keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Physiologic arousal

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893668/learning-mechanisms-underlying-threat-absence-and-threat-relief-influences-of-trait-anxiety
#1
Marta Andreatta, Paul Pauli
Impaired safety learning has been proposed as a risk factor for anxiety disorders, but safety can be indicated by either threat absence or threat termination (i.e., relief). Here, we investigated the role of trait anxiety for both kinds of safety learning. Ninety-one participants underwent an acquisition phase during which one shape (threatCS) predicted a painful electric shock (unconditioned stimulus, US), one shape (reliefCS) followed the US, and one shape (absenceCS) became never associated with the US. In a following extinction phase, the three cues were presented again plus a control shape (controlCS)...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893567/molecular-basis-of-androgen-action-on-human-sexual-desire
#2
REVIEW
Daniele Santi, Giorgia Spaggiari, Lisa Gilioli, Francesco Potì, Manuela Simoni, Livio Casarini
Reproduction is a fundamental process for the species maintenance and the propagation of genetic information. The energy expenditure for mating is overtaken by motivational stimuli, such as orgasm, finely regulated by steroid hormones, gonadotropins, neurotransmitters and molecules acting in the brain and peripheral organs. These functions are often investigated using animal models and translated to humans, where the androgens action is mediated by nuclear and membrane receptors converging in the regulation of both long-term genomic and rapid non-genomic signals...
September 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886468/do-drives-drive-the-train-of-thought-effects-of-hunger-and-sexual-arousal-on-mind-wandering-behavior
#3
Jan Rummel, Laura Nied
Physiological needs that are currently unfulfilled are known to affect human cognition and behavior. The present study investigates whether and how the temporary activation of two primary physiological needs, namely hunger and sexual arousal, influence both the frequency and the contents of mind-wandering episodes. To induce hunger, one group of participants fasted for a minimum of five hours whereas another group of participants was exposed to audio material with explicit sexual content to provoke sexual arousal...
September 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874450/hypothalamic-tuberomammillary-nucleus-neurons-electrophysiological-diversity-and-essential-role-in-arousal-stability
#4
Akie Fujita, Patricia Bonnavion, Miryam H Wilson, Laura E Mickelsen, Julien Bloit, Luis de Lecea, Alexander C Jackson
Histaminergic (HA) neurons, found in the posterior hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), extend fibers throughout the brain and exert modulatory influence over numerous physiological systems. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the activity of HA neurons is important in the regulation of vigilance despite the lack of direct, causal evidence demonstrating its requirement for the maintenance of arousal during wakefulness. Given the strong correlation between HA neuron excitability and behavioral arousal, we investigated both the electrophysiological diversity of HA neurons in brain slices and the effect of their acute silencing in vivo in male mice...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866813/psychophysiological-reactivity-in-couples-during-a-marital-interaction-task
#5
J Coutinho, P Oliveira-Silva, A R Mesquita, M Barbosa, K M Perrone-McGovern, O F Gonçalves
The ability to regulate our own physiological arousal when dealing with the emotional expression of our partner is crucial for satisfactory and stable intimate relationships. In previous physiological studies of marital interactions, researchers have found greater levels of psychophysiological arousal for members of the couple in conflictual interactions in comparison with positive interactions. Past researchers have established that intense and prolonged autonomic and neuroendocrine arousal during marital conflict can have negative consequences for mental and physical health...
September 2, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861510/cannabidiol-does-not-dampen-responses-to-emotional-stimuli-in-healthy-adults
#6
David L Arndt, Harriet de Wit
Introduction: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive constituent of whole plant cannabis that has been reported to reduce anxiety-like behaviors in both pre-clinical and human laboratory studies. Yet, no controlled clinical studies have demonstrated its ability to reduce negative mood or dampen responses to negative emotional stimuli in humans. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of CBD on responses to negative emotional stimuli, as a model for its potential anxiety-reducing effects. Materials and Methods: The study used a double-blind, placebo (PLB)-controlled, within-subjects design in which 38 healthy, drug-free participants consumed oral CBD (300, 600, and 900 mg) or PLB before completing several behavioral tasks selected to assess reactivity to negative stimuli...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858037/electroencephalogram-characteristics-during-possession-trances-in-healthy-individuals
#7
Norie Kawai, Manabu Honda, Emi Nishina, Reiko Yagi, Tsutomu Oohashi
Despite intensive studies on cerebral activity during trances involving tranquil arousal states, there are little data on physiological basis of naturally induced possession trances involving hyperarousal active states because of the difficulty of gathering data from participants within a natural cultural context in the field. We investigated the characteristics of electroencephalograms (EEGs) that were specific for naturally induced possession trances involving hyperarousal states in actual rituals. We measured the EEG signals of 12 healthy participants, seven with trance and five without trance, before, during, and after a dedicatory ritual drama in Bali, Indonesia, using a custom-modified field telemetry system...
