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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343323/post-traumatic-sleep-wake-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Tatyana Mollayeva, Andrea D'Souza, Shirin Mollayeva, Angela Colantonio
All living organisms that face a traumatic life event are susceptible to sleep-wake disturbances. Stress, which can result in trauma, evokes a high level of physiological arousal associated with sympathetic nervous system activation, during both sleep and wakefulness. Heredity, sex hormones, early losses, developmental factors and intra- and interpersonal conflicts, contribute to the level of baseline physiological arousal, producing either subclinical, clinical or complex clinical traits, acutely and at any time after exposure to a traumatic event...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338233/unraveling-the-roles-of-orienting-and-inhibition-in-the-concealed-information-test
#2
Nathalie Klein Selle, Bruno Verschuere, Merel Kindt, Ewout Meijer, Gershon Ben-Shakhar
The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a well-validated tool for physiological and behavioral detection of concealed knowledge. Two distinct theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain the differential responses to the concealed critical items: orienting response theory versus arousal inhibition theory. klein Selle, Verschuere, Kindt, Meijer, and Ben-Shakhar (2016), however, argued for a response fractionation model and showed that, while the skin conductance reflects pure orienting, both the respiratory and heart rate measures reflect arousal inhibition...
April 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334633/now-or-not-now-the-influence-of-alexithymia-on-intertemporal-decision-making
#3
Cristina Scarpazza, Manuela Sellitto, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
Optimal intertemporal decisions arise from the balance between an emotional-visceral component, signaling the need for immediate gratification, and a rational, long-term oriented component. Alexithymia, a personality construct characterized by amplified sensitivity to internal bodily signals of arousal, may result in enhanced activation of the emotional-visceral component over the cognitive-rational one. To test this hypothesis, participants with high- and low-alexithymia level were compared at an intertemporal decision-making task, and their choice behavior correlated with their interoceptive sensitivity...
March 20, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332019/comparative-tissue-transcriptomics-highlights-dynamic-differences-among-tissues-but-conserved-metabolic-transcript-prioritization-in-preparation-for-arousal-from-torpor
#4
Lori K Bogren, Katharine R Grabek, Gregory S Barsh, Sandra L Martin
During the hibernation season, 13-lined ground squirrels spend days to weeks in torpor with body temperatures near freezing then spontaneously rewarm. The molecular drivers of the drastic physiological changes that orchestrate and permit torpor are not well understood. Although transcription effectively ceases at the low body temperatures of torpor, previous work has demonstrated that some transcripts are protected from bulk degradation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), consistent with the importance of their protein products for metabolic heat generation during arousal from torpor...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326861/cutaneous-applied-nano-zno-reduce-the-ability-of-hair-follicle-stem-cells-to-differentiate
#5
Wei Ge, Yong Zhao, Fang-Nong Lai, Jing-Cai Liu, Yuan-Chao Sun, Jun-Jie Wang, Shun-Feng Cheng, Xi-Feng Zhang, Li-Lan Sun, Lan Li, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen
The ability of metal oxide nanoparticles to penetrate the skin has aroused a great deal of interest during the past decade due to concerns over the safety of topically applied sunscreens that contain physical UV-resistant metal particles, such as nano-Zinc oxide (nZnO). Previous studies demonstrate that metal oxide nanoparticles accumulate in skin furrows and hair follicles following topical application while little is known about the consequence of these nanoparticles on skin homeostasis. The current investigation tested the effects of nZnO (0...
