In addition to EEG, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another method used to study the brain and can reflect physiological processes. In 2012, we established a method to use simultaneously recorded fMRI and EEG signals to produce EEG-fMRI music, which represents a step toward scale-free brain music. In this study, we used a neural mass model, the Jansen-Rit model, to simulate activity in several cortical brain regions...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Angus S Fisk, Shu K E Tam, Laurence A Brown, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, David M Bannerman, Stuart N Peirson
Light exerts a wide range of effects on mammalian physiology and behavior. As well as synchronizing circadian rhythms to the external environment, light has been shown to modulate autonomic and neuroendocrine responses as well as regulating sleep and influencing cognitive processes such as attention, arousal, and performance. The last two decades have seen major advances in our understanding of the retinal photoreceptors that mediate these non-image forming responses to light, as well as the neural pathways and molecular mechanisms by which circadian rhythms are generated and entrained to the external light/dark (LD) cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Mark W Wiggins, Edward Whincup, Jaime C Auton
Process control environments are characterised by rapid changes in work demands, the successful response to which is dependent upon the availability of cognitive resources. Since high cue utilisation is associated with a reduction in cognitive load and a consequent release of residual resources, it was hypothesised that participants with high cue utilisation would experience lower subjective arousal and lower physiological effort in response to increases in the work demands associated with a simulated rail control task...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Akiko Tsujisaka, Shingo Haraki, Shigeru Nonoue, Akira Mikami, Hiroyoshi Adachi, Takahiro Mizumori, Hirofumi Yatani, Atsushi Yoshida, Takafumi Kato
PURPOSE: Concomitant occurrence of respiratory events can be often overlooked in the clinical practice of SB. This study assessed physiological characteristics of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) and concomitant respiratory events in young SB subjects asymptomatic to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Twenty-two subjects (age: 24.1±1.9years; F 8: M 14; BMI: 20.2±1.9kg/m2 ) were polysomnographically diagnosed as moderate-severe SB. Sleep architecture, oromotor (RMMA and non-specific masseter activity [NSMA]) and apnea/hypopnea events were scored...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
Garry Kuan, Tony Morris, Yee Cheng Kueh, Peter C Terry
Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
Chris D Turnbull
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder and is associated with cardiovascular disease. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), whilst reducing blood pressure, has not been shown to reduce cardiovascular events when used as a treatment solely for this purpose in patients with previous cardiovascular disease. Developing a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease in OSA is important to develop new treatments. Potential causative mechanisms for cardiovascular disease in OSA include arousal induced sympathetic activation, large intrathoracic pressure swings leading to shear stress on the heart and great vessels, and intermittent hypoxia (IH)...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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