August 28, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857909/affective-adaptation-to-repeated-sit-and-mict-protocols-in-insulin-resistant-subjects
#8
Tiina Saanijoki, Lauri Nummenmaa, Mikko Koivumäki, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Kari K Kalliokoski, Jarna C Hannukainen
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate affective responses to repeated sessions of sprint interval training (SIT) in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in insulin resistant subjects. METHODS: Twenty-six insulin resistant adults (age: 49 (4) years, 10 women) were randomized into SIT (n=13) or MICT (n=13) groups. Subjects completed six supervised training sessions within 2 weeks (SIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4-min recovery; MICT session: 40-60 min at 60% peak work load)...
August 29, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842335/concurrently-suppressing-multidrug-resistance-and-metastasis-of-breast-cancer-by-co-delivery-of-paclitaxel-and-honokiol-with-ph-sensitive-polymeric-micelles
#9
Ziqi Wang, Xinru Li, Dishi Wang, Yang Zou, Xiaoyou Qu, Chuyu He, Yunqiang Deng, Yao Jin, Yuanhang Zhou, Yanxia Zhou, Yan Liu
To concurrently suppress multidrug resistance (MDR) and metastasis of breast cancer cells, paclitaxel (PTX) and honokiol (HNK) were coencapsulated into pH-sensitive polymeric micelles based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-poly(D, L-lactide) (PEOz-PLA). The physicochemical properties of dual drug-loaded PEOz-PLA micelles were characterized in size, drug loading and in vitro release. The efficiency of MDR reversal for the micelles was testified by synergetic enhancement of cytotoxicity and uptake by MCF-7/ADR cells...
August 22, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837956/physiological-mechanisms-of-prosociality
#10
REVIEW
Jonas G Miller
Psychophysiological perspectives can provide unique insights into the nature and motivations of children's prosociality and inform our understanding of individual differences. Here, I review current research on prosociality involving some of the most common physiological measures in developmental psychology, including cortisol, various sympathetic nervous system measures, and high-frequency heart rate variability. The literature has been quite mixed, in part because the link between physiology and prosociality is context-dependent and person-dependent...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835446/white-nose-syndrome-increases-torpid-metabolic-rate-and-evaporative-water-loss-in-hibernating-bats
#11
Liam P McGuire, Heather W Mayberry, Craig K R Willis
Fungal diseases of wildlife typically manifest as superficial skin infections but can have devastating consequences for host physiology and survival. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal skin disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats in North America since 2007. Infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes bats to rewarm too often during hibernation, but the cause of increased arousal rates remains unknown. Based on data from studies of captive and free-living bats, two mechanistic models have been proposed to explain disease processes in WNS...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835409/towards-a-three-dimensional-framework-of-centrally-regulated-and-goal-directed-exercise-behaviour-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Andreas Venhorst, Dominic Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
The Central Governor Model (CGM) ignited a paradigm shift from concepts of catastrophic failure towards central regulation of exercise performance. However, the CGM has focused on the central integration of afferent feedback in homeostatic control. Accordingly, it neglected the important role of volitional self-regulatory control and the integration of affective components inherently attached to all physiological cues. Another limitation is the large reliance on the Gestalt phenomenon of perceived exertion...
