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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931220/race-ethnicity-and-the-pharmacogenetics-of-reported-suicidality-with-efavirenz-among-clinical-trials-participants
#1
Katie R Mollan, Camlin Tierney, Jacklyn N Hellwege, Joseph J Eron, Michael G Hudgens, Roy M Gulick, Richard Haubrich, Paul E Sax, Thomas B Campbell, Eric S Daar, Kevin R Robertson, Diana Ventura, Qing Ma, Digna R Velez Edwards, David W Haas
Background: We examined associations between suicidality and genotypes that predict plasma efavirenz exposure among AIDS Clinical Trials Group study participants in the United States. Methods: Four clinical trials randomly assigned treatment-naive participants to efavirenz-containing regimens; suicidality was defined as reported suicidal ideation or attempted or completed suicide. Genotypes that predict plasma efavirenz exposure were defined by CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 polymorphisms...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931206/metabolic-engineering-a-yeast-to-produce-astaxanthin
#2
Yu-Ju Lin, Jui-Jen Chang, Hao-Yeh Lin, Caroline Thia, Yi-Ying Kao, Chieh-Chen Huang, Wen-Hsiung Li
In this study, an astaxanthin-biosynthesis Kluyveromyces marxianus strain Sm23 was first constructed, which could produce 31µg/g DCW astaxanthin. Then, repeated genome integration of the key astaxanthin biosynthesis genes Hpchyb and bkt was done to increase gene copy number and astaxanthin yield. Four improved strains were obtained and the yield of astaxanthin and the total yield of carotenoids in a strain increased with the copy numbers of Hpchyb and bkt. To improve the yield further, the gene Hpchyb from Haematococcus pluvialis was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to increase the enzyme efficiency or/and to prevent the heterologous protein degradation by ubiquitination...
July 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931177/effects-of-aldosterone-on-chemerin-expression-and-secretion-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#3
Junhua Ma, Fei Sun, Jingnan Wang, He Jiang, Jiancan Lu, Xing Wang, Jichen Zhang, Chao Shi, Wen You, Xiangqi Li, Hongling Zhu, Mingjun Gu
Aldosterone plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. Chemerin has been characterized as an adipokine with crucial roles in obesity-associated disorders and cardiovascular homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the direct effects of aldosterone on chemerin expression and secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and to identify the potential signalling pathways involved. Chemerin mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR, whereas the levels of secreted chemerin in the culture media were determined using ELISA...
September 20, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931175/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-patients-with-acromegaly
#4
Jowita Halupczok-Żyła, Aleksandra Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Marek Skrzypski, Mathias Z Strowski, Marek Bolanowski
Introduction The goal of the study was to investigate fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) levels in acromegalic patients in relation to the disease activity and to compare them with controls. Further, we aimed to evaluate the associations between FGF-21 and random growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), metabolic and anthropometric parameters. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 50 acromegalic patients divided into 3 subgroups on the basis of disease activity (AA - active acromegaly, CD - controlled disease, CA - cured acromegaly)...
September 20, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931154/differentially-expressed-proteins-from-the-peritrophic-membrane-related-to-the-lethal-synergistic-mechanisms-observed-in-hyphantria-cunea-larvae-treated-with-a-mixture-of-bt-and-chlorbenzuron
#5
Ming Xu, Fuyuan Xu, Xiaoqin Wu
Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an important forest insect pest around the world. It attacks a variety of broad-leaf trees. It has caused serious economic and ecological damage to its new habitats. A mixture of Bt and chlorbenzuron has a higher toxicity and faster killed than those of either agent alone to the 4th instar larvae of H. cunea both by the lab and field test results, and the toxic effect of the mixture treatment was significantly enhanced. Using proteomics technology, including SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS, we analyzed differentially expressed proteins of the peritrophic membrane (PM) of the 4th instar larvae of H...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931076/ghrelin-mediated-inhibition-of-the-tsh-stimulated-function-of-differentiated-human-thyrocytes-ex-vivo
#6