March 22, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326438/parent-perceptions-of-child-weight-status-in-mexican-origin-immigrant-families-an-investigation-of-acculturation-stress-and-coping-factors
#6
Dorothy L McLeod, Carolyn R Bates, Amy M Heard, Amy M Bohnert, Catherine DeCarlo Santiago
Parents often underestimate their child's weight status, particularly when the child is overweight or obese. This study examined acculturation, stress, coping, and involuntary responses to stress and their relation to estimation of child's weight status among Mexican-origin immigrant families. Eighty-six families provided data on child's height and weight, caregiver's perception of their child's weight status, and caregiver's responses to acculturation, stress, and coping scales. Parents underestimated their child's weight status, particularly when the child was overweight or obese...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324159/hibernation-based-blood-loss-therapy-increases-survivability-of-lethal-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#7
Cecilia E Perez de Lara Rodriguez, Lester R Drewes, Matthew T Andrews
A small-volume (1 ml/kg) resuscitation fluid based on metabolic adaptations in hibernating mammals was optimized using a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. A previous study of this therapy tested only one concentration of three specific components: 4 M D-stereoisomer of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), 43 mM melatonin, and 20% DMSO. In this study, we considered the range of concentrations of BHB and melatonin seen during the physiological extremes of rapid arousal from hypothermic torpor in natural hibernators and applied these to the non-hibernating Sprague-Dawley rat model...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322458/reduced-positive-emotion-and-underarousal-are-uniquely-associated-with-subclinical-depression-symptoms-evidence-from-psychophysiology-self-report-and-symptom-clusters
#8
Stephen D Benning, Belel Ait Oumeziane
Multiple models of aberrant emotional processing in depression have been advanced. However, it is unclear which of these models best applies to emotional disturbances in subclinical depressive symptoms. The current study employed a battery of psychophysiological measures and emotional ratings in a picture-viewing paradigm to examine whether the underarousal, low positive emotion, heightened negative emotion, or emotion context insensitivity model of emotional dysfunction in subclinical depressive symptoms received greatest support...
March 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300639/sliding-window-analysis-tracks-fluctuations-in-amygdala-functional-connectivity-associated-with-physiological-arousal-and-vigilance-during-fear-conditioning
#9
Blazej M Baczkowski, Tom Johnstone, Henrik Walter, Susanne Erk, Ilya M Veer
We evaluated whether sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant brain network dynamics during a well-established fear conditioning paradigm. To this end, we tested if fMRI fluctuations in amygdala functional connectivity (FC) can be related to task-induced changes in physiological arousal and vigilance, as reflected in the skin conductance level (SCL). Thirty-two healthy individuals participated in the study. For the sliding-window analysis we used windows that were shifted by one volume at a time...
March 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298876/does-reading-words-differing-in-arousal-load-influence-interference-control-in-flanker-task
#10
Kamil K Imbir
Arousal involves a physiological and psychological state of being awake or reactive to stimuli. It could be treated also as an energetic property of stimulation. On the basis of previous findings concerning affective state modulation of spatial processing, I predict that arousal impact will follow the Yerkes-Dodson law. To test this hypothesis, 135 words were chosen and divided into three levels of arousal (low, medium and high), whilst controlling for valence, concreteness, frequency of appearance and length...
2017: Current Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292685/high-endogenous-estradiol-is-associated-with-enhanced-cognitive-emotion-regulation-of-physiological-conditioned-fear-responses-in-women
#11
Bronwyn M Graham, Catherine Ash, Miriam L Den
The sex hormone estradiol has a modifying role in the underlying neurobiology of cognitive emotion regulation, although whether estradiol is associated with outcomes of techniques like cognitive restructuring is unknown. In the present study 34 women with regular menstrual cycles participated in a one-day differential fear conditioning procedure. Women then received cognitive restructuring training, involving the reappraisal of their initial thoughts about the conditioning procedure to reduce their emotional responses, before repeating the conditioning procedure...
February 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284776/neural-underpinnings-of-prosexual-effects-induced-by-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-in-healthy-male-humans
#12
Oliver G Bosch, Michael M Havranek, Andrea Baumberger, Katrin H Preller, Robin von Rotz, Marcus Herdener, Rainer Kraehenmann, Philipp Staempfli, Milan Scheidegger, Tim Klucken, Erich Seifritz, Boris B Quednow
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist currently used as treatment for narcolepsy but also as a drug of abuse. Non-medical GHB users have repeatedly reported prosexual effects including libido-enhancement and lowering of attractiveness standards for partner selection. Here, we examined the putative prosexual effects of oral GHB in healthy males in two experiments both employing randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, and cross-over study designs. In experiment I, subjective effects of 20 and 35mg/kg GHB vs...
March 8, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278737/the-tell-tale-heart-physiological-reactivity-during-resolution-of-ambiguity-in-youth-anxiety
#13
Michelle Rozenman, Allison Vreeland, Marisela Iglesias, Melissa Mendez, John Piacentini
In the past decade, cognitive biases and physiological arousal have each been proposed as mechanisms through which paediatric anxiety develops and is maintained over time. Preliminary studies have found associations between anxious interpretations of ambiguity, physiological arousal, and avoidance, supporting theories that link cognition, psychophysiology, and behaviour. However, little is known about the relationship between youths' resolutions of ambiguity and physiological arousal during acute stress. Such information may have important clinical implications for use of verbal self-regulation strategies and cognitive restructuring during treatments for paediatric anxiety...