August 23, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830740/how-do-psychological-risk-factors-predict-sexual-outcomes-a%C3%A2-comparison-of-four-models-of-young-women-s-sexual-outcomes
#13
Jessica S Tutino, Allison J Ouimet, Krystelle Shaughnessy
BACKGROUND: Recent research findings suggest that women who report high anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of physiologic sensations associated with anxiety) also report increased sexual dysfunction and decreased sexual satisfaction. Moreover, findings suggest that maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) can contribute to the relation between AS and psychological distress, thereby indirectly influencing sexual outcomes. Identifying relations among these variables and how they specifically relate to sexual outcomes could be vital for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830686/multistability-in-the-corticothalamic-system
#14
Paula Sanz-Leon, P A Robinson
Neural field theory of the corticothalamic system is used to analyze the properties of its steady-state solutions, including their linear stability, in the parameter space of synaptic couplings for physiological parameter ranges representing normal arousal waking states in adult humans. The independent connections of the corticothalamic model define an eight-dimensional parameter space, while specific combinations of these connections parameterize intracortical, corticothalamic, and intrathalamic loops. Multistable regions are systematically identified and the existence of up to five steady-state solutions is confirmed, up to three of which are linearly stable...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828218/recruitment-of-orbitofrontal-cortex-during-unpredictable-threat-among-adults-at-risk-for-affective-disorders
#15
Namik Kirlic, Robin L Aupperle, Masaya Misaki, Rayus Kuplicki, Ruben P Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Mood and anxiety disorders are characterized by altered prefrontal-amygdala function and increased behavioral inhibition (BI) in response to potential threat. Whether these alterations constitute a vulnerability or a symptom of illness remains unclear. The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is thought to play a central role in estimating probability and cost of threat, in turn informing selection of subsequent behaviors. To better understand the behavioral and neural processes that may be associated with risk for psychopathology, we used a virtual reality paradigm to examine behavioral and neural responses of psychiatrically healthy adults with familial history of affective disorders during anticipation of unpredictable threat...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818154/physiology-based-modeling-may-predict-surgical-treatment-outcome-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#16
Yanru Li, Jingying Ye, Demin Han, Xin Cao, Xiu Ding, Yuhuan Zhang, Wen Xu, Jeremy Orr, Rachel Jen, Scott Sands, Atul Malhotra, Robert Owens
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To test whether the integration of both anatomical and nonanatomical parameters (ventilatory control, arousal threshold, muscle responsiveness) in a physiology-based model will improve the ability to predict outcomes after upper airway surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: In 31 patients who underwent upper airway surgery for OSA, loop gain and arousal threshold were calculated from preoperative polysomnography (PSG). Three models were compared: (1) a multiple regression based on an extensive list of PSG parameters alone; (2) a multivariate regression using PSG parameters plus PSG-derived estimates of loop gain, arousal threshold, and other trait surrogates; (3) a physiological model incorporating selected variables as surrogates of anatomical and nonanatomical traits important for OSA pathogenesis...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818142/psychophysiological-assessment-in-pilots-performing-challenging-simulated-and-real-flight-maneuvers
#17
Bernd Johannes, Stefanie Rothe, André Gens, Soeren Westphal, Katja Birkenfeld, Edwin Mulder, Jörn Rittweger, Carla Ledderhos
BACKGROUND: The objective assessment of psychophysiological arousal during challenging flight maneuvers is of great interest to aerospace medicine, but remains a challenging task. In the study presented here, a vector-methodological approach was used which integrates different psychophysiological variables, yielding an integral arousal index called the Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). METHODS: The arousal levels of 15 male pilots were assessed during predetermined, well-defined flight maneuvers performed under simulated and real flight conditions...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809834/quantifying-infra-slow-dynamics-of-spectral-power-and-heart-rate-in-sleeping-mice
#18
Laura M J Fernandez, Sandro Lecci, Romain Cardis, Gil Vantomme, Elidie Béard, Anita Lüthi
Three vigilance states dominate mammalian life: wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and REM sleep. As more neural correlates of behavior are identified in freely moving animals, this three-fold subdivision becomes too simplistic. During wakefulness, ensembles of global and local cortical activities, together with peripheral parameters such as pupillary diameter and sympathovagal balance, define various degrees of arousal. It remains unclear the extent to which sleep also forms a continuum of brain states-within which the degree of resilience to sensory stimuli and arousability, and perhaps other sleep functions, vary gradually-and how peripheral physiological states co-vary...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781048/drosophila-cry-entrains-clocks-in-body-tissues-to-light-and-maintains-passive-membrane-properties-in-a-non-clock-body-tissue-independent-of-light
#19
Parul Agrawal, Jerry H Houl, Kushan L Gunawardhana, Tianxin Liu, Jian Zhou, Mark J Zoran, Paul E Hardin
Circadian (∼24 hr) clocks regulate daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior via cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops. In Drosophila, the blue-light photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) synchronizes these feedback loops to light:dark cycles by binding to and degrading TIMELESS (TIM) protein. CRY also acts independently of TIM in Drosophila to alter potassium channel conductance in arousal neurons after light exposure, and in many animals CRY acts independently of light to repress rhythmic transcription...
August 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780176/memory-detection-the-effects-of-emotional-stimuli
#20
Nathalie Klein Selle, Bruno Verschuere, Merel Kindt, Ewout Meijer, Tal Nahari, Gershon Ben-Shakhar
The Concealed Information Test (CIT) aims to detect the presence of crime-related information in memory. In two experiments, we examined the influence of stimulus emotionality on the outcomes of the CIT. In experiment 1, each participant was tested immediately or after one week, on a series of neutral and either negative arousing or negative non-arousing pictures. CIT detection efficiency was unaffected, but physiological and recognition data did not support the manipulation's effectiveness. In experiment 2, each participant was tested after a week on a series of neutral versus negative arousing pictures...
August 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
keyword
keyword
71042
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"