Maria Barington, Marianne Møller Brorson, Jacob Hofman-Bang, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Birgitte Holst, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced mainly in the gastrointestinal tract known to regulate several physiological functions including gut motility, adipose tissue accumulation and hunger sensation leading to increased bodyweight. Studies have found a correlation between the plasma levels of thyroid hormones and ghrelin, but an effect of ghrelin on the human thyroid has never been investigated even though ghrelin receptors are present in the thyroid. The present study shows a ghrelin-induced decrease in the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-induced production of thyroglobulin and mRNA expression of thyroperoxidase in a primary culture of human thyroid cells obtained from paranodular tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931036/quantifiable-effects-of-regular-exercise-on-zinc-status-in-a-healthy-population-a-systematic-review
#7
Anna Chu, Trishala Varma, Peter Petocz, Samir Samman
Zinc is an essential mineral of which its functions have potential implications on exercise performance and beneficial adaptations of physical activity. While the effects of aerobic exercise on zinc metabolism acutely have been well described, the effect of long-term exercise training on zinc status remains unclear. The present review aims to determine the effects of exercise training on markers of zinc status in an apparently healthy adult population. We conducted a systematic literature search on PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Library from inception to 28 January 2016 to identify interventional or cohort studies that investigated the effects of exercise training on indices of zinc status...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931006/up-regulation-of-calreticulin-in-mouse-liver-tissues-after-long-term-irradiation-with-low-dose-rate-gamma-rays
#8
Lan Yi, Nan Hu, Jie Yin, Jing Sun, Hongxiang Mu, Keren Dai, Dexin Ding
The biological effects of low-dose or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation on normal tissues has attracted attention. Based on previous research, we observed the morphology of liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice that received <50, 50-500, and 500-1000 μGy/h of 137Cs radiation for 180 d. We found that the pathological changes in liver tissues were more obvious as the irradiation dose rates increased. Additionally, differential protein expression in liver tissues was analyzed using a proteomics approach. Compared with the matched group in the 2D gel analysis of the irradiated groups, 69 proteins had ≥ 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930984/high-fat-diet-feeding-and-high-throughput-triacylglyceride-assay-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Soda Balla Diop, Ryan T Birse, Rolf Bodmer
Heart disease is the number one cause of human death worldwide. Numerous studies have shown strong connections between obesity and cardiac malfunction in humans, but more tools and research efforts are needed to better elucidate the mechanisms involved. For over a century, the genetically highly tractable model of Drosophila has been instrumental in the discovery of key genes and molecular pathways that proved to be highly conserved across species. Many biological processes and disease mechanisms are functionally conserved in the fly, such as development (e...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930961/impact-of-a-novel-phosphoinositol-3-kinase-inhibitor-in-preventing-mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-accumulation-results-from-the-biochronicity-project
#10
George Edward Black, Kyle K Sokol, Donald M Moe, Jon D Simmons, David Muscat, Victor Pastukh, Gina Capley, Olena Gorodnya, Mykhaylo Ruchko, Mark B Roth, Mark Gillespie, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930955/comparison-of-compensatory-reserve-and-arterial-lactate-as-markers-of-shock-and-resuscitation
#11
Michael Craig Johnson, Abdul Alarhayem, Victor Convertino, Robert Carter, Kevin Chung, Ronald Stewart, John Myers, Daniel Dent, Lilian Liao, Ramon Cestero, Susannah Nicholson, Mark Muir, Martin Schwaca, David Wampler, Mark DeRosa, Brian J Eastridge
BACKGROUND: During traumatic hemorrhage, the ability to identify shock and intervene before decompensation is paramount to survival. Lactate is extremely sensitive to shock, and its clearance has been demonstrated a useful gauge of shock and resuscitation status. Though lactate can be measured in the field, logistical constraints render it impractical in certain environments. The compensatory reserve represents a new clinical measurement reflecting the remaining capacity to compensate for hypoperfusion...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930898/it-s-all-in-the-wrist-diagnosis-and-management-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#12
Catherine O Durham, Kathy VanRavenstein
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy accounting for 90% of similar disorders, occurring in 3.8% of the population, common in adults aged 40-60 years, and is associated with an average 32 lost days of work and lost productivity. In addition to occupational exposure, there are several common chronic disorders that can preclude CTS, obesity, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, pregnancy, metabolic syndrome, and thyroid disorder, to name a few. Therefore, it is important for the primary care provider to have knowledge in this syndrome...