February 16, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274820/histamine-induces-kcnq-channel-dependent-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-hippocampus-via-activation-of-the-h1-receptor
#14
Richard Andersson, Dagmar Galter, Daniela Papadia, André Fisahn
Histamine is an aminergic neurotransmitter, which regulates wakefulness, arousal and attention in the central nervous system. Histamine receptors have been the target of efforts to develop pro-cognitive drugs to treat disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Cognitive functions including attention are closely associated with gamma oscillations, a rhythmical electrical activity pattern in the 30-80 Hz range, which depends on the synchronized activity of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory fast-spiking interneurons...
March 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274137/post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-pathological-gambling-potential-evidence-of-anti-reward-processes
#15
Cheryl L Green, Ramzi W Nahhas, Arielle A Scoglio, Igor Elman
Background Excessive gambling is considered to be a part of the addiction spectrum. Stress-like emotional states are a key feature both of pathological gambling (PG) and of substance addiction. In substance addiction, stress symptomatology has been attributed in part to "anti-reward" allostatic neuroadaptations, while a potential involvement of anti-reward processes in the course of PG has not yet been investigated. Methods To that end, individuals with PG (n = 22) and mentally healthy subjects (n = 13) were assessed for trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) using the Life Events Checklist and the Civilian Mississippi Scale, respectively...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269465/bivariate-autoregressive-state-space-modeling-of-psychophysiological-time-series-data
#16
Daniel M Smith, Mohammadreza Abtahi, Amir Mohammad Amiri, Kunal Mankodiya
Heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) are often used as physiological measures of psychological arousal in various neuropsychology experiments. In this exploratory study, we analyze HR and EDA data collected from four participants, each with a history of suicidal tendencies, during a cognitive task known as the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). A central aim of this investigation is to guide future research by assessing heterogeneity in the population of individuals with suicidal tendencies...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269067/on-the-pleasantness-of-a-haptic-stimulation-how-different-textures-can-be-recognized-through-heart-rate-variability-nonlinear-analysis
#17
Mimma Nardelli, Alberto Greco, Matteo Bianchi, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Gaetano Valenza
The hedonic attributes of cutaneous elicitation play a crucial role in everyday life, influencing our behavior and psychophysical state. However, the correlation between such a hedonic aspect of touch and the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)-related physiological response, which is intimately connected to emotions, still needs to be deeply investigated. This study reports on caress-like stimuli conveyed to the forearm of 32 healthy subjects through different fabrics actuated by a haptic device, which can control both the strength (i...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268648/a-mathematical-model-of-ultradian-sleep-wake-regulation-in-rodents
#18
Hao Wang, Farid Yaghouby, Sridhar Sunderam
Rodent models are widely used for the experimental analysis of sleep. While this is motivated by similarities in brain circuitry and electrophysiological rhythms, unlike the circadian sleep-wake cycle in humans, rodent sleep is polyphasic, containing multiple bouts of sleep and wake minutes to hours in duration over the course of a day. Each sleep bout is punctuated by several brief arousals several seconds to minutes long. Physiologically motivated mathematical models replicate the shorter timescale of arousal within sleep, but not the longer one representing prolonged wakefulness...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268457/gaussian-process-dynamical-models-for-multimodal-affect-recognition
#19
Hernan F Garcia, Mauricio A Alvarez, Alvaro A Orozco
Affective computing systems has a great potential in applications for biofeedback systems and cognitive conductual therapies. Here, by analyzing the physiological behavior of a given subject, we can infer the affective state of an emotional process. Since, emotions can be modeled as dynamic manifestations of these signals, a continuous analysis in the valence/arousal space, brings more information of the affective state related to an emotional process. In this paper we propose a method for dynamic affect recognition from multimodal physiological signals...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254094/recognition-of-emotions-using-multimodal-physiological-signals-and-an-ensemble-deep-learning-model
#20
Zhong Yin, Mengyuan Zhao, Yongxiong Wang, Jingdong Yang, Jianhua Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Using deep-learning methodologies to analyze multimodal physiological signals becomes increasingly attractive for recognizing human emotions. However, the conventional deep emotion classifiers may suffer from the drawback of the lack of the expertise for determining model structure and the oversimplification of combining multimodal feature abstractions. METHODS: In this study, a multiple-fusion-layer based ensemble classifier of stacked autoencoder (MESAE) is proposed for recognizing emotions, in which the deep structure is identified based on a physiological-data-driven approach...
March 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
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