September 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930880/cycling-power-outputs-predict-functional-threshold-power-and-maximum-oxygen-uptake
#13
Joshua Denham, John Scott-Hamilton, Amanda D Hagstrom, Adrian J Gray
Functional threshold power (FTP) has emerged as a correlate of lactate threshold and is commonly assessed by recreational and professional cyclists for tailored exercise programing. To identify whether results from traditional aerobic and anaerobic cycling tests could predict FTP and V˙ O2max, we analysed the association between estimated FTP, maximum oxygen uptake (V˙ O2max [mlkgmin]) and power outputs obtained from a maximal cycle ergometry cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and a 30-s Wingate test in a heterogeneous cohort of cycle-trained and untrained individuals (N=40, mean±SD; age: 32...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930869/quantifying-the-external-and-internal-loads-of-professional-rugby-league-training-modes-consideration-for-concurrent-field-based-training-prescription
#14
Dan Weaving, Ben Jones, Kevin Till, Phil Marshall, Keith Earle, Grant Abt
Practitioners prescribe numerous training modes to develop the varied physical qualities professional rugby league players must express during competition. The aim of the current study was to determine how the magnitude of external and internal training load per minute of time differs between modes in professional rugby league players. This data were collected from 17 players across 716 individual sessions (mean (SD) sessions: 42 (13) per player) which were categorised by mode (conditioning, small sided games, skills and sprint training)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930796/navigating-t-cell-immunometabolism-in-transplantation
#15
Naoki Tanimine, Laurence A Turka, Bhavana Priyadharshini
Recently, a new discipline termed "immunometabolism" has transformed the field of immunology. It encompasses the study of the intrinsic metabolic pathways of different immune subsets and their impact on cellular fate and function. For instance, broadly speaking, pro-inflammatory cells depend upon glycolysis and glutamine oxidation while cells involved in anti-inflammatory response such as Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) utilize predominantly fatty acid oxidation. However, while a useful paradigm, this actually is a reductionist view and the engagement of these metabolic pathways is not mutually exclusive between these subsets...
September 19, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930756/dynamics-of-glucose-metabolism-after-kidney-transplantation
#16
Martina Guthoff, Robert Wagner, Karoline Weichbrodt, Silvio Nadalin, Alfred Königsrainer, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche, Nils Heyne
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) impacts patient and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Prediabetes, which is an independent risk factor for PTDM, is modifiable also in a post-transplant setting. Understanding the risks and dynamics of impaired glucose metabolism after transplantation is a key component for targeted intervention. METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis of all adult non-diabetic renal allograft recipients (n=251, 2007-2014) was performed...
September 20, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930695/metabolomics-assessment-of-the-effects-of-diclofenac-exposure-on-mytilus-galloprovincialis-potential-effects-on-osmoregulation-and-reproduction
#17
Bénilde Bonnefille, Elena Gomez, Mellis Alali, David Rosain, Hélène Fenet, Frédérique Courant
The presence of pharmaceutically active compounds in aquatic environments has become a major concern over the past 20years. Elucidation of their mode of action and effects in non-target organisms is thus now a major ecotoxicological challenge. Diclofenac (DCF) is among the pharmaceutical compounds of interest based on its inclusion in the European Union Water Framework Directive Watch List. In this study, our goal was to investigate the potential of a metabolomic approach to acquire information without any a priori hypothesis about diclofenac effects on marine mussels...
September 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930674/a-protein-scaffold-coordinates-src-mediated-jnk-activation-in-response-to-metabolic-stress
#18
Shashi Kant, Claire L Standen, Caroline Morel, Dae Young Jung, Jason K Kim, Wojciech Swat, Richard A Flavell, Roger J Davis
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. How obesity contributes to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Free fatty acid (FFA) activation of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase (SRC)-dependent cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is implicated in this process. However, the mechanism that mediates SRC-dependent JNK activation is unclear. Here, we identify a role for the scaffold protein JIP1 in SRC-dependent JNK activation. SRC phosphorylation of JIP1 creates phosphotyrosine interaction motifs that bind the SH2 domains of SRC and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930657/foundations-of-immunometabolism-and-implications-for-metabolic-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Gökhan S Hotamisligil
Highly ordered interactions between immune and metabolic responses are evolutionarily conserved and paramount for tissue and organismal health. Disruption of these interactions underlies the emergence of many pathologies, particularly chronic non-communicable diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Here, we examine decades of research identifying the complex immunometabolic signaling networks and the cellular and molecular events that occur in the setting of altered nutrient and energy exposures and offer a historical perspective...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930626/pilot-study-whole-body-manual-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-sat-therapy-improved-pain-and-sat-structure-in-women-with-lipedema
#20
Karen L Herbst, Christopher Ussery, Alyna Eekema
Background Lipedema is a common painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) disorder in women affecting the limbs. SAT therapy is a manual therapy to improve soft tissue quality. Objective Determine if SAT therapy improves pain and structure of lipedema SAT. Design Single arm prospective pilot study. Setting Academic medical center. Patients Seven women, 46 ± 5 years, weight 90 ± 19 kg, with lipedema. Intervention Twelve 90-min SAT therapy sessions over 4 weeks. Outcomes Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, SAT ultrasound (Vevo 2100), leg volumetrics, skin caliper assessment, tissue exam, weight, resting metabolic rate, pain assessment, lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) and body shape questionnaire (BSQ) at baseline and end of study...
September 20